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1.
Food Chem ; 377: 131969, 2022 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026473

RESUMO

Thirty-seven volatiles were identified by gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry in sturgeon caviar. Alkenes (37, 43), alcohols (30, 36), aldehydes (9, 10), and esters (11, 13) were detected by two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-off-flight mass spectrometry in fresh and stored caviar, respectively. Alkenes (humulene, caryophyllene, longifolene, and d-limonene), aldehydes (heptanal, hexanal, pentanal, and 3-methyl butanal), and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol were sniffed and described as providing fresh, fatty, and fishy attributes by gas chromatography-olfactometry. The fungal genera of Apiotrichum, Penicillium, Filobasidium, Gibberella, and Cladosporium and 16 bacterial genera were significantly correlated with variations in the contents of 25 aldehydes and 11 ketones. Nine strains, 20 fatty acids, and 69 differential phospholipids were isolated and profiled. Glycerophosphoethanolamine (20:2/20:4), glycerophosphoethanolamine (22:6/22:5), and glycerophosphocholine (16:0/13:0) were significantly associated with the formation of odorants and the proposed mechanism of flavor formation from phospholipids is summarized. This study represents a foundation for achieving targeted preservation and flavor control of caviar.


Assuntos
Ovos , Fosfolipídeos , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Animais , Ovos/microbiologia , Peixes , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes/análise , Olfatometria , Fosfolipídeos/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
2.
J Food Prot ; 85(4): 647-652, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34935932

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Bacillus weihenstephanensis can grow at refrigeration temperature and cause food poisoning. It has been isolated from liquid whole egg products. The moderate heat used for pasteurization of liquid egg products is ineffective for killing spore-forming bacteria, including Bacillus. Available predictive models and a pretrial study in broth suggested the potential for growth of Bacillus spp. under the tested conditions. Hence, hurdles such as storage of product below 4°C or use of preservatives would be needed to ensure the food safety of pasteurized egg products. This study evaluated the growth inhibition of B. weihenstephanensis in pasteurized liquid whole egg product formulated with 6.25 ppm of nisin during storage at refrigerated and refrigerated temperatures at abuse levels for a total 13 weeks in three replicate trials. At day 0, the product had a pH of 7.52 ± 0.29, while background microflora, such as aerobic plate counts (APC), presumptive Bacillus cereus and yeast and molds were <10 CFU/g. Product inoculated with target 2.5 log CFU/g of B. weihenstephanensis, stored at 4°C for 4 weeks and subsequently at 7 or 10°C for 9 weeks, exhibited no growth in all three replicate trials. Average counts reduced (P < 0.05) by at least 1 log in 6 weeks in all samples stored at either 7 or 10°C. Similarly, growth of total plate counts, presumptive Bacillus spp., and yeast and mold counts was not observed in uninoculated controls stored at 4°C for 4 weeks and subsequently at 7 or 10°C for 9 weeks. Visual and odor evaluation performed at each sampling time point showed no abnormalities. This study assessed the efficacy of the maximum level of nisin allowed for use in pasteurized liquid whole eggs and validated the inhibition of B. weihenstephanensis in the product for an extended shelf life of up to 13 weeks.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Ovos/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos , Nisina , Pasteurização , Bacillus cereus , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Nisina/farmacologia , Esporos Bacterianos
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(5): 1137-1146, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345273

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of ultraviolet light in reducing bacterial load of eggshells and the impact of experimental disinfection on hatching, embryo mortality, and time-borne distribution using broiler breeder hens of different ages (38, 42, and 48 weeks old). Fertile eggs were subjected to different exposure periods (5, 7, and 9 minutes) of UV light (UV-C) with a 254 nm wavelength. For controls, eggs disinfected with paraformaldehyde (5.3 g/m3) and eggs not disinfected (NC). After subjection to disinfection protocols, the eggs were placed into sterile plastic bags containing 20 mL of peptone saline solution (0.1% m:v) and massaged for 1 minute to release the bacterial load. Aliquots of this solution were incubated in specific medium for bacterial growth for 48 hours at 37ºC for subsequent CFU counts. To evaluate the effects of disinfection on production, eggs previously disinfected by UV-C (9 min) and paraformaldehyde and NC eggs were candled between incubation days 10 and 13 and at the end of the incubation period to assess embryonic mortality. Hatchability distribution was performed every 8 hours. The 9 minutes 254nm UV-C light exposure was able to disinfect viable eggs and matched the effectiveness of the paraformaldehyde technique.(AU)


