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1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(8): 2818-2831, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503626

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a serious public health problem associated with excessive food intake. Regulation of food intake in highly organized organisms is under the control of a large number of orexigenic and anorexigenic molecules. Therefore, the main purpose of this study has been to determine the relationship between obesity and some of the circulating orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides that have a role in appetite control and to determine whether the concentrations of these molecules differ according to blood groups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 400 individuals of whom 100 were obese women, 100 obese men, 100 healthy men and 100 healthy women. Obese women and men were divided into 4 groups, according to their blood groups. In the control group, healthy women and healthy men were similarly divided into 4 blood groups. Each blood group within the groups, therefore, had 25 participants. RESULTS: When leptin, nesfatin-1, obestatin and neuropeptide-Y, ghrelin and galanin levels of the control group and obese participants were compared, regardless of blood groups, leptin, nesfatin-1, obestatin and neuropeptide-Y were significantly higher, whereas only the ghrelin levels were significantly lower in obese patients. When the amounts of these hormones were measured according to gender, the situation was similar. When leptin, nesfatin-1, obestatin and neuropeptide-Y values of the control and obese participants' blood groups were compared with each other; these hormones were high in all blood groups; however, leptin levels in A blood group, nesfatin-1 levels in AB and O blood group, obestatin levels in AB blood group, neuropeptide-Y levels in A, B, AB blood groups were significantly higher. When the ghrelin levels of the blood groups in the control group and obese participants were compared, it was only significantly lower in the AB blood group. The ghrelin levels in the other blood groups of the obese individuals were again low, but not significantly so. When the distribution of hormones according to gender was evaluated, a situation parallel to the above results was recorded. CONCLUSIONS: Leptin, nesfatin-1, obestatin and neuropeptide-Y and galanin levels of obese individuals were significantly higher than the control values, whereas the ghrelin values were significantly lower regardless of blood groups. Also, these hormones in blood partly varied with ABO blood groups. These different concentrations of hormones in ABO blood groups might be related with stimulation or suppression of appetite in human. However, further studies in other ethnic groups are needed to confirm these results.


Assuntos
Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos , Obesidade/sangue , Orexinas/sangue , Feminino , Galanina/sangue , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Neuropeptídeo Y/sangue
2.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 22(1): 184, 2022 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35413837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zonulin is observed in animal models to regulate intestinal permeability and influenced by dietary intake, gut microbiota, and inflammation. We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled crossover trial (NCT03582306) in individuals with a BMI greater than 30 kg/m2 and high habitual red meat intake and low habitual green leafy vegetable (GLV) intake. METHODS: Participants were provided with frozen GLV during the first or last four weeks (immediate or delayed intervention) of the twelve-week trial. Biological and anthropometric measures were taken at the beginning and at each four-week interval. A subset of 20 participants was selected for this secondary analysis of the intestinal permeability and inflammation-related biomarkers: serum and fecal zonulin; serum lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1 (ORM-1), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein; 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) and plasma Vitamin K1 as a marker of protocol adherence. Nutrient and food group intake from two-24-h dietary recalls collected at each time point were assessed. Fecal microbiota was measured by 16 s rRNA PCR sequencing. Changes in biological markers, dietary factors, and microbial taxa were assessed with Wilcoxon Sign Ranks Tests. Exploratory analyses of the relationship between changes in outcome variables were conducted with Spearman correlations. RESULTS: No changes in serum and fecal zonulin and serum LBP were observed. Plasma Vitamin K (p = 0.005) increased, while plasma 8OHdG (p = 0.023) decreased during the intervention compared to the control. The only dietary factors that changed significantly were increases during intervention in Vitamin K and Dark GLV (p < 0.001 for both) compared to control. Fecal microbiota did not change significantly across all times points; however, change in serum zonulin was associated with change in Proteobacteria (ρ = - 0.867, p = 0.001) in females and Bifidobacterium (ρ = - 0.838, p = 0.009) and Bacteroidaceae (ρ = 0.871, p = 0.005) in men. CONCLUSIONS: A high GLV dietary intervention increased serum zonulin levels and had no effect on fecal zonulin. Lack of concordance between several inflammation-associated biomarkers and zonulin corroborate recent reports of limited utility of zonulin in obese adults free of lower gastrointestinal disease. Trial Registration information: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03582306 (NCT03582306) registered on 07/11/2018.


