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1.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0298170, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358968

RESUMO

Bryconops Kner, 1858, includes two well defined subgenera based on morphological evidence, with each containing at least one species (B. (Bryconops) caudomaculatus and B. (Creatochanes) melanurus) with a very wide distribution, within which regional populations present color variations. To test if phenotypic variation is related to cladogenetic events, we performed tests for phylogenetic independence and determined the strength of convergence for color characters in relation to water type, as the variation between clear, black and white waters is considered to be one of the major driving forces in the evolution of Amazonian fishes. Color characters for fins above the median line of the body were generally found to be independent from phylogeny and the Wheatsheaf test strongly supports convergence of the dorsal fin color between populations of species in the same type of water, with a similar trend suggested for the color of the dorsal lobe of the caudal fin. This means that simple color characters cannot necessarily be relied upon for taxonomic revisions of the genus as local phenotypic variants may represent environmentally determined plasticity or convergent evolution. Further studies are required to determine the validity of these characters.


Assuntos
Caraciformes , Animais , Filogenia , Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Especiação Genética , Água
2.
J Morphol ; 285(1): e21663, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38100744

RESUMO

Pelvic fins are a characteristic structure of the vertebrate Bauplan. Yet, pelvic fin loss has occurred repeatedly across a wide diversity of other lineages of tetrapods and at least 48 times in teleost fishes. This pelvic finless condition is often associated with other morphological features such as body elongation, loss of additional structures, and bilateral asymmetry. However, despite the remarkable diversity in the several thousand cichlid fish species, none of them are characterized by the complete absence of pelvic fins. Here, we examined the musculoskeletal structure and associated bilateral asymmetry in Midas cichlids (Amphilophus cf. citrinellus) that lost their pelvic fins spontaneously in the laboratory. Due to this apparent mutational loss of the pelvic girdle and fins, the external and internal anatomy are described in a series of "normal" Midas individuals and their pelvic finless sibling tankmates. First, other traits associated with teleost pelvic fin loss, the genetic basis of pelvic fin loss, and the potential for pleiotropic effects of these genes on other traits in teleosts were all reviewed. Using these traits as a guide, we investigated whether other morphological differences were associated with the pelvic girdle/fin loss. The mean values of the masses of muscle of the pectoral fin, fin ray numbers in the unpaired fins, and oral jaw tooth numbers did not differ between the two pelvic fin morphotypes. However, significant differences in meristic values of the paired traits assessed were observed for the same side of the body between morphotypes. Notably, bilateral asymmetry was found exclusively for the posterior lateral line scales. Finally, we found limited evidence of pleiotropic effects, such as lateral line scale numbers and fluctuating asymmetry between the Midas pelvic fin morphotypes. The fast and relatively isolated changes in the Midas cichlids suggest minor but interesting pleiotropic effects could accompany loss of cichlid pelvic fins.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Animais , Ciclídeos/genética , Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Músculos , Fenótipo
3.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 22594, 2023 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38114646

RESUMO

Evolutionary phenotypic transitions, such as the fin-to-limb transition in vertebrates, result from modifications in related proteins and their interactions, often in response to changing environment. Identifying these alterations in protein networks is crucial for a more comprehensive understanding of these transitions. However, previous research has not attempted to compare protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks associated with evolutionary transitions, and most experimental studies concentrate on a limited set of proteins. Therefore, the goal of this work was to develop a network-based platform for investigating the fin-to-limb transition using PPI networks. Quality-enhanced protein networks, constructed by integrating PPI networks with anatomy ontology data, were leveraged to compare protein modules for paired fins (pectoral fin and pelvic fin) of fishes (zebrafish) to those of the paired limbs (forelimb and hindlimb) of mammals (mouse). This also included prediction of novel protein candidates and their validation by enrichment and homology analyses. Hub proteins such as shh and bmp4, which are crucial for module stability, were identified, and their changing roles throughout the transition were examined. Proteins with preserved roles during the fin-to-limb transition were more likely to be hub proteins. This study also addressed hypotheses regarding the role of non-preserved proteins associated with the transition.


