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1.
Food Chem ; 369: 130801, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450514

RESUMO

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by food products are decisive for the perception of aroma and taste. The analysis of gaseous matrices is traditionally done by detection and quantification of few dozens of characteristic markers. Emerging direct injection mass spectrometry technologies offer rapid analysis based on a soft ionisation of VOCs without previous separation. The recent increase of selectivity offered by the use of several precursor ions coupled with untargeted analysis increases the potential power of these instruments. However, the analysis of complex gaseous matrix results in a large number of ion conflicts, making the quantification of markers difficult, and in a large volume of data. In this work, we present the exploitation of untargeted SIFT-MS volatile fingerprints of ewe PDO cheeses in a real farm model, using mixOmics methods allowing us to illustrate the typicality, the manufacturing processes reproducibility and the impact of the animals' diet on the final product.


Assuntos
Queijo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Animais , Queijo/análise , Feminino , Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ovinos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
2.
Gene ; 807: 145954, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500050

RESUMO

Reducing tail fat deposition can increase the economic value of a carcass and improve feed efficiency. This study aimed to explore ELOVL5 and FASN polymorphisms associated with tail fat deposition and their expression levels of sheep. Association analysis showed that ELOVL5 synonymous mutation g.62534 C > T was associated with tail width, tail fat weight, and relative tail fat weight (P < 0.05). FASN synonymous mutation g.12694 A > G was associated with tail length and width (P < 0.05). Combined effect analyses indicated significant differences between the combined genotypes and tail fat deposition. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR indicated that the ELOVL5 and FASN expression levels were significantly higher in tail fat than in other tissues (P < 0.05). ELOVL5 expression levels in tail-fat tissue of big-tail sheep was significantly higher than that in small-tail sheep (P < 0.01). FASN expression levels were significantly higher in tail-fat tissue of small-tail sheep than in that of big-tail sheep (P < 0.05). During development, ELOVL5 tail fat expression increased significantly from 0 to 6 months old (P < 0.05), and FASN expression at 3 months old was significantly higher than that at 0 (minimum) and 6 months old (P < 0.05). Therefore, ELOVL5 and FASN polymorphisms could represent new candidate molecular markers and targets to reduce tail fat deposition in sheep.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/genética , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos/genética , Ácido Graxo Sintase Tipo I/genética , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Animais , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácido Graxo Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Genótipo , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Ovinos/genética , Cauda/metabolismo
3.
Food Chem ; 368: 130865, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428692

RESUMO

There are few studies on controlling the formation of heterocyclic amines (HAs) by adding polyphenols to roasted lamb. The aim of this study was to assess the inhibitory effect of 0.025, 0.125, and 0.625 mmol of chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, rutin, quercetin and quinic acid on the formation of HAs in charcoal roasted lamb, respectively, by UHPLC-MS/MS. The results indicated that Harman, Norharman, PhIP, IQx and 8-MeIQx were detected, but both chlorogenic acid and epicatechin greatly inhibited the formation of IQx, 8-MeIQx, Norharman, Harman and PhIP, and epicatechin had better inhibitory effect than chlorogenic acid. PLSR-VID analysis suggested the key precursors of HAs formation in roasted lamb were glucose, ribose, fructose, isoleucine, valine, and lysine. In addition, this work also implied that the potential mechanism of inhibition of HAs formation by chlorogenic acid and epicatechin in roasted lamb might attribute to competitive chemical reactions between polyphenols and key precursors of HAs.


Assuntos
Catequina , Compostos Heterocíclicos , Carne Vermelha , Aminas/análise , Animais , Carvão Vegetal , Ácido Clorogênico , Culinária , Compostos Heterocíclicos/análise , Carne/análise , Carne Vermelha/análise , Ovinos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
Food Chem ; 370: 131057, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536781

RESUMO

Advances in Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization -Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) have led to its supremacy for complex assessment of food authenticity studies, like dairy products fraud, holding promise for the discovery of potential authenticity (bio)markers. In this study, an integrated untargeted protein-based workflow in combination with advanced chemometrics is presented, to address authenticity challenges in PDO feta cheese which is legally manufactured by the mixture of sheep/goat milk. Potential markers attributed to specific animal origin were found from protein profiles acquired for authentic feta and white cheeses (prepared from cow milk), belonging to 4 kDa-18.5 kDa mass area. Rapid detection of feta cheese adulteration from cow milk was also achieved down to 1% adulteration level. The discriminative models showed high predictive ability for feta cheese authenticity (Q2 = 0.920, RMSEE = 0.053) and its adulteration (Q2 = 0.835, RMSEE = 0.121), introducing a reliable approach in routine analysis. The methodology was successfully applied in detection of cow milk in sheep yoghurt.


