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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130589, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311241

RESUMO

Bioactive plant-derived molecules have emerged as therapeutic alternatives in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. In this investigation, principal bioactive compounds of the herbal infusion "horchata" from Ecuador were studied as potential novel inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The chemical composition of horchata was determined through a HPLC-DAD/ESI-MSn and GC-MS analysis while the inhibitory potential of the compounds on SARS-CoV-2 was determined by a computational prediction using various strategies, such as molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations. Up to 51 different compounds were identified. The computational analysis of predicted targets reveals the compounds' possible anti-inflammatory (no steroidal) and antioxidant effects. Three compounds were identified as candidates for Mpro inhibition: benzoic acid, 2-(ethylthio)-ethyl ester, l-Leucine-N-isobutoxycarbonyl-N-methyl-heptyl and isorhamnetin and for PLpro: isorhamnetin-3-O-(6-Orhamnosyl-galactoside), dihydroxy-methoxyflavanone and dihydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxy-4-oxochromen-7-yl]oxy-3,4,5-trihydroxyoxane-2-carboxylic acid. Our results suggest the potential of Ecuadorian horchata infusion as a starting scaffold for the development of new inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and PLpro enzymes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Pandemias , Inibidores de Proteases , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Ann Lab Med ; 42(1): 71-78, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374351

RESUMO

Background: Seroprevalence studies of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases, including asymptomatic and past infections, are important to estimate the scale of the disease outbreak and to establish quarantine measures. We evaluated the clinical performance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody assays available in Korea for use in seroprevalence studies. Methods: The sensitivity, specificity, cross-reactivity, and interference of five SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays were evaluated using the following: 398 serum samples from confirmed COVID-19 patients, 510 negative control samples from before 2018 (pre-pandemic), 163 serum samples from patients with SARS, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and other viral infections, and five samples for the interference study. Results: The sensitivities of the five assays ranged from 92.2% to 98%, and their specificities, including cross-reactivity and interference, ranged from 97.5% to 100%. The agreement rates were excellent (kappa >0.9). Adjustment of the cutoff values could be considered through ROC curve analysis. The positive predictive values of the individual assays varied from 3.5% to 100% at a 0.1% prevalence but were as high as ≥95% when two assays were combined. Conclusions: The prevalence of COVID-19 in Korea is considered to be exceptionally low at present; thus, we recommend using a combination of two or more SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays rather than a single assay. These results could help select SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays for COVID-19 seroprevalence studies in Korea.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Humanos , Pandemias , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 282: 114574, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461187

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Gekko gecko is used as a traditional medicine for various diseases including respiratory disorders in northeast Asian countries, mainly Korea, Japan, and China. AIM OF THE STUDY: Allergic asthma is a chronic respiratory disease caused by an inappropriate immune response. Due to the recent spread of coronavirus disease 2019, interest in the treatment of pulmonary disorders has rapidly increased. In this study, we investigated the anti-asthmatic effects of G. gecko extract (GGE) using an established mouse model of ovalbumin-induced asthma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To evaluate the anti-asthmatic effects of GGE, we evaluated histological changes and the responses of inflammatory mediators related to allergic airway inflammation. Furthermore, we investigated the regulatory effects of GGE on type 2 helper T (Th2) cell activation. RESULTS: Administration of GGE attenuated asthmatic phenotypes, including inflammatory cell infiltration, mucus production, and expression of Th2 cytokines. Furthermore, GGE treatment reduced Th2 cell activation and differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that GGE alleviates allergic airway inflammation by regulating Th2 cell activation and differentiation.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional do Leste Asiático , Muco/metabolismo , Ovalbumina , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/patologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , COVID-19 , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pandemias , Células Th2/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th2/imunologia , Triptaminas/farmacologia
4.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107084, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507184