Assuntos
Nadadeiras de Animais , Perciformes , Animais , Camundongos , Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Peixe-Zebra/anatomia & histologia , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Evolução Biológica , Perciformes/fisiologia , Proteínas , Extremidades/fisiologia , Mamíferos
4.
Nature ; 623(7987): 550-554, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37914937

RESUMO

The origin of vertebrate paired appendages is one of the most investigated and debated examples of evolutionary novelty1-7. Paired appendages are widely considered as key innovations that enabled new opportunities for controlled swimming and gill ventilation and were prerequisites for the eventual transition from water to land. The past 150 years of debate8-10 has been shaped by two contentious theories4,5: the ventrolateral fin-fold hypothesis9,10 and the archipterygium hypothesis8. The latter proposes that fins and girdles evolved from an ancestral gill arch. Although studies in animal development have revived interest in this idea11-13, it is apparently unsupported by fossil evidence. Here we present palaeontological support for a pharyngeal basis for the vertebrate shoulder girdle. We use computed tomography scanning to reveal details of the braincase of Kolymaspis sibirica14, an Early Devonian placoderm fish from Siberia, that suggests a pharyngeal component of the shoulder. We combine these findings with refreshed comparative anatomy of placoderms and jawless outgroups to place the origin of the shoulder girdle on the sixth branchial arch. These findings provide a novel framework for understanding the origin of the pectoral girdle. Our evidence clarifies the location of the presumptive head-trunk interface in jawless fishes and explains the constraint on branchial arch number in gnathostomes15. The results revive a key aspect of the archipterygium hypothesis and help reconcile it with the ventrolateral fin-fold model.


Assuntos
Nadadeiras de Animais , Evolução Biológica , Peixes , Fósseis , Vertebrados , Animais , Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Paleontologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Vertebrados/anatomia & histologia , Sibéria
5.
J Morphol ; 284(9): e21632, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37585230

RESUMO

Holocephalans exhibit auxiliary appendages called pre-pelvic claspers (PPCs) that are located anterior to the pelvic fins, while pelvic claspers are pelvic fin modifications located posteriorly as modified metapterygia. Articulation points of the PPCs have not previously been imaged or evaluated in a comparative context, therefore, they may represent modified pelvic fin structures if they articulate with the propterygium. Alternatively, they could represent the only example of an independent third set of paired appendages in an extant taxon, if they articulate independently from any pelvic fin basal cartilages, challenging the current paradigm that extant jawed vertebrates are constrained to two sets of paired appendages. Two extinct groups, including Placoderms and Acanthodians, exhibit variation in the number of paired appendages, suggesting this may be a plesiomorphic trait. We evaluated PPC developmental growth rates, morphology, and articulation points in spotted ratfish (Hydrolagus Colliei, Holocephali). We also compared variation in PPC morphology among representatives of the three extant holocephalan families. Both, the pre-pelvic and pelvic claspers exhibit a dramatic surge in growth at sexual maturity, and then level off, suggesting synchronous development via shared hormonal regulation. While mature females are larger than males, pelvic fin growth and development is faster in males, suggesting a selective advantage to larger fins with faster development. Finally, microcomputed tomography scans revealed that PPCs are not modified propterygia, nor do they articulate with the propterygium. They articulate with the anterior pre-pelvic process on the anterior puboischiadic bar (or pelvic girdle), suggesting that while they are associated with the pelvic girdle, they may indeed represent a third, independent set of paired appendages in extant holocephalans.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Vertebrados , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Pelve , Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia
6.
J Anat ; 243(4): 605-617, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37125509

RESUMO

The macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the appendicular skeleton was studied in the two species Raja asterias (order Rajiformes) and Torpedo marmorata (Order Torpediniformes), comparing the organization and structural layout of pectoral, pelvic, and tail fin systems. The shape, surface area and portance of the T. marmorata pectoral fin system (hydrodynamic lift) were conditioned by the presence of the two electric organs in the disk central part, which reduced the pectoral fin surface area, suggesting a lower efficiency of the "flapping effectors" than those of R. asterias. Otherwise, radials' rays alignment, morphology and calcification pattern showed in both species the same structural layout characterized in the fin medial zone by stiffly paired columns of calcified tiles in the perpendicular plane to the flat batoid body, then revolving and in the horizontal plane to continue as separate mono-columnar rays in the fin lateral zone with a morphology suggesting fin stiffness variance between medial/lateral zone. Pelvic fins morphology was alike in the two species, however with different calcified tiles patterns of the 1st compound radial and pterygia in respect to the fin-rays articulating perpendicularly to the latter, whose tile rows lay-out was also different from that of the pectoral fins radials. The T. marmorata tail-caudal fin showed a muscular and connective scaffold capable of a significant oscillatory forward thrust. On the contrary, the R. asterias dorsal tail fins were stiffened by a scaffold of radials-like calcified segments. Histomorphology, heat-deproteination technique and morphometry provided new data on the wing-fins structural layout which can be correlated to the mechanics of the Batoid swimming behavior and suggested a cartilage-calcification process combining interstitial cartilage growth (as that of all vertebrates anlagen) and a mineral deposition with accretion of individual centers (the tiles). The resulting layout showed scattered zones of un-mineralized matrix within the calcified mass and a less compact texture of the matrix calcified fibers suggesting a possible way of fluid diffusion throughout the mineralized tissue. These observations could explain the survival of the embedded chondrocytes in absence of a canalicular system as that of the cortical bone.