Objetivou-se avaliar a eficácia da luz ultravioleta na redução da carga bacteriana de cascas de ovos e o impacto na eclosão e na mortalidade embrionária observando-se a idade das matrizes (38, 42 e 48 semanas). Os ovos foram submetidos a diferentes períodos de exposição (cinco, sete e nove minutos) à luz UV (UV-C) com comprimento de onda de 254nm. Os controles foram ovos desinfetados com paraformaldeído (5,3g/m³) e ovos não desinfetados (NC). Após a desinfecção, os ovos foram colocados em sacos plásticos estéreis contendo 20mL de solução salina peptonada (0,1% m:v) e massageados por um (1) minuto para descolamento das bactérias. Alíquotas dessa solução foram incubadas em meio para crescimento bacteriano por 48 horas a 37ºC e contagem de UFC. Para avaliar os efeitos da desinfecção, ovos previamente desinfetados por UV-C (nove minutos) e ovos com paraformaldeído e NC foram submetidos à ovoscopia entre os dias 10 e 13 de incubação e ao final do período de incubação, para avaliação da mortalidade embrionária. A distribuição da eclodibilidade foi realizada a cada oito horas. A exposição à luz UV-C de 25nm de nove minutos desinfetou os ovos férteis e coincidiu com a eficácia do paraformaldeído.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas , Desinfecção/métodos , Ovos/efeitos da radiação , Ovos/microbiologia , Raios Ultravioleta
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18026, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504138

RESUMO

Salmonella Typhimurium is a human pathogen associated with eggs and egg-derived products. In Australia, it is recommended that eggs should be refrigerated to prevent condensation that can enhance bacterial penetration across the eggshell. Except for the United States, the guidelines on egg refrigeration are not prescriptive. In the current study, in-vitro and in-vivo experiments were conducted to understand the role of egg storage temperatures (refrigerated vs ambient) on bacterial load and the virulence genes expression of Salmonella Typhimurium. The in-vitro egg study showed that the load of Salmonella Typhimurium significantly increased in yolk and albumen stored at 25 °C. The gene expression study showed that ompR, misL, pefA, spvA, shdA, bapA, and csgB were significantly up-regulated in the egg yolk stored at 5 °C and 25 °C for 96 h; however, an in-vivo study revealed that mice infected with egg yolk stored at 25 °C, developed salmonellosis from day 3 post-infection (p.i.). Mice fed with inoculated egg yolk, albumen, or eggshell wash stored at refrigerated temperature did not show signs of salmonellosis during the period of the experiment. Data obtained in this study highlighted the importance of egg refrigeration in terms of improving product safety.


Assuntos
Ovos/microbiologia , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Refrigeração/métodos , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Salmonella/prevenção & controle , Salmonella typhimurium/patogenicidade , Animais , Austrália , Galinhas , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Feminino , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/microbiologia , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/patologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/patologia , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Salmonella typhimurium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Temperatura , Virulência
5.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500692

RESUMO

Table eggs are an affordable yet nutritious protein source for humans. Unfortunately, eggs are a vector for bacteria that could cause foodborne illness. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a quaternary ammonium compound (quat) sanitizer against aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeast, and mold load on the eggshell surface of free-range and commercial farms and the post-treatment effect on microbial load during storage. Total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeast, and molds were enumerated using plate count techniques. The efficacy of the quaternary ammonium sanitizer (quat) was tested using two levels: full factorial with two replicates for corner points, factor A (maximum: 200 ppm, minimum: 100 ppm) and factor B (maximum: 15 min, minimum: 5 min). Quat sanitizer significantly (p < 0.05) reduced approximately 4 log10 CFU/cm2 of the aerobic mesophilic bacteria, 1.5 to 2.5 log10 CFU/cm2 of the mold population, and 1.5 to 2 log10 CFU/cm2 of the yeast population. However, there was no significant (p ≥ 0.05) response observed between individual factor levels (maximum and minimum), and two-way interaction terms were also not statistically significant (p ≥ 0.05). A low (<1 log10 CFU/cm2) aerobic mesophilic bacteria trend was observed when shell eggs were stored in a cold environment up to the production expiry date. No internal microbial load was observed; thus, it was postulated that washing with quat sanitizer discreetly (without physically damaging the eggshell) does not facilitate microbial penetration during storage at either room temperature or cold storage. Current study findings demonstrated that the quat sanitizer effectively reduced the microbial population on eggshells without promoting internal microbial growth.