Assuntos
Haptoglobinas , Inflamação , Obesidade , Precursores de Proteínas , Verduras , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina/sangue , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Fezes , Feminino , Haptoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Precursores de Proteínas/sangue , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vitamina K
3.
Dis Markers ; 2022: 6777283, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35295321

RESUMO

Background: The effects of weight loss therapies on omentin-1 levels have been unclear, showing both elevations and decreases in circulating levels. The role of dietary fat might have an important role. The aim of our investigation was to evaluate the influence of weight decrease on omentin-1 levels after two different high-fat hypocaloric diets. Methods: 319 Caucasian obese subjects were randomly allocated during 12 weeks (Diet M (high monounsaturated fat diet) vs. Diet P (high polyunsaturated fat diet)). The mean age was 47.2 ± 5.0 years (range: 26-64), and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 37.9 ± 4.1 kg/m2 (range: 30.6-39.8). Sex distribution was 237 females (74.7%) and 72 males (25.3%). Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were evaluated at basal and after both diets. SPSS 23.0 has been used to realize univariant and multivariant statistical analysis. Results: After both diets, BMI, weight, fat mass, waist circumference, systolic blood, LDL-cholesterol, insulin levels, and HOMA-IR decreased in a statistical way from basal values. These improvements were similar in both diets. After Diet P, omentin-1 levels increase (21.2 ± 9.1 ng/ml: P = 0.02), and after Diet M, this adipokine increases (47.1 ± 11.2 ng/ml: P = 0.02), too. The increase of omentin-1 with Diet M was statistically significantly higher than that after Diet P (P = 0.01). A multiple regression analyses adjusted by age and sex reported a statistical relation between BMI (kg/m2) and insulin (UI/L) with omentin-1 levels. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated a significant improvement on serum omentin-1 levels after weight loss secondary to both diets; in contrast, omentin-1 improvement was higher with Diet M than with Diet P.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Dieta Redutora , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Perda de Peso , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Lectinas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/genética
4.
Acta Med Okayama ; 76(1): 51-56, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35236998

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine metabolic disorder that is associated with high insulin resistance and obesity. However, ~70% of women with PCOS in Japan are non-obese. We retrospectively analyzed the cases of 163 Japanese women with PCOS who visited our Ob/Gyn department in 2006-2018 to determine which has a greater effect on insulin resistance: PCOS or obesity. We reviewed the women's medical records and calculated their insulin resistance and insulin secretion. The women's mean age and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) were 30±5.8 years and 24.8±5.6 kg/m2, respectively; their mean ± SD fasting plasma glucose, 94.1±13.7 mg/dL; HOMA-IR, 2.1±2.0; QUICKI, 0.4±0.0; and HOMA-ß, 108.9±88.0%. Sixtyeight women were pregnant, and 37% (n=25) were obese (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). Obesity had a greater effect on insulin resistance: fasting plasma glucose F(1, 53)=6.134, p<0.05; fasting insulin F(1, 53)=31.606, p<0.01; HOMA-IR F(1, 53)=31.670, p<0.01; QUICKI F(1, 53)=16.156, p<0.01. There was no significant difference in values other than QUICKI and testosterone between the women with and without PCOS. Obesity thus had a greater effect on increased insulin resistance in pregnant women with PCOS. Further studies of the insulin resistance of non-obese women with PCOS is needed, as non-obese women with PCOS are common in Asia.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Obesidade/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Adulto , Glicemia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Jejum , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Japão , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263312, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35213570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It remains unclear as to whether polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an additional risk factor in the development of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy in obese women. In the current study, we provide clarity on this issue by rigorously analysing patient LV geometry beyond the basic clinical measures currently used. Importantly, the cohort contained only normotensive patients that would normally be deemed low risk with no further intervention required. METHODS: The study comprised 24 obese women with PCOS and 29 obese Control women. Transthoracic echocardiography was used to evaluate LV structure/function. Basic clinical and metabolic data were collected for each participant consisting of age, BMI, blood pressure, fasting glucose, LDL-C, HLD-C, cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Exclusion criteria; BMI < 30 g/m2, type 2 diabetes, hypertension. RESULTS: Both groups exhibited concentric remodelling of the LV posterior wall at a prevalence of ~20%, this associated with grade 1 diastolic dysfunction. Estimated LV mass/height2.7 was increased patients with PCOS (45 ± 2.2 vs 37 ± 1.6) with 33% exhibiting LV mass/height2.7 above ASE guidelines, compared to 7% in Controls. Furthermore, 25% of patients with PCOS were characterised with concentric hypertrophy, an alteration in LV geometry that was not observed in the Control group. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess LV geometric patterns in obese women with PCOS. The results suggest that obese women with PCOS are at greater risk of concentric hypertrophy than obese only women and provide justification for additional cardiovascular risk assessment in normotensive obese/PCOS women.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico , Obesidade/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Glicemia , Pressão Sanguínea , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca Diastólica/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca Diastólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca Diastólica/patologia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/sangue , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/patologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/patologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia
6.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 186(4): 457-467, 2022 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35118996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is prevalent in people with obesity and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D). The effect of OSA on metabolic function and the precise mechanisms (insulin resistance, ß-cell dysfunction, or both) responsible for the increased T2D risk in people with OSA are unknown. DESIGN AND METHODS: We used a two-stage hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp procedure in conjunction with stable isotopically labeled glucose and palmitate tracer infusions and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose injection and positron emission tomography to quantify multi-organ insulin action and oral and intravenous tolerance tests to evaluate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in fifteen people with obesity and OSA and thirteen people with obesity without OSA. RESULTS: OSA was associated with marked insulin resistance of adipose tissue triglyceride lipolysis and glucose uptake into both skeletal muscles and adipose tissue, whereas there was no significant difference between the OSA and control groups in insulin action on endogenous glucose production, basal insulin secretion, and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion during both intravenous and oral glucose tolerance tests. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that OSA is a key determinant of insulin sensitivity in people with obesity and underscore the importance of taking OSA status into account when evaluating metabolic function in people with obesity. These findings may also have important clinical implications because disease progression and the risk of diabetes-related complications vary by T2D subtype (i.e. severe insulin resistance vs insulin deficiency). People with OSA may benefit most from the targeted treatment of peripheral insulin resistance and early screening for complications associated with peripheral insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Técnica Clamp de Glucose/métodos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Obesidade/sangue , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/sangue , Adulto , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Glucose/administração & dosagem , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia
7.
Gut Microbes ; 14(1): 2031696, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130127