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous literature finds an increase in depressive symptoms, substance use, and suicidal ideation following the COVID-19 pandemic in the US - suicides do not appear to increase. We examine whether 1) state lockdown policies in the US precede an increase in mental health symptoms; and 2) the extent to which using substances amplifies or attenuates the relation. METHODS: We specified, as our exposure variable, the timing of state-level lockdown orders. We used, as the outcome variable, the 4-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-4) that measures anxiety and depression symptoms. We utilized the Understanding America Study (UAS), a nationally representative sample of 7,597 adults across 50 states in the US, surveyed biweekly between March 10, 2020 and November 11, 2020. Linear fixed effect analyses controlled for time-invariant individual factors, as well as employment status, household income, and previous mental health diagnosis. RESULTS: Regression results indicate an increase in PHQ-4 scores of approximately 1.70 during lockdown, relative to no lockdown (p < 0.05). Relative to no lockdown, an increase in alcohol use corresponds with a 0.08 unit decrease in PHQ-4 scores during lockdown (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: State lockdown policies precede greater mental health symptoms. Increases in consuming alcohol attenuates the relation between state lockdown policies and mental health symptoms. Results may portend greater addiction following the pandemic warranting further investigation into utilization of substance use treatment.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Suicídio , Adulto , Ansiedade , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Políticas , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107115, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loneliness is a widespread problem, with demonstrated negative health effects. However, prospective data on the relationship between loneliness and problematic substance use are lacking, and few studies have examined specific commonplace substances, such as alcohol and cannabis. This study used prospective data from a community sample of US adults with problematic alcohol or cannabis use to examine whether loneliness was a predictor of subsequent increased substance use. METHODS: Participants (N = 210) were recruited between 05/2016-06/2019 from a New York City medical center. At baseline, 3-month, and 6-month follow-ups, participants completed identical computerized questionnaires. We used generalized estimating equations to assess the average effect of past 2-week loneliness on subsequent number of days of alcohol or cannabis use, controlling for baseline days of use, demographic characteristics, and past 2-week DSM-5 depression. RESULTS: Compared with individuals who were never lonely, participants with moderate or severe loneliness had a significantly higher frequency of alcohol or cannabis use at the subsequent assessment (ß = 0.25 95% CI: 0.08-0.42). CONCLUSION: Individuals experiencing loneliness at least a few times in the past 2 weeks reported more days of subsequent alcohol or cannabis use compared with individuals who were not lonely. This is cause for concern, as national surveys of US adults indicate increasing rates of loneliness, depression and substance use during the COVID-19 pandemic. These results suggest the need for health care providers to screen for feelings of loneliness and potentially harmful coping behaviors such as substance use, and to offer healthier alternative coping strategies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Uso da Maconha , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Humanos , Solidão , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107092, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469783

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, people may use substances like cannabis for enhancement or coping purposes. Behavioral economic demand for a substance is a key determinant of its use and misuse and can be measured via hypothetical purchase tasks. Previous research suggests that motivations to use a substance play a mediational role between elevated substance demand and problems, but comparable mechanistic research has yet to be done in the COVID-19 context and on the effects of cannabis demand on cannabis use patterns. Participants (n = 137) were recruited via the online crowdsourcing platform Prolific. Participants completed measures of cannabis use and problems, motivations for cannabis use, and the Marijuana Purchase Task. Two indices of demand, Persistence (i.e., sensitivity to increasing cost of cannabis) and Amplitude (i.e., consumption of cannabis at unrestricted cost), were related to increased cannabis problems via the use motive of coping during the COVID-19 pandemic. This model did not support the mediational role of enhancement motives. Those with increased cannabis demand who tend to use cannabis to cope are at increased risk of experiencing negative cannabis-related consequences during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cannabis , Adaptação Psicológica , Humanos , Motivação , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Ann Ig ; 34(1): 45-53, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698761

RESUMO

Background: Tobacco products represent a major health risk factor and a potent way to help transmission of COVID-19. Current data regarding consumption of these products in the region are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate patterns of cigarette, hookah and other tobacco products consumption among undergraduate students from the University of Sarajevo before the COVID-19 outbreak in the country. Methods: This cross-sectional study based on a National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) was conducted among undergraduate students from the University of Sarajevo in Bosnia and Hercegovina via an online questionnaire from 22nd to 26th of January 2020. Results: Out of 605 students involved in the study, most of them were female (N=429, 70.9%); 363 (60.0%) were enrolled in medical sciences; 159 (26.3%) were attending the 3rd year of their curriculum; 224 (37%) were original from Canton Sarajevo and 514 (84.9%) were living in urban environment. Two hundred thirty five students out of 605 (38.8%) were current smokers and 117 (19.3%) hookah smokers. Being female (OR=0.539, 95% CI 0.368-0.790, p=0.002), in the 1st or 2nd year of study (OR=0.805, 95% CI 0.667-0.972, p=0.024) and living in a rural environment (OR=0.335, 95% CI 0.191-0.585, p<0.001) were associated with reduced risk of cigarette consumption, while older age (22+ years) (OR=1.287, 95% CI 1.122-1.476, p<0.001) increased the same risk. On the other side, being female (OR=0.595, 95% CI 0.380-0.930, p=0.023), of younger age (18-21 years) (OR=0.832, 95% CI 0.743-0.932, p=0.001) and medical science student (OR=0.567, 95% CI 0.328-0.978, p=0.041) were associated with decreased risk of consuming hookah. Conclusions: This study provides an insight in prevalence of smoking among students at the University of Sarajevo. More antismoking efforts are needed, especially in urban environments; and a follow-up study, to be planned in the near future, should determine whether COVID-19 pandemic (and all the modifications of lifestyles connected with it) have eventually changed tobacco consumption patterns among undergraduate students.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cachimbos de Água , Estudantes de Medicina , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bósnia e Herzegóvina/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hábitos , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Ann Ig ; 34(1): 27-44, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779676

