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1.
Microsc Res Tech ; 85(8): 2795-2800, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35396787

RESUMO

This study aimed to analyze the morphology of the tongue, which varies among fish species and has not been studied in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), using macro-anatomical, light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As research materials, the tongues of eight adult turbot, which were used for consumption, were examined. The roughly triangular-shaped tongue of the turbot consisted of three parts: apex, body, and root. The thickness of the tongue continued to increase from the apex to the root. Although papillae were not observed in the macroscopic examination of the tongue, microscopic examination revealed the presence of cone-like shaped papillae on the submucosa. The tongue was composed of mucosa, submucosa, and hyaline cartilage. By SEM the presence of the taste buds (Types I and III), taste pores and papillae on the dorsal surface were demonstrated. Taste buds are the first descriptions in S. maximus. Therefore our results could add new data to the fish tongue anatomy. HIGHLIGHTS: Morphological and morphometric data of the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) tongue were obtained in this study and compared with other species. In addition, the dorsal surface of the turbot tongue was described for the first time using SEM.


Assuntos
Linguados , Papilas Gustativas , Animais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Papilas Gustativas/ultraestrutura , Língua/anatomia & histologia
2.
Microsc Res Tech ; 85(6): 2192-2205, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35141973

RESUMO

The current investigation described the ultrastructural and histological features of the lingual papillary system in 14 adult Rhinopoma hardwickii using scanning electron and light microscopy, and immunohistochemical staining of keratin. Three types of lingual papillae were recognized; one filiform mechanical and two gustatory (fungiform and circumvallate) of three directions: posterior, posteromedian, and median. Five filiform papillae subtypes were observed in four regions. The lingual tip had numerous giant filiform papillae. The lingual root was divided into two regions, an anterior papillary and a posterior non-papillary region that had only three circumvallate papillae in a triangular pattern. Histologically, the papillae exhibited detached thick keratin that spread over the dorsal epithelial surface. The dorsal surface of the root had stratified keratinized circumvallate papillae. Concerning the pan-cytokeratin (CK) antibody staining, moderate CK expression was observed in the superficial corneal layer of the apical lingual mucosa. While the superficial corneal cell layer in both body and root exhibited increasing of CK antibody. Morphometrically, there was a significantly increased, region-specific number of triangular, pointed filiform papillae, which were relatively increased in length and width. However, the round conical blunt filiform papillae and fungiform papillae were sparse. We concluded that our results showed distinguished adaptations in the lingual structure and its different papillae established on the nutritional and energetic demand of this bat species. This lingual adaptation is summarized in number, position, taste buds, direction, ultrastructural features, and histological that concerned with its ability in eating during the night flight. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS: Three types of lingual papillae; one mechanical (filiform) and two gustatory (fungiform and circumvallate) in which there were three circumvallate papillae on the posterior part of the lingual root in a triangular arrangement with an irregular surface, but the filiform papillae had five subtypes arranged in four regions. The lingual root was divided into two regions, an anterior papillary region and a posterior non-papillary region that only had three circumvallate papillae. Concerning staining with a pan-cytokeratin (CK) antibody, moderate CK expression was observed in the superficial corneal layer of the lingual mucosa of the tongue apex while the superficial corneal cell layer of the body and root exhibited increased expression of the CK antibody compared to the lingual apex.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Papilas Gustativas , Animais , Egito , Queratinas , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Papilas Gustativas/ultraestrutura , Língua/ultraestrutura
3.
Microsc Res Tech ; 85(5): 1915-1925, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35040229