Assuntos
Casca de Ovo/microbiologia , Ovos/microbiologia , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/farmacologia , Animais , Bactérias Aeróbias/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfecção , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos
6.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 355: 109332, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358812

RESUMO

Consumer awareness and distaste towards both bacterial and chemical contaminations on food items have been increasing in recent years. Non-thermal plasma (NTP) is a cutting-edge technology which has been shown to effectively inactivate bacteria on the treated foods. Although the general NTP with a single plasma jet is appropriate for the continuous operation process, it suffers limitations due to its smaller scanning area. Here, a novel NTP device with a double rotary nozzle jet system was utilized, which could treat an area instead of a point. The shell eggs inoculated with Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (SE) were placed on a moving platform under the double rotary nozzle jet system. The efficacy of the NTP treatment on microbial decontamination was evaluated by testing a total of 26 combinations of operating parameters consisting of various plasma power (150, 180, 210 W), argon flow rate (10, 15, 20 slm), repetition of the moving platform (4, 6, 8 times), and speed of the moving platform (5, 10 mm/s). Although significantly higher SE reduction (p < 0.05) was achieved with higher power, more repetitions, larger argon flow rates, and lower speed of the platform, these parameters induced significant alterations in the sensory properties of the treated eggs. By comprehensively considering the bacterial reductions, egg quality, and sensory properties, NTP treatment with combination T (180 W-15 slm-6 times-10 mm/s) was determined to be the optimal parameter, which achieved >4 log CFU/egg of SE reduction and significantly better sensory properties than commercially washed eggs (p < 0.05). Additionally, SEM analysis revealed that NTP treatment with combination T resulted in less damage to egg cuticles compared to commercially washed eggs. This novel NTP device offers an efficient antibacterial activity under shorter exposure time (30 s), smaller argon flow rate (15 slm), and lower power (180 W) without adversely affecting the overall quality of the treated eggs. Therefore, this NTP device equipped with the double rotary jet system possesses a potential solution for future industrial applications.


