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1.
Food Chem ; 376: 131938, 2022 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34992047

RESUMO

Twenty-two brown rice varieties available in the Qatari market were analyzed for essential and toxic elements by ICP-MS. Found concentrations (µg/kg) were: As: 171 ± 78 (62-343), Cd: 42 ± 60 (4-253), Cr: 515 ± 69 (401-639), Pb: 6 ± 7 ( 1 in million, may possibly be > 1 in 10,000 based on conservatively high brown rice consumption rates of 200 g/d or 400 g/d in Qatar. These elevated risks may be applicable to specific population subgroups with diabetic conditions who consume only brown rice. Non-cancer risks are mainly derived from Mn, V, Se, and Cd with a hazard index > 1 from some brown rice samples.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Oryza , Arsênio/análise , Arsênio/toxicidade , Carcinógenos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Catar , Medição de Risco
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 20, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are conserved signaling modules in eukaryotic organisms and play essential roles in immunity and stress responses. However, the role of MAPKs in chloroplast development remains to be evidently established. RESULTS: In this study, a rice chlorosis seedling lethality 1 (csl1) mutant with a Zhonghua11 (ZH11, japonica) background was isolated. Seedlings of the mutant were characterized by chlorotic leaves and death after the trefoil stage, and chloroplasts were observed to contain accumulated starch granules. Molecular cloning revealed that OsCSL1 encoded a MAPK kinase kinase22 (MKKK22) targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and functional complementation of OsCSL1 was found to restore the normal phenotype in csl1 plants. The CRISPR/Cas9 technology was used for targeted disruption of OsCSL1, and the OsCSL1-Cas9 lines obtained therein exhibited yellow seedlings which phenocopied the csl1 mutant. CSL1/MKKK22 was observed to establish direct interaction with MKK4, and altered expression of MKK1 and MKK4 was detected in the csl1 mutant. Additionally, disruption of OsCSL1 led to reduced expression of chloroplast-associated genes, including chlorophyll biosynthetic genes, plastid-encoded RNA polymerases, nuclear-encoded RNA polymerase, and nuclear-encoded chloroplast genes. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study revealed that OsCSL1 played roles in regulating the expression of multiple chloroplast synthesis-related genes, thereby affecting their functions, and leading to wide-ranging defects, including chlorotic seedlings and severely disrupted chloroplasts containing accumulated starch granules.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/fisiologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/fisiologia , Biogênese de Organelas , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Clorofila/genética , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Genes de Cloroplastos , Genes Letais , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Mutação , Oryza/genética , Oryza/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
3.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 53, 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small non-coding (s)RNAs are involved in the negative regulation of gene expression, playing critical roles in genome integrity, development and metabolic pathways. Targeting of RNAs by ribonucleoprotein complexes of sRNAs bound to Argonaute (AGO) proteins results in cleaved RNAs having precise and predictable 5` ends. While tools to study sliced bits of RNAs to confirm the efficiency of sRNA-mediated regulation are available, they are sub-optimal. In this study, we provide an improvised version of a tool with better efficiency to accurately validate sRNA targets. RESULTS: Here, we improvised the CleaveLand tool to identify additional micro (mi)RNA targets that belong to the same family and also other targets within a specified free energy cut-off. These additional targets were otherwise excluded during the default run. We employed these tools to understand the sRNA targeting efficiency in wild and cultivated rice, sequenced degradome from two rice lines, O. nivara and O. sativa indica Pusa Basmati-1 and analyzed variations in sRNA targeting. Our results indicate the existence of multiple miRNA-mediated targeting differences between domesticated and wild species. For example, Os5NG4 was targeted only in wild rice that might be responsible for the poor secondary wall formation when compared to cultivated rice. We also identified differential mRNA targets of secondary sRNAs that were generated after miRNA-mediated cleavage of primary targets. CONCLUSIONS: We identified many differentially targeted mRNAs between wild and domesticated rice lines. In addition to providing a step-wise guide to generate and analyze degradome datasets, we showed how domestication altered sRNA-mediated cascade silencing during the evolution of indica rice.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Oryza , Proteínas Argonauta/genética , Sequência de Bases , MicroRNAs/genética , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro
4.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(1): 463-471, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989531