RESUMO

Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are growing burdens for individuals and the health-care system. Bariatric surgery is an efficient, but drastic treatment to reduce body weight, normalize glucose values, and reduce low-grade inflammation. The gut microbiome, which is in part controlled by intestinal antibodies, such as IgA, is involved in the development of both conditions. Knowledge of the effect of bariatric surgery on systemic and intestinal antibody response is limited. Here, we determined the fecal antibody and gut microbiome response in 40 T2D and non-diabetic (ND) obese individuals that underwent bariatric surgery (N = 40). Body weight, fasting glucose concentrations and inflammatory parameters decreased after bariatric surgery, whereas pro-inflammatory bacterial species such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and flagellin increased in the feces. Simultaneously, concentrations of LPS- and flagellin-specific intestinal IgA levels increased with the majority of pro-inflammatory bacteria coated with IgA after surgery. Finally, serum antibodies decreased in both groups, along with a lower inflammatory tone. We conclude that intestinal rearrangement by bariatric surgery leads to expansion of typical pro-inflammatory bacteria, which may be compensated by an improved antibody response. Although further evidence and mechanistic insights are needed, we postulate that this apparent compensatory antibody response might help to reduce systemic inflammation by neutralizing intestinal immunogenic components and thereby enhance intestinal barrier function after bariatric surgery.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Bactérias/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/microbiologia , Obesidade/imunologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cirurgia Bariátrica , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/cirurgia , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Intestinos/imunologia , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/microbiologia , Obesidade/cirurgia
8.
Molecules ; 27(4)2022 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35209038

RESUMO

Obesity is becoming increasingly common all over the world and global strategies are accordingly being developed to prevent it. In order to support the strategies, the effects of green apple (Golden Delicious) and the consumption of its three major flavonols (quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-D-galactoside, and quercetin-3-rhamnoside) on body weight; the weight of liver, kidney, and spleen; some lipid parameters in serum; and total lipid ratios of liver and kidney and oxidative stress parameters of obese rats were studied. This study was conducted on two experimental groups: one of which was given an apple, and the other was given flavonols, in addition to their high-energy diet; along with a sham and a control rat group, for 4 weeks. According to results, there was no difference in body and organ weights between groups. The liver and kidney weights increased in obese rats, but there was no difference between the total lipid ratios in these organs. The addition of green apple and selected flavonols to the high-energy diet of rats was not sufficient to prevent the increase in body and organ weights, but it supported the reduction in some lipid fractions and in oxidative stress parameters of obese rats. Moreover, this study supported the argument that obesity causes most of the lipid fractions increase in serum and induces oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Flavonóis , Frutas/química , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/química , Obesidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Flavonóis/química , Flavonóis/farmacologia , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
9.
Physiol Rep ; 10(4): e15148, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35179822