Assuntos
Desinfecção , Casca de Ovo , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Gases em Plasma , Salmonella enteritidis , Animais , Galinhas , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Desinfecção/instrumentação , Desinfecção/métodos , Casca de Ovo/microbiologia , Ovos/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/instrumentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Gases em Plasma/farmacologia , Salmonella enteritidis/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254301, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During food or feed contamination events, it is of utmost importance to ensure their rapid resolution to minimize impact on human health, animal health and finances. The existing Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) is used by the European Commission, national competent authorities of member countries and the European Food Safety Authority to report information on any direct or indirect human health risk arising from food or feed, or serious risks to animal health or the environment in relation to feed. Nevertheless, no methods exist to to collectively evaluate this vast source of supply chain information. METHODS: To aid in the extraction, evaluation and visualization of the data in RASFF notifications, we present the Rapid Alert Supply Network Extractor (RASNEX) open-source tool available from https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4322555 freely. Among RASNEX's functions is the graphical mapping of food and feed supply chain operators implicated in contamination events. RASNEX can be used during ongoing events as a support tool for risk analysis using RASFF notifications as input. RESULTS: In a first use case, we showcase the functionality of RASNEX with the RASFF notification on a 2017/2018 contamination event in eggs caused by the illegal use of fipronil. The information in this RASFF notification is used to visualize nine different flows of main and related food products. In a second use case, we combine RASFF notifications from different types of food safety hazards (Salmonella spp., fipronil and others) to obtain wider coverage of the visualized egg supply network compared to the first use case. Actors in the egg supply chain were identified mainly for Italy, Poland and Benelux. Other countries (although involved in the egg supply chain) were underrepresented. CONCLUSIONS: We hypothesize that biases may be caused by inconsistent RASFF reporting behaviors by its members. These inconsistencies may be counteracted by implementing standardized decision-making tools to harmonize decisions whether to launch a RASFF notification, in turn resulting in a more uniform future coverage across European food and feed supply chains with RASNEX.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Interface Usuário-Computador , Animais , Galinhas , Ovos/análise , Ovos/microbiologia , União Europeia , Cadeia Alimentar , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Inseticidas/análise , Pirazóis/análise , Salmonella/patogenicidade
8.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 196, 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is one of the most common serovars, associated with human salmonellosis. The food-borne outbreak of this bacterium is mainly related to the consumption of contaminated poultry meat and poultry products, including eggs. Therefore, rapid and accurate detection, besides investigation of virulence characteristics and antimicrobial resistance profiles of S. Enteritidis in poultry and poultry egg samples is essential. A total of 3125 samples (2250 poultry and 875 poultry egg samples), sent to the administrative centers of veterinary microbiology laboratories in six provinces of Iran, were examined for Salmonella contamination, according to the ISO 6579 guideline. Next, duplex PCR was conducted on 250 presumptive Salmonella isolates to detect invA gene for identification of the genus Salmonella and sdf gene for identification of S. Enteritidis. Subsequently, the S. Enteritidis isolates were examined for detection of important virulence genes (pagC, cdtB, msgA, spaN, tolC, lpfC, and spvC) and determination of antibiotic resistance patterns against nalidixic acid, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, cephalothin, ceftazidime, colistin sulfate, and kanamycin by the disk diffusion method. RESULTS: Overall, 8.7 and 2.3% of poultry samples and 6.3 and 1.3% of eggs were contaminated with Salmonella species and S. Enteritidis, respectively. The invA and msgA genes (100%) and cdtB gene (6.3%) had the highest and the lowest prevalence rates in S. Enteritidis isolates. The spvC gene, which is mainly located on the Salmonella virulence plasmid, was detected in 50.8% of S. Enteritidis isolates. The S. Enteritidis isolates showed the highest and the lowest resistance to nalidixic acid (87.3%) and ceftazidime (11.1%), respectively. Unfortunately, 27.0% of S. Enteritidis isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR). CONCLUSION: The rate of contamination with Salmonella in the poultry and egg samples, besides the presence of antimicrobial resistant and MDR Salmonella isolates harboring the virulence genes in these samples, could significantly affect food safety and subsequently, human health. Therefore, continuous monitoring of animal-source foods, enhancement of poultry farm control measures, and limiting the use of antibiotics for prophylactic purposes in food producing animals, are essential for reducing the zoonotic risk of this foodborne pathogen for consumers and also choosing effective antibiotics for the treatment of salmonellosis.


Assuntos
Ovos/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonella enteritidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella enteritidis/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella enteritidis/patogenicidade , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Genótipo , Irã (Geográfico) , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Fenótipo , Produtos Avícolas/microbiologia , Prevalência , Salmonella enteritidis/genética , Virulência/genética
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9499, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947948

RESUMO

Holotrichia oblita (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and some other scarab beetles are the main soil-dwelling pests in China. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and Beauveria bassiana (Bb) are entomopathogens that have been used as biocontrol agents of various pests. However, scarab larvae especially H. oblita exhibited strong adaptability to these pathogens. Compared to other scarabs, H. oblita could form a specific soil egg case (SEC) structure surrounding its eggs, and young larvae complete the initial development process inside this structure. In this study, we investigated the role of SEC structure and microorganisms from SEC and egg surface in pathogen adaptability. 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed low bacterial richness and high community unevenness in egg surface, with Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Fusobacteria dominating. In terms of OTUs composition analysis, the data show that the egg surface contains a large number of unique bacteria, indicating that the egg bacterial community may be derived from maternal transmission. Furthermore, we found that all culturable bacteria isolated from egg surface possessed antimicrobial activity against both Bt and Bb. The Pseudomonas bacteria with a significantly higher abundance in egg surface showed strong Bt- and Bb antagonistic ability. In conclusion, this study demonstrated a unique and antimicrobial bacterial community of H. oblita egg surface, which may contribute to its adaptability. Furthermore, the specific SEC structure surrounding the H. oblita eggs will provide a stable microenvironment for the eggs and egg surface bacteria, which probably provides more advantages for H. oblita adaptation ability.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Beauveria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Besouros/microbiologia , Ovos/microbiologia , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Beauveria/genética , Larva/genética , Larva/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
10.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2021: 6631860, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33854412

