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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250723, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355902

RESUMO

Abstract This study assessed the anthelminthic feed additive albendazole effect on the main indicators of the quality of sheep meat obtained from infected and deworming animals. A total of 20 heads of Akzhaik meat and wool sheep (i.e. 2 years of age, of different sex) were used in a 20-day experiment and 2 groups of 10 heads were formed (n = 4). The sheep were fed with the basic diet (i.e. control, group CON), without adding anything, and the second group was fed the basic diet orally with the addition of a dose of 1.2 g / head (an experimental group). At the end of the experiment, a control slaughter was carried out from each group in order to study the biochemical composition of meat and its quality. The anthelmintic feed additive albendazole did not have a significant effect on the indicators (organoleptic and physicochemical) of meat quality (P> 0.04). However, the ratio of fat and ash in the meat of the control group has differences in indicators and is reduced by 24.81% and 0.03%, respectively. The drug had a significant effect on the biological value of meat in the experimental group, where there is a higher content of essential amino acids (P = 0.06), nonessential (P = 0.05) concentrations in comparison with the CON groups. The results obtained show that the meat of the experimental groups of sheep, when using the anthelminthic feed additive albendazole, did not have a significant effect on organoleptic parameters, but significantly positively influenced the metabolism, live weight gain and biological value of meat.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito do aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol sobre os principais indicadores de qualidade da carne ovina obtida de animais infectados e desparasitados. Um total de 20 cabeças de carne Akzhaik e ovelhas de lã (ou seja, 2 anos de idade, de sexo diferente) foi usado em um experimento de 20 dias e dois grupos de 10 cabeças foram formados (n = 4). As ovelhas foram alimentadas com dieta básica (ou seja, controle, grupo CON), sem adicionar nada, e o segundo grupo foi alimentado com dieta básica por via oral com a adição de uma dose de 1,2 g / cabeça (um grupo experimental). Ao final do experimento, foi realizado um abate controle de cada grupo para estudar a composição bioquímica da carne e sua qualidade. O aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol não teve efeito significativo sobre os indicadores (organolépticos e físico-químicos) de qualidade da carne (P > 0,04). No entanto, a proporção de gordura e cinzas na carne do grupo de controle tem diferenças nos indicadores e é reduzida em 24,81% e 0,03%, respectivamente. A droga teve efeito significativo sobre o valor biológico da carne no grupo experimental, onde há maior teor de aminoácidos essenciais (P = 0,06), concentrações não essenciais (P = 0,05) em comparação com os grupos CON. Os resultados obtidos mostram que a carne dos grupos experimentais de ovinos, ao utilizar o aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol, não teve efeito significativo nos parâmetros organolépticos, mas influenciou positivamente de forma significativa no metabolismo, ganho de peso vivo e valor biológico da carne.


Assuntos
Animais , Ração Animal/análise , Anti-Helmínticos , Ovinos , Albendazol , Dieta/veterinária , Carne/análise
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256923, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360219

RESUMO

Naturally occurring mutations in morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) are associated with decreased ovulation rate (OR), litter size (LS), and sterility. It is of a great interest to elucidate BMP15 gene in Cholistani sheep breed to uplift socio-economic status and the knowledge of Cholistani sheep breeding in Southern Punjab, Pakistan. In our study, a total of 50 infertile Cholistani sheep aged between 2-6 years and having no blood relation were screened for BMP15 mutations. For this purpose, a high-quality DNA was extracted from the blood of sheep followed by primer designing, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification, DNA sequencing, and in silico analyses. Out of total 50 samples, 9 samples including case 1 (T3), case 2 (T8), case 3 (T17), case 4 (T22), case 5 (T25), case 6 (T33), case 7 (T40), case 8 (T44), and case 9 (T47) were found positive for a variety of already reported and novel BMP15 mutations. Further in silico analyses of the observed mutations have shown the functional impact of these mutations on different characteristics (molecular weight, theoretical PI, estimated half-life, instability index, sub-cellular localization, and 3D confirmation) of the encoded proteins, possibly altering the normal functionality. In a nutshell, findings of this study have confirmed the possible essential role of the BMP15 mutations in the infertility of the Cholistani sheep.