RESUMO

AIM: To reexamine the associations of NK cell number and function in the peripheral blood with overweight/obesity and the metabolic syndrome in a large, well-phenotyped human cohort. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of 273 women in the PPSDiab Study; measurement of absolute and relative number of NK cells in peripheral blood, and of functional parameters CD69 positivity and cytotoxicity against K562 cells; group comparison of NK cell characteristics between lean, overweight, and obese participants, as well as metabolic syndrome scores of 0, 1, 2, and ≥3; Spearman correlation analyses to clinical parameters related to the metabolic syndrome. RESULTS: We found no differences in NK cell number and function between lean, overweight, and obese women (relative NK cell number (median (Q1-Q3), [%]) 5.1(2.6-9.4) vs. 4.8 (2.9-8.4) vs. 3.8 (1.7-7.8), p = 0.187; absolute NK cell number [106 /L]: 86.9 (44.6-188.8) vs. 92.6 (52.5-154.6) vs. 85.9 (44-153.8), p = 0.632; CD69+ [%]: 27.2 (12.9-44.3) vs. 37.6 (13.2-52.8) vs. 33.6 (16.3-45), p = 0.136; cytotoxicity [%]: 11.0 (7.1-14.5) vs. 8.5 (6.4-13.2) vs. 11.3 (8.7-14.2), p = 0.094), as well as between different metabolic syndrome scores. Nonesterified fatty acids correlated with absolute and relative NK cell number and cytotoxicity (ρ [p-value]: 0.142 [0.021], 0.119 [0.049], and 0.131 [0.035], respectively). Relative NK cell number further correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.144 [0.018]) and cytotoxicity with 2 h glucose in oral glucose tolerance testing (0.132 [0.034]). CD69 positivity correlated with body fat (0.141 [0.021]), triglycerides (0.129 [0.033]), and plasma leptin (0.155 [0.010]). After correction for multiple testing, none of the associations remained significant. CONCLUSION: In the present study, we observed no associations of NK cell number and function in the peripheral blood with overweight/obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Extreme phenotypes of obesity and the metabolic syndrome might have caused differing results in previous studies. Further analyses with a focus on compartments other than peripheral blood may help to clarify the relation between NK cells and metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Adulto , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Feminino , Humanos , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/imunologia
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2679, 2022 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35177705

RESUMO

Ghrelin is the only known orexigenic gut hormone, and its synthesis, secretion and degradation are affected by different metabolic statuses. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the potential differences in plasma acyl ghrelin (AG) and des-acyl ghrelin (DAG) concentrations between normal weight and obese adults. Systematic literature searches of PubMed, Embase and Web of Science through October 2021 were conducted for articles reporting AG or DAG levels in obesity and normal weight, and 34 studies with 1863 participants who met the eligibility criteria were identified. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate group differences in circulating AG and DAG levels. Pooled effect size showed significantly lower levels of baseline AG (SMD: - 0.85; 95% CI: - 1.13 to - 0.57; PSMD < 0.001) and DAG (SMD: - 1.06; 95% CI: - 1.43 to - 0.69; PSMD < 0.001) in obese groups compared with healthy controls, and similar results were observed when subgroup analyses were stratified by the assay technique or storage procedure. Postprandial AG levels in obese subjects were significantly lower than those in controls when stratified by different time points (SMD 30 min: - 0.85, 95% CI: - 1.18 to - 0.53, PSMD < 0.001; SMD 60 min: - 1.00, 95% CI: - 1.37 to - 0.63, PSMD < 0.001; SMD 120 min: - 1.21, 95% CI: - 1.59 to - 0.83, PSMD < 0.001). In healthy subjects, a postprandial decline in AG was observed at 120 min (SMD: - 0.42; 95% CI: - 0.77 to - 0.06; PSMD = 0.021) but not in obese subjects (SMD: - 0.28; 95% CI: - 0.60 to 0.03; PSMD = 0.074). The mean change in AG concentration was similar in both the obese and lean health groups at each time point (ΔSMD30min: 0.31, 95% CI: - 0.35 to 0.97, PSMD = 0.359; ΔSMD60min: 0.17, 95% CI: - 0.12 to 0.46, PSMD = 0.246; ΔSMD120min: 0.21, 95% CI: - 0.13 to 0.54, PSMD = 0.224). This meta-analysis strengthens the clinical evidence supporting the following: lower baseline levels of circulating AG and DAG in obese individuals; declines in postprandial circulating AG levels, both for the healthy and obese individuals; a shorter duration of AG suppression in obese subjects after meal intake. These conclusions have significance for follow-up studies to elucidate the role of various ghrelin forms in energy homeostasis.


Assuntos
Grelina/análogos & derivados , Obesidade/sangue , Acilação , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Grelina/sangue , Humanos
11.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263479, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35120179

RESUMO

As blood-derived miRNAs (c-miRNAs) are modulated by exercise and nutrition, we postulated that they might be used to monitor the effects of a lifestyle intervention (LI) to prevent diabetes development. To challenge this hypothesis, obese Asian Indian pre-diabetic patients were submitted to diet modifications and physical activity for 4 months (LI group) and compared to a control group which was given recommendations only. We have considered 2 periods of time to analyze the data, i.e.; a first one to study the response to the intervention (4 months), and a second one post-intervention (8 months). At basal, 4 months and 8 months post-intervention the levels of 17 c-miRNAs were quantified, selected either for their relevance to the pathology or because they are known to be modulated by physical activity or diet. Their variations were correlated with variations of 25 metabolic and anthropometric parameters and cytokines. As expected, fasting-glycaemia, insulin-sensitivity, levels of exercise- and obesity-induced cytokines were ameliorated after 4 months. In addition, the levels of 4 miRNAs (i.e.; miR-128-3p, miR-374a-5p, miR-221-3p, and miR-133a-3p) were changed only in the LI group and were correlated with metabolic improvement (insulin sensitivity, cytokine levels, waist circumference and systolic blood pressure). However, 8 months post-intervention almost all ameliorated metabolic parameters declined indicating that the volunteers did not continue the protocol on their own. Surprisingly, the LI positive effects on c-miRNA levels were still detected, and were even more pronounced 8 months post-intervention. In parallel, MCP-1, involved in tissue infiltration by immune cells, and Il-6, adiponectin and irisin, which have anti-inflammatory effects, continued to be significantly and positively modified, 8 months post-intervention. These data demonstrated for the first time, that c-miRNA correlations with metabolic parameters and insulin sensitivity are in fact only indirect and likely associated with the level systemic inflammation. More generally speaking, this important result explains the high variability between the previous studies designed to identify specific c-miRNAs associated with the severity of insulin-resistance. The results of all these studies should take into account the level of inflammation of the patients. In addition, this finding could also explain why, whatever the pathology considered (i.e.; cancers, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, inflammatory diseases) the same subset of miRNAs is always found altered in the blood of patients vs healthy subjects, as these pathologies are all associated with the development of inflammation.


Assuntos
Inflamação/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , MicroRNAs/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto , Antropometria , Glicemia/análise , Citocinas/metabolismo , Exercício Físico , Jejum , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ciências da Nutrição , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/fisiopatologia , Sístole
12.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 9171684, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35132354