RESUMO

In order to explore the main controlling factors of Cd enrichment in rice under a geological high background in the Guangxi carbonate rock area, this study was based on rice grain-root soil samples from the carbonate rock areas in the southwest and north of Guangxi. Combined with diffusive gradients in thin films technology (DGT), the relationship between soil pH, organic matter, cation exchange capacity (CEC), DGT-Cd, and ω(rice-Cd)-BCF value in rice grains was analyzed and discussed. The main factors were determined by principal component analysis, and a quantitative model was established. The results showed that the average value of ω(soil-Cd) was 0.975 mg·kg-1, and the over-standard rate was 33.33%; the average value of ω(rice-Cd) was 0.020 mg·kg-1, and the average BCF value was 0.038, and the over-standard rate of Cd content in rice grains was 4.2%. The content of Cd in paddy soil was high, but bioavailability was low in the study area. The BCF value of rice grains in the study area was significantly negatively correlated with soil pH and cation exchange capacity at the level of 0.01, positively correlated with DGT-CD at the level of 0.01, and negatively correlated with organic matter at the level of 0.05. The results of principal component analysis showed that the total amount of Cd in the soil, pH, and DGT-Cd were the main factors affecting the accumulation of Cd in rice in the Guangxi carbonate rock area. Taking the total amount of Cd in the soil, pH, and DGT-Cd as variables, the fitting equation of BCF value of rice grains in the Guangxi carbonate rock region was established, and the determination coefficient of the model was 0.717, which could better predict the content of Cd in rice grains in this region.


Assuntos
Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , Carbonatos , China , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
5.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(1): 472-480, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989532

RESUMO

The bioavailability of heavy metals in soil and the physiological activities of rice determine the accumulation of heavy metals in brown rice. In this study, a field experiment was conducted in a rice paddy in which the total amount of Cd in the soil did not exceed the national standard, whereas the Cd in rice grains was at risk of overreaching in the suburbs of Guangzhou city. The bioavailability of heavy metals in the soil and the physiological barrier of rice were taken as the starting point. The early and late rice yield, brown rice heavy metal content, Cd and Pb enrichment coefficient, total soil heavy metals, soil physical and chemical properties, and soil Cd and Pb species distribution were investigated under the Si-rich amendment (JD), Ca-Mg amendment (YY), Si-rich amendment+flooding irrigation (JD+YS), and Ca-Mg amendment+flooding irrigation (YY+YS) treatments. The results showed that:① the total ω(Cd) in the soil was only 0.13 mg·kg-1 in the CK treatment. However, the average ω(Cd) in the grain of early rice reached up to 0.19 mg·kg-1. The early rice varieties (hybrid rice) had a more vital ability to accumulate Cd and total As in brown rice than that in late rice varieties (conventional rice) but a lower capacity for Pb accumulation. ② JD and YY application alone had no noticeable inhibitory effect on the accumulation of Cd and Pb in brown rice; however, JD+YS and YY+YS treatments significantly inhibited the accumulation of Cd and Pb in brown rice in both early and late rice, especially in the JD+YS treatment, which decreased the Cd and Pb accumulation by 65.8% and 68% for early rice and by 71.43% and 49.15% for late rice, respectively. The primary mechanism of JD+YS was to increase soil pH and maintain a low redox potential to promote soil Cd and Pb to be transformed from acid-soluble to a reduced state and residue state, thus decreasing Cd and Pb to migrate from the soil to the rice. At the same time, it effectively suppressed the absorption and transportation of Cd and Pb by early and late rice via the physiological barrier effect of Si nutrition and the competition for transportation channels between calcium and magnesium ions and cadmium and inhibited the accumulation of Cd and Pb in the brown rice of early and late rice. These results provide a theoretical basis for the exploration and application of the control technologies in the brown rice Cd and Pb resistance and have important practical significance for guiding the safe production in the rice-growing area in South China.