RESUMO

The present investigation represents the first morphological description of the oropharyngeal cavity of Eurasian common moorhen. Nine oropharyngeal cavities were examined grossly and by stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations. The tongue had a rounded apex with multiple acicular processes on its rostral and lateral borders. The dorsal lingual surface of the apex and body had a median sulcus. The papillary crest carried four caudally directed triangular conical papillae on its median part and four triangular conical papillae on each lateral part. The filiform papillary system; small papillae on apex and long papillae on the rostral part of the body while broad papillae on the caudal part of the body. The lingual root had a special appearance by presence of three areas: mucosal fossa, two lateral ridges, and rhomboidal elevated central part. The caudal border of the mound carried heart-shaped pharyngeal papillae that possessed three papillary rows. The palate had a median palatine ridge rostrally that surrounded by two lateral palatine ridges. The choanae had two equal parts: rostral tapering and wide caudal. The rostral tapering choanal part was surrounded by two longitudinal rows of caudally directed conical papillae, one on each side. There was a single transverse row of conical papillae on each side of the caudal part of the rostral tapering choanal part. The caudal wide choanal part did not encircle by any papillae. Our conclusion exhibited unique structural and functional specifications of the oropharyngeal cavity with the tongue that evident with nutritional behavior.


Assuntos
Papilas Gustativas , Animais , Aves/anatomia & histologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Orofaringe/anatomia & histologia , Papilas Gustativas/ultraestrutura , Língua/anatomia & histologia
4.
J Neurosci ; 42(5): 804-816, 2022 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34876471

RESUMO

Taste buds contain multiple cell types, two of which mediate transduction of specific taste qualities: Type III cells transduce sour while Type II cells transduce either sweet, or bitter or umami. In order to discern the degree of interaction between different cell types and specificity of connectivity with the afferent nerve fibers (NFs), we employed serial blockface scanning electron microscopy (sbfSEM) through five circumvallate mouse taste buds. Points of contact between Type II and Type III cells are rare and lack morphologically identifiable synapses, suggesting that interaction between these cell types does not occur via synapses. Of the 127 NFs that make synaptic contacts with taste cells in the sampling volume, ∼70% (n = 91) synapse with only one taste cell while 32 fibers synapse exclusively with multiple Type II cells or multiple Type III cells. Our data do not rule out multimodal fibers innervating Type II cells of separate taste qualities. Notably, four fibers (∼3%) synapse with both Type II and Type III cells, forming both mitochondrial and vesicular synapses on the different cell types. Since Type II and Type III cells transduce different taste qualities, these dual connected fibers are not consistent with a absolute labeled-line encoding system. Further, our data reveal considerable variation in both the number of synapses per cell/nerve pair and the number of innervating NFs per taste cell, both of which likely have consequences for encoding taste quality and concentration. Finally, we identify a subset of Type II cells which may represent an immature stage.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Taste buds, the sensory end organs for the sense of taste, contain multiple types of sensory cells, with each responding to one of the primary tastes: salt, sweet, sour, bitter, and umami. In order to determine the degree of interaction between cell types and specificity of connectivity to afferent nerves, we employed serial blockface electron microscopy (EM) of mouse circumvallate taste buds. We find no synapses between cell types within the taste bud suggesting that any interactions are indirect. While the majority of nerve fibers (NFs) connect to a single type of taste cell, 3.1% of the fibers branch to receive input from taste cells of different specificities. Thus, taste cannot entirely be carried along NFs dedicated to single taste qualities.


Assuntos
Conectoma/métodos , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/ultraestrutura , Papilas Gustativas/fisiologia , Papilas Gustativas/ultraestrutura , Paladar/fisiologia , Animais , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Sinapses/fisiologia , Sinapses/ultraestrutura
5.
Folia Morphol (Warsz) ; 81(2): 394-399, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to reveal the morphological aspects of the tongue and investigate the histologic and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) findings of the papillae on the tongue of the European badger. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two adult European badgers were used as material. The tongues of the European badgers were removed via the dissection method, and morphometric measurements were taken. The tongues were fixed in 10% buffered formalin solution for histological examination, and the SEM procedure was applied to the tongues. RESULTS: Three types of papillae were observed on the tongues: filiform, fungiform, vallate papillae. The different shapes (hook or conical structures) of filiform papillae were observed on the whole tongue. Fungiform papillae were found scattered in filiform papillae. Six vallate papillae were found on the dorsal face of the middle and root of the tongues. In the root of the tongue, the lingual tonsil was observed in the lentiform shape. CONCLUSIONS: The authors believe that this research will provide contributions to morphological knowledge about the tongue of the badger, which is a poorly known species.