Mutações de ocorrência natural na proteína morfogenética 15 (BMP15) estão associadas à diminuição da taxa de ovulação (TO), tamanho da ninhada (TN) e esterilidade. Estudar a BMP15 na raça Cholistani para elevar o status socioeconômico e o conhecimento da criação de ovinos Cholistani no sul de Punjab, Paquistão. Em nosso estudo, 50 ovelhas Cholistani inférteis sem parentesco sanguíneo foram rastreadas para mutações BMP15. Para tanto, um DNA de alta qualidade foi extraído do sangue dessas ovelhas, seguido de concepção do primer, amplificação da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR), sequenciamento de DNA e análises in silico. Do total de 50 amostras, 9, incluindo caso 1 (T3), caso 2 (T8), caso 3 (T17), caso 4 (T22), caso 5 (T25), caso 6 (T33), caso 7 (T40), caso 8 (T44) e caso 9 (T47), foram consideradas positivas para uma variedade de mutações BMP15 novas e já relatadas. Mais análises in silico das mutações observadas mostraram o impacto funcional dessas mutações em diferentes características (peso molecular, PI teórico, meia-vida estimada, índice de instabilidade, localização subcelular e confirmação 3D) das proteínas codificadas, possivelmente alterando a funcionalidade normal. Nossos achados confirmaram o possível papel essencial das mutações BMP15 na infertilidade de ovelhas Cholistani.


Assuntos
Animais , Ovinos , Infertilidade , Mutação/genética
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251671, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345526

RESUMO

Abstract Trypanosomiasis is a protozoan infection affecting both human and animals in almost all parts of the world. It can affect a very large range of domestic and wild hosts including camelids, equines, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and other carnivores, deer, gazelles and elephants. This review paper was designed to address the effect of this economically important disease in countries on the Red Sea, especially in Egypt, Sudan, Somalia, and Saudi Arabia during the period 2010 to 2020. The prevalence of trypanosomiasis is different between these countries due to different types of diagnostic methods (Giemsa-stained blood smears, Hematocrit centrifugation, Serological test, and molecular analysis PCR) used and differential distribution of vector (Tse tse) flies. In current review, retrospective studies of published literature on distribution and prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries was conducted [Google Scholar and PubMed were used to retrieve the published literature from 2000-2020. A total of 77 published articles met the eligibility criteria and were reviewed. A total of 16 reports have been reported on the prevalence and distribution of Trypnosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries have been from 2010-2020]. According to the published literature, we can say that trypanosomiasis in camels are more prevalent in Sudan than in other countries, followed by 17% and 51.78% in both clinical and non-clinical cases. Hence, the reliable diagnostic tests should be used for rapid treatment or control of the disease as if not treated appropriately in early-stage, can lead to death of the camels.


Resumo A tripanossomíase é uma infecção por protozoário que afeta humanos e animais em quase todas as partes do mundo. Pode afetar grande variedade de hospedeiros domésticos e selvagens, incluindo camelídeos, equinos, gado, búfalos, ovelhas, cabras, porcos, cães e outros carnívoros, veados, gazelas e elefantes. Este artigo de revisão foi elaborado para abordar o efeito dessa doença economicamente importante em países do mar Vermelho, especialmente Egito, Sudão, Somália e Arábia Saudita, durante o período de 2010 a 2020. A prevalência de tripanossomíase é diferente entre esses países devido a tipos distintos de métodos diagnósticos (esfregaços de sangue corados com Giemsa, centrifugação de hematócrito, teste sorológico e PCR de análise molecular) usados ​​e distribuição diferencial de moscas vetoras (tsé-tsé). Na revisão atual, foram realizados estudos retrospectivos da literatura publicada sobre distribuição e prevalência da infecção por Trypanosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho [Google Scholar e PubMed foram usados ​​para recuperar a literatura publicada de 2000 a 2020. Um total de 77 artigos publicados preencheu os critérios de elegibilidade e foi revisado. E há também 16 relatos sobre a prevalência e distribuição da infecção por Trypnosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho, de 2010 a 2020]. De acordo com a literatura publicada, podemos afirmar que a tripanossomíase em camelos é mais prevalente no Sudão do que em outros países, seguida por 17% e 51,78% em casos clínicos e não clínicos. Assim, os testes diagnósticos confiáveis ​​devem ser utilizados para o tratamento rápido ou controle da doença, pois, se eles não forem tratados de forma adequada na fase inicial, isso pode levar à morte dos camelos.


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Tripanossomíase/diagnóstico , Tripanossomíase/veterinária , Tripanossomíase/epidemiologia , Cervos , Bovinos , Ovinos , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Oceano Índico , Cavalos
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248978, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339406