RESUMO

Mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) has been proposed for use as a surrogate biomarker of mitochondrial health, and evidence suggests that mtDNA might be methylated. Intermediates of the one-carbon cycle (1CC), which is duplicated in the cytoplasm and mitochondria, have a major role in modulating the impact of diet on the epigenome. Moreover, epigenetic pathways and the redox system are linked by the metabolism of glutathione (GSH). In a cohort of 101 normal-weight and 97 overweight/obese subjects, we evaluated mtDNAcn and methylation levels in both mitochondrial and nuclear areas to test the association of these marks with body weight, metabolic profile, and availability of 1CC intermediates associated with diet. Body composition was associated with 1CC intermediate availability. Reduced levels of GSH were measured in the overweight/obese group (p = 1.3∗10-5). A high BMI was associated with lower LINE-1 (p = 0.004) and nominally lower methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene methylation (p = 0.047). mtDNAcn was lower in overweight/obese subjects (p = 0.004) and independently correlated with MTHFR methylation levels (p = 0.005) but not to LINE-1 methylation levels (p = 0.086). DNA methylation has been detected in the light strand but not in the heavy strand of the mtDNA. Although mtDNA methylation in the light strand did not differ between overweight/obese and normal-weight subjects, it was nominally correlated with homocysteine levels (p = 0.035) and MTHFR methylation (p = 0.033). This evidence suggests that increased body weight might perturb mitochondrial-nuclear homeostasis affecting the availability of nutrients acting as intermediates of the one-carbon cycle.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , DNA Mitocondrial/sangue , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Epigênese Genética , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Glutationa/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Dis Markers ; 2022: 7058389, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35126789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: rs822393 (-4522C/T) genetic variant is associated with hypoadiponectinemia and other metabolic parameters. The aim of our investigation was to analyze the effects of a hypocaloric diet with Mediterranean dietary pattern during 9 months according to genetic variant rs822393 of ADIPOQ gene. METHODS AND RESULTS: A sample of 269 obese patients was enrolled. Anthropometric and serum parameters (lipid profile, insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), glucose, C reactive protein, and adipokines) were determined, at basal time and after 3 and 9 months. All patients were genotyped in the rs822393. The genotype distribution was as follow; 176 patients (65.4%) CC, 83 patients CT (30.9%), and 10 patients TT (3.7%). After dietary intervention, the following parameters improved in non-T allele carriers; BMI, weight, fat mass, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, insulin levels, HOMA-IR, leptin, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol improved significantly. HDL-cholesterol (delta: 5.7 ± 1.1 mg/dl vs. 1.0 ± 0.8 mg/dl; p = 0.01), serum adiponectin (delta: 14.4 ± 2.0 ng/dl vs. 7.1 ± 3.1 ng/dl; p = 0.02), and adiponectin/leptin ratio (delta: 0.54 ± 0.1 vs. 0.22 ± 0.09 ng/dl; p = 0.03). Basal and postintervention HDL cholesterol, adiponectin levels, and adiponectin/leptin levels were lower in T-allele carriers than non-T Allele carriers. CONCLUSION: T allele carriers showed lower levels of HDL-cholesterol, adiponectin, and adiponectin/leptin ratio than non-T allele carriers. A medium-term hypocaloric diet with a Mediterranean partner increased adiponectin levels, ratio adiponectin/leptin, and HDL-cholesterol in non-T allele carriers.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/genética , Restrição Calórica , Dieta Mediterrânea , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/genética , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35057449

RESUMO

Individual glycemic responses following dietary intake result from complex physiological processes, and can be influenced by physical properties of foods, such as increased resistant starch (RS) from starch retrogradation. Predictive equations are needed to provide personalized dietary recommendations to reduce chronic disease development. Therefore, a precision nutrition model predicting the postprandial glucose response (PPGR) in overweight women following the consumption of potatoes was formulated. Thirty overweight women participated in this randomized crossover trial. Participants consumed 250 g of hot (9.2 g RS) or cold (13.7 g RS) potatoes on two separate occasions. Baseline characteristics included demographics, 10-day dietary records, body composition, and the relative abundance (RA) and α-diversity of gut microbiota. Elastic net regression using 5-fold cross-validation predicted PPGR after potato intake. Most participants (70%) had a favorable PPGR to the cold potato. The model explained 32.2% of the variance in PPGR with the equation: 547.65 × (0 [if cold, high-RS potato], ×1, if hot, low-RS potato]) + (BMI [kg/m2] × 40.66)-(insoluble fiber [g] × 49.35) + (Bacteroides [RA] × 8.69)-(Faecalibacterium [RA] × 73.49)-(Parabacteroides [RA] × 42.08) + (α-diversity × 110.87) + 292.52. This model improves the understanding of baseline characteristics that explain interpersonal variation in PPGR following potato intake and offers a tool to optimize dietary recommendations for a commonly consumed food.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Modelos Biológicos , Obesidade/sangue , Período Pós-Prandial , Amido Resistente/farmacologia , Solanum tuberosum/química , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Cross-Over , Dieta , Faecalibacterium , Feminino , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/microbiologia , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/microbiologia , Verduras/química , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35057420