Assuntos
Mustelidae , Papilas Gustativas , Animais , Duodeno , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Papilas Gustativas/ultraestrutura , Língua/ultraestrutura
6.
J Neurosci ; 41(22): 4850-4866, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875572

RESUMO

Taste neurons are functionally and molecularly diverse, but their morphologic diversity remains completely unexplored. Using sparse cell genetic labeling, we provide the first reconstructions of peripheral taste neurons. The branching characteristics across 96 taste neurons show surprising diversity in their complexities. Individual neurons had 1-17 separate arbors entering between one and seven taste buds, 18 of these neurons also innervated non-taste epithelia. Axon branching characteristics are similar in gustatory neurons from male and female mice. Cluster analysis separated the neurons into four groups according to branch complexity. The primary difference between clusters was the amount of the nerve fiber within the taste bud available to contact taste-transducing cells. Consistently, we found that the maximum number of taste-transducing cells capable of providing convergent input onto individual gustatory neurons varied with a range of 1-22 taste-transducing cells. Differences in branching characteristics across neurons indicate that some neurons likely receive input from a larger number of taste-transducing cells than other neurons (differential convergence). By dividing neurons into two groups based on the type of taste-transducing cell most contacted, we found that neurons contacting primarily sour transducing cells were more heavily branched than those contacting primarily sweet/bitter/umami transducing cells. This suggests that neuron morphologies may differ across functional taste quality. However, the considerable remaining variability within each group also suggests differential convergence within each functional taste quality. Each possibility has functional implications for the system.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Taste neurons are considered relay cells, communicating information from taste-transducing cells to the brain, without variation in morphology. By reconstructing peripheral taste neuron morphologies for the first time, we found that some peripheral gustatory neurons are simply branched, and can receive input from only a few taste-transducing cells. Other taste neurons are heavily branched, contacting many more taste-transducing cells than simply branched neurons. Based on the type of taste-transducing cell contacted, branching characteristics are predicted to differ across (and within) quality types (sweet/bitter/umami vs sour). Therefore, functional differences between neurons likely depends on the number of taste-transducing cells providing input and not just the type of cell providing input.


Assuntos
Axônios/ultraestrutura , Imageamento Tridimensional , Papilas Gustativas/ultraestrutura , Animais , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Camundongos , Microscopia Confocal
7.
J Comp Neurol ; 529(9): 2227-2242, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319419

RESUMO

Taste buds, the receptor organs for taste, contain 50-100 taste bud cells. Although these cells undergo continuous turnover, the structural and functional integrity of taste buds is maintained. The molecular mechanisms by which synaptic connectivity between taste buds and afferent fibers is formed and maintained remain ambiguous. In the present study, we examined the localization of N-cadherin in the taste buds of the mouse circumvallate papillae because N-cadherin, one of the classical cadherins, is important for the formation and maintenance of synapses. At the light microscopic level, N-cadherin was predominantly detected in type II cells and nerve fibers in the connective tissues in and around the vallate papillae. At the ultrastructural level, N-cadherin immunoreactivity appears along the cell membrane and in the intracellular vesicles of type II cells. N-cadherin immunoreactivity also is evident in the membranes of afferent terminals at the contact sites to N-cadherin-positive type II cells. At channel type synapses between type II cells and nerve fibers, N-cadherin is present surrounding, but not within, the presumed neurotransmitter release zone, identified by large mitochondria apposed to the taste cells. The present results suggest that N-cadherin is important for the formation or maintenance of type II cell afferent synapses in taste buds.