Assuntos
Queijo , Animais , Bovinos , Queijo/análise , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Leite , Ovinos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Fluxo de Trabalho
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1354: 25-48, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807435

RESUMO

Precise cell-specific spatio-temporal molecular signaling cascades regulate the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Importantly, the mechanisms regulating uterine receptivity, conceptus apposition and adhesion to the uterine luminal epithelia/superficial glandular epithelia and, in some species, invasion into the endometrial stroma and decidualization of stromal cells, are critical prerequisite events for placentation which is essential for the appropriate regulation of feto-placental growth for the remainder of pregnancy. Dysregulation of these signaling cascades during this critical stage of pregnancy can lead to pregnancy loss, impaired growth and development of the conceptus, and alterations in the transplacental exchange of gasses and nutrients. While many of these processes are conserved across species, significant variations in the molecular mechanisms governing maternal recognition of pregnancy, conceptus implantation, and placentation exist. This review addresses the complexity of key mechanisms that are critical for the establishment and maintenance of a successful pregnancy in humans, rodents, sheep, and pigs. Improving understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing these processes is critical to enhancing the fertility and reproductive health of humans and livestock species.


Assuntos
Placentação , Roedores , Animais , Implantação do Embrião , Endométrio , Feminino , Humanos , Placenta , Gravidez , Ovinos , Suínos , Útero
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1354: 49-62, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807436

RESUMO

The period of conceptus (embryo and extraembryonic membrane) development between fertilization and implantation in mammalian species is critical as it sets the stage for placental and fetal development. The trophectoderm and endoderm of pre-implantation ovine and porcine conceptuses undergo elongation, which requires rapid proliferation, migration, and morphological modification of the trophectoderm cells. These complex events occur in a hypoxic intrauterine environment and are supported through the transport of secretions from maternal endometrial glands to the conceptus required for the biochemical processes of cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. The conceptus utilizes glucose provided by the mother to initiate metabolic pathways that provide energy and substrates for other metabolic pathways. Fructose, however, is in much greater abundance than glucose in amniotic and allantoic fluids, and fetal blood during pregnancy. Despite this, the role(s) of fructose is largely unknown even though a switch to fructosedriven metabolism in subterranean rodents and some cancers are key to their adaptation to hypoxic environments.


Assuntos
Embrião de Mamíferos , Placenta , Animais , Implantação do Embrião , Endométrio , Feminino , Frutose , Gravidez , Ovinos , Suínos , Útero
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1354: 177-206, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807443

RESUMO

L-Arginine (Arg) plays a central role in the nitrogen metabolism (e.g., syntheses of protein, nitric oxide, polyamines, and creatine), blood flow, nutrient utilization, and health of ruminants. This amino acid is produced by ruminal bacteria and is also synthesized from L-glutamine, L-glutamate, and L-proline via the formation of L-citrulline (Cit) in the enterocytes of young and adult ruminants. In pre-weaning ruminants, most of the Cit formed de novo by the enterocytes is used locally for Arg production. In post-weaning ruminants, the small intestine-derived Cit is converted into Arg primarily in the kidneys and, to a lesser extent, in endothelial cells, macrophages, and other cell types. Under normal feeding conditions, Arg synthesis contributes 65% and 68% of total Arg requirements for nonpregnant and late pregnany ewes fed a diet with ~12% crude protein, respectively, whereas creatine production requires 40% and 36% of Arg utilized by nonpregnant and late pregnant ewes, respectively. Arg has not traditionally been considered a limiting nutrient in diets for post-weaning, gestating, or lactating ruminants because it has been assumed that these animals can synthesize sufficient Arg to meet their nutritional and physiological needs. This lack of a full understanding of Arg nutrition and metabolism has contributed to suboptimal efficiencies for milk production, reproductive performance, and growth in ruminants. There is now considerable evidence that dietary supplementation with rumen-protected Arg (e.g., 0.25-0.5% of dietary dry matter) can improve all these production indices without adverse effects on metabolism or health. Because extracellular Cit is not degraded by microbes in the rumen due to the lack of uptake, Cit can be used without any encapsulation as an effective dietary source for the synthesis of Arg in ruminants, including dairy and beef cows, as well as sheep and goats. Thus, an adequate amount of supplemental rumen-protected Arg or unencapsulated Cit is necessary to support maximum survival, growth, lactation, reproductive performance, and feed efficiency, as well as optimum health and well-being in all ruminants.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais , Lactação , Animais , Arginina , Bovinos , Citrulina , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Leite , Gravidez , Ruminantes , Ovinos
8.
Food Chem ; 371: 131075, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543926