RESUMO

Abstract The present research was planned to assess the occurrence of intestinal parasites in small ruminants of Upper Dir of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. For this purpose, the faecal material was collected randomly with gloved fingers directly from the rectum region of sheep and goats and the faecal materials were then put in hygienic plastic bottles with 10% formalin. The overall 315 (n=184 sheep and n= 131 goats) faecal samples were collected out of 315 samples, 281 were found positive for different parasites. Patterns-wise prevalence of GI parasites of the study area was found. Overall Single parasitism 89.20% (281/315) with 94.0% (173/184) in sheep and 82.43% (108/131) in goats. Double parasitic infection in small ruminant recorded in which Fasciola+ Haemonchus. contortus in sheep were found their prevalence was 25.54% (47/184). While in goats, the double parasitic infection in which Haemonchus contortus+Trichuris spp were found and their prevalence were 23.43% (30/131). The species found in the sample of sheep were includes, i.e., Strongyloides papillosus (41.30%), Heamonchus controtus (21.73%), Trichuris ovis (17.39%), and Fasciola hepatica (13.58%), the corresponding value for goat were Strongyloides spp 33.33% (36/108), Haemonchus spp 28.70%, (27/108), Trichuris spp 25.20% (27/184) and Fasciola spp 10.68% (14/184). The sheep of the study area are more infected as compared to goats. This study suggested that gastrointestinal parasites are major health problems of small ruminants in the study area. Therefore, a comprehensive study on species of gastrointestinal parasites circulating in the area, control options, cost-effective strategies and awareness about gastrointestinal parasites among the farmers in the study area should be instituted.


Resumo A presente pesquisa foi planejada para avaliar a ocorrência de parasitas intestinais em pequenos ruminantes do distrito Upper Dir, da província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, no Paquistão. Para tanto, o material fecal foi coletado aleatoriamente com dedos enluvados diretamente da região do reto de ovelhas e cabras, e os materiais fecais foram colocados em garrafas plásticas higiênicas com formol a 10%. No total, 315 (n = 184 ovelhas e n = 131 cabras) amostras fecais foram coletadas; destas, 281 foram consideradas positivas para diferentes parasitas. A prevalência de padrões de parasitas GI da área de estudo foi encontrada. Parasitismo global único 89,20% (281/315) com 94,0% (173/184) em ovinos e 82,43% (108/131) em cabras. Infecção parasitária dupla em pequenos ruminantes registrada em Fasciola + Haemonchus contortus em ovinos, sua prevalência foi de 25,54% (47/184). Já em caprinos, a dupla infecção parasitária em que Haemonchus contortus + Trichuris spp foram encontrados e sua prevalência foi de 23,43% (30/131). As espécies encontradas na amostra de ovinos foram: Strongyloides papillosus (41,30%), Heamonchus controtus (21,73%), Trichuris ovis (17,39%) e Fasciola hepatica (13,58%), o valor correspondente para cabra foi Strongyloides spp. 33,33% (36/108), Haemonchus spp. 28,70%, (27/108), Trichuris sp 25,20% (27/184) e Fasciola spp. 10,68% (14/184). As ovelhas da área de estudo estão mais infectadas do que as cabras. Este estudo sugeriu que os parasitas gastrointestinais são os principais problemas de saúde dos pequenos ruminantes na área de estudo. Portanto, um estudo abrangente sobre as espécies de parasitas gastrointestinais que circulam na área, opções de controle, estratégias de baixo custo e conscientização sobre parasitas gastrointestinais entre os agricultores na área de estudo deve ser instituído.


Assuntos
Animais , Parasitos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Ruminantes , Cabras , Ovinos , Prevalência , Fezes
5.
Sci. agric ; 80: e20210037, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1361161

RESUMO

Pornunça (Manihot sp.) is a potential forage to feed ruminants in drylands worldwide; however, evaluations of animal diets are necessary. This study assessed intake and digestibility of dry matter and nutrients, physiological responses, ingestive behavior, water intake, as well as hematological and biochemical responses of lambs fed diets containing increasing levels of Pornunça silage (PS) replacing Tifton-85 bermudagrass hay (Cynodon spp.). Treatments consisted of 0, 33, 66, and 100 % PS considering the roughage portion of the diet (% dry matter - DM). The experimental design was completely randomized with six replicates. Cyanide acid (HCN) levels in fresh Pornunça leaves were 207.7 mg kg-¹ DM and 76.78 mg kg-¹ DM in PS. Intake of DM and crude protein (CP), and neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap) increased linearly with increasing levels of PS in the diet. Digestibility of DM, NDF, and CP were higher with increasing levels of PS. Idle time decreased linearly, while water balance, water intake via food, and total water in feces increased with PS. Nitrogen balance, physiological, and hematological responses were not influenced by treatments, while the final alanine aminotransferase increased for lambs fed all diets evaluated. The PS up to 100 % of the roughage portion increased DM and nutrient intake and digestibility without altering physiological responses and the hematological and biochemical parameters, resulting in greater water intake via food.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ovinos/fisiologia , Ovinos/sangue , Manihot , Dieta/veterinária , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
6.
Meat Sci ; 195: 109000, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356483