RESUMO

Introduction: The Coronavirus pandemic (Covid-19) was first identified in December 2019 in the city of Wuhan, China, and later caused a severe health crisis, causing massive disruptions to most healthcare sy-stems worldwide. The Covid-19 health emergency has seen healthcare workers in the front line facing all the difficulties related to the care burden. One of the most significant and probably underinvestigated aspects is the psychological stress of the healthcare staff managing the emergency. The aim of the paper is to analyze the literature on the impact of the Covid-19 crisis on the psychological well-being of health professionals. Methodology: We conducted a systematic review of articles published on this topic during the months from January 2020 to December 2020, searching on Pub Med, Scopus and Web of Science databases. Results: Most of the issues can be summarized into five conceptual categories: Stress, Depression and Infec-tion Anxiety, Anguish, Insomnia, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Suicide. The literature identifies many factors contributing to the onset of anxiety, depression, and stress, like the fear of contracting the disease and transmitting it to family members and friends, stressful shifts, and little rest among several others. The literature highlights the needs for adequate measures, including proper psychological support. Conclusion: The conducted review suggests that the behaviours of healthcare professionals during the emer-gency phase of the Covid-19 pandemic show psychological disorders that can compromise mental health. Therefore, there is a call for those in chief like hospital managers and policymakers to take action, promoting measures like surveillance, monitoring, and psychological support among others, to increase the resilience of healthcare workers, limiting stress and anxiety and allowing them to keep their performance at work.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia
9.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118224, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600065

RESUMO

The consequence of the lockdowns implemented to address the COVID-19 pandemic on human health damage due to air pollution and other environmental issues must be better understood. This paper analyses the effect of reducing energy demand on the evolution of environmental impacts during the occurrence of 2020-lockdown periods in Italy, with a specific focus on life expectancy. An energy metabolism analysis is conducted based on the life cycle assessment (LCA) of all monthly energy consumptions, by sector, category and province area in Italy between January 2015 to December 2020. Results show a general decrease (by ∼5% on average) of the LCA midpoint impact categories (global warming, stratospheric ozone depletion, fine particulate matter formation, etc.) over the entire year 2020 when compared to past years. These avoided impacts, mainly due to reductions in fossil energy consumptions, are meaningful during the first lockdown phase between March and May 2020 (by ∼21% on average). Regarding the LCA endpoint damage on human health, ∼66 Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) per 100,000 inhabitants are estimated to be saved. The analysis shows that the magnitude of the officially recorded casualties is substantially larger than the estimated gains in human lives due to the environmental impact reductions. Future research could therefore investigate the complex cause-effect relationships between the deaths occurred in 2020 imputed to COVID-19 disease and co-factors other than the SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Meio Ambiente , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Itália , Expectativa de Vida , Pandemias , Material Particulado/análise , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether children receiving immunosuppressive therapies for neuroimmunologic disorders had (1) increased susceptibility to SARS-CoV2 infection or to develop more severe forms of COVID-19; (2) increased relapses or autoimmune complications if infected; and (3) changes in health care delivery during the pandemic. METHODS: Patients with and without immunosuppressive treatment were recruited to participate in a retrospective survey evaluating the period from March 14, 2020, to March 30, 2021. Demographics, clinical features, type of immunosuppressive treatment, suspected or confirmed COVID-19 in the patients or cohabitants, and changes in care delivery were recorded. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-three children were included: 84 (55%) female, median age 13 years (interquartile range [8-16] years), 79 (52%) on immunosuppressive treatment. COVID-19 was suspected or confirmed in 17 (11%) (all mild), with a frequency similar in patients with and without immunosuppressive treatment (11/79 [14%] vs 6/74 [8%], p = 0.3085). The frequency of neurologic relapses was similar in patients with (18%) and without (21%) COVID-19. Factors associated with COVID-19 included having cohabitants with COVID-19 (p < 0.001) and lower blood levels of vitamin D (p = 0.039). Return to face-to-face schooling or mask type did not influence the risk of infection, although 43(28%) children had contact with a classmate with COVID-19. Clinic visits changed from face to face to remote for 120 (79%) patients; 110 (92%) were satisfied with the change. DISCUSSION: In this cohort of children with neuroimmunologic disorders, the frequency of COVID-19 was low and not affected by immunosuppressive therapies. The main risk factors for developing COVID-19 were having cohabitants with COVID-19 and low vitamin D levels.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/imunologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adolescente , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Criança , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Máscaras/virologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/virologia , Pandemias , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vitamina D/sangue
11.
Thorac Surg Clin ; 32(1): 43-49, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801194