RESUMO

The adulteration of meat products has been reported worldwide, and detection of specific peptides through mass spectrometry (MS) is a reliable method for meat species identification. However, the practical application of this method is limited by complicated steps and long reaction time of the traditional sample preparation. Therefore, this paper introduced a convenient and time-saving sample preparation by optimizing the steps of reduction, alkylation, digestion, and purification. With the rapid sample preparation, 35 species-specific peptides for seven species (pig, cattle, sheep, deer, chicken, duck, and turkey) were screened using high-resolution MS, and a rapid LC-MS/MS method was established. The method only takes 3 h from sample receipt to results. The meat species of 20 processed meat products were detected, and three samples were found potentially adulterated. The method is proved to have high sensitivity, specificity, practicability with respect to rapid identification of meat species in meat products.


Assuntos
Cervos , Produtos da Carne , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida , Carne/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Ovinos , Suínos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
9.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118457, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742818

RESUMO

A high demand exists in bisphenols (BPs) screening studies for quick, reliable and straightforward analytical methods that generate data faster and simultaneously. Herein, we describe a combination of enzymatic probe sonication (EPS) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for quick extraction and simultaneous quantification of eight important BPs in animal-derived foods. Results obtained demonstrated that the ultrasonic probe power could not only enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency, but also accelerate the liquid-liquid extraction procedure. Under optimized EPS parameters, one sample could be exhaustively extracted within 120 s, as compared with 12 h needed for the conventional enzymatic extraction which is more suitable for high-throughput analysis. The method was successfully applied to analyze residual BPs in animal-derived foods collected from Beijing, China. Widespread occurrence of BPA, BPS, BPF, BPAF, BPP, and BPB were found, with detection frequencies of 65.2%, 42.4%, 33.7%, 29.4%, 28.3%, and 27.2%, respectively. The highest total concentration levels of BPs (sum of the eight BPs analyzed, ΣBPs) were found in chicken liver (mean 12.2 µg/kg), followed by swine liver (6.37 µg/kg), bovine muscle (3.24 µg/kg), egg (2.03 µg/kg), sheep muscle (2.03 µg/kg), chicken muscle (1.45 µg/kg), swine muscle (1.42 µg/kg), and milk (1.17 µg/kg). The estimated daily intake (EDI) of BPs, based on the mean and 95th percentile concentrations and daily food consumptions, was estimated to be 5.687 ng/kg bw/d and 22.71 ng/kg bw/d, respectively. The human health risk assessment in this work suggests that currently BPs do not pose significant risks to the consumers because the hazard index (HI) was <1.


Assuntos
Sonicação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ração Animal , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida , Leite/química , Ovinos , Suínos
10.
Theriogenology ; 177: 127-132, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34700069

RESUMO

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters perform multiple functions in reproductive tissues. During ovarian tissue vitrification, the plasma membrane has important functions in the influx or efflux of water, and substances such as cryoprotectants and channel proteins that are required in this process. Thus, the present study aimed to verify the relative abundance of mRNA transcript of ABC transporters ABCB1, ABCG2, and MRP2 after vitrification and in vitro culture (IVC) of ovine ovarian tissue. For this study, the ovarian cortex fragments were proportioned into four groups as fresh control, vitrified control, fresh culture, and vitrified culture groups. After vitrification and in vitro culture, the ovarian tissue was evaluated using morphological procedures. Further, relative abundance of ABCB1, ABCG2, and MRP2 transporter mRNA transcripts in the ovarian cortex subjected to aforementioned treatment conditions were evaluated using qPCR. Our results showed a negative association between degenerated follicles and mRNA transcript abundances of ABCB1 and ABCG2. In addition, the percentage of growing follicles in the ovine ovarian cortex after vitrification was similar to that of the fresh control tissue without in vitro culture. The in vitro culture of fresh and vitrified tissue however, showed a significant decrease in the percentage of growing follicles. To the best of our knowledge, we believe that our data for the first time has studied the relative abundances of ABCB1 and ABCG2 mRNA transcripts in the ovine ovarian cortex. In addition, alterations of these protein channels may be indicative of a deleterious effect of osmotic stress on follicular survival during vitrification. Furthermore, these effects were detectable only after the IVC of the ovarian tissues. Nonetheless, further studies are required to investigate the functions of ABC transporters in ovine folliculogenesis, especially after in vitro culture of ovarian tissue.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Vitrificação , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Animais , Criopreservação/veterinária , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Ovinos
11.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 361: 109461, 2022 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742144

