Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.509
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0296146, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626153

RESUMO

The fossil record of parasitism is poorly understood, due largely to the scarcity of strong fossil evidence of parasites. Understanding the preservation potential for fossil parasitic evidence is critical to contextualizing the fossil record of parasitism. Here, we present the first use of X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning and finite elements analysis (FEA) to analyze the impact of a parasite-induced fossil trace on host preservation. Four fossil and three modern decapod crustacean specimens with branchial swellings attributed to an epicaridean isopod parasite were CT scanned and examined with FEA to assess differences in the magnitude and distribution of stress between normal and swollen branchial chambers. The results of the FEA show highly localized stress peaks in reaction to point forces, with higher peak stress on the swollen branchial chamber for nearly all specimens and different forces applied, suggesting a possible shape-related decrease in the preservation potential of these parasitic swellings. Broader application of these methods as well as advances in the application of 3D data analysis in paleontology are critical to understanding the fossil record of parasitism and other poorly represented fossil groups.


Assuntos
Decápodes , Isópodes , Parasitos , Animais , Paleontologia , Fósseis , Isópodes/parasitologia
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6528, 2024 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38499621

RESUMO

The Serrote do Letreiro Site, found on the northwest periphery of the Sousa Basin, Brazil, presents a remarkable convergence of paleontological and archaeological elements. It is constituted of sub-horizontal "lajeiros", or rock outcrops, intermingled with endemic Caatinga vegetation. The three prominent outcrops feature fossilized footprints of theropod, sauropod, and iguanodontian dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Period. Adjacent to these dinosaur tracks, indigenous petroglyphs adorn the surface. The petroglyphs, mainly characterized by circular motifs, maintain a striking resemblance to other petroglyphs found in the states of Paraíba and Rio Grande do Norte. This study primarily endeavors to delineate the site's major characteristics while concentrating on the relationship between the dinosaur footprints and the petroglyphs. It concurrently assesses the preservation status of this invaluable record, shedding light on its implications for the realms of paleontology, archaeology, and cultural heritage studies.


Assuntos
Dinossauros , Golfinhos , Animais , Dinossauros/anatomia & histologia , Brasil , Paleontologia , Arqueologia , Fósseis
3.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 40(3): 295-298, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520108

RESUMO

Title: La paléoneurologie - Une science en évolution ? Abstract: Dans le cadre du Master 2 Sciences du Vivant de l'université EPHE-PSL (cursus IMaGHE, parcours Physiopathologie Intégrative, PPI), des étudiants se sont confrontés à la rédaction d'une Nouvelle scientifique. Selon la spécialisation choisie par les étudiants (Neurosciences ou Cancérologie), l'équipe pédagogique leur a proposé de faire une synthèse d'articles sur deux thématiques : (i) la paléoneurologie, qui permet d'analyser la transformation du cerveau de l'Homme au cours de l'évolution et (ii) la recherche bio-inspirée, qui permet de reproduire ce qui existe dans la nature pour développer des surfaces bactéricides évitant l'usage d'antibiotiques. Organisés en binôme, les étudiants ont rédigé deux Nouvelles qui soulignent l'intérêt des travaux analysés, ainsi que leur originalité. Ils se sont pleinement investis dans cette tâche et ont su faire preuve d'un bel esprit de synthèse. Ils ont apprécié cet exercice nouveau pour eux, mais qui leur a permis d'avoir un aperçu de l'exercice de la publication scientifique, inhérent au métier de chercheur auquel ils se destinent.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Paleontologia , Humanos
4.
Nature ; 627(8004): 474-475, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38454037
5.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 104: 119-129, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38513468

RESUMO

In this paper I discuss the first "multi-messenger" observations of a binary neutron star merger and kilonova. These observations, touted as "revolutionary," included both gravitational-wave and electromagnetic observations of a single source. I draw on analogies between astrophysics and historical sciences (e.g., paleontology) to explain the significance of this for (gravitational-wave) astrophysics. In particular, I argue that having independent lines of evidence about a target system enables the use of argumentative strategies-the "Sherlock Holmes" method and consilience-that help overcome the key challenges astrophysics faces as an observational and historical science.