RESUMO

Escherichia coli O157 : H7 (E. coli O157 : H7) has been found to be the major cause of food-borne diseases and a serious public health problem in the world, with an increasing concern for the emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant strains. Hitherto, little is known about the carriage of E. coli O157 : H7 and its antimicrobial susceptibility profile in the food of animal origin in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the occurrence and multidrug resistance profile of E. coli O157 : H7 from food of animal origin at different catering establishments in the selected study settings of Arsi Zone. One hundred ninety-two animal origin food items, namely, raw/minced meat (locally known as "Kitfo," "Kurt," and "Dulet"), raw milk, egg sandwich, and cream cake samples were collected and processed for microbiological detection of E. coli O157 : H7. Out of 192 samples, 2.1% (4/192) were positive for E. coli O157 : H7. Two E. coli O157 : H7 isolates were obtained from "Dulet" (6.3%) followed by "Kurt" (3.1%, 1/32) and raw milk (3.1%, 1/32), whereas no isolate was obtained from "Kitfo," egg sandwich, and cream cake samples. Of the 4 E. coli O157 : H7 isolates subjected to 10 panels of antimicrobial discs, 3 (75%) were highly resistant to kanamycin, streptomycin, and nitrofurantoin. Besides, all the isolates displayed multidrug resistance phenotypes, 3 to 5 antimicrobial resistance, amid kanamycin, streptomycin, nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol. The occurrence of multidrug-resistant E. coli O157 : H7 isolates from foods of animal origin sampled from different catering establishments reveals that the general sanitary condition of the catering establishments, utensils used, and personnel hygienic practices did not comply with the recommended standards. Thus, this finding calls for urgent attention toward appropriate controls and good hygienic practices in different catering establishments dealing with consuming raw/undercooked foods of animal origin.


Assuntos
Ovos/microbiologia , Escherichia coli O157/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Restaurantes , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Área Programática de Saúde , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Escherichia coli O157/efeitos dos fármacos , Etiópia , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Testes de Fixação do Látex , Modelos Logísticos , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Alimentos Crus/microbiologia , Fatores de Risco , Amostragem
11.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 73(1): 54-63, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765334

RESUMO

Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) regulate and maintain the stability of healthy microbial flora, inhibit the adhesion of pathogenic bacteria and promote the colonization of beneficial micro-organisms. The drug resistance and pathogenicity of Salmonella enteritis SE47 isolated from retail eggs were investigated. Meanwhile, Enterococcus faecalis L76 and Lactobacillus salivarius LAB35 were isolated from intestine of chicken. With SE47 as indicator bacteria, the diameters of L76 and LAB35 inhibition zones were 12 mm and 8·5 mm, respectively, by agar inhibition circle method, which indicated that both of them had inhibitory effect on Salmonella, and L76 had better antibacterial effect; two chicken-derived lactic acid bacteria isolates and Salmonella SE47 were incubated with Caco-2. The adhesion index of L76 was 17·5%, which was much higher than that of LAB35 (10·21%) and SE47 (4·89%), this experiment shows that the higher the bacteriostatic effect of potential probiotics, the stronger the adhesion ability; then Caco-2 cells were incubated with different bacteria, and the survival of Caco-2 cells was observed by flow cytometry. Compared with Salmonella SE47, the results showed that lactic acid bacteria isolates could effectively protect Caco-2 cells; finally, after different bacteria incubated Caco-2 cells, according to the cytokine detection kit, the RNA of Caco-2 cells was extracted and transcribed into cDNA, then detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR, the results showed that L76 could protect Caco-2 cells from the invasion of Salmonella SE47, with less cell membrane rupture and lower expression of MIF and TNF genes. Therefore, the lactic acid bacteria isolates can effectively inhibit the adhesion of Salmonella and protect the integrity of intestinal barrier.