Assuntos
Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , Chumbo , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Água , Abastecimento de Água
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(1): 99-110, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978196

RESUMO

A series of benzo[4,5]thiazole(oxazole)[3,2-a]pyrimidine mesoionic compounds were designed and synthesized. Antibacterial activity tests revealed that compound A23 showed good in vitro activities against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzicola (Xoc) and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), with half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) values of 47.6 and 36.8 µM, respectively, which were better than positive control agents thiodiazole copper (281 and 259 µM) and bismerthiazol (245 and 220 µM). The protective activities of compound A23 anti-Xoc and anti-Xoo were 39.7% and 49.2%, respectively, which were better than those of bismerthiazol (31.5% and 40.7%). Compound A23 improved defensive enzyme activities in rice. In addition, compound A23 could upregulate the expression of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) pathway through proteomics analysis, which was consistent with the result of the SDH activity test. Thus, compound A23 is a novel potential antibacterial agent that can be further developed.


Assuntos
Oryza , Xanthomonas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Oxidiazóis , Doenças das Plantas , Pirimidinonas
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(1)2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35009947

RESUMO

The moisture content of stored rice is dependent on the surrounding and environmental factors which in turn affect the quality and economic value of the grains. Therefore, the moisture content of grains needs to be measured frequently to ensure that optimum conditions that preserve their quality are maintained. The current state of the art for moisture measurement of rice in a silo is based on grab sampling or relies on single rod sensors placed randomly into the grain. The sensors that are currently used are very localized and are, therefore, unable to provide continuous measurement of the moisture distribution in the silo. To the authors' knowledge, there is no commercially available 3D volumetric measurement system for rice moisture content in a silo. Hence, this paper presents results of work carried out using low-cost wireless devices that can be placed around the silo to measure changes in the moisture content of rice. This paper proposes a novel technique based on radio frequency tomographic imaging using low-cost wireless devices and regression-based machine learning to provide contactless non-destructive 3D volumetric moisture content distribution in stored rice grain. This proposed technique can detect multiple levels of localized moisture distributions in the silo with accuracies greater than or equal to 83.7%, depending on the size and shape of the sample under test. Unlike other approaches proposed in open literature or employed in the sector, the proposed system can be deployed to provide continuous monitoring of the moisture distribution in silos.


Assuntos
Oryza , Grão Comestível , Aprendizado de Máquina
8.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 23(1): 30, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant variety identification is the one most important of agricultural systems. Development of DNA marker profiles of released varieties to compare with candidate variety or future variety is required. However, strictly speaking, scientists did not use most existing variety identification techniques for "identification" but for "distinction of a limited number of cultivars," of which generalization ability always not be well estimated. Because many varieties have similar genetic backgrounds, even some essentially derived varieties (EDVs) are involved, which brings difficulties for identification and breeding progress. A fast, accurate variety identification method, which also has good performance on EDV determination, needs to be developed. RESULTS: In this study, with the strategy of "Divide and Conquer," a variety identification method Conditional Random Selection (CRS) method based on SNP of the whole genome of 3024 rice varieties was developed and be applied in essentially derived variety (EDV) identification of rice. CRS is a fast, efficient, and automated variety identification method. Meanwhile, in practical, with the optimal threshold of identity score searched in this study, the set of SNP (including 390 SNPs) showed optimal performance on EDV and non-EDV identification in two independent testing datasets. CONCLUSION: This approach first selected a minimal set of SNPs to discriminate non-EDVs in the 3000 Rice Genome Project, then united several simplified SNP sets to improve its generalization ability for EDV and non-EDV identification in testing datasets. The results suggested that the CRS method outperformed traditional feature selection methods. Furthermore, it provides a new way to screen out core SNP loci from the whole genome for DNA fingerprinting of crop varieties and be useful for crop breeding.