Assuntos
Gravitação , Nêutrons , Paleontologia
6.
J Hum Evol ; 189: 103470, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38552260

RESUMO

Sex is a biological trait fundamental to the study of hominin fossils. Among the many questions that can be addressed are those related to taxonomy, biological variability, sexual dimorphism, paleoobstetrics, funerary selection, and paleodemography. While new methodologies such as paleogenomics or paleoproteomics can be used to determine sex, they have not been systematically applied to Pleistocene human remains due to their destructive nature. Therefore, we estimated sex from the coxal bone of the newly discovered pelvic remains of the Regourdou 1 Neandertal (Southwest France, MIS 5) based on morphological and metric data employing two methods that have been recently revised and shown to be reliable in multiple studies. Both methods calculate posterior probabilities of the estimate. The right coxal bone of Regourdou 1 was partially reconstructed providing additional traits for sex estimation. These methods were cross validated on 14 sufficiently preserved coxal bones of specimens from the Neandertal lineage. Our results show that the Regourdou 1 individual, whose postcranial skeleton is not robust, is a male, and that previous sex attributions of comparative Neandertal specimens are largely in agreement with those obtained here. Our results encourage additional morphological research of fossil hominins in order to develop a set of methods that are applicable, reliable, and reproducible.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Homem de Neandertal , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Homem de Neandertal/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis , Genômica , Paleontologia , França
7.
Psychodyn Psychiatry ; 52(1): 46-67, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38426760

RESUMO

Charles Darwin's theory of evolution was founded on the core belief that natural history is one of slow, incremental change, a concept he called "speciation." A hundred years later Eldredge and Gould challenged Darwin's theory, arguing that the data of paleontology reveals something quite different: long periods of stasis followed by bursts of change, a concept they called "punctuated equilibria." This article will follow that progression and then describe the three punctuated equilibria that I believe led to Homo sapiens. I argue that two of the three transitions are revealed in the hard data of the fossil record. The third is in the soft tissue of the brain. This third punctuated equilibrium placed Homo sapiens outside of evolution. Its arrival, 50,000 years ago, marked the beginning of the end of evolution.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Paleontologia , Humanos , Fósseis
8.
9.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 182, 2024 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341426

RESUMO

More than two hundred papers have reported genome-wide data from ancient humans. While the raw data for the vast majority are fully publicly available testifying to the commitment of the paleogenomics community to open data, formats for both raw data and meta-data differ. There is thus a need for uniform curation and a centralized, version-controlled compendium that researchers can download, analyze, and reference. Since 2019, we have been maintaining the Allen Ancient DNA Resource (AADR), which aims to provide an up-to-date, curated version of the world's published ancient human DNA data, represented at more than a million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at which almost all ancient individuals have been assayed. The AADR has gone through six public releases at the time of writing and review of this manuscript, and crossed the threshold of >10,000 individuals with published genome-wide ancient DNA data at the end of 2022. This note is intended as a citable descriptor of the AADR.


Assuntos
DNA Antigo , Genoma Humano , Genômica , Humanos , Paleontologia
10.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 307(4): 722-725, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38334414
12.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2016): 20232320, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38320608

RESUMO

Mesozoic fossils of frogs are rare in the palaeontological record, particularly those exhibiting soft tissues that offer limited insights into early life-history characteristics. Here we report on a skeletally immature frog from the Lower Cretaceous of northwest China, with egg masses in the body and eggs in the oviduct, indicative of a gravid female. CT reconstruction of the specimen allows referral to Gansubatrachus qilianensis and we assign it as a paratype complementing the diagnosis of the type species. The new fossil, which might represent a younger individual than the holotype of Gansubatrachus, shows that sexual maturation occurred before full adulthood in this frog and provides evidence of death linked to mating behaviour. We also discuss other potential sources of variation and life-history traits of Gansubatrachus. The new finding represents the oldest Early Cretaceous frog preserving in situ eggs and provides a glimpse into ancient anuran development during Mesozoic times.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Traços de História de Vida , Animais , Feminino , Anuros , Paleontologia , China , Filogenia
14.
Mol Ecol ; 33(3): e17259, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38179684

RESUMO

Most foundational work on the evolution and migration of plant species relies on genomic data from contemporary samples. Ancient plant samples can give us access to allele sequences and distributions on the landscape dating back to the mid Holocene or earlier (Gugerli et al., 2005). Nuclear DNA from ancient wood, however, has been mostly inaccessible until now. In a From the Cover article in this issue of Molecular Ecology, Wagner et al. (2023) present the first resequenced nuclear genomes from ancient oak wood, including two samples dated to the 15th century and one that dates to more than 3500 years ago. These ancient tree genomes open the possibility for investigating species adaptation, migration, divergence, and hybridisation in the deep past. They pave the way for what we hope will be a new era in the use of paleogenomics to study Holocene tree histories.