RESUMO

The many socioeconomic disparities in the myriad of diagnoses that make up benign lung diseases are unfortunately a global issue that was most recently highlighted by the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020. In this chapter, we will be reviewing the socioeconomic disparities in benign lung disease from both a United States perspective as well as a global perspective. We will cover the spectrum of infectious, obstructive, and restrictive lung disease and review the evidence on how social disparities affect these populations and their access to medical care.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pneumopatias , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
J Palliat Care ; 37(1): 34-40, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410180

RESUMO

Objectives: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services requirements for Emergency Preparedness Planning (EPP) by hospice organizations significantly increased in 2017. This study seeks to assess the involvement of various hospice personnel in EPP before and since the onset of the novel coronavirus disease COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A link to an anonymous online survey was sent to members of the American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine and the Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association, targeting members involved in hospice care in the United States. A descriptive analysis of the data was performed. Results: Prior to the pandemic, 39.8% of respondents were "moderately" or "very" involved with the development and revisions of the Emergency Preparedness Plan. Since the beginning of the pandemic, this increased to 59%, which largely occurred among physicians. Clinical Nurse and Nurse Practitioner involvement in development/revisions remained low. Approximately 30% of respondents desired more involvement across the areas of EPP. Conclusion: The involvement of personnel of various disciplines is varied and the involvement of physicians appears to have increased with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. A notable portion of personnel desired more involvement across all aspects of EPP. More research is needed in this important but little-understood area.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida , Hospitais para Doentes Terminais , Idoso , Humanos , Medicare , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
13.
Int J Health Serv ; 52(1): 47-60, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423602

RESUMO

Since the outbreak of the SARS epidemic in 2003, the Chinese government has increased inputs to bolster the health care system. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the geographic maldistribution of health resources in China. We examine the spatial and temporal variation of the SARS epidemic using a difference-in-differences strategy. Our empirical results show that, compared with cities without SARS case reports, exogenous health shocks significantly increased the affected cities' medical resources supply. We provide multiple robustness tests to examine the validity of the main findings. Further study shows that the mechanism is because the SARS event increased the financial autonomy of the epidemic-affected cities, thus providing an incentive for local governments to increase health resources. Meanwhile, health shocks have little influence on the regions with only imported cases than the infected area. These findings provide a possible explanation for the inequality in the distribution of health resources.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Int J Health Serv ; 52(1): 168-173, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668424