Assuntos
Antibiose/fisiologia , Ovos/microbiologia , Lactobacillales/fisiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/fisiologia , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Galinhas/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/fisiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus faecalis/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactobacillus salivarius/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus salivarius/fisiologia , Probióticos/isolamento & purificação , Probióticos/farmacologia , Salmonella enterica/patogenicidade
12.
Acta sci. vet. (Online) ; 49: Pub. 1789, Feb. 26, 2021. mapas, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-761940

RESUMO

Background: Food contamination is an important and growing public health concern due to the risk of foodborne illnesses.In this context, the egg, consumed all over the world, stands out. This food has been pointed out as a carrier of severalbacteria, causing outbreaks of food toxinfection. The production of free-range chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) eggs hasbeen an alternative for generating income for producers in Brazil; however, there is no monitoring of the sanitary qualityof this product. The objective of this study was to identify microorganisms in 128 free-range chicken eggs sold in openmarkets in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil.Materials, Methods & Results: The study was carried out at commercial fairs in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Braziliansemiarid region. The minimum number of eggs to be used was determined by the formula for simple random samples considering the following parameters: expected frequency of positive eggs of 50% (for sample maximization), 95% confidencelevel and sampling error of 10%. The minimum number of eggs to be sampled was 97; however, 128 eggs were obtained inthe period from August 2018 to April 2019. The internal content of the eggs was subjected to bacteriological culture usingan adapted methodology, and for the in vitro susceptibility assessment the disk diffusion method on Müller-Hintonagarwasused. In addition to biochemical tests, Gram-negative bacteria were subjected to microbiological diagnosis using theMALDI-TOF (Matrix Associated Laser Desorption-Ionization - Time of Flight) technique. Bacterial growth was found in40 (31.3%) eggs. The microorganisms most frequently isolated were Staphylococcus spp. (27.5%), Bacillus spp. (15%) andEnterobacter cloacae (25%). There was bacterial growth in albumens [n = 10; 7.8%] and in egg yolks [n=38; 29.7%] (P< 0.001). The antimicrobials that showed highest resistance rates were ampicillin...(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ovos/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Saneamento de Mercados , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
13.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 340: 109054, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465549

RESUMO

Foodborne exposure to antimicrobial-resistant bacteria is a growing global health concern. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is well recognised as an indicator of food contamination with faecal materials. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of E. coli in table eggs sold at retail supermarkets in Western Australia (WA). A total of 2172 visually clean and intact retail eggs were purchased between October 2017 and June 2018. A single carton containing a dozen eggs was considered as a single sample resulting a total of 181 samples. The shells and contents of each sample were separately pooled and tested using standard culture-based methods. Overall, generic E. coli was detected in 36 (19.8%; 95% confidence interval: 14.3; 26.4) of the 181 tested retail egg samples. We characterised 100 of the recovered E. coli isolates for their phenotypic antimicrobial resistance using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). A subset of E. coli isolates (n = 14) were selected on the basis of their MIC patterns, and were further characterised using whole genome sequencing (WGS). Fifty-seven (57%) of the recovered generic E. coli isolates (n = 100) were resistant to at least one of the 14 antimicrobials included in the MIC testing panel, of which 22 isolates (22%) showed multi-class resistance. The highest frequencies of non-susceptibility of E. coli isolated from WA retailed eggs were against tetracycline (49%) and ampicillin (36%). WGS revealed that tet(A) and blaTEM-1B genes were present in most of the isolates exhibiting phenotypic resistance to tetracycline and ampicillin, respectively. The majority (98%) of the characterised E. coli isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and azithromycin, and none were resistant to the cephalosporin antimicrobials included in the MIC panel. Two isolates demonstrated reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, with MICs of 0.125 and 0.25 mg/L, and WGS revealed the presence of plasmid mediated qnrs1 gene in both isolates. This is the first report on detection of non-wild-type resistance to fluoroquinolones in supermarket eggs in Australia; one of the two isolates was from a cage-laid eggs sample while the other was from a barn-laid retail eggs sample. Fluoroquinolones have never been permitted for use in poultry farms in Australia. Thus, the detection of low-level ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli in the absence of local antimicrobial selection pressure at the Australian layer farms warrants further research on the potential role of the environment or human-related factors in the transmission of antimicrobial resistance. The results of this study add to the local and global understanding of antimicrobial resistance spread in foods of animal origin.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Ovos/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Animais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Resistência a Tetraciclina , Austrália Ocidental
14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2182: 33-38, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894484