Assuntos
Asterias , Rajidae , Animais , Rajidae/anatomia & histologia , Natação , Torpedo , Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Anatomia Comparada , Locomoção , Fenômenos Biomecânicos
7.
Nature ; 618(7965): 543-549, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37225983

RESUMO

The development of paired appendages was a key innovation during evolution and facilitated the aquatic to terrestrial transition of vertebrates. Largely derived from the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM), one hypothesis for the evolution of paired fins invokes derivation from unpaired median fins via a pair of lateral fin folds located between pectoral and pelvic fin territories1. Whilst unpaired and paired fins exhibit similar structural and molecular characteristics, no definitive evidence exists for paired lateral fin folds in larvae or adults of any extant or extinct species. As unpaired fin core components are regarded as exclusively derived from paraxial mesoderm, any transition presumes both co-option of a fin developmental programme to the LPM and bilateral duplication2. Here, we identify that the larval zebrafish unpaired pre-anal fin fold (PAFF) is derived from the LPM and thus may represent a developmental intermediate between median and paired fins. We trace the contribution of LPM to the PAFF in both cyclostomes and gnathostomes, supporting the notion that this is an ancient trait of vertebrates. Finally, we observe that the PAFF can be bifurcated by increasing bone morphogenetic protein signalling, generating LPM-derived paired fin folds. Our work provides evidence that lateral fin folds may have existed as embryonic anlage for elaboration to paired fins.


Assuntos
Nadadeiras de Animais , Evolução Biológica , Mesoderma , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Nadadeiras de Animais/embriologia , Nadadeiras de Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mesoderma/anatomia & histologia , Mesoderma/embriologia , Mesoderma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixe-Zebra/anatomia & histologia , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/metabolismo
8.
Nature ; 616(7957): 495-503, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37046085

RESUMO

Skates are cartilaginous fish whose body plan features enlarged wing-like pectoral fins, enabling them to thrive in benthic environments1,2. However, the molecular underpinnings of this unique trait remain unclear. Here we investigate the origin of this phenotypic innovation by developing the little skate Leucoraja erinacea as a genomically enabled model. Analysis of a high-quality chromosome-scale genome sequence for the little skate shows that it preserves many ancestral jawed vertebrate features compared with other sequenced genomes, including numerous ancient microchromosomes. Combining genome comparisons with extensive regulatory datasets in developing fins-including gene expression, chromatin occupancy and three-dimensional conformation-we find skate-specific genomic rearrangements that alter the three-dimensional regulatory landscape of genes that are involved in the planar cell polarity pathway. Functional inhibition of planar cell polarity signalling resulted in a reduction in anterior fin size, confirming that this pathway is a major contributor to batoid fin morphology. We also identified a fin-specific enhancer that interacts with several hoxa genes, consistent with the redeployment of hox gene expression in anterior pectoral fins, and confirmed its potential to activate transcription in the anterior fin using zebrafish reporter assays. Our findings underscore the central role of genome reorganization and regulatory variation in the evolution of phenotypes, shedding light on the molecular origin of an enigmatic trait.


Assuntos
Nadadeiras de Animais , Evolução Biológica , Genoma , Genômica , Rajidae , Animais , Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Rajidae/anatomia & histologia , Rajidae/genética , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Genes Reporter/genética
9.
Biol Lett ; 19(2): 20220454, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36974665

RESUMO

Actinopterygians are the most diversified clade of extant vertebrates. Their impressive morphological disparity bears witness to tremendous ecological diversity. Modularity, the organization of biological systems into quasi-independent anatomical/morphological units, is thought to increase evolvability of organisms and facilitate morphological diversification. Our study aims to quantify patterns of variational modularity in a model actinopterygian, the zebrafish (Danio rerio), using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics on osteological structures isolated from micro-CT scans. A total of 72 landmarks were digitized along cranial and postcranial ossified regions of 30 adult zebrafishes. Two methods were used to test modularity hypotheses, the covariance ratio and the distance matrix approach. We find strong support for two modules, one comprised paired fins and the other comprised median fins, that are best explained by functional properties of subcarangiform swimming. While the skull is tightly integrated with the rest of the body, its intrinsic integration is relatively weak supporting previous findings that the fish skull is a modular structure. Our results provide additional support for the recognition of similar hypotheses of modularity identified based on external morphology in various teleosts, and at least two variational modules are proposed. Thus, our results hint at the possibility that internal and external modularity patterns may be congruent.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Cabeça , Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia
10.
J Morphol ; 284(2): e21548, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36538574

RESUMO

Batoids differ from other elasmobranch fishes in that they possess dorsoventrally flattened bodies with enlarged muscled pectoral fins. Most batoids also swim using either of two modes of locomotion: undulation or oscillation of the pectoral fins. In other elasmobranchs (e.g., sharks), the main locomotory muscle is located in the axial myotome; in contrast, the main locomotory muscle in batoids is found in the enlarged pectoral fins. The pectoral fin muscles of sharks have a simple structure, confined to the base of the fin; however, little to no data are available on the more complex musculature within the pectoral fins of batoids. Understanding the types of fibers and their arrangement within the pectoral fins may elucidate how batoid fishes are able to utilize such unique swimming modes. In the present study, histochemical methods including succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and immunofluoresence were used to determine the different fiber types comprising these muscles in three batoid species: Atlantic stingray (Dasyatis sabina), ocellate river stingray (Potamotrygon motoro) and cownose ray (Rhinoptera bonasus). All three species had muscles comprised of two muscle fiber types (slow-red and fast-white). The undulatory species, D. sabina and P. motoro, had a larger proportion of fast-white muscle fibers compared to the oscillatory species, R. bonasus. The muscle fiber sizes were similar between each species, though generally smaller compared to the axial musculature in other elasmobranch fishes. These results suggest that batoid locomotion can be distinguished using muscle fiber type proportions. Undulatory species are more benthic with fast-white fibers allowing them to contract their muscles quickly, as a possible means of escape from potential predators. Oscillatory species are pelagic and are known to migrate long distances with muscles using slow-red fibers to aid in sustained swimming.


Assuntos
Tubarões , Rajidae , Animais , Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Natação/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Rajidae/anatomia & histologia , Peixes , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas
11.
Nature ; 609(7929): 959-963, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36171376

RESUMO

Paired fins are a major innovation1,2 that evolved in the jawed vertebrate lineage after divergence from living jawless vertebrates3. Extinct jawless armoured stem gnathostomes show a diversity of paired body-wall extensions, ranging from skeletal processes to simple flaps4. By contrast, osteostracans (a sister group to jawed vertebrates) are interpreted to have the first true paired appendages in a pectoral position, with pelvic appendages evolving later in association with jaws5. Here we show, on the basis of articulated remains of Tujiaaspis vividus from the Silurian period of China, that galeaspids (a sister group to both osteostracans and jawed vertebrates) possessed three unpaired dorsal fins, an approximately symmetrical hypochordal tail and a pair of continuous, branchial-to-caudal ventrolateral fins. The ventrolateral fins are similar to paired fin flaps in other stem gnathostomes, and specifically to the ventrolateral ridges of cephalaspid osteostracans that also possess differentiated pectoral fins. The ventrolateral fins are compatible with aspects of the fin-fold hypothesis for the origin of vertebrate paired appendages6-10. Galeaspids have a precursor condition to osteostracans and jawed vertebrates in which paired fins arose initially as continuous pectoral-pelvic lateral fins that our computed fluid-dynamics experiments show passively generated lift. Only later in the stem lineage to osteostracans and jawed vertebrates did pectoral fins differentiate anteriorly. This later differentiation was followed by restriction of the remaining field of fin competence to a pelvic position, facilitating active propulsion and steering.