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has wrought fundamental changes in the US workplace, placing employer-sponsored health insurance (ESI) in disarray. Before the pandemic, ESI was the single largest share of private health insurance in the country, including some 150 million Americans. Even before the pandemic, however, ESI had become increasingly volatile and more unaffordable for both employers and employees. During the pandemic, many workers found that they could work at home remotely. Job losses during the pandemic left many millions uninsured, with many jobs lost indefinitely. Today, many Americans are rethinking how and where they want to be involved in the workplace, while many businesses are considering a future when more people are working from home or being replaced by robots, placing ESI in further jeopardy. This article brings historical perspective to these problems, showing how the private health insurance industry has failed the public interest by being too fragmented and unreliable to be afforded or depended upon. Three major reform alternatives are described, only 1 of which-single-payer improved Medicare for All-can provide stable universal coverage that meets the needs of all Americans while being affordable for patients, families, and taxpayers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Planos de Assistência de Saúde para Empregados , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Seguro Saúde , Medicare , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Medicina Estatal , Estados Unidos , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149932, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of infectious disease transmission in public washrooms causes concern particularly in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. This systematic review aims to assess the risk of transmission of viral or bacterial infections through inhalation, surface contact, and faecal-oral routes in public washrooms in healthcare and non-healthcare environments. METHODS: We systematically reviewed environmental sampling, laboratory, and epidemiological studies on viral and bacterial infection transmission in washrooms using PubMed and Scopus. The review focused on indoor, publicly accessible washrooms. RESULTS: Thirty-eight studies from 13 countries were identified, including 14 studies carried out in healthcare settings, 10 in laboratories or experimental chambers, and 14 studies in restaurants, workplaces, commercial and academic environments. Thirty-three studies involved surface sampling, 15 air sampling, 8 water sampling, and 5 studies were risk assessments or outbreak investigations. Infectious disease transmission was studied in relation with: (a) toilets with flushing mechanisms; (b) hand drying systems; and (c) water taps, sinks and drains. A wide range of enteric, skin and soil bacteria and enteric and respiratory viruses were identified in public washrooms, potentially posing a risk of infection transmission. Studies on COVID-19 transmission only examined washroom contamination in healthcare settings. CONCLUSION: Open-lid toilet flushing, ineffective handwashing or hand drying, substandard or infrequent surface cleaning, blocked drains, and uncovered rubbish bins can result in widespread bacterial and/or viral contamination in washrooms. However, only a few cases of infectious diseases mostly related to faecal-oral transmission originating from washrooms in restaurants were reported. Although there is a risk of microbial aerosolisation from toilet flushing and the use of hand drying systems, we found no evidence of airborne transmission of enteric or respiratory pathogens, including COVID-19, in public washrooms. Appropriate hand hygiene, surface cleaning and disinfection, and washroom maintenance and ventilation are likely to minimise the risk of infectious disease transmission.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Toaletes
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149911, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525745

RESUMO

COVID-19 global pandemic, originated from Wuhan, resulted in a massive increase in the output of polypropylene (PP)-based personal protective equipment (PPE) for healthcare workers. The continuous demand of PPE across the world caused the PP based plastic wastes accumulation. Some alternative approaches that have been practiced apart from collecting the plastic waste in the landfills are incineration approach and open burning. However, there were many drawbacks of these practices, which promote the release of chemical additives and greenhouse gases into the environment. Therefore, a proper approach in treating the plastic wastes, which introduces conversion of plastic wastes into renewable energy is paramount. Along the way of extensive research and studies, the recovery of PP plastic to fuel-like liquid oil and solid char through thermal decomposition of pyrolysis process, helps in reducing the number of PP plastic wastes and produces good quality pyrolysis liquid oil and solid char to be used in fuel applications. This paper summarizes the pyrolysis process for massively produced PP plastic wastes, type of pyrolysis used and the main pyrolysis parameters affecting the product yields. Literature studies of pyrolysis of PP plastic and several key points to optimize solid char production for PP were thoroughly elaborated in this review paper.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Humanos , Pandemias , Plásticos , Polipropilenos , Pirólise , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149834, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525746