Assuntos
Oryza , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Marcadores Genéticos , Genoma de Planta , Nucleotídeos , Oryza/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
9.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 44, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small RNAs (sRNAs) regulate numerous plant processes directly related to yield, such as disease resistance and plant growth. To exploit this yield-regulating potential of sRNAs, the sRNA profile of one of the world's most important staple crops - rice - was investigated throughout plant development using next-generation sequencing. RESULTS: Root and leaves were investigated at both the vegetative and generative phase, and early-life sRNA expression was characterized in the embryo and endosperm. This led to the identification of 49,505 novel sRNAs and 5581 tRNA-derived sRNAs (tsRNAs). In all tissues, 24 nt small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were highly expressed and associated with euchromatic, but not heterochromatic transposable elements. Twenty-one nt siRNAs deriving from genic regions in the endosperm were exceptionally highly expressed, mimicking previously reported expression levels of 24 nt siRNAs in younger endosperm samples. In rice embryos, sRNA content was highly diverse while tsRNAs were underrepresented, possibly due to snoRNA activity. Publicly available mRNA expression and DNA methylation profiles were used to identify putative siRNA targets in embryo and endosperm. These include multiple genes related to the plant hormones gibberellic acid and ethylene, and to seed phytoalexin and iron content. CONCLUSIONS: This work introduces multiple sRNAs as potential regulators of rice yield and quality, identifying them as possible targets for the continuous search to optimize rice production.


Assuntos
Oryza , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Endosperma , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , RNA de Plantas , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Sementes
10.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(2): 53, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982252

RESUMO

The present study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of selected potential nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterial strain (Anabaena sp.), isolated from rhizospheric soil of rice plants on growth, pigments, N uptake, root architecture, and image-based phenotypic traits of rice crop using co-cultivation approach under controlled sand culture conditions. We studied the beneficial interaction of cyanobacterium to rice using sensor image-based Phenomics approach as well as conventional methods. Co-cultivation experiment revealed that inoculation with Anabaena sp. significantly improved plant growth, chlorophyll, leaf area, % nitrogen, and protein of rice by ~ 70%, ~ 22%, ~ 60%, and ~ 25% under 100% nitrogen input in comparison with un-inoculated control. Further, comparative evaluation revealed superior performance of Anabaena sp. at 100% and 75% N followed by 50% N input improving below-ground parameters as well as phenotypic traits as compared to control treatment. Hence, inoculation performed better with inorganic nitrogen input for overall growth of rice crop. Therefore, cyanobacterial strain can be used as an efficient bio-inoculant for sustainable rice production under integrated nutrient management.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Oryza , Nitrogênio , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Microbiologia do Solo
11.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(2): 37, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982254

RESUMO

Endophytic microbiota mainly includes positive modulator of plant growth, productivity, stress tolerance and ability to control the phytopathogens. Rice endophytes colonize in different parts like roots, shoots, leaves, seeds, flowers, ovules, etc. The diversity and colonization of endophytes depend on several factors like host specificity, environment specificity, chemotaxis, motility, etc. A mutualistic relationship between rice plant and their endophytes improves the host health. Several crucial activities of rice plants are influenced by the presence of endophytes as they endorse plant growth by producing different phytohormones, solubilized minerals, or mitigating various environmental adverse conditions. Endophytes also protect rice plants from various phytopathogen by the production of secondary metabolites, lytic enzymes, antibiotics and induced systemic acquired resistance. Furthermore, the endophytes from rice and major crops are recently been shown useful in environmental waste management and also for the synthesis of green nanoparticles. This study highlights the beneficial interaction between rice plants and their endophytic microbiota with special emphasis on highlighting their application for sustainable agricultural and environmental practices in order to enhance the agro-economy in an eco-friendly manner.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Oryza , Endófitos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Raízes de Plantas , Simbiose
12.
J Environ Manage ; 304: 114294, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34920282