RESUMO

Developed by 3M Company, 3M ™ Molecular Detection Assays-3M MDS-enable detection of Salmonella from advanced isothermal DNA amplification and bioluminescence detection technology. It can be used for a wide variety of products, including poultry, eggs, pet foods, and environmental samples, and results are obtained within about 24 h. In this chapter, all steps of the 3M MDS™ method for detection of Salmonella are described and detailed.


Assuntos
Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Salmonella/genética , Animais , Ovos/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
15.
Int Microbiol ; 24(1): 57-63, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772220

RESUMO

In spite of evidence that domestic and wild birds may act as carriers of human pathogenic fungi, data on the role of laying hens as reservoirs of drug resistant and virulent yeasts is lacking. Here, we assess several virulence factors (phospholipase and haemolysin activity) and the antifungal susceptibility profiles of 84 Candida albicans and 17 Candida catenulata strains isolated from cloacae (group A), faeces (group B) and eggs (group C) of laying hens. Of these strains, 95% C. albicans and 23% C. catenulata strains displayed phospholipase and haemolytic activities. For C. albicans, the highest values of phospholipase (Pz = 0.62) and haemolytic activities (Hz = 0.49) were recorded among the strains from group C whilst for C. catenulata (Pz = 0.54; Hz = 0.49) among those from group A. High minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for azoles and amphotericin B (AmB) were recorded irrespective of their sources in all C. albicans strains. A total of 22 C. albicans strains were multidrug resistant, displaying resistance to fluconazole, itraconazole (ITZ), voriconazole (VOR) and posaconazole (POS). All C. catenulata strains from group C were resistant to ITZ, POS, micafungin and anidulafungin and susceptible to AmB. In this study, C. albicans and C. catenulata isolated from the cloacae, faeces and eggs of laying hens produced phospholipase and haemolysin and might be multidrug resistant. In the environment (faeces) or in eggs, C. albicans and C. catenulata strains might acquire pathogenic virulence traits and/or show multidrug resistance profiles. Based on these results, breeding and handling of laying hens and/or eggs may have implications for human and animal health.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/patogenicidade , Galinhas/microbiologia , Animais , Candida/genética , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/genética , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Candida albicans/patogenicidade , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Ovos/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Virulência
16.
Food Sci Technol Int ; 27(2): 184-193, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703024

RESUMO

Egg powders are increasingly popular ingredients, due to their functionality and compactness, in industrial food production and preparation at homes. However, there is a lack of studies that evaluate the thermal resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis PT30 and its potential surrogate Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 in egg powders. This study examined the log-linear relationship between the thermal resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis (D-value) and the water activity (aw) of egg powders. The changes of aw in the egg powders with temperature were measured using a Vapor Sorption Analyzer and a high-temperature cell. The D80 ℃-value of S. Enteritidis PT30 and E. faecium inoculated in the egg powders preconditioned to three aw levels (0.3, 0.45, and 0.6) at 20 ℃ were determined using aluminum thermal death test cells. The aw values increased (P < 0.05) in all three egg powders when the temperature of the samples was raised from room temperature to 80 ℃. The D80 ℃-values ranged from 5.3 ± 0.1 to 25.9 ± 0.2 min for S. Enteritidis while 10.4 ± 0.4 to 43.8 ± 0.4 for E. faecium in samples of the three different aw levels. S. Enteritidis PT30 showed a log-linear relationship between D80 ℃-values and aw80 ℃ for the egg powders. This study contributes to our understanding of the impact of aw on the development of thermal treatments for low-moisture foods.