Assuntos
Nadadeiras de Animais , Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , Vertebrados , Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , China , Arcada Osseodentária/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia , Vertebrados/anatomia & histologia
12.
Zootaxa ; 5129(1): 92-104, 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36101148

RESUMO

Nemacheilus pezidion, new species, is described from the Xe Kong watershed, Mekong drainage, in Attapeu province, southern Laos. It is distinguished from all other Nemacheilidae in Southeast Asia by its unique colour pattern consisting of a black midlateral stripe and a middorsal row of 1115 narrow saddles. Besides, the male has a globulous suborbital flap with tubercles along its posterior edge, and the pectoral fin with thickened anterior rays, and branched rays 14 and unculiferous pads behind them covered by small tubercles. It was found in habitats with moderate flow, on mud to gravel bottom. Nemacheilus pezidion was earlier misidentified as N. longistriatus.


Assuntos
Cipriniformes/classificação , Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Cipriniformes/anatomia & histologia , Ecossistema , Laos , Masculino , Rios , Movimentos da Água
13.
J Fish Biol ; 101(6): 1411-1427, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36086950

RESUMO

Because adult and juvenile eel gobies usually hide within the burrows of muddy substrates, their diversity and life history have not yet been fully elucidated. We investigated larval specimens of the eel gobies collected on Okinawa Island in southern Japan. The genus Trypauchenopsis was previously thought to consist of only one species, but our larval collection identified two species, Trypauchenopsis limicola and Trypauchenopsis intermedia, distinguished by their species-specific melanophore arrangements and differences in their fin-ray counts. Taenioides kentalleni were previously known from only two specimens worldwide. A third specimen of this species has now been added from the larval collection. In addition to the three species above, Taenioides gracilis and Caragobius urolepis were identified and the larval morphologies of the five species were described for the first time. All the larvae collected in the present study were at late postflexion stage. T. limicola, T. intermedia and T. gracilis were presumably collected in the estuaries and beaches when approaching their adult habitats at the end of pelagic life. They were 8.5-10.3 mm in standard length, and otolith analysis suggests that their pelagic larval durations are a little longer than 1 month (average 34-37 days). The larval occurrence suggested that the spawning season of T. limicola is May-December, when the water temperature is warmer than approximately 20°C. Our work reveals that studying the larval stage can provide new information on the taxonomy and life history of the elusive cryptobenthic fish.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Perciformes , Animais , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Perciformes/classificação , Japão , Especificidade da Espécie , Tamanho Corporal , Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia
14.
Nature ; 608(7923): 563-568, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35859171

RESUMO

A fundamental gap in the study of the origin of limbed vertebrates lies in understanding the morphological and functional diversity of their closest relatives. Whereas analyses of the elpistostegalians Panderichthys rhombolepis, Tiktaalik roseae and Elpistostege watsoni have revealed a sequence of changes in locomotor, feeding and respiratory structures during the transition1-9, an isolated bone, a putative humerus, has controversially hinted at a wider range in form and function than now recognized10-14. Here we report the discovery of a new elpistostegalian from the Late Devonian period of the Canadian Arctic that shows surprising disparity in the group. The specimen includes partial upper and lower jaws, pharyngeal elements, a pectoral fin and scalation. This new genus is phylogenetically proximate to T. roseae and E. watsoni but evinces notable differences from both taxa and, indeed, other described tetrapodomorphs. Lacking processes, joint orientations and muscle scars indicative of appendage-based support on a hard substrate13, its pectoral fin shows specializations for swimming that are unlike those known from other sarcopterygians. This unexpected morphological and functional diversity represents a previously hidden ecological expansion, a secondary return to open water, near the origin of limbed vertebrates.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Peixes , Fósseis , Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Escamas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Canadá , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/classificação , História Antiga , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Faringe/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia , Natação
15.
Integr Comp Biol ; 62(4): 908-921, 2022 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35652788