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to isolate and identify Staphylococcus aureus from retail raw red meat samples and evaluate their enterotoxin gene and antibiotic resistance profiles. A total of 452 retail raw meat samples, including beef (n = 200), sheep (n = 125), and lamb (n = 127) randomly purchased from various supermarkets and butchers in Ankara between July 2019 and November 2020, were tested for the prevalence of S. aureus. The S. aureus strain was identified using morphological and molecular (16S rRNA and nuc gene) methods. Moreover, nine Staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes were screened using polymerase chain reaction. Antibiotic resistance of S. aureus was determined using the phenotypic disc diffusion method. The overall prevalence of S. aureus among screened samples was 21.23%. Additionally, 65.62% of S. aureus strains contained SE gene regions. The predominant SEs in the S. aureus strains were sea (50.79%), followed by sed (25.39%) and seb (23.80%). However, sec, see, seg, seh, sei, and sej genes were never detected. A substantial proportion (40-100%) of the isolates were found resistant to kanamycin, telithromycin, penicillin G, streptomycin, erythromycin, cloxacillin, ampicillin, pristinamycin, nalidixic acid, azithromycin, and ciprofloxacin. Multi-drug resistance (MDR) was observed in 96.87% of the S. aureus strains. These results show a low prevalence of S. aureus in raw red meat samples in Turkey. However, a high rate of SEA raises serious health concerns. Due to the high levels of MDR observed in this study, there is a need to strictly control antibiotic use in animals in Turkey.


Assuntos
Carne Vermelha , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Animais , Bovinos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Enterotoxinas/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Ovinos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Turquia
12.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 361: 109444, 2022 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749186

RESUMO

"Torta del Casar" is a Spanish soft-ripened cheese made with sheep's raw milk and subjected to a short ripening process, which favors the growth of pathogenic microorganisms including Listeria monocytogenes. The development of strategies to control pathogens and minimize health risks associated with the presence of L. monocytogenes in these products is of great interest. In this regard, the anti-Listeria activity of a whey protein hydrolysate (ProH) alone or combined with six lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from cheese was evaluated in this study as a biocontrol strategy using a "Torta del Casar" cheese-based medium. The most active combinations of lactic acid bacteria assayed induced a reduction higher than two logarithmic units in the growth of L. monocytogenes (serotype 4b) compared to their respective control when they were co-inoculated in "Torta del Casar" cheese-based medium at 7 °C for 7 days. In addition, the observed downregulation of some key virulence genes of L. monocytogenes suggests that the strain Lactiplantibacillus plantarum B2 alone and combined with the strain Lactiplantibacillus spp. B4 are good candidates to be used as biocontrol agents against L. monocytogenes growth in traditional soft cheeses based on raw milk during their storage at refrigeration temperatures.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Queijo , Lactobacillales , Listeria monocytogenes , Animais , Queijo/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Hidrolisados de Proteína , Ovinos , Virulência , Soro do Leite
13.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(1): 67-72, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635450