RESUMO

A viral outbreak is a global challenge that affects public health and safety. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been spreading globally, affecting millions of people worldwide, and led to significant loss of lives and deterioration of the global economy. The current adverse effects caused by the COVID-19 pandemic demands finding new detection methods for future viral outbreaks. The environment's transmission pathways include and are not limited to air, surface water, and wastewater environments. The wastewater surveillance, known as wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE), can potentially monitor viral outbreaks and provide a complementary clinical testing method. Another investigated outbreak surveillance technique that has not been yet implemented in a sufficient number of studies is the surveillance of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the air. Artificial intelligence (AI) and its related machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) technologies are currently emerging techniques for detecting viral outbreaks using global data. To date, there are no reports that illustrate the potential of using WBE with AI to detect viral outbreaks. This study investigates the transmission pathways of SARS-CoV-2 in the environment and provides current updates on the surveillance of viral outbreaks using WBE, viral air sampling, and AI. It also proposes a novel framework based on an ensemble of ML and DL algorithms to provide a beneficial supportive tool for decision-makers. The framework exploits available data from reliable sources to discover meaningful insights and knowledge that allows researchers and practitioners to build efficient methods and protocols that accurately monitor and detect viral outbreaks. The proposed framework could provide early detection of viruses, forecast risk maps and vulnerable areas, and estimate the number of infected citizens.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Inteligência Artificial , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , SARS-CoV-2 , Águas Residuárias , Vigilância Epidemiológica Baseada em Águas Residuárias
18.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 35-40, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to significant mental health consequences for frontline health care workers (FHCWs). However, no known study has examined the prevalence, determinants, or correlates of posttraumatic growth (PTG) in this population. METHODS: Data were analyzed from a prospective cohort of FHCWs at an urban tertiary care hospital in New York City (NYC). Assessments were conducted during the spring 2020 pandemic peak (Wave 1) and seven months later (Wave 2). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify Wave 1 sociodemographic, occupational, and psychosocial factors associated with PTG at Wave 2, and the association between aspects of PTG with burnout and pandemic-related PTSD symptoms at Wave 2. RESULTS: A total 76.8% of FHCWs endorsed moderate or greater PTG; the most prevalent domains were increased appreciation of life (67.0%), improved relationships (48.7%), and greater personal strength (44.1%). Non-White race/ethnicity, greater levels of positive emotions, pandemic-related PTSD symptoms, dispositional gratitude, and feelings of inspiration were independently associated with PTG. At Wave 2, endorsement of spiritual growth during the pandemic was associated with 52% and 44% lower odds of screening positive for pandemic-related PTSD symptoms and burnout, respectively; greater improvement in relationships was associated with 36% lower odds of screening positive for burnout. LIMITATIONS: Single institution study and use of self-report instruments. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly 4-of-5 FHCWs report pandemic-related PTG, driven largely by salutogenic factors assessed during the pandemic surge. Interventions to bolster these factors may help promote PTG and mitigate risk for burnout and pandemic-related PTSD symptoms in this population.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Crescimento Psicológico Pós-Traumático , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
19.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 49-58, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is accumulating evidence about detrimental impacts of the pandemic on population mental health, but knowledge on risk of groups specifically affected by the pandemic and variations across time is still limited. METHODS: We surveyed approximately n=1,000 Austrian residents in 12 waves between April and December 2020 (n=12,029). Outcomes were suicidal ideation (Beck Suicidal Ideation Scale), depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), anxiety (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale), and domestic violence. We also assessed the perceived burden from the pandemic. Demographic and Covid-19 specific occupational and morbidity-related variables were used to explain outcomes in multivariable regression analyses, controlling for well-established risk factors of mental ill-health, and variations over time were analyzed. RESULTS: Young age, working in healthcare or from home, and own Covid-19 illness were consistent risk factors controlling for a wide range of known mental health risk factors. Time patterns in the perceived burden from Covid-19-related measures were consistent with the time sequence of restrictions and relaxations of governmental measures. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were relatively stable over time, with some increase of depression during the second phase of lockdowns. Domestic violence increased immediately after both hard lockdowns. Suicidal ideation decreased slightly over time, with a low during the second hard lockdown. Mental health indicators for women and young people showed some deterioration over time, whereas those reporting own Covid-19 illness improved. LIMITATIONS: Data from before the pandemic were not available. CONCLUSIONS: Among mental health outcomes, increases in domestic violence and, to some smaller extent, depressive symptoms, appeared most closely related to the timing of hard lockdowns. Healthcare staff, individuals working from home, those with Covid-19, as well as young people and women are non-traditional risk groups who warrant heightened attention in prevention during and in the aftermath of the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , RNA Viral , Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Áustria , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 59-66, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe psychological and psychosocial consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic are expected, especially for people already vulnerable to biological or psychosocial stressors, including those with mental health problems. The study aimed to investigate factors associated with the loss of jobs and unemployment during the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, we investigated whether mental illness was associated with a higher risk of losing one's job because of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Nineteen thousand four hundred ninety-six adults living in Italy were administered an online protocol including a sociodemographic checklist and questionnaires investigating suicide ideation and risk, mental health status and general distress (stress, anxiety, and depression), resilience, and perceived support. RESULTS: One thousand two hundred seventy-four reported having lost their job because of the COVID-19 pandemic, and 5.4% of the sample reported a mental illness (mostly a depressive disorder). Unemployment was independently associated with mental illness, poor mental health, and depression. Mental illness was associated with the risk of losing one's job because of the COVID-19 pandemic, but not at the multivariate analyses. Those who lost their job because of the COVID-19 pandemic (compared to others) reported worse mental health and depression. LIMITATIONS: The presence of mental illness was self-reported by respondents and the administered measures were self-reported questionnaires affected by social desirability and other response bias. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic and social isolation measures and lockdown used to contain its spread among the Italian population were associated with occupational insecurity, especially among the more vulnerable social categories.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Mentais , Adulto , Ansiedade , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Depressão , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Desemprego
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