RESUMO

Fins of fishes provide many examples of structures that are beautifully designed to power and control movement in water; however, some species also use their fins for substrate-associated behaviors where interactions with solid surfaces are key. Here, we examine how the pectoral fins of ray-finned fish with these multifunctional behavioral demands, in water and on solid surfaces, are structured and function. We subdivide fins used in swimming and substrate contact into two general morphological categories, regionalized vs. generalized fins. Regionalized fins have ventral rays that are free from connecting membrane or in which that membrane is reduced. Dorsally they maintain a more typical membranous fin. While all pectoral fins vary somewhat in their morphology from leading to trailing edge, generalized fins do not have the substantial membrane loss between rays that is seen in regionalized fins and the distal edge anatomy changes gradually along its margin. We add a new case study in regionalized fins with the dwarf hawkfish (Cirrhitichthys falco). Hawkfishes are most often found perching and moving on structures in their environments. During perching, the free ventral rays are in contact with the substrate and splayed. We found that unlike other fish with regionalized pectoral fins, hawkfish maintain use of the dorsal membranous region of its pectoral fin for rhythmic swimming. We found that typically hawkfish bend their ventral free rays under, toward the medial hemitrichs or hold them straight during substrate-associated postures. This appears also to be the case for the ventral free rays of other species with regionalized fins. Generalized fin use for substrate contact was reviewed in round gobies (Neogobius melanostomus). In addition, although their lobe fins are not representative of ray-finned fish anatomy, we explored fin contact on submerged substrates in the Senegal bichir (Polypterus senegalus), which has a generalized distal fin (no free fin rays or distinct membrane regions). Both groups use their pectoral fins for swimming. During substrate-based postures, unlike hawkfish, their distal rays generally bend outward toward the lateral hemitrichs and a large swath of the fin membrane can contact the surface. The alternative demands on multifunctional fins suggest specialization of the mechanosensory system. We review mechanosensation related to fin movement and surface contact. These alternative regionalized and generalized strategies for serving aquatic and substrate-based functions underwater provide opportunities to further investigate specializations, including sensory structures and systems, that accompany the evolution of substrate-based behaviors in vertebrates.


Assuntos
Nadadeiras de Animais , Perciformes , Animais , Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Natação , Água , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Peixes , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7521, 2022 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35525860

RESUMO

The median fins of modern fish that show discrete forms (dorsal, anal, and caudal fins) are derived from a continuous fold-like structure, both in ontogeny and phylogeny. The median fin fold (MFF) hypothesis assumes that the median fins evolved by reducing some positions in the continuous fin fold of basal chordates, based on the classical morphological observation of developmental reduction in the larval fin folds of living fish. However, the developmental processes of median fins are still unclear at the cellular and molecular levels. Here, we describe the transition from the larval fin fold into the median fins in zebrafish at the cellular and molecular developmental level. We demonstrate that reduction does not play a role in the emergence of the dorsal fin primordium. Instead, the reduction occurs along with body growth after primordium formation, rather than through actively scrapping the non-fin forming region by inducing cell death. We also report that the emergence of specific mesenchymal cells and their proliferation promote dorsal fin primordium formation. Based on these results, we propose a revised hypothesis for median fin evolution in which the acquisition of de novo developmental mechanisms is a crucial evolutionary component of the discrete forms of median fins.


Assuntos
Nadadeiras de Animais , Peixe-Zebra , Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Larva , Filogenia
17.
Mol Ecol ; 31(14): 3798-3811, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35638236

RESUMO

Modes of reproduction in animals are diverse, with different modes having evolved independently in multiple lineages across a variety of taxa. However, an understanding of the genomic change driving the transition between different modes of reproduction is limited. Several ricefishes (Adrianichthyidae) on the island of Sulawesi have a unique mode of reproduction called "pelvic-fin brooding," wherein females carry externally fertilized eggs until hatching using their pelvic fins. Phylogenomic analysis demonstrated pelvic-fin brooders to have evolved at least twice in two distant clades of the Adrianichthyidae. We investigated the genetic architecture of the evolution of this unique mode of reproduction. Morphological analyses and laboratory observations revealed that females of pelvic-fin brooders have longer pelvic fins and a deeper abdominal concavity, and that they can carry an egg clutch for longer than nonbrooding adrianichthyids, suggesting that these traits play important roles in this reproductive mode. Quantitative trait locus mapping using a cross between a pelvic-fin brooder Oryzias eversi and a nonbrooding O. dopingdopingensis reveals different traits involved in pelvic-fin brooding to be controlled by different loci on different chromosomes. Genomic analyses of admixture detected no signatures of introgression between two lineages with pelvic-fin brooders, indicating that introgression is unlikely to be responsible for repeated evolution of pelvic-fin brooding. These findings suggest that multiple independent mutations may have contributed to the convergent evolution of this novel mode of reproduction.