RESUMO

This study evaluated effects of Rinse&Chill® vs. control, storage condition (fresh, frozen-thawed) and retail packaging (high oxygen modified atmosphere packaging, vacuum skin packaging) on quality of lamb loins. Thirty-two lambs were slaughtered, and carcasses were allocated to Rinse&Chill® or control (n = 16 for each). Loins were aged for seven-days (fresh), and then allocated to fresh or freezing-thawing (frozen-thawed). After storage completion loins were cut into steaks then packaged in high oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (HiOxMAP) or vacuum skin packaging (VSP) and into 8-days simulated retail display. Rinse&Chill® samples had lower heme protein content and lipid oxidation (p < 0.05 for both) compared to control samples. In frozen-thawed lamb samples, VSP resulted in lower lipid oxidation, higher red values (a*), and lower Warner-Bratzler shear force compared to those in HiOxMAP (p < 0.05 for all). This study showed that Rinse&Chill® reduced lipid oxidation in lamb loins, and VSP can be used to improve the quality of frozen-thawed lamb in retail.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Alimentos , Carne , Ovinos , Animais , Congelamento , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Carne/análise , Carneiro Doméstico , Oxigênio/análise , Lipídeos
7.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 125: 742-749, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375956

RESUMO

The concentrations and distributions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the whole blood and meat of eight typical edible animals (chicken, donkey, horse, cattle, rabbit, sheep, duck, and pig) were illustrated. Total concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and PCBs (on a basis of liquid volume) in animal bloods were 142-484 pg/L and 46-62 ng/L, respectively. Total concentrations of PCDD/Fs and PCBs (on a basis of dry weight (dw) and lipid weight (lw)) in animal meat samples were 0.47-1090 pg/g dw (0.47-4513 pg/g lw) and 7.2-23 ng/g dw (10-776 ng/g lw), respectively. TEQs for both PCDD/Fs and PCBs in animal blood and meat samples were (67 ± 27) pg/L and (5.3 ± 14) pg/g dw (24 ± 56 pg/g lw), respectively. Besides, the dietary intakes of PCDD/Fs and PCBs were also estimated. Chicken and pig contributed more TEQs than other animals. Chicken contributed the most (95%) with high toxicity, followed by pig (3.4%) with high consumption. The dietary intake of chicken might pose risks to consumers who prefer to eat chicken products, who should comprehensively consider the essential nutrients and contaminants in food during dietary intake.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos , Dioxinas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Bovinos , Suínos , Ovinos , Coelhos , Cavalos , Animais , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzofuranos , Benzofuranos/análise , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/análise , Carne , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Dioxinas/análise
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115747, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152785

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY RELEVANCE: The plant Senecio nutans SCh. Bip. is used by Andean communities to treat altitude sickness. Recent evidence suggests it may produce vasodilation and negative cardiac inotropy, though the cellular mechanisms have not been elucidated. PURPOSE: To determinate the mechanisms action of S. nutans on cardiovascular function in normotensive animals. METHODS: The effect of the extract on rat blood pressure was measured with a transducer in the carotid artery and intraventricular pressure by a Langendorff system. The effects on sheep ventricular intracellular calcium handling and contractility were evaluated using photometry. Ultra-high-performance liquid-chromatography with diode array detection coupled with heated electrospray-ionization quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometric detection (UHPLC-DAD-ESI-Q-OT-MSn) was used for extract chemical characterization. RESULTS: In normotensive rats, S. nutans (10 mg/kg) reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP) by 40% (p < 0.05), causing a dose-dependent coronary artery dilation and decreased left ventricular pressure. In isolated cells, S. nutans extract (1 µg/ml) rapidly reduced the [Ca2+]i transient amplitude and sarcomere shorting by 40 and 49% (p < 0.001), respectively. The amplitude of the caffeine evoked [Ca2+]i transient was reduced by 24% (p < 0.001), indicating reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ content. Sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX) activity increased by 17% (p < 0.05), while sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) activity was decreased by 21% (p < 0.05). LC-MS results showed the presence of vitamin C, malic acid, and several antioxidant phenolic acids reported for the first time. Dihydroeuparin and 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methylbut-2-enyl) acetophenone were abundant in the extract. CONCLUSION: In normotensive animals, S. nutans partially reduces MAP by decreasing heart rate and cardiac contractility. This negative inotropy is accounted for by decreased SERCA activity and increased NCX activity which reduces SR Ca2+ content. These results highlight the plant's potential as a source of novel cardio-active phytopharmaceuticals or nutraceuticals.