Assuntos
Caderinas/análise , Caderinas/ultraestrutura , Papilas Gustativas/química , Papilas Gustativas/ultraestrutura , Animais , Caderinas/biossíntese , Membrana Celular/química , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Papilas Gustativas/metabolismo
8.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 49(6): 848-858, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32705711

RESUMO

The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792) is a fish commercially farmed all over the world. These fish are usually fed, in aquaculture, with pellets rich in proteins and fat. It is well known that there are close relationships among the adaptation of vertebrates to their environment, the capacity and the modality of feeding and the oral cavity morphology, especially the tongue one. No data are so far available about the morphology of the rainbow trout tongue, and therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate by light, scanning electron and confocal laser microscopy, the morphological characteristics of the tongue. An apex, a body and a root can be distinguished in the tongue, and the presence of teeth, taste buds and fungiform-like papillae was demonstrated. Light microscopy shows the presence of an adipose tissue pad in the deeper layer of the apex and in the most superficial layer of the root. In the deeper layer of the body, a triangular-shaped pad consisting of fusiform cells immersed in abundant extracellular matrix of the mesenchymal tissue was observed. The confocal laser microscopy shows the presence of cells with a fibroblast-like morphology positive for vimentin. In the deepest layer of the tongue root, a large area of osteo-cartilaginous tissue was observed. The results, besides the description of the morphological characteristics of the tongue, related to studies regarding the feeding, could be considered for the eventual applications of the use of mesenchymal cells, observed in adult fish, in cell therapies in different pathologies.


Assuntos
Oncorhynchus mykiss/anatomia & histologia , Língua/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Compostos Azo , Corantes , Amarelo de Eosina-(YS) , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Verde de Metila , Microscopia Confocal/veterinária , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , Papilas Gustativas/ultraestrutura , Língua/química , Língua/ultraestrutura
9.
Eur J Histochem ; 64(2)2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32368874

RESUMO

The present study aimed to describe the structural and ultrastructural morphological characteristics of the lingual epithelium and the connective tissue cores (CTCs) of wild boar (Sus scrofa). The tongues were processed for light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. In this study, we revealed the filiform, fungiform, foliate, and vallate papillae. The filiform papilla is elongated with a conical shape and its CTC has a conical shape; the fungiform papilla is rounded with a dome-shape and its CTC is flower bud; the foliate papilla is formed by four pairs of epithelial folds and irregular grooves, and its CTC is thin with adjacent conjunctive projections, and taste buds and serous glands in the epithelial layer have been evidenced; and the vallate papilla is oval surrounded by a groove with increases of epithelium surface, and the CTC is formed by numerous connective projections lined. Also noted were serous gland and taste buds on the medial wall of the vallate papilla. The epithelium has the keratinized, granular, spinous, basal, and lamina propria layers. In conclusion, we found new descriptions and shapes of the CTCs of the lingual papillae. In addition, we demonstrated the epithelium structural characteristics, the nuclear distribution between the epithelial layers, and the ultrastructural aspects of the dorsal epithelium of the tongue.


Assuntos
Mucosa Bucal/ultraestrutura , Sus scrofa/anatomia & histologia , Papilas Gustativas/ultraestrutura , Animais , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão
10.
Microsc Res Tech ; 83(9): 1095-1102, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306484

RESUMO

The current study was done to provide comprehensive information on the anatomical features of the lips and cheeks of the goat by gross examination and morphometric analysis in addition to scanning electron microscope (SEM). Samples from 12 normal healthy adult goat's heads of both sexes were collected directly after slaughtering. The lips and cheeks were dissected, and specimens were collected for both light and SEM. The lips of goat were soft and mobile. The free border of both lips was characterized rostrally by the presence of labial projections. The number, size, and arrangement of labial projections differed in the upper and lower lips. On the other hand, the buccal papillae were arranged into 6-8 longitudinal rows parallel to the cheek teeth. The length of these papillae decreased caudally while they were absent on the most caudal part of the cheek. Presence of several types and shapes of labial projections and papillae, and buccal papillae suggest a high degree of mechanical adaptation of the lips and cheeks of the goat. This study provides baseline data for clinical studies. This study is the first report to shed light on the morphology of the lips and cheeks of the goat by gross and scanning electron microscopy.