RESUMO

On-site open burning is a common practice for handling rice straw, but its negative impacts, e.g., biomass loss and air pollution, are largely debated worldwide. To address the negative effects of open burning, many efforts have been made to 'ignite' worldwide bans. However, these bans are likely based on a singular view in which some positive aspects of open burning are overlooked. In this study, we aimed to determine the thermal-induced changes of straw and straw arsenic (As) under open burning and heat-treatments (in the temperature range from 300 to 900 °C). It was found that silica phase in rice straw (so-called phytolith) can encapsulate As in its structure. Open burning or heat-treatment of straw resulted in a tighter association of As and phytolith, thereby reducing dissolution of As. We proposed an opinion that open burning causes air pollution, but it can increase the activity of phytolith in sequestrating As, enabling delayed As cycle in rice ecosystems. The combat of on-site open burning of rice straw to reduce air pollution will alter straw handling routines, thereby changing the cycle of straw phytolith and the route of straw As.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Arsênio , Oryza , Poluição do Ar/análise , Biomassa , Ecossistema
13.
Food Chem ; 375: 131900, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959141

RESUMO

This paper investigated the effect of extrusion treatment on the rheological properties, in vitro digestibility, and multi-structure of starch with or without bamboo shoot dietary fiber (BSDF). The viscoelasticity and thixotropy decreased after extrusion treatment, however, they increased after BSDF addition, and decreased with increasing BSDF content. The starch granules became smooth and formed big lumps after extrusion treatment. The dense lumps became loose after the addition of BSDF. Extrusion treatment changed the movement and arrangement of starch chains and thus the relative crystallinity and branching degree decreased by 92.6% and 40.9%, respectively. The disruption of starch further increased rapid digestion starch (RDS) content by 10%. The decreased disruption of starch granules and increased entanglement between BSDF and starch decreased the RDS content. The addition of BSDF is a novelty method to enhance the nutritional properties and control the physicochemical properties of extruded starchy foods.


Assuntos
Oryza , Fibras na Dieta , Digestão , Amido , Viscosidade
14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2382: 131-140, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705237

RESUMO

Rice leaves have a consistent spatial and temporal organization of cell division and expansion, which leads to typical cell length profiles along the longitudinal axis. The growth of rice leaves is usually studied during a steady-state period when leaf elongation rate is constant and the spatial distribution of cell length is temporally invariable. In this chapter, we define the steady-state period by analyzing the leaf elongation rate of leaf three in rice. During steady growth of leaf three, we determine the meristem size by identifying the epidermal cell files next to the stomatal files which are the distal position of meristem zone with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Meanwhile, we plot the cell length profiles along the longitudinal axis from which we directly determine the length of growing zone and mature cell size. Other cell division and expansion parameters such as cell division rate, cell cycle duration, and stain rate are calculated through indirect kinematic analysis.


Assuntos
Oryza , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Divisão Celular , Meristema , Folhas de Planta
15.
Microbiol Res ; 254: 126910, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768028

RESUMO

Microbial inoculation is a promising way to improve crop yields in an eco-friendly and economic manner. However, the effects of inoculation on soil resident rare species, representing most of the diversity, are still not well documented and need further assessment. Here, we conducted a pot experiment to test the effects of single-strain and co-inoculants of Rhodopseudomonas palustris and Bacillus subtilis on soil rare and abundant bacteria through sequencing 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicons. The results showed that microbial inoculations significantly improved the rice yields up to 17.73 %, and R. palustris and B. subtilis co-inoculation showed synergistic effects on rice yields. The inoculations exerted significant modification in soil bacterial community structure, with a more pronounced influence on the rare community than the abundant. The large shifts in rare community structure induced the increase of beneficial rare members and enhanced the membrane transporters and signal transduction together with the increase of some essential metabolism pathways. According to the random forest modeling, relative abundance of the subgroups of rare and abundant communities could explain 61.37-63.09 % of the variations in the rice yields. Structural equation modeling further demonstrated the potential predominant role of rare bacteria in impacting the crop yields (r = 0.95). Overall, our study proved the effectiveness of the co-inoculant in promoting the rice yields through mediating the soil rare bacteria of microbial community. These findings expand current understanding of the microbial inoculation impacts on subsequent crop yield and the underlying microbial mechanisms in agricultural ecosystem.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Bactérias , Interações Microbianas , Oryza , Microbiologia do Solo , Agricultura/métodos , Bactérias/genética , Ecossistema , Oryza/microbiologia
16.
Environ Pollut ; 295: 118707, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34923062