Assuntos
Ovos , Enterococcus faecium , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Temperatura Alta , Pós , Salmonella enteritidis , Água , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Ovos/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecium/fisiologia , Salmonella enteritidis/fisiologia , Água/química
17.
Annu Rev Anim Biosci ; 9: 379-400, 2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156992

RESUMO

Food safety remains a significant public health issue for the poultry industry. Foodborne pathogens can be in contact at all phases of poultry production, from initial hatch to processing and ultimately to retail and meal preparation. Salmonella and Campylobacter have been considered the primary foodborne pathogens associated with poultry. Both organisms are major causative agents of human foodborne illness. Limiting these pathogens in poultry production requires identifying their sources and routes of transmission. This involves the ability to isolate and precisely identify them using methodologies capable of discernment at the genome level. Interventions to reduce their occurrence in poultry production employ two basic strategies: prevention of establishment and elimination of already-established pathogens. This review provides an overview of current findings and prospects for further research on poultry food safety issues.


Assuntos
Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Campylobacter , Ovos/microbiologia , Produtos Avícolas/microbiologia , Salmonella
18.
Genomics ; 113(1 Pt 2): 1199-1206, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301896

RESUMO

Dermacoccus abyssi strain HZAU 226 is a spoilage bacterium isolated from eggs. So far, there are still few genomic resources available on the Dermacoccus abyssi. Here, we reported the complete genome sequence of Dermacoccus abyssi strain HZAU 226. High-quality DNA was extracted using the Qiagen kit, then single-molecule sequencing was performed by GridION sequencer. The raw data was quality-controlled and assembled to obtain the final genome, which consisted of a complete genome of 2,992,060 bp circular chromosome and a 64,524 bp plasmid. The structural and functional annotations of the genome were achieved through the analysis of different available databases, including antibiotic resistance genes, secondary metabolite synthesis genes and stress-related genes. Meanwhile, comparative genomic analyses of the strains were also performed. This is the first report on the complete genome of Dermacoccus abyssi, which will provide genomic resources for the study of spoilage bacteria in eggs.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/genética , Ovos/microbiologia , Genoma Bacteriano , Actinobacteria/efeitos dos fármacos , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Actinobacteria/patogenicidade , Animais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Ovos/normas , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
19.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 338: 108992, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33285359

RESUMO

Salmonella spp. remains the most significant foodborne pathogen in south Brazil, but its epidemiology tends to change over time. Using official and surrogate data, a microbial subtyping model attributed different Salmonella serovars to laying hens, pigs, broilers, and turkeys from 2005 to 2015 in Rio Grande do Sul (RS). Additional to the subtyping model, three sub-analyses of outbreak data attributed Salmonella spp. in humans to animal and non-animal food. Laying hens/eggs was the most important source of human salmonellosis in RS, with almost 40% (159 cases; 95% credibility interval, 43-247) attribution proportion, followed by pigs reared in Santa Catarina, a neighbor state (34.5%). The Salmonella serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium were the most common serovars involved. Source-related parameters had wide credibility intervals but showed a higher risk of illness from contaminated eggs than from the other three animal-food sources. Analysis of the outbreak data corroborated the findings and indicated signs of decreasing importance for eggs and increasing importance for pork consumption.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella/genética , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Brasil/epidemiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Ovos/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sorogrupo , Suínos/microbiologia , Perus/microbiologia
20.
Acta Sci. Anim. Sci. ; 43: e53125, ago. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-32225

RESUMO

A total of 240 white Shaver laying hens from 22 to 34 weeks of age were assigned to 3 treatments and 5 replications. The treatments included:i) Conventional (hens were kept in experimental building without access to outdoor area and fed with the conventional diet), ii) Semi-organic (hens were kept in experimental building with access to outdoor area and fed with the organic diet plus amino acids and vitamin-minerals supplement), and iii) Organic (hens were kept in experimental building with access to outdoor and fed with the organic diet). The results showed statistically significant differences in the feed intake, egg production, egg mass, egg weight, and change body weight(g) means among the treatments (p <0.05). The hens kept in the organic treatment had fecal highest contain of oocytes coccidia (p <0.05). The yolk color index and shell strength in the organic treatment significantly increased in comparison with that of other treatments (p <0.05). The highest HDL was in the semi-organic and organic treatments (p <0.05). The lowest egg yolk cholesterol concentration was found in hens kept in the semi-organic and organic treatments (p <0.05). It is concluded that organic production system is useful for improving egg quality.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Ovos/análise , Ovos/microbiologia , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Gema de Ovo/química
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