Assuntos
Quercus , Árvores , Árvores/genética , Genômica , Paleontologia , Madeira , Ecologia , Quercus/genética
15.
Curr Biol ; 34(2): 417-426.e4, 2024 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38215745

RESUMO

The richest and most diverse assemblage of early terrestrial tetrapods is preserved within the infilled cave system of Richards Spur, Oklahoma (289-286 Mya1). Some of the oldest-known terrestrial amniotes2,3 are exquisitely preserved here because of early impregnation and encasement of organic material by oil-seep hydrocarbons within rapidly deposited clay-rich cave sediments under toxic anoxic conditions.4 This phenomenon has also afforded the preservation of exceedingly rare integumentary soft tissues, reported here, providing critical first evidence into the anatomical changes marking the transition from the aquatic and semiaquatic lifestyles of anamniotes to the fully terrestrial lifestyles of early amniotes. This is the first record of a skin-cast fossil (3D carbonization of the skin proper) from the Paleozoic Era and the earliest known occurrence of epidermal integumentary structures. We also report on several compression fossils (carbonized skin impressions), all demonstrating similar external morphologies to extant crocodiles. A variety of previously unknown ossifications, as well as what are likely palpebral ossifications of the deeper dermis layer of the skin, are also documented. These fossils also serve as invaluable references for paleontological reconstructions. Chromatographic analysis of extractable hydrocarbons from bone and cave samples indicates that the source rock is the Devonian age Woodford Shale. Hydrocarbons derived from ancient marine organisms interacting with geologically younger terrestrial vertebrates have therefore resulted in the oldest-known preservation of amniote skin proper.


Assuntos
Pele , Vertebrados , Animais , Paleontologia , Fósseis , Hidrocarbonetos , Evolução Biológica
16.
Forensic Sci Int ; 355: 111934, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38277912

RESUMO

Accurately assessing the postmortem interval (PMI), or the time since death, remains elusive within forensic science research and application. This paper introduces geoFOR, a web-based collaborative application that utilizes ArcGIS and machine learning to deliver improved PMI predictions. The geoFOR application provides a standardized, collaborative forensic taphonomy database that gives practitioners a readily available tool to enter case information that automates the collection of environmental data and delivers a PMI prediction using statistically robust methods. After case submission, the cross-validating machine learning PMI predictive model results in a R² value of 0.82. Contributors receive a predicted PMI with an 80% confidence interval. The geoFOR database currently contains 2529 entries from across the U.S. and includes cases from medicolegal investigations and longitudinal studies from human decomposition facilities. We present the overall findings of the data collected so far and compare results from medicolegal cases and longitudinal studies to highlight previously poorly understood limitations involved in the difficult task of PMI estimation. This novel approach for building a reference dataset of human decomposition is forensically and geographically representative of the realities in which human remains are discovered which allows for continual improvement of PMI estimations as more data is captured. It is our goal that the geoFOR data repository follow the principles of Open Science and be made available to forensic researchers to test, refine, and improve PMI models. Mass collaboration and data sharing can ultimately address enduring issues associated with accurately estimating the PMI within medicolegal death investigations.


Assuntos
Paleontologia , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Humanos , Autopsia , Ciências Forenses , Estudos Longitudinais
17.
Am J Primatol ; 86(1): e23567, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37849067

RESUMO

The goal of this study is to provide a taphonomic analysis of bone fragments found in harpy eagle nests in the Brazilian Amazonia, utilizing the largest sample of prey remains collected to date. Harpy eagle kill samples were collected from nine nests, between June 2016 and December 2020 in Mato Grosso, Brazil. We identified the specimens, calculated the number of identified specimens (NISP) and minimum number of individuals (MNI). These metrics were used to estimate bone survivability and fragmentation. A total of 1661 specimens (NISP) were collected, representing a minimum number of 234 individuals (MNI). We identified at least nine species of primates, which represent 63.8% of the individuals in the kill sample. Harpy eagles preyed mostly on the medium-sized capuchin and bearded saki monkeys (28.2% of the MNI), and two-toed sloths (17.7% of the MNI). The large woolly monkeys also represented a significant portion of the sample (11.5% of the MNI). Three distinct patterns of bone survivability were found, one characterizing two-toed sloths, another characterizing medium-sized monkeys, and a third typical of woolly monkeys. We conclude that harpy eagle predation leaves an identifiable signature on the prey with a bone survivability pattern specific to each taxon. The intertaxon variations observed in the taphonomic signatures of harpy eagle kills should be taken into account when evaluating the potential influence of these raptors as accumulators of bone material in both paleontological and neontological assemblages.