Assuntos
Senécio , Acetofenonas/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Cafeína/farmacologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Contração Miocárdica , Miócitos Cardíacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio do Retículo Sarcoplasmático/metabolismo , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio do Retículo Sarcoplasmático/farmacologia , Senécio/química , Ovinos , Trocador de Sódio e Cálcio/farmacologia
9.
Food Chem ; 403: 134356, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36170788

RESUMO

Forty legs from twenty lamb of different sexes and sires (colour stable and labile) were aged using in-bag dry- (BD) and wet-ageing (W) for 21 days. BD resulted in significantly lower moisture content, cook loss, colour (L*, a*, b* and chroma) and % polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs), higher levels of microbial growth and saturated FAs compared to W. Similar NADH content was observed regardless of sex, sire and ageing. Samples from ram and labile sire had significantly higher pH and saturated FAs and reduced monounsaturated FAs composition compared to those from ewe and stable sire. Lamb from labile sire had significantly higher fat melting point than the stable. Thus, the superior stability of stabile sire was observed only in ram and was not impaired by BD. The sex × sire interaction on oxidative stability demonstrated potential to tailor the quality of dry-aged lamb through altering sex and sire of animals.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Carne Vermelha , Feminino , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Masculino , Cor , Carne Vermelha/análise , Envelhecimento , Excipientes
10.
Meat Sci ; 195: 108999, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36240584

RESUMO

This work aimed to investigate the changes and correlations of precursors, intermediates and heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in lamb during charcoal grilling. 28 chemical compounds were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in grilled lamb from raw to charred. Results demonstrated the types and contents of HCAs were increased during grilling, of which 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP) was dominant and accounted for 61% at the end of grilling (42 min). Glucose and creatine (P < 0.05) decreased with grilling time, creatinine (P < 0.05) and total free amino acid increased. The types and contents of four intermediates (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, phenylacetaldehyde, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine) increased during grilling. Glucose, creatine, creatinine, ten free amino acids and four intermediates showed significant correlation to HCAs. Also, the ratios of four precursors were significantly correlated with HCAs (P < 0.05), besides creatine/glucose ratio. These results suggested that the time of charcoal grilling should not exceed 14 min at 145 °C in order to reduce the formation of harmful compounds in lamb meat.


Assuntos
Compostos Heterocíclicos , Carne Vermelha , Ovinos , Animais , Culinária/métodos , Creatinina , Creatina/análise , Carvão Vegetal/análise , Aminas/análise , Carne Vermelha/análise , Aminoácidos , Glucose , Compostos Heterocíclicos/análise , Carne/análise
11.
Meat Sci ; 195: 108997, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36244076

RESUMO

Meat adulteration affects customers and the market. Existing meat authentication methods usually rely on special devices, and thus are limited to professional use only. Fake lamb or beef slices made from duck and fat appear in some Chinese hotpot restaurants. This study present a customer-conducted method for detecting such adulteration. The method takes a single image as input, and authenticates it by using the textural features of meat slices. The authentication is rapid and non-destructive. The only device required is a mobile phone with a camera. A lightweight (thus high-efficient) convolutional neural network architecture called MTx-Net was built for this task. Fourteen convolutional layers in four blocks were used for extracting valid visual features. Techniques like residuals, depth-wise convolution, dropout and batch normalization were employed in the neural network. For training and testing the neural network, 77956 meat images were collected using 225Kg of meats. This method achieves 99.38% and 98.20% accuracy on lamb and beef slice authentication, respectively.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Carne Vermelha , Ovinos , Bovinos , Animais , Carne Vermelha/análise , Carne/análise , Patos
12.
Meat Sci ; 195: 109005, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36272312

RESUMO

The application of individual spectroscopic techniques for meat analysis has been widely explored. Attempts to fuse data from multiple spectroscopic instruments for meat analysis are still lacking. Comparative assessment of the performance of mid infrared (MIR), near infrared (NIR) and Raman spectroscopy to estimate fatty acid (FA) composition in processed lamb was investigated. The acquired data from these individual techniques were then utilised in estimating similar parameters using a multi-block partial least square data fusion approach. Model performance was assessed with respect to the determination coefficient and ratio of predictive deviation upon cross-validation of the model. The fused data had slight improvements for the prediction of four FA parameters including MUFA, C18:0, C18:1 c9 and C9, t11- CLA), suggesting possible information enhancement with use of multiple instruments. However, MIR offered better predictability (RPD values) across the FA parameters considered.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Carne Vermelha , Ovinos , Animais , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Carne/análise , Carne Vermelha/análise , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise Espectral Raman
13.
Meat Sci ; 195: 109009, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283161

RESUMO

The study evaluated the effects of feeding incremental levels of sericea lespedeza (SL; 0, 62.5, 125, 187.5 and 250 g/kg diet) substituted for lucerne on meat production, quality, and oxidative shelf-life of feedlot lambs infected or non-infected with Haemonchus contortus. There were no diet × infection status, and diet × retail display period effects for all the tested parameters (P > 0.05). Relative to the other diets, the 250 g/kg SL diet decreased (P ≤ 0.05) lamb growth performance and carcass yield. The SL diets experienced less (P ≤ 0.05) meat lipid oxidation than the control diet. Worm infection reduced (P ≤ 0.05) carcass yield and income-over-feed-costs without affecting meat quality (P > 0.05). Feeding SL had no effects on meat physicochemical, fatty acid, colour, and protein shelf-life profiles (P > 0.05). Overall, substituting lucerne with SL up to 187.5 g/kg in lamb feedlot diets has no effects on meat production and quality but enhances lipid stability regardless of infection.