RESUMO

A traditional balanced Korean diet (K-diet) may improve energy, glucose, and lipid metabolism. To evaluate this, we conducted a randomized crossover clinical trial, involving participants aged 30-40 years, who were randomly assigned to two groups-a K-diet or westernized Korean control diet daily, with an estimated energy requirement (EER) of 1900 kcal. After a 4-week washout period, they switched the diet and followed it for 4 weeks. The carbohydrate, protein, and fat ratios based on energy intake were close to the target values for the K-diet (65:15:20) and control diet (60:15:25). The glycemic index of the control diet and the K-diet was 50.3 ± 3.6 and 68.1 ± 2.9, respectively, and daily cholesterol contents in the control diet and K-diet were 280 and 150 mg, respectively. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters involved in energy, glucose, and lipid metabolism were measured while plasma metabolites were determined using UPLC-QTOF-MS before and after the 4-week intervention. After the four-week intervention, both diets improved anthropometric and biochemical variables, but the K-diet significantly reduced them compared to the control diet. Serum total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations were significantly lower in the K-diet group than in the control diet group. The waist circumference (p = 0.108) and insulin resistance index (QUICKI, p = 0.089) tended to be lower in the K-diet group than in the control diet group. Plasma metabolites indicated that participants in the K-diet group tended to reduce insulin resistance compared to those in the control diet group. Amino acids, especially branched-chain amino acids, tyrosine, tryptophan, and glutamate, and L-homocysteine concentrations were considerably lower in the K-diet group than in the control diet group (p < 0.05). Plasma glutathione concentrations, an index of antioxidant status, and 3-hydroxybutyric acid concentrations, were higher in the K-diet group than in the control diet group. In conclusion, a K-diet with adequate calories to meet EER alleviated dyslipidemia by decreasing insulin resistance-related amino acids and increasing ketones in the circulation of obese women.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/etnologia , Dieta Saudável/métodos , Dislipidemias/dietoterapia , Índice Glicêmico , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Adulto , Colesterol/sangue , Dieta para Diabéticos/etnologia , Dieta para Diabéticos/métodos , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/etnologia , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/métodos , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/etiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , República da Coreia , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/sangue
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(2)2022 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35054892

RESUMO

Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are important for neonatal development and health. One mechanism by which omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids exert their effects is through their metabolism into oxylipins and specialized pro-resolving mediators. However, the influence of oxylipins on fetal growth is not well understood. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify oxylipins present in maternal and umbilical cord plasma and investigate their relationship with infant growth. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify oxylipin levels in plasma collected at the time of delivery. Spearman's correlations highlighted significant correlations between metabolite levels and infant growth. They were then adjusted for maternal obesity (normal body mass index (BMI: ≤30 kg/m2) vs. obese BMI (>30 kg/m2) and smoking status (never vs. current/former smoker) using linear regression modeling. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Our study demonstrated a diverse panel of oxylipins from the lipoxygenase pathway present at the time of delivery. In addition, both omega-3 and omega-6 oxylipins demonstrated potential influences on the birth length and weight percentiles. The oxylipins present during pregnancy may influence fetal growth and development, suggesting potential metabolites to be used as biomarkers for infant outcomes.


Assuntos
Lipoxigenases/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/sangue , Cordão Umbilical/metabolismo , Adulto , Cromatografia Líquida , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Obesidade/sangue , Oxilipinas/análise , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Gravidez , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
J Biol Chem ; 298(2): 101561, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998825

RESUMO

Obesity is a risk factor for insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Reticulon-4 (Nogo) is an endoplasmic reticulum-resident protein with unclear functions in obesity. Herein, we investigated the effect of Nogo on obesity and associated metabolic disorders. Human serum samples were collected to explore the relationship between circulating Nogo-B and body mass index value. Nogo-deficient and WT littermate control mice were fed normal chow or high-fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks, and HFD-induced obese C57BL/6J mice were injected scrambled or Nogo siRNA for 2 weeks. We found that in human and mouse serum, Nogo-B was positively correlated to body mass index/bodyweight and lipid profiles. Reduced Nogo (by genetic deletion or siRNA transfection) protected mice against HFD-induced obesity and related metabolic disorders. We demonstrate that Nogo deficiency reversed HFD-induced whitening of brown adipose tissue, thereby increasing thermogenesis. It also ameliorated lipid accumulation in tissues by activating the adiponectin-adiponectin receptor 1-AMP-activated kinase α signaling axis. Finally, Nogo deficiency potently reduced HFD-induced serum proinflammatory cytokines and infiltration of macrophages into metabolic organs, which is related to enhanced NF-κB p65 degradation via the lysosome pathway. Collectively, our study suggests that reduced levels of Nogo protect mice against HFD-induced obesity by increasing thermogenesis and energy metabolism while inhibiting NF-κB-mediated inflammation. Our results indicate that inhibition of Nogo may be a potential strategy for obesity treatment.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Resistência à Insulina , Proteínas Nogo , Obesidade , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , NF-kappa B/sangue , Proteínas Nogo/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , RNA Interferente Pequeno/sangue
18.
Vet Med Sci ; 8(2): 517-523, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35044092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) have been identified as a possible marker of inflammation in obesity. Understanding the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in PBMCs in obese dogs will help control obesity-related inflammatory diseases. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of PBMCs in obesity-associated chronic inflammation by analyzing the expression of adipokines and inflammatory cytokines. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 25 subjects and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction determinations were performed to quantify the gene expression levels of adipokines and inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-17, leptin, MCP-1, and adiponectin, in the PBMCs. RESULTS: The results showed that the gene expression levels of TNF-α (p < 0.001), IL-17 (p < 0.0001), and leptin (p < 0.0001) were strongly upregulated in the PBMCs of obese dogs compared to that in non-obese dogs. CONCLUSIONS: The changes in gene expression levels of inflammation-related adipokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines occur in PBMCs, which may contribute to the low-grade chronic inflammation that is present in obesity.