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Human norovirus (HuNoV) is a leading cause of infectious gastroenteritis. Since HuNoV shows resistance to alcohol, chlorine-based sanitizers are applied to decontaminate the virus on environmental surfaces. Chlorous acid water (CA) has been recently approved as a novel chlorine-based disinfectant categorized as a Type 2 OTC medicine in Japan. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the capability of CA to inactivate HuNoV. METHODS: HuNoV (genogroups GII.2 and GII.4) was exposed to the test disinfectants including CA and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), and the residual RNA copy was measured by reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) after pretreatment with RNase. In addition, the log10 reduction of HuNoV RNA copy number by CA and NaClO was compared in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA), sheep red blood cells (SRBC), polypeptone, meat extract or amino acids to evaluate the stability of these disinfectants under organic-matter-rich conditions. RESULTS: In the absence of organic substances, CA with 200 ppm free available chlorine provided >3.0 log10 reduction in the HuNoV RNA copy number within 5 min. Even under high organic matter load (0.3% each of BSA and SRBC or 0.5% polypeptone), 200 ppm CA achieved >3.0 log10 reduction in HuNoV RNA copy number while less than 1.0 log10 reduction was observed with 1,000 ppm sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) in the presence of 0.5% polypeptone. CA reacted with only cysteine, histidine and glutathione while NaClO reacted with all of the amino acids tested. CONCLUSIONS: CA is an effective disinfectant to inactivate HuNoV under organic-matter-rich conditions.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Norovirus , Animais , Cloretos , Cloro/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Humanos , Ovinos , Água
14.
Gene ; 807: 145949, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481004

RESUMO

Growth traits is a critical economic trait for animal husbandry. In this study, the SNPs of CTNNA3 and CAP2 genes were investigated to check whether they are associated with growth traits (body weight, body height, body length and chest circumference) in Hu sheep. The result of the association analysis indicated that the mutation in CTNNA3 (g.2018018 A > G) were associated significantly with body weight, body height, body length and chest circumference (P < 0.05), the mutation in CAP2 (g.8588 T > C) were associated significantly with body height at 140, 160, 180 days (P < 0.05), AA and CC of CTNNA3 and CAP2 were the dominant genotypes associated with growth traits in Hu sheep. Moreover, combined effect analyses indicated that the growth traits with combined genotypes AACTNNA3-CCCAP2 and AACTNNA3-CTCAP2 were higher than those with genotype GGCTNNA3-CTCAP2. RT-qPCR indicated that CTNNA3 expression levels were significantly higher in liver and lung than in other nine tissues (P < 0.05), CAP2 expression levels were significantly higher in bone, heart, liver, lung and duodenum than in other six tissues (P < 0.05). In conclusion, CTNNA3 and CAP2 polymorphisms could be used as genetic markers for improving growth traits in Hu sheep husbandry.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Peso Corporal/genética , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , China , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Genótipo , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Ovinos/genética , alfa Catenina/genética , alfa Catenina/metabolismo
15.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 156-163, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590455

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary high doses of chromium-methionine (CrMet) supplementation on blood hemato-biochemical parameters and growth performance of finishing lambs reared under warm condition with average temperature-humidity index (THI) of 85.8 unit. Fifteen male lambs (31.9 ± 1.2 kg) fed with either un-supplemented diet (CON) or supplemented with 1.5 (Cr1.5) and 3 (Cr3) mg of Cr/kg dry matter (DM) for 8 weeks. The results showed that high levels of supplemental Cr had no negative impacts on red (RBC) and white blood cells (WBC). Blood total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) tended to be higher in CrMet-fed lambs than those of CON (P < 0.1). Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), as a lipid peroxidation marker, was, respectively, 20.24 and 22.1%, lower in lambs given 1.5 and 3 mg of chromium comparing those of CON (P < 0.05). Moreover, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX, U/dL) displayed higher activity in Cr3 (421.2) group than those of CON (334.6) and Cr1.5 (351.2) groups (P < 0.05). Accordingly, GSH-PX activity per gram hemoglobin (U/gHb) was 45.9% greater in lambs of Cr3 than the CON (P < 0.05). Furthermore, feeding 3 mg of Cr led to increased erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (P < 0.05): as such, SOD was 1193.1, 1281.5, and 1433.0 U/gHb in CON, Cr1.5, and Cr3, respectively. Chromium supplementation linearly decreased serum iron concentration (P < 0.05), but neither blood calcium, phosphorous, copper, zinc, and glucose concentrations nor aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities were affected by supplemental CrMet. In comparison with CON (1250), lambs in Cr1.5 (1199) and Cr3 (1192) groups had lower daily feed intake (g/d, P < 0.01). In addition, feed to gain ratio was 21.5% lower in the Cr3 group than the control (P < 0.05). Collectively, these findings suggest that feeding summer-exposed finishing lambs with 3 mg of Cr/kg DM improves blood antioxidant status and feed to gain efficiency without adverse effects on lambs' health and metabolism.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Metionina , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Células Sanguíneas , Cromo/farmacologia , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Masculino , Minerais , Ovinos
16.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126809, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388932