RESUMO

Biochar application into paddy is an improved strategy for addressing methane (CH4) stimulation of straw biomass incorporation. Whereas, the differentiative patterns and mechanisms on CH4 emission of straw biomass and biochar after long years still need to be disentangled. Considering economic feasibility, a seven-year of field experiment was conducted to explore the long-term CH4 mitigation effect of annual low-rate biochar incorporation (RSC, 2.8 t ha-1), with annual rice straw incorporation (RS, 8 t ha-1) and control (CK, with no biochar or rice straw amendment incorporation) as a comparation. Results showed that RSC mitigated CH4 emission while RS stimulated CH4 significantly (p < 0.05) and stably over 7 experimental years compared with CK. RSC mitigated 14.8-46.7% of CH4 emission compared with CK. In comparison to RSC, RS increased 111-950.5% of CH4 emission during 7 field experimental years. On the 7th field experimental year, pH was significantly increased both in RS and RSC treatment (p < 0.05). RSC significantly (p < 0.05) increased soil nitrate (NO3--N) compared with RS while RS significantly (p < 0.05) increased dissolved carbon (DOC) compared to RSC. Soil NO3--N inhibition on methanogens and promotion on methanotrophs activities were verified by laboratory experiment, while soil pH and DOC mainly promoted methanogens abundance. Significantly (p < 0.05) increased DOC and soil pH enhanced methanogens growth and stimulated CH4 emission in RS treatment. Higher soil NO3--N content in RSC than CK and RS contributed to CH4 mitigation. Soil NO3--N and DOC were identified as the key factors differentiating CH4 emission patterns of RS and RSC in 2019. Collectively, soil NO3--N impacts on CH4 flux provide new ideas for prolonged effect of biochar amendment on CH4 mitigation after years.


Assuntos
Óxido Nitroso , Oryza , Agricultura , Carvão Vegetal , Metano , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Solo
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 229: 113080, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34929504