Assuntos
Haemonchus , Lespedeza , Ovinos , Animais , Medicago sativa , Ração Animal/análise , Carneiro Doméstico , Carne , Ácidos Graxos , Estresse Oxidativo
14.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 82: 106751, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35901610

RESUMO

This study investigated the effectiveness of different doses of estradiol benzoate (EB) to promote cervical relaxation and their effects on luteal function and outcomes of non-surgical embryo recovery (NSER) in sheep. Multiparous (MULT) and nulliparous (NULL) crossbred Lacaune X Santa Inês ewes were superovulated and naturally bred. Seven days after progesterone withdrawal, females were randomly assigned to one of three distinct cervical relaxation protocols, consisting of i.m. treatment with 37.5 µg d-cloprostenol and different doses of EB: 0.0 mg (0.0EB group; n = 3 NULL and 14 MULT); 0.5 mg (0.5EB group; n = 4 NULL and 12 MULT) or 1.0 mg (1.0EB group, n = 6 NULL and 11 MULT) 16 h before NSER. All ewes received 50 IU of oxytocin 20 min before NSER (D17). Blood samples were collected and ultrasound exams (B-mode and color Doppler) were performed at two timepoints: immediately before d-cloprostenol and EB treatments and prior to NSER. Estrous behavior, corpora lutea count and NSER success outcomes were not affected by EB treatments nor parity (P > 0.05). Embryo recovery rate was greater for ewes in the 0.5EB group and in the NULL ewes (P < 0.05). Ovarian biometrics differed between the two evaluation timepoints in all groups (P < 0.05). Plasma estradiol increased over time, reaching a significant greater level in 1.0EB ewes compared to controls on D17 (P < 0.05), whereas progesterone concentrations decreased over time in all groups (P > 0.05). In conclusion, treatments did not affect NSER success but they did affect luteal function by altering P4 and E2 concentrations. Therefore, the NSER technique can be successfully performed in ewes with or without prior treatment with EB.


Assuntos
Corpo Lúteo , Progesterona , Gravidez , Ovinos , Feminino , Animais , Estradiol/farmacologia , Cloprostenol/farmacologia , Ensaios Clínicos Veterinários como Assunto
15.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 82: 106753, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36027631

RESUMO

High circulating progesterone concentrations decrease the responses to stressful situations in farm ruminants. We hypothesized that administering a single dose of long-acting progesterone formulation reduces the stress response of anestrous ewes to weaning. The aim of this study was to compare the behavioral, cortisol, and blood protein responses to weaning of anestrous ewes treated or not, with a single dose of a long-acting progesterone formulation. A complementary aim was to characterize the bioavailability of progesterone after this treatment. Thirty-six multiparous single-lambing Corriedale ewes and their lambs were used in this study. The lambs were weaned at 6:30 h when they were 65 d old (d0), and were taken to another paddock without chemical, visual or auditory contact with their mothers, while the ewes remained in the same paddock. Immediately before weaning, while 19 ewes received oil based long-acting progesterone formulation, other 17 ewes remained as controls, receiving sunflower oil. Twelve ewes from each group were used for behavioral recordings, the other 5 untreated ewes and 7 treated ewes were used to characterize the cortisol response and the progesterone profile. Behaviors were recorded every 10th min for 3 h in the morning and 3 h in the afternoon on day minus 3, d0 and d2, and expressed as percentage of recordings each animal displayed each behavior on each day. Treated ewes were recorded more times standing up than ewes on the day of weaning (P < 0.05), but the reverse result was found 2 d after (P < 0.01). Treated ewes were recorded more times lying down than control ewes on d2 after weaning (P < 0.0001), when treated ewes were observed fewer times walking than control ewes (P = 0.0004), as also happened the day of weaning (P < 0.0001). On the day of weaning, treated ewes grazed and paced less than control ewes (P = 0.001 and P = 0.009). Treated ewes ruminated more than control ewes on the day of weaning (P = 0.02) and 2 d later (P = 0.0002). Control ewes also secreted more cortisol than progesterone-treated ewes (P = 0.03), with no effect of the treatment on the concentration of total proteins, albumin or globulins. While control ewes never had luteal progesterone concentrations (>0.5 ng/mL), treated ewes achieved luteal progesterone concentrations 2 h after its administration, and remained well above luteal levels until 15 h after administration. The administration of a single dose of long-acting progesterone formulation appears to be a viable choice in reducing the stress to weaning in ewes. Ewes treated with progesterone coped better with weaning, returning to their normal basal behavior earlier than untreated ones, and secreting lower cortisol levels.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Progesterona , Ovinos , Animais , Feminino , Desmame , Corpo Lúteo , Transporte Biológico
16.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 82: 106765, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36219897