Assuntos
Peixes , Reprodução , Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Feminino , Peixes/genética , Genoma , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Reprodução/genética
18.
Dev Dyn ; 251(8): 1306-1321, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35403297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caudal fin symmetry characterizes teleosts and likely contributes to their evolutionary success. However, the coordinated development and patterning of skeletal elements establishing external symmetry remains incompletely understood. We explore the spatiotemporal emergence of caudal skeletal elements in zebrafish to consider evolutionary and developmental origins of caudal fin symmetry. RESULTS: Transgenic reporters and skeletal staining reveal that the hypural diastema-defining gap between hypurals 2 and 3 forms early and separates progenitors of two plates of connective tissue. Two sets of central principal rays (CPRs) synchronously, sequentially, and symmetrically emerge around the diastema. The two dorsal- and ventral-most rays (peripheral principal rays, PPRs) arise independently and earlier than adjacent CPRs. Muscle and tendon markers reveal that different muscles attach to CPR and PPR sets. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that caudal fin symmetry originates from a central organizer that establishes the hypural diastema and bidirectionally patterns surrounding tissue into two plates of connective tissue and two mirrored sets of CPRs. Further, two peripheral organizers unidirectionally specify PPRs, forming a symmetric "composite" fin derived from three fields. Distinct CPR and PPR ontogenies may represent developmental modules conferring ray identities, muscle connections, and biomechanical properties. Our model contextualizes mechanistic studies of teleost fin morphological variation.


Assuntos
Diastema , Peixe-Zebra , Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Evolução Biológica , Peixe-Zebra/anatomia & histologia
19.
Development ; 149(5)2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35132436

RESUMO

The pectoral fins of teleost fish are analogous structures to human forelimbs, and the developmental mechanisms directing their initial growth and patterning are conserved between fish and tetrapods. The forelimb vasculature is crucial for limb function, and it appears to play important roles during development by promoting development of other limb structures, but the steps leading to its formation are poorly understood. In this study, we use high-resolution imaging to document the stepwise assembly of the zebrafish pectoral fin vasculature. We show that fin vascular network formation is a stereotyped, choreographed process that begins with the growth of an initial vascular loop around the pectoral fin. This loop connects to the dorsal aorta to initiate pectoral vascular circulation. Pectoral fin vascular development continues with concurrent formation of three elaborate vascular plexuses, one in the distal fin that develops into the fin-ray vasculature and two near the base of the fin in association with the developing fin musculature. Our findings detail a complex, yet highly choreographed, series of steps involved in the development of a complete, functional, organ-specific vascular network.


Assuntos
Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Nadadeiras de Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixe-Zebra/anatomia & histologia , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais
20.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 20(1): e210119, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1365208

RESUMO

A new species of Hyphessobrycon is described from the rio Mutum, a tributary of the rio Juruena, rio Tapajós basin, Brazil. The new taxon can be distinguished from its congeners by the presence of a well-defined and relatively narrow dark midlateral stripe on body, extending from head to the middle caudal-fin rays, presence of a humeral blotch, distal profile of the anal fin falcate in males, 13-16 branched anal-fin rays (vs. 17-26), and 11 or 12 horizontal scale rows around caudal peduncle. The new species shows polymorphism regarding the presence of the adipose fin, and a discussion on this type of polymorphism across the family and its systematic implications is presented.(AU)


Uma espécie nova de Hyphessobrycon é descrita do rio Mutum, um afluente do rio Juruena, bacia do rio Tapajós, Brasil. O táxon novo pode ser distinguido de seus congêneres pela presença de uma faixa média-lateral escura bem definida e relativamente estreita no corpo, estendendo-se da cabeça aos raios médios da nadadeira caudal, presença de uma mancha umeral, 13-16 raios da nadadeira anal ramificada (vs. 17-26) e 11-12 séries horizontais de escamas ao redor do pedúnculo caudal. A espécie nova apresenta polimorfismo em relação à presença da nadadeira adiposa. Assim, é apresentada uma discussão sobre esse tipo de polimorfismo em toda a família e suas implicações na sistemática do grupo.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Polimorfismo Genético , Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Characidae/classificação
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