RESUMO

The germination index (GI) was widely applied to evaluate the phytotoxicity of compost. This study investigated the key phytotoxicity factors affecting seed germination in compost by using aqueous extracts in seed germination tests. The relationship between water-soluble substances in compost and seed germination, and their association with the microbial community were identified. In this study, sheep manure (SM) composted along or with three carbon additives (mushroom substrate, MS; cornstalks, CS; garden substrate, GS) for 49 days and, during this time, changes in multiple physical-chemical parameters, carbon and nitrogen matters, germination indexes (GI) and the compost microbiome were monitored. The results showed that all additives decreased water-soluble total nitrogen (TN), ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) and low molecular weight organic acids, and significantly improved the seed germination indexes (seed germination rate, radical length and GI). The GI was correlated with water-soluble carbon degradation products (TOC, butyric acid, humic acid) and certain bacteria (Planifilum, Oceanobacillus, Ruminococcaceae_UCG_005 and Saccharomonospora). A structural equation model revealed that the main factors affecting seed germination were TOC (SM compost), acetic acid (SM+MS compost), humic acid (SM+CS compost), and pH (SM+GS compost). Low TOC and low molecular weight organic acids contents and higher humic acid content promoted GI. The research results could provide theoretical basis and measures for directional regulation of compost maturity.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Esterco , Animais , Carbono , Germinação , Nitrogênio/análise , Ovinos , Solo
17.
Vet. Not. ; 27(2): 19-43, jul.-dez. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-764692

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the use of active, inactive plus active, and inactive yeasts on the consumption of dry matter, water, and the apparent digestibility of dry matter, urinary parameters, and serum metabolites of lambs. Twenty crossbred lambs (Dorper x Santa Inês) were used, with an initial average body weight of 31.89 kg and seven months of age, distributed in a completely randomized design. Treatments were Control group (without yeasts); Active Flora® (ICC), live yeast plus inactivated yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 2.0 x 1010 UFC g-1) in the dose of 0.003 kg of animal dry matter -1 day-1,; Milk Sacc X® (Alltech®), active yeast - Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 1026, 5.0 x 108 UFC g-1 - at the dose of 0.0015 kg of animal dry matter-1 day-1; and Rumen Yeast® (York Ag Products INC.), inactive yeast - Saccharomyces cerevisiae,1.5 x 104 UFC g-1 - in the dose of 0.0045 kg of animal dry matter-1 day-1. Variance analysis and the SNK (Student-Newman-Keuls) test were performed considering 5% significance. For glycemic concentrations over time, regression analysis at 5% significance were performed. The fecal score, as a non-parametric variable, was assessed by the Kruskal and Wallis test at a 5% significance level. There was a statistical difference (P< 0.05) in fecal dry matter (FDM), where the Active Flora® treatment was inferior to the others. The use of different yeasts did not change the intake and digestibility of dry matter, water, urinary parameters, and serum concentrations of energy, protein, and liver metabolites (P> 0.05). The average dry matter intake was 1.16 ± 0.16 kg day-1, whereas the dry matter digestibility was 85.40 ± 2.73%. It was concluded that active and/or inactive yeasts can be used as additives in the diet of lambs, maintaining the intake and digestibility of dry matter without causing metabolic disturbances.(AU)


Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de leveduras ativas, inativas mais ativas e inativas sobre o consumo e digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, de água, dos parâmetros urinários e dos metabólitos séricos de borregas. Utilizou-se 20 borregas mestiças Dorper x Santa Inês, com peso corporal médio inicial de 31,89 kg e sete meses de idade, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os tratamentos consistiram em Controle, sem uso de enzimas, e no uso das leveduras Active Flora® (levedura viva junto a levedura inativada - Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, com 2,0 x 1010 UFC g-1), Milk Sacc X® (levedura ativa - Saccharomyces C. 1026, 5,0 x 108 UFC g-1) e Rúmen Yeast® (levedura inativa - Saccharomyces C. com 1,5 x 104 UFC g-1). Foi realizado uma análise de variância e um teste SNK considerando 5% de significância. Para as concentrações glicêmicas ao longo do tempo foi realizada uma análise de regressão a 5% de significância. O escore fecal, por ser uma variável não paramétrica, foi avaliado pelo teste Kruskal e Wallis à significância de 5%. Observou-se a diferença estatística (P< 0,05) na matéria seca fecal (MSF), onde o tratamento Active Flora® se mostrou inferior aos demais. O uso de diferentes leveduras não modificou o consumo e a digestibilidade da matéria seca, de água, dos parâmetros urinários e das concentrações séricas dos metabólitos energéticos, proteicos e hepáticos (P> 0,05). A média de consumo da matéria seca foi de 1,16±0,16 kg dia-1, já a digestibilidade da matéria seca foi de 85,40 ±2,73%. Concluiu-se que as leveduras ativas e/ou inativas podem ser utilizadas como aditivos na dieta de borregas, mantendo o consumo e a digestibilidade da matéria seca sem causar distúrbios metabólicos.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ovinos/metabolismo , Leveduras , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Dieta , Ração Animal , Aditivos Alimentares/uso terapêutico , Análise de Variância
18.
Vet. Not. ; 27(2): 44-59, jul.-dez. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-764691

RESUMO

Objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da batata de purga (O. macrocarpa) oferecida em blocos multinutricionais sobre ovinos naturalmente infectados por helmintos gastrintestinais. O trabalho foi desenvolvido de acordo com um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições de um animal. Os tratamentos foram: T1 = apenas BMs; T2 = BMs + batata de purga (1g/Kg/peso vivo); T3 = BMs + batata de purga (0,5g/Kg/pv) e T4 = BMs + anti-helmíntico químico. Nos tratamentos com batata de purga 1g/Kg/pv, 0,5g/Kg/pv e químico o OPG diminuiu aos sete dias com 767, 516, 267 e eficácia de 53, 68, e 84% respectivamente. Os valores médios das hemácias, hemoglobina, hematócrito e leucócitos foram menores para o tratamento apenas com BMs, porém se mantiveram dentro dos valores de referência. Para globulina, proteínas totais, creatinina os valores médios ficaram discretamente abaixo da referência para ovinos. Conclui-se que a O. macrocarpa adicionada aos blocos multinutricionais nas doses e período estudado não provocaram respostas fisiorgânicas características de toxicidade.(AU)


This study evaluates the effects of purge potato (Operculina macrocarpa) in multi-nutritional blocks (MBs) on sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal helminths. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four treatments and six replicates per animal. Treatments were: T1 = only MBs; T2 = MBs + purge potato (1g/Kg/lw); T3 = MBs + purge potato (0.5/Kg/lw); and T4 = MBs + chemical anthelmintic. In the treatments with 1g/Kg/lw and 0.5g/Kg/lw purge potato and with chemical anthelmintic, eggs per gram (EPG) counts decreased to 767, 516, and 267 at seven days, with an effectiveness of 53, 68, and 84%, respectively. The mean values of red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and leukocytes were lower for the treatment with only MBs; however, they were maintained within the reference values. For globulin, total protein, and creatinine, the mean values were discretely below the reference for sheep. It is concluded that adding O. macrocarpa to the multi-nutritional blocks in the studied doses and period did not cause physiological responses characteristic of toxicity.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Convolvulaceae/toxicidade , Ovinos/parasitologia , Helmintos , Helmintíase Animal/terapia , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Helmínticos/análise , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Cálculos da Dosagem de Medicamento , Brasil
19.
Vet. Not. ; 27(2): 1-18, jul.-dez. 2021. tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-764690