Assuntos
Adipocinas , Citocinas , Doenças do Cão , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Adipocinas/biossíntese , Adipocinas/sangue , Adipocinas/genética , Animais , Citocinas/biossíntese , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/genética , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/genética , Cães , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/veterinária , Interleucina-17/genética , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Leptina/sangue , Leptina/genética , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/veterinária , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
19.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 186(3): 319-327, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35007209

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obesity in adolescent males is associated with the lowering of total and free testosterone concentrations. Weight loss may increase testosterone concentrations. DESIGN AND METHODS: We evaluated the changes in sex hormones following bariatric surgery in 34 males (age range: 14.6-19.8 years) with obesity. These participants were part of a prospective multicenter study, Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery. The participants were followed up for 5 years after surgery. Total testosterone, total estradiol, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, sex hormone-binding globulin, C-reactive protein, insulin and glucose were measured at baseline, 6 months and annually thereafter. Free testosterone, free estradiol and HOMA2-IR were calculated. RESULTS: Study participants lost one-third of their body weight after bariatric surgery, with maximum weight loss achieved at 24 months for most participants. Free testosterone increased from 0.17 (95% CI: 0.13 to 0.20) at baseline to 0.34 (95% CI: 0.30 to 0.38) and 0.27 nmol/L (95% CI: 0.23 to 0.32) at 2 and 5 years (P < 0.001 for both), respectively. Total testosterone increased from 6.7 (95% CI: 4.7 to 8.8) at baseline to 17.6 (95% CI: 15.3 to 19.9) and 13.8 (95% CI: 11.0 to 16.5) nmol/L at 2 and 5 years (P < 0.001), respectively. Prior to surgery, 73% of the participants had subnormal free testosterone (<0.23 nmol/L). After 2 and 5 years, only 20 and 33%, respectively, had subnormal free testosterone concentrations. Weight regain was related to a fall in free testosterone concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Bariatric surgery led to a robust increase in testosterone concentrations in adolescent males with severe obesity. Participants who regained weight had a decline in their testosterone concentrations.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Estradiol/sangue , Hipogonadismo/sangue , Obesidade/cirurgia , Testosterona/sangue , Adolescente , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Humanos , Hipogonadismo/complicações , Hipogonadismo/epidemiologia , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35057441

RESUMO

Few studies on humans have comprehensively evaluated the intake composition of methyl-donor nutrients (MDNs: choline, betaine, and folate) in relation to visceral obesity (VOB)-related hepatic steatosis (HS), the hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases. In this case-control study, we recruited 105 patients with HS and 104 without HS (controls). HS was diagnosed through ultrasound examination. VOB was measured using a whole-body analyzer. MDN intake was assessed using a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire. After adjustment for multiple HS risk factors, total choline intake was the most significant dietary determinant of HS in patients with VOB (Beta: -0.41, p = 0.01). Low intake of choline (<6.9 mg/kg body weight), betaine (<3.1 mg/kg body weight), and folate (<8.8 µg/kg body weight) predicted increased odds ratios (ORs) of VOB-related HS (choline: OR: 22, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.5-80; betaine: OR: 14, 95% CI: 4.4-50; and folate: OR: 19, 95% CI: 5.2-74). Combined high intake of choline and betaine, but not folate, was associated with an 81% reduction in VOB-related HS (OR: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.05-0.69). Our data suggest that the optimal intake of choline and betaine can minimize the risk of VOB-related HS in a threshold-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Betaína/administração & dosagem , Colina/administração & dosagem , Fígado Gorduroso/prevenção & controle , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Adiposidade , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Composição Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Registros de Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fígado Gorduroso/sangue , Fígado Gorduroso/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade Abdominal/sangue , Obesidade Abdominal/diagnóstico , Razão de Chances , Taiwan , Ultrassonografia
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