RESUMO

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a highly consumed staple crop worldwide, but abiotic/heavy metal stresses acting on the plant cause reduction in yield and quality, thereby impacting global food security. In the present study, we examined the effect of ß-pinene against Arsenic (As)-induced oxidative damage vis-à-vis regulation of activities of enzymatic antioxidants in roots of O. sativa. Effect of As (50 µM), ß-pinene (10 µM; ß-10) and As + ß-10 treatments on root length, shoot length, As accumulation, lipid peroxidation (as malondialdehyde [MDA] content), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation, and activities of lipoxygenase (LOX) and enzymatic antioxidants such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) was determined. Exposure of As caused a decline in root and shoot length, and enhancement in As accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and activities of enzymatic antioxidants. However, supplementation of ß-10 (i.e., As + ß-10 treatments) led to an increase in root and shoot length. Treatment with As + ß-10 resulted in a decline in As accumulation, H2O2 content, and MDA content; however, the effect on LOX activity was non-significant, as compared to control. Similarly, with As + ß-10 treatment a reduction in the activities of APX, GPX, GR, SOD, and CAT was observed as compared with As-alone treatment. Pearson's correlation matrix exhibited strong negative correlation between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and root/shoot length, whereas a strong positive correlation was observed between antioxidant enzymes and ROS. The present study demonstrated that ß-pinene significantly ameliorates As-induced oxidative stress and provides tolerance to O. sativa against As-induced toxicity, and thus offer an option of As-mitigation using environment friendly natural plant products. However, to gain insights into the function of ß-pinene in modulating As-induced oxidative damage in plants, further field investigations and exploration of its mechanism of action are needed.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Oryza , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Arsênio/toxicidade , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Catalase/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Oryza/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
18.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 156-166, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cereal-legume intercropping systems are an environmentally friendly practice in sustainable agriculture. However, research on the interspecific interaction of nitrogen (N) between rice and aquatic legumes has rarely been undertaken. To address this issue, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate N utilization and the N interaction between rice and water mimosa (Neptunia oleracea Lour.) in an intercropping system. The root barrier patterns consisted of solid barrier (SB), mesh barrier (MB), and no barrier (NB) treatments. The N fertilizer application rates were low, medium, and high N rates. RESULTS: The results showed that the NB treatment better facilitated rice growth compared with the MB and SB treatments. And the nitrate N content and urease activity of rice rhizospheric soil in the NB treatment were the highest of the three separated patterns. The ammonium N content in water mimosa rhizospheric soil and N2 fixation of water mimosa ranked as NB > MB > SB. CONCLUSIONS: The amount of N fixation by water mimosa was 4.38-13.64 mg/pot, and the N transfer from water mimosa to rice was 3.97-9.54 mg/pot. This can promote the growth of rice and reduce the application of N fertilizer. We suggest that the rice-water mimosa intercropping system is a sustainable ecological farming approach and can be applied in the field to facilitate rice production. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitratos/metabolismo , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Oryza/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Solo/química
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 330-340, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The natural abundance of stable isotope 15 N (δ15 N) in production systems has emerged as an alternative to distinguish organic products from conventional ones. This study evaluated the use of δ15 N values recorded for nitrogen fertilizers, soil and plant tissue in order to set the differences between organic and conventional agricultural production systems applied to rice, potatoes, apple and banana crops. RESULTS: Values of δ15 N recorded for N sources ranged from +5.58‰ to +18.27‰ and from -3.55‰ to +3.19‰ in organic and synthetic fertilizers, respectively. Values recorded for δ15 N in food from organic rice, potatoes and banana farms were higher than values recorded for δ15 N in conventional farms; the same was observed for values recorded for δ15 N in leaves from the four crops. CONCLUSION: Results have allowed for differentiation between production systems due to values of δ15 N recorded in leaves of all crops and food, for rice, potatoes and banana trees. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Alimentos Orgânicos/análise , Alimentos Orgânicos/normas , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Certificação , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Malus/química , Musa/química , Oryza/química , Solanum tuberosum/química
20.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 370-382, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rice yield and grain quality are highly sensitive to soil salinity. Distinct rice genotypes respond to salinity stress differently. To explore the variation in grain yield and grain trait adaptation to moderate, reproductive-stage salinity stress (4 dS/m electrical conductivity), four rice cultivars differing in degrees of vegetative salt tolerance, including Pokkali (salt-tolerant), RD15 (moderately salt-tolerant), KDML105 (moderately salt-susceptible) and IR29 (salt-susceptible), were examined. RESULTS: Grain fertility and 100-grain weight of RD15, KDML105 and IR29, as well as grain morphology of KDML105 and IR29, were significantly disturbed. Interestingly, grain starch accumulation in RD15 and KDML105 was enhanced under stress. However, only RD15 showed changes in starch physicochemical properties, including increased granule diameter, decreased gelatinization peak temperature (Tp ) and decreased retrogradation onset temperature (To ). Notably, Pokkali maintained productivity, grain quality, and starch properties, while the grain quality of IR29 remained unchanged under salinity stress. Multivariate analysis displayed clear separation of productivity, grain morphology, and starch variables of RD15 in the salt-treated group relative to the control group, suggesting that it was the cultivar most impacted by salt stress despite its moderate salt-tolerance at vegetative stage. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate specific salinity responses among the rice genotypes, and suggest discrepancies between degrees of salt tolerance at vegetative stage versus the ability to maintain both grain quality and starch properties in response to salinity stress imposed at reproductive stage. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/química , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Amido/química , Genótipo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Salinidade , Estresse Salino , Tolerância ao Sal , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Amido/metabolismo
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