RESUMO

The present study investigated the effect of a single administration of long-acting follicle simulation hormone (FSH) on testicular blood perfusion as measured by pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography, testicular echotexture, and circulating testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), and nitric oxide (NO) in the plasma of rams in the non-breeding season. Twelve Ossimi rams were subjected to either a single administration of long-acting FSH subcutaneously (FSH group; n = 6) or the vehicle (control group; n = 6). Assessment of testicular hemodynamics at the level of the supratesticular artery was performed just before administration (0 h), and at 4, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 168 h after FSH or the vehicle administrations. Testicular volume (TV), and echotexture of testicular parenchyma including pixel intensity and heterogeneity were derived by the computer analysis software. Concentrations of T, E2, and NO were measured using commercial kits. Results revealed significant decreases (P ˂ 0.05) in the values of Doppler indices (resistive index: RI and pulsatility index: PI), especially at 48 h after administration of FSH (RI: 0.42 ± 0.02, PI: 0.56 ± 0.04) compared to their values in the control group (RI: 0.54 ± 0.03, PI: 0.77 ± 0.04). FSH administration induced significant decreases (P ˂ 0.05) in the pixel intensity of testicular parenchyma. Testicular volume and T concentrations were not significantly changed (P ˃ 0.05). Concentrations of E2 increased significantly (P ˂ 0.05) at 48 h and 72 h after FSH administration. (30.07 ± 5.23 pg/ml, 29.93 ± 1.44 pg/ml, respectively) compared to their values before FSH administration (14.63 ± 1.37 pg/ml). Concentrations of NO increased significantly (P ˂ 0.05) in the FSH group between 4 h to 48 h compared to the values in the control one. In conclusion, a single administration of long-acting FSH enhanced testicular blood perfusion as measured by pulsed Doppler ultrasonography in rams during the non-breeding season. Concurrently, significant increases in the concentrations of E2 and NO were found.


Assuntos
Estradiol , Testosterona , Ovinos , Masculino , Animais , Testosterona/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico , Estações do Ano , Testículo/diagnóstico por imagem , Estrona , Hemodinâmica , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/farmacologia
17.
Acta Trop ; 237: 106697, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162457

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the occurrence of hemoplasmas and tick-borne pathogens (TBP) (Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, and Ehrlichia sp.) in horses and ticks' salivary glands, and determine the factors associated with exposure/infection in a rural settlement in southern Brazil. Blood samples from 22 horses were screened for anti-T. equi and anti-Ehrlichia sp. antibodies by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) assays. Samples were also tested by PCR assays for T. equi and B. caballi (18S rRNA and rap-1 genes, respectively), hemoplasmas (16S rRNA gene), and Ehrlichia sp. (dsb gene). Ticks were removed from the animals (inspection) and the environment (flannel trawling and dry ice traps), and morphologically identified. Additionally, salivary glands DNA was extracted from 28 adult ticks infesting the animals and four nymphs from the environment, and further screened for Ehrlichia sp. and hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. Anti-T. equi and anti-Ehrlichia sp. antibodies were detected in 40.91% (nine/22; 95% CI: 23.26-61.27) and 31.81% (seven/22; 95% CI: 16.36-52.68) horses, respectively. Theileria equi, B. caballi, and hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. DNA was detected in 59.09% (13/22), 4.55% (one/22), and 50% (11/22) horses, respectively. All horses tested negative in the PCR for Ehrlichia sp. All sequences showed ≥99% identity with multiple T. equi, B. caballi, and Mycoplasma ovis sequences deposited in GenBank database. Adult ticks were identified as Dermacentor nitens (44/47; 93.62%) and Rhipicephalus microplus (three/47; 6.38%). Ticks' salivary glands were negative for Ehrlichia sp., while 39.29% from adults (11/28) and 50% from nymphs (two/four) from the environment were positive for hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. This is the first report of M. ovis infection in horses from Brazil and the first detection of hemoplasma DNA in salivary glands of D. nitens and R. microplus ticks. Further studies are needed to elucidate the vector competence of ticks to transmit hemoplasmas.