RESUMO

Avaliou-se o efeito de três tipos de suplementos sobre o consumo e parâmetros digestivos em ovinos alimentados com forragem tropical de baixa qualidade. Foram utilizadas três borregas meio sangue Santa Inês x SRD, com peso corporal médio de 43 kg, alocadas em delineamento Quadro Latino (3x3) duplicado, sendo que em cada período experimental (total de seis com 14 dias cada) foram submetidas a um dos três tratamentos: mistura mineral (tratamento testemunha); suplemento constituído por mistura mineral, ureia/sulfato de amônio (9:1) e suplemento proteico de baixo consumo: constituído por grão de milho moído, farelo de soja, ureia/sulfato de amônio (9:1) e mistura mineral. Todos os animais receberam como volumoso o capim marandu (Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu), picado in natura, ofertado duas vezes ao dia. Os suplementos foram fornecidos uma vez ao dia e a mistura mineral ad libitum. Houve aumento linear (p<0,001) com a suplementação proteica, tanto do consumo de matéria seca de suplemento (0,026; 0,048; 0,084 kg/dia) quanto do consumo de proteína bruta total (0,02; 0,04; 0,08 kg/dia), sendo estes valores registrados para mistura mineral, mistura mineral + ureia e suplemento proteico de baixo consumo, respectivamente. A suplementação proteica promoveu incremento no consumo de matéria seca total (p=0,03) quando comparada à mistura mineral, e os valores observados foram de 0,4; 0,51; 0,53 kg/dia para mistura mineral, mistura mineral + ureia e suplemento proteico de baixo consumo, respectivamente. O suplemento proteico de baixo consumo proporcionou maiores digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e consumo de NDT (p<0,05), contudo, o uso da mistura mineral + ureia promoveu resultados semelhantes aos da mistura mineral para estes parâmetros. Recomenda-se o fornecimento de suplemento proteico de baixo consumo para ovinos alimentados com forragem de baixa qualidade.(AU)


Aiming to evaluate the effect of three supplements types on intake and digestive parameters of sheep fed with low-quality tropical forage, three ewes (Santa Inês x SRD) were used in a double-blank Latin Square (3x3) design. The ewes had 43 kg of mean body weight and in each experimental period (a total of six with 14 days) were submitted to one of three treatments: mineral mixture (control treatment); supplement composed by mineral mixture, urea/ammonium sulfate (9:1); and protein supplement for low ingestion: composed by milled grains corn, soybean meal, urea/ammonium sulfate (9:1) and mineral mixture. All animals received chopped Marandu grass (Urochloa brizantha cv.Marandu) in natura, offered twice a day, the supplements were supplied once a day and the mineral mixture ad libitum. It was observed a linear increase (P <0.001) for the protein supplementation treatments on both SDMI (supplement dry matter intake) (0.026; 0.048; 0.084 kg.day-1) and total crude protein intake (0.02; 0.04; 0.08 kg.day-1), those values were recorded for treatments mineral mixture, mineral mixture + urea and protein supplement for low ingestion, respectively. The protein supplementation treatments provided an increase on total dry matter intake (p=0.03) when they were compared to the control (MM), the values recorded were 0.4; 0.51; 0.53 kg.day-1 for treatments mineral mixture, mineral mixture + urea and protein supplement for low ingestion, respectively. The low-consumption protein supplement provided greater values for parameters apparent nutrients digestibility and total digestive nutrients consumption (p<0.05), whereas mineral mixture + urea treatment had similar results as control group. It is recommended to provide the low-consumption protein supplement for sheep fed with low quality forage.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Brachiaria , Ovinos/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta , Ruminação Digestiva , Suplementos Nutricionais
20.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 81(4): 1030-1035, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-762617

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sheep manure in agricultural soils on the behavior of Folsomia candida and initial growth and development of Avena sativa. For this, an Oxisol was submitted to different doses of sheep manure and was subsequently evaluated for Folsomia candida survival and avoidance behavior through standardized ecotoxicological assays, the initial performance of oats by germination test and the soil basal respiration rate by respirometry methodology. There was an increase in the basal respiration rate of the soil by the application of sheep manure and this was consistent with the increase of the doses. The survival rate and avoidance behavior of springtails were not altered and there was no change in the initial performance of oats, indicating that this manure can be used for organic fertilization of soils with low soil pollutant potential.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos do esterco de ovelha em solos agrícolas no comportamento de Folsomia candida e no crescimento e desenvolvimento inicial de Avena sativa. Para isso, um Latossolo foi submetido a diferentes doses de esterco de ovelha e posteriormente avaliado quanto ao comportamento de fuga e a sobrevivência de Folsomia candida por meio de ensaios ecotoxicológicos padronizados, desempenho inicial da aveia pelo teste de germinação e taxa respiratória basal do solo pela metodologia da respirometria. Houve um aumento na taxa de respiração basal do solo pela aplicação de esterco de ovelha e isso foi consistente com o aumento das doses. A taxa de sobrevivência e o comportamento de fuga dos colêmbolos não foram alterados e não houve alteração no desempenho inicial da aveia, indicando que esse esterco pode ser usado para fertilização orgânica de solos com baixo potencial poluente no solo.(AU)


Assuntos
Esterco , Ovinos , Avena/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura Orgânica
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