Assuntos
Bochecha/anatomia & histologia , Cabras/anatomia & histologia , Lábio/citologia , Lábio/ultraestrutura , Papilas Gustativas/citologia , Papilas Gustativas/ultraestrutura , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
11.
Anat Sci Int ; 95(4): 455-469, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323219

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the postnatal morphological features of rabbit's lingual gustatory papillae using histological, histochemical, morphometrical and scanning electron microscopical studies. A total of 48 New Zealand rabbits (1, 7, 15, 23, 30, 60 days postnatal) were used as the material. Tongue consisted of an apex, body and root with three types of gustatory papillae fungiform, vallate and foliate. Rounded to oval fungiform papillae were distributed on lingual apex among filiform papillae. Two foliate papillae on lateroposterior side have parallel folia increased progressively in number (14-20) with age advancement. Two oval vallate papillae on lingual root surrounded by annular grooves. Histologically, the gustatory papillary epithelium was thin at birth then increased in stratification and cornification from third to fourth week. Vallate and foliate grooves were shallow in newborns then grew deeply by desquamation of their lining epithelium which completely opened and connected with lingual excretory ducts at 23 days. Developing serous von Ebner's glands appeared at 23 days and became lobulated form 1-2 months. They gave a negative reaction with Periodic Acid Schiff-Alcian blue stain, while mucous Weber's glands showed Alcian blue positive reaction. Taste buds were firstly seen at 15 days old, increased in number and size and became mature with taste pores from third to fourth week. They distributed dorsally on fungiform and on lateral sides of vallate and foliate. This structural adaptation and maturity of gustatory papillae to meet the functional demands of food ingestion during the transition from suckling to dry matter feeding.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/anatomia & histologia , Coelhos/anatomia & histologia , Papilas Gustativas/ultraestrutura , Língua/ultraestrutura , Animais , Microscopia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Papilas Gustativas/anatomia & histologia , Papilas Gustativas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
Microsc Res Tech ; 83(9): 1045-1055, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282997

RESUMO

The present study aims to compare the morphology of the oropharyngeal roof of young and adult domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica) by gross observation, morphometric measurements, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The oropharyngeal roof was divided into the palate and pharyngeal roof. The palate was narrow triangular in shape and concave along its length. It could be divided into a rostral part contained three longitudinal palatine ridges and a caudal part contained the choanal slit. The choanal slit consisted of narrow rostral and wide caudal parts. The edges of the narrow part were encircled by small caudomedially directed papillae. On the contrary, the edges of the wide part of slit were free from papillae. By SEM, the palatal mucosa in young pigeon showed primordia of small papillae which increased in number and size forming a longitudinal row of papillae parallel to the edges of the rostral narrow part of slit in adult pigeon. The surface of the pharyngeal roof appeared smooth in young pigeon, while in adult pigeon, it showed dome-shaped elevations. The infundibular cleft had smooth edges. The caudal part of the pharyngeal roof formed an elevated transverse mucosal fold on which a transverse row of conical-shaped papillae was present. In conclusion, our results documented the presence of some differences between the oropharyngeal roof of young and adult pigeon, which suggest a high degree of functional adaptation in adult pigeon to their diet compared to young pigeon. Such adaptations might increase the efficiency of food prehension in adult pigeon. The present study compared the morphology of the oropharyngeal roof of young and adult domestic pigeon by gross observation, morphometry, and scanning electron microscopy. The morphometrical data showed higher values in adult pigeon compared to young pigeon. The palatal mucosa and the pharyngeal roof of adult pigeon showed papillae and elevations that were not present in young pigeon. Our results suggest a high degree of functional adaptation in adult pigeon to their diet compared to young pigeon. Such adaptations might increase the efficiency of food prehension in adult pigeon.


Assuntos
Columbidae/anatomia & histologia , Mucosa Bucal/ultraestrutura , Orofaringe/anatomia & histologia , Orofaringe/ultraestrutura , Palato/anatomia & histologia , Palato/ultraestrutura , Papilas Gustativas/ultraestrutura , Animais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Mucosa Bucal/citologia , Orofaringe/citologia , Palato/citologia , Papilas Gustativas/citologia
13.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 49(3): 351-358, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004395

RESUMO

The tayra (Eira barbara) is a mammal belonging to the Mustelidae family that occurs in all Brazilian biomes. The present work aimed to describe the morphology of the tongue of these specimens highlighting their structures and particularities that will serve as a subsidy to elucidate the anatomy of the same and for comparative studies among other species of domestic and wild animals. Five adult male specimens of E. barbara were studied, which were fixed using 10% aqueous formaldehyde solution. The tongue was removed by opening the oral cavity and separating the maxillary/mandible bone complex. Being in possession of the material, photodocumentations and collection of the fragments were made for the proper preparation of histological slides and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The lingual papillae found in tayra were mechanical: filiform and conical; and gustative: fungiform and circumvallated. Histologically, the papillae are constituted by keratinized stratified epithelium and in the innermost region, it was composed of tissue connective dense unshaped followed by a layer of muscle bundles of skeletal striated. In the region of the root of the tongue of E. barbara, there were a set of small mixed salivary glands (serous and mucous) and the punctual presence of gustatory corpuscles at the level of epithelium. The morphological description of the E. barbara tongue revealed similarity to that described in literature for other domestic and wild mammals. However, the particularity of the absence of foliate papilla and the quantitative of four papillae circumvallate in the region of the root of the tongue of this species.


Assuntos
Mustelidae , Papilas Gustativas/ultraestrutura , Língua , Animais , Animais Selvagens/anatomia & histologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , Mustelidae/anatomia & histologia , Papilas Gustativas/citologia , Língua/anatomia & histologia , Língua/citologia , Língua/ultraestrutura
14.
Microsc Res Tech ; 83(2): 118-132, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971320

RESUMO

This study represents the first attempt to describe the ultra-structural and histological features of different three age-stages (young, mature, and adult) of rock pigeon Columba livia dakhlae captured from Egypt. The elongated tongue with round lingual apex carried a lingual nail rostrally on lingual tip. The current work gave a first record of numerous descriptions as in young and mature, small lingual nail formed from aggregation of lingual scales, but in adult, the nail formed from lingual membrane without any lingual scales. The current work gave full descriptive methods of shape, directions, and distribution of filiform-like papillae with lingual scales among three age-stages on dorsal surface and lateral border of apex and body. The taste buds present only on the tongue of mature and adult pigeon. The only one transverse row in young took the wide V-shape but, wide U-shape in mature and adult. The papillae on the papillary crest took triangular spoonful-like shape in young and mature, but in adult take the shape of blunt tubercles. The current work was the first record of the presence of the openings of lingual glands on concave dorsal lingual surface of giant papillae and papillae of papillary crest in adult stage. The lingual membrane was thin one membrane in young and three to four layers in mature but, in adult it is well-developed and formed from 10-11 layers. The supportive entoglossum cartilaginous was extended rostrally till the apical part.


Assuntos
Columbidae/anatomia & histologia , Papilas Gustativas/ultraestrutura , Língua/ultraestrutura , Fatores Etários , Animais , Egito , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
15.
Microsc Res Tech ; 83(5): 507-513, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951088

RESUMO

This study was conducted with the tongue samples of different life stages of hilsa, that is, adult Marine hilsa, adult Riverine hilsa, and Riverine juvenile hilsa, respectively. Three types of taste buds (Types I, II, and III based on their elevation from the epithelium at different levels) of the tongue, which may be to ensure full utilization of the gustatory ability of the fish were rocorded. Presence of specific taste buds indicate that the fish hilsa dwells in turbid waters with a possible preference toward diatom like planktonic food source. Enhanced expression of taste receptors (T1R1 and T1R3) and associated stimulatory G-proteins subunits on tongue also indicate occurrence of amino acid like substances that guided sensory cues for feeding by this fish. A firm regularity or stringency of the free surface of the epithelial cells may be attributed to compactly arranged microridges. These structures protect against physical abrasions potentially caused during food manoeuvring and swallowing. In our present observations, the surface architectures of the tongue of hilsa are discussed within the background of migratory adaptation of the species in the context of feeding and habitat preferences.


Assuntos
Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Papilas Gustativas/ultraestrutura , Língua/ultraestrutura , Animais , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Papilas Gustativas/citologia , Língua/citologia
16.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 49(2): 173-183, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696546

RESUMO

This study was carried on the tongues of ten normal, healthy and adult fruit bats (Rousettus amplexicaudatus, also known as the nyap biasa bat) in Yogyakarta, Java Island, Indonesia. The tongue was protrusible, elongated and flat with a rounded apex, and its width and thickness increased gradually towards to lingual root. There were two main types of lingual papillae, mechanical (filiform) and gustatory (fungiform and circumvallate). The tongue was divided into three parts (apex, corpus and radix), and then, each part was subdivided into three regions (two lateral regions and a median region). There were six subtypes of the filiform papillae-three types on the anterior part (small, scale-like and giant), one type on the middle part (leaf-like papillae) and two types on the posterior part (rosette-shaped filiform and conical filiform papillae)-in addition to transitional papillae presented on the corpus and radix. Two types of gustatory papillae were represented by a small number of fungiform papillae that are scattered among the filiform papillae on the lingual apex and corpus, while three circumvallate papillae on the posterior part are arranged in a "V" shape pointing directly at the larynx.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/anatomia & histologia , Papilas Gustativas/ultraestrutura , Língua/ultraestrutura , Animais , Microscopia/veterinária , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , Papilas Gustativas/anatomia & histologia , Língua/anatomia & histologia
17.
J Comp Neurol ; 528(5): 756-771, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587284

RESUMO

Taste buds comprise four types of taste cells: three mature, elongate types, Types I-III; and basally situated, immature postmitotic type, Type IV cells. We employed serial blockface scanning electron microscopy to delineate the characteristics and interrelationships of the taste cells in the circumvallate papillae of adult mice. Type I cells have an indented, elongate nucleus with invaginations, folded plasma membrane, and multiple apical microvilli in the taste pore. Type I microvilli may be either restricted to the bottom of the pore or extend outward reaching midway up into the taste pore. Type II cells (aka receptor cells) possess a large round or oval nucleus, a single apical microvillus extending through the taste pore, and specialized "atypical" mitochondria at functional points of contact with nerve fibers. Type III cells (aka "synaptic cells") are elongate with an indented nucleus, possess a single, apical microvillus extending through the taste pore, and are characterized by a small accumulation of synaptic vesicles at points of contact with nerve fibers. About one-quarter of Type III cells also exhibit an atypical mitochondrion near the presynaptic vesicle clusters at the synapse. Type IV cells (nonproliferative "basal cells") have a nucleus in the lower quarter of the taste bud and a foot process extending to the basement membrane often contacting nerve processes along the way. In murine circumvallate taste buds, Type I cells represent just over 50% of the population, whereas Types II, III, and IV (basal cells) represent 19, 15, and 14%, respectively.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/métodos , Papilas Gustativas/ultraestrutura , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
18.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 48(5): 455-465, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348554

RESUMO

The African giant pouched rat is a nocturnal, fossorial and omnivorous wild rodent widely distributed in sub-Saharan Africa. The morphology of lingual surface has not previously examined and was investigated by gross dissection, stereomicroscopy, scanning electron and light microscopy. Grossly, it was elongated and dorso-ventrally flattened with rounded tip. It measured 3.48 ± 0.33 cm in length, with a median groove of 1.4 ± 0.1 cm in length and well-developed lingual prominence. Stereomicroscopically, filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae were indicated in the apex, body and root. Fungiform papillae intermingled with filiform on the ventral and dorsal surface of the apex and body. Three vallate papillae were located in triangular arrangement on the root. The surface ultrastructural features distinguished four types of filiform which varied in size, shape and distribution: first type with long pointed process was preponderant on the apex and body of tongue; the second with robust base was located on central lingual prominence; the third (caudal body) was conically shaped with pointed process; and the fourth type (root) had forked filamentous process. Large oval-shaped fungiform papillae were apparent. Each vallate was surrounded by a circumferential groove into which taste pores opened. Histologically, the tongue surface displayed moderately keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, and lamina propria that varied in places. Fungiform and vallate showed spindle-shaped taste buds. Serous and mucous acini containing neutral and acidic mucins were observed in lamina propria of root. The structural adaptations of the tongue to omnivorous diet and food manipulation in oral cavity were comparatively discussed.


Assuntos
Roedores/anatomia & histologia , Papilas Gustativas/anatomia & histologia , Papilas Gustativas/ultraestrutura , Língua/anatomia & histologia , Língua/ultraestrutura , Animais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
19.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 48(5): 404-414, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259436

RESUMO

Feral cats are considered as strays and are more likely to hunt in the street. We investigated the effect of environmental adaptations on the structures of lingual papillae in feral cats, which could be used as forensic evidence for their identification. There are no reported studies about the structural comparison of lingual papillae between suckling and adult feral cats. The present study described the lingual papillae of both suckling and adult cats macroscopically and microscopically via light and scanning electron microscopy. A total of nine tongue samples each for suckling and adult feral cats were examined grossly and histologically. Papillae distributions of suckling cats were similar to those observed in adult cats. Meanwhile, the shapes of those papillae were markedly different from that of corresponding papillae in adults. The change in taste bud position and size seemed to be related to the progressive growth of the papillae between adult and suckling cats; absence of taste buds in foliate papillae of feral cats at any stage; and marginal papillae which were a characteristic feature for all suckling cats. All previous elements could be affected by the specific feeding behaviour and mastication mode adaptation in suckling and adult feral cats which might help to identify suckling and adult feral cats among other breeds and animal species. We anticipate these findings may provide promising forensic evidence to discriminate between adult and suckling feral cat remains as well as prediction of environmental harshness and feeding behaviour.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/anatomia & histologia , Gatos/anatomia & histologia , Papilas Gustativas/anatomia & histologia , Língua/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Animais Lactentes/anatomia & histologia , Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Gatos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Medicina Legal , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Papilas Gustativas/ultraestrutura , Língua/ultraestrutura
20.
Cell Rep ; 28(1): 257-266.e5, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269445

RESUMO

How tissue patterns are formed and maintained are fundamental questions. The murine tongue epithelium, a paradigm for tissue patterning, consists of an array of specialized fungiform papillae structures that harbor taste cells. The formation of fungiform papillae is preceded by pronounced spatial changes in gene expression, in which taste cell genes such as Shh, initially diffused in lingual epithelial progenitors, become restricted to taste cells when their specification progresses. However, the requirement of spatial restriction of taste cell gene expression for patterning and formation of fungiform papillae is unknown. Here, we show that a chromatin regulator, Polycomb repressive complex (PRC) 1, is required for proper maintenance of fungiform papillae by repressing Shh and preventing ectopic SHH signaling in non-taste cells. Ablation of SHH signaling in PRC1-null non-taste cells rescues the maintenance of taste cells. Altogether, our studies exemplify how epigenetic regulation establishes spatial gene expression patterns necessary for specialized niche structures.


Assuntos
Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 1/metabolismo , Papilas Gustativas/metabolismo , Língua/metabolismo , Animais , Padronização Corporal/genética , Ciclo Celular/genética , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Epitélio/metabolismo , Epitélio/ultraestrutura , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Ontologia Genética , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 1/genética , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/genética , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Papilas Gustativas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Papilas Gustativas/ultraestrutura , Língua/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Língua/fisiologia
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