Assuntos
Babesiose , Doenças dos Cavalos , Mycoplasma , Theileria , Theileriose , Carrapatos , Animais , Ovinos , Cavalos , Bovinos , Babesiose/epidemiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Theileria/genética , Mycoplasma/genética , Ehrlichia/genética , Theileriose/epidemiologia
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 2): 159213, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206908

RESUMO

A pot experiment was conducted to assess the Sb phytoavailability and its accumulation in the wheat before and after remediation, using the composted manure of poultry and sheep, and a chemical amendment (limestone). The present study evaluates the effects of amendments on Sb bioavailability in different soils and investigates the relationship between bioaccumulated Sb and its availability in spiked soils using two different single extraction methods. Furthermore, a sequential extraction procedure was used to measure different fractions of Sb in soil, in order to assess the effect of remediation. The results revealed that bioavailability of Sb were highly affected by the three soil amendments on plant height, uptake of Sb by wheat. Poultry compost (Pc) and Sheep compost (Sc) increased the residual fraction of Sb in soils, and decreased the Sb uptake by wheat, enhanced the height, biomass and dry yield of the wheat crop. While the residual fraction of Sb in soils didn't obviously increased by adding Chemical (limestone) in the four soils. It is concluded that uptake of Sb in the soils significantly decreased with the addition of amended materials in the Sb spiked soils, and poultry compost is the most effective. In the lower level of Sb contaminated soils remediated by poultry compost (Pc), the uptake of Sb in wheat decreased 63.1-74.4 %, 68.7-79.0 %, 68.9-76.9 % and 66.3-82.6 % in S1, S2, S3, S4, compared to the contaminated soils without amendments, respectively.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Poluentes do Solo , Ovinos , Animais , Esterco , Antimônio/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo , Triticum , Carbonato de Cálcio
19.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116480, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36306626

RESUMO

Biological invasions produce negative impacts worldwide, causing massive economic costs and ecological impacts. Knowing the relationship between invasive species abundance and the magnitude of their impacts (abundance-impact curves) is critical to designing prevention and management strategies that effectively tackle these impacts. However, different measures of abundance may produce different abundance-impact curves. Woody plants are among the most transformative invaders, especially in grassland ecosystems because of the introduction of hitherto absent life forms. In this study, our first goal was to assess the impact of a woody invader, Pinus contorta (hereafter pine), on native grassland productivity and livestock grazing in Patagonia (Argentina), building abundance-impact curves. Our second goal, was to compare different measure of pine abundance (density, basal area and canopy cover) as predictors of pine's impact on grassland productivity. Our third goal, was to compare abundance-impact curves among the mentioned measures of pine abundance and among different measures of impact: total grassland productivity, palatable productivity and sheep stocking rate (the number of sheep that the grassland can sustainably support). Pine canopy cover, closely followed by basal area, was the measure of abundance that best explained the impact on grassland productivity, but the shape of abundance impact curves differed between measures of abundance. While increases in pine density and basal area always reduced grassland productivity, pine canopy cover below 30% slightly increased grassland productivity and higher values caused an exponential decline. This increase in grassland productivity with low levels of pine canopy cover could be explained by the amelioration of stressful abiotic conditions for grassland species. Different measures of impact, namely total productivity, palatable productivity and sheep stocking rate, drew very similar results. Our abundance-impact curves are key to guide the management of invasive pines because a proper assessment of how many invasive individuals (per surface unit) are unacceptable, according to environmental or economic impact thresholds, is fundamental to define when to start management actions.


Assuntos
Pinus , Árvores , Ovinos , Animais , Pradaria , Ecossistema , Espécies Introduzidas , Gado
20.
Acta Trop ; 237: 106702, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36374638

RESUMO

Campylobacter spp. have been shown to be the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Cases of human campylobacteriosis are usually reported as sporadic and not part of an outbreak which makes the identification of the source of infection difficult. A study of the relationships within isolate populations in Nigeria and source attribution analysis of Nigerian human Campylobacter spp. to other animal isolates was carried out to determine the possible sources for human Campylobacter infection in Nigeria. The results showed nine sequence types (STs) common to both humans and livestock isolated from abattoirs, farms and live bird markets with similar STs clustering together on a phylogenetic tree, confirming a degree of genetic similarity. Source attribution analysis suggests wild birds as the most important reservoir (38%) for human Campylobacter spp. infection in Nigeria followed by chicken (23%), pig (19%), cattle (11%) and sheep (8%). This might be an indication of the importance of this infection source to humans in Nigeria and probably other low-income countries due to farming practices and human habits.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter jejuni , Gastroenterite , Humanos , Bovinos , Animais , Ovinos , Suínos , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Filogenia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Galinhas/microbiologia
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