Assuntos
Atelinae , Águias , Bichos-Preguiça , Animais , Paleontologia , Comportamento Predatório , Haplorrinos , Cebus
19.
Forensic Sci Int ; 354: 111881, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38000148

RESUMO

Bones are among the structures most likely to be recovered after death. However, the low quantity of preserved DNA and complex processing from sample to DNA profile make forensic DNA analysis of bones a challenging task. Raman spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), have the potential to be useful as screening tools for DNA analysis and in decomposition studies. The objective of this research was to assess the usefulness of such molecular investigations. Femur samples collected from 50 decomposing human bodies were subjected to Raman spectroscopy and GC/MS. Assessment of nuclear DNA quantity and short tandem repeat (STR) genotyping efficiency were also performed. Raman parameters (crystallinity, carbonate-to-phosphate ratio, mineral-to-matrix ratio) and detected lipids were recorded. Background fluorescence proved problematic for Raman analysis of forensic bones. Regardless, it was not associated with less preserved DNA or less detected STR alleles. Fatty acids, hydrocarbons, and five types of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were detected. The main phosphate peak position in Raman spectra was significantly correlated with preserved DNA (p = 0.03713), while significantly more STR alleles were detected in bones containing methyl hexadecenoate (p = 0.04236). Detection of FAMEs in the bone matrix suggests a reaction between methanol produced by bacteria and free fatty acids, which are not associated with the level of preservation of endogenous DNA. The techniques assessed have shown to be useful in molecular taphonomy studies and forensic genetics.


Assuntos
Genética Forense , Análise Espectral Raman , Humanos , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Paleontologia , DNA , Ácidos Graxos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Fosfatos
20.
J Hum Evol ; 186: 103465, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38064862

RESUMO

Olduvai Gorge in northern Tanzania is part of a globally important archeological and paleoanthropological World Heritage Site location critical to our understanding of modern human evolution. The Ndutu Beds in the upper part of the geological sequence at Olduvai Gorge represent the oldest unit to yield modern Homo sapiens skeletal material and Middle Stone Age technology. However, the timing of the deposition of the Ndutu Beds is poorly constrained at present, which limits our understanding of the paleoenvironments critical for contextualizing H. sapiens and related technologies in the Olduvai Basin. Using a suite of 15 luminescence ages of sedimentary core samples, combined with Bayesian statistics, this study provides a new higher-resolution age-depth model for the deposition of the uppermost Upper Ndutu and Naisiuiu Beds cored by the Olduvai Gorge Coring Project. The luminescence and modeled ages are presented as ±1 σ uncertainties. The Ndutu Beds intersected by the Olduvai Gorge Coring Project cores are dated to between 117.1 ± 17.9 and 45.3 ± 4.2 ka (between 125.9 ± 26.5 and 45.8 ± 8.2 ka modeled ages), while a probable overlying layer of Naisiusiu Beds dates to 23.7 ± 10.9 to 12.1 ± 1.7 ka (25.7 ± 18.9 ka and 12.0 ± 3.4 ka modeled age). Time-averaged accretion rates are derived during this time: (1) initially low rates (<5 cm ka-1) from the bottom of the core at 117.1 ± 17.9 ka up to 95.3 ± 11.1 ka (125.9 ± 26.5 to 95.5 ± 23.3 ka modeled ages); (2) the middle section spanning between 95.3 ± 11.1 and 62.7 ± 5.7 ka (95.5 ± 23.3 to 61.9 ± 10.4 ka modeled ages) with mean rates above 15 cm ka-1; and (3) the last 62.7 ± 5.7 ka (61.9 ± 10.4 ka modeled age) where the accretion rate reduces to below 5 cm ka-1. This reduction can be explained by the evolution of the gorge system that was likely driven by subsidence of the Olbalbal depression and changes in climate, particularly precipitation and resulting lake and base level changes. Older Upper Ndutu and Lower Ndutu Beds are contained within proto-gorges within the modern gorge system.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Paleontologia , Animais , Humanos , Fósseis , Tanzânia , Teorema de Bayes , Lagos , Tecnologia , Arqueologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA