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1.
Environ Int ; 158: 107002, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991262

RESUMO

Urban green spaces (UGSs) reduce the surrounding temperature and create cooling areas as a buffer between people and high temperatures, thus helping residents adapt to the warming climate. However, the accessibility of UGS cooling services to the residents of cities remains largely unknown, which hinders decision-making regarding the formulation of climate adaptation and urban greening schemes. In the present study, we estimated the number of residents who accessed UGSs for cooling by analyzing the annual changes in such cooling areas during summer across 315 Chinese cities from 2003 to 2015. Approximately 93.3% of the cities showed significant decreasing trends (p < 0.05) of the total UGS area; as such the UGS coverage dropped from 12.23 ± 0.32% in 2003 to 7.69 ± 0.22% in 2015. Consequently, with the prevalent loss of UGS, the coverage of cooling spaces decreased from 32.55 ± 0.76% in 2003 to 24.39 ± 0.60% in 2015. This has formed a spatial mismatch between the growing urban population and the remaining UGSs. Accordingly, the number of residents of areas outside these cooling spaces increased by 4.23 million per year. In particular, the shortage of cooling services was more significant in cities with < 20,000 USD gross domestic product per capita and < 5 million residents than in the rest of the cities. To minimize the adverse impacts of increasing temperatures, focused greening plans are warranted, specifically in underdeveloped cities.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Parques Recreativos , Estações do Ano , China , Cidades , Temperatura Alta , Humanos
2.
Ambio ; 51(1): 253-268, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825156

RESUMO

Considering the necessity of interdisciplinary approaches for planning and managing the expansion of urban landscapes worldwide, this study aimed to (1) assess landscape permeability for birds and people inhabiting a Neotropical city and (2) propose priority streets and areas for the implementation of a green infrastructure project that could benefit both. To reach these goals, we generated resistance surfaces using expert knowledge to simulate multiple least-cost corridors (MLCC) between parks and green spaces within an urban landscape for people and seven bird species. We compared the solutions using a corridors' spatial agreement analysis, which allow us to identify the overlap between modeled corridors for all organisms or functional groups of interest. We also identified the streets most selected by the simulated MLCC and then identified a green space which is a convergence point of corridors modeled for both people and bird species. Finally, we suggested priority streets for planting trees and proposed interventions to turn the green space into a multifunctional park, conciliating social and ecological perspectives.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Animais , Aves , Cidades , Humanos , Parques Recreativos
3.
J Environ Radioact ; 242: 106799, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34922129

RESUMO

The distribution and migration of artificial fallout radionuclides in natural soils has been profusely studied for assessing radioecological impacts and predicting their long-term behaviour, among other topics. Despite the standardized use of the analytical solutions of a simplified convection-diffusion equation (CDE), there are still some concerns and open questions. This work is aimed at contributing to the understanding of basic processes governing the distribution of fallout radionuclides in vegetated soils with rhizospheres. It studies 210Pb and 137Cs in soil cores and vegetal samples from Chréa National Park, in Algeria, along with other natural radionuclides and some major and trace elements. Results include surficial and depth distributions of radionuclide concentrations, and site and plant-specific concentration ratios (CR). Inventories of 137Cs (3620 ± 120 Bq m-2) and 210Pbexc (9000 ± 900 Bq m-2) in soils are typical from global fallout in high precipitation areas in the Northern Hemisphere. A simple model of a polyphasic soil, including rhizospheres, provides a realistic description in the studied case, where plant roots occupy about 45% of the volume in the 0-10 cm interval, with a high porosity around rhizomes. This composite soil matrix explains the different patterns observed in the depth distribution of the studied elements. The depth-distributions of 137Cs and 210Pbexc have been modelled with different approaches: i) analytical solution of the CDE with mean annual convection and large observation times; ii) as before, but with convection representing infiltration events and short observation times; iii) numerical modelling of the 137Cs profile in the mineral phase using CDE with fast initial distributions. The three approaches fit the empirical data, but they predict different time evolutions. The approach iii) provides a more realistic description. Results are questioning the common accepted analysis and its predictive use.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Radiação , Solo , Argélia , Parques Recreativos , Rizosfera
4.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 111: 61-74, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34949374

RESUMO

Nowadays, more people tend to spend their recreational time in large national parks, and trace metal(loid)s in soils have attracted long-term attention due to their possible harm to human health. To investigate the pollution levels, potential sources and health risks of trace metal(loid)s in road soils, a total of eight trace metal(loid)s (including As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Hg) from 47 soil samples along roads were studied in the Huangshan National Park in Southeast China. The results showed that the concentrations of As, Cd, Pb, Zn and Hg appeared different degrees of pollution compared with their corresponding background values. According to the pollution indices, Hg and Cd were recognized as significant pollutants presenting moderate to high ecological risk. Combining principal component analysis and positive matrix factorization model, the results showed that traffic, industrial, agricultural and natural sources were the potential origins of trace metal(loid)s in this area, with contribution rates of 39.93%, 25.92%, 10.53% and 23.62%, respectively. Non-carcinogenic risks were all negligible, while the carcinogenic risk of As was higher than the limit (1 × 10-6). Moreover, children were more susceptible to trace metal(loid)s by ingestion which appeared to be a more important exposure pathway than dermal contact and inhalation. The contribution rates of different sources to non-carcinogenic risks and carcinogenic risks were similar among children and adults, while traffic and industrial sources have a significant impact on health risks. This study will give more insights to control the environmental risks of trace metal(loid)s in national parks.


Assuntos
Metaloides , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Adulto , Criança , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Parques Recreativos , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
5.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118347, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637822

RESUMO

Residential green space and neighborhood walkability are important foundations of a healthy and sustainable city. Yet, their associations with atherosclerosis, the disease underlying clinical coronary heart disease (CHD), is unknown, especially in susceptible populations. We aim to explore the associations of exposure to residential green space and neighborhood walkability with coronary atherosclerosis. In this study of 2021 adults with suspected CHD, we evaluated the associations of exposure to green space (using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index [NDVI] and enhanced vegetation index [EVI] surrounding each participant's home) and neighborhood walkability (using walkability index and number of parks near home) with atherosclerosis (using coronary artery calcium score, CAC) using linear regression model adjusted for individual-level characteristics. Mediation analysis was further applied to explore potential mechanisms through the pathways of physical activity, air pollution, and psychological stress. In the primary model, an interquartile increase in annual mean NDVI and EVI within the 1-km area was associated with -15.8% (95%CI: 28.7%, -0.7%), and -18.6% (95%Cl: 31.3%, -3.6%) lower CAC score, respectively. However, an interquartile increase in the walkability index near home was associated with a 7.4% (95% CI: 0.1%, 15.2%) higher CAC score. The combined exposure to a green space area in a 1-km area and the walkability index were inversely associated with atherosclerosis, albeit with a smaller magnitude than a single-exposure model. The findings from a mediation analysis suggested that increased physical exercise and ameliorated particulate matter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) may partially contribute to the relationship between green space and atherosclerosis, and for walkability index, partially explained by increased PM2.5 exposure. Our study suggested a beneficial association between green space and atherosclerosis, but an adverse association between neighborhood walkability and atherosclerosis. Therefore, urban development that aims to improve neighborhood walkability should jointly account for enhancing green space properties from a public health perspective.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Parques Recreativos , Material Particulado/análise , Características de Residência
6.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118379, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662594

RESUMO

Microorganisms in urban greenspaces play key roles in ecosystem service provision and potentially influence human health. Increasing evidence suggests that anthropogenic disturbance poses constant stress on urban microbial communities, yet, as previous studies have focused on non-contaminated greenspaces, it has remained largely unknown how microorganisms respond to anthropogenic stress in roadside greenspaces with contamination. Our previous effort determined phyllosphere PAHs of camphor trees in 84 sites of roadside greenspaces along the urban-rural gradient in Shanghai. Here, we further investigated the phyllosphere microbial communities (PMCs) of the same sites across the same urban categories, including urban, suburban, and rural areas using high-throughput DNA sequencing. We aimed to explore how PMCs, especially those associated with immune-mediated diseases (IMDs), were affected by PAHs and the surrounding land-use types. We found that several microorganisms associated with increasing IMD risk were stimulated by PAHs. The composition of PMCs differed between the three urban categories which can be largely explained by the variation of phyllosphere PAH concentration and the surrounding land-use types. Similar to our previous study, suburban areas were linked with the most potential adverse health effects, where we observed the lowest bacterial diversity, the highest relative abundance of IMD-associated bacteria, and the highest relative abundance of Pathotroph. Urban green-blue infrastructure (GBI) was positively correlated with the diversity of PMCs, whereas urban grey infrastructure tended to homogenize PMCs. Notably, GBI also reduced the relative abundance of IMD-associated and pathogenic microbes, indicating the potential health benefits of GBI in land-use planning. Taken together, our study emphasizes the need to further investigate environmental communities in contaminated traffic environments, as human microbiomes are directly exposed to risky microorganisms.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Bactérias/genética , China , Humanos , Parques Recreativos
7.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113930, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731949

RESUMO

Urban life is associated with a range of health risks. However, urban green spaces have been found to promote health recovery and reduce mental stress. This study sought to assess the influence of the spatial and environmental characteristics of urban green space on environmental restoration. We measured physiological and psychological changes among 60 participants to evaluate the restorative benefits of 12 green spaces in Shenyang. The Perceived Restorativeness Scale and two physiological measures (heart rate variation and skin conductance response) were used to analyze the effects of spatial characteristics on restorative benefits. In addition, eye-tracking was used to explore the influence of environmental components on restorative benefits. The results revealed that, although there were slight differences between physiological and psychological findings, both confirmed that urban green space had a restorative benefit. Partially-open green spaces with a high degree of naturalness had more positive effects than open green spaces with a high degree of hard paved spaces. Eye movement analysis results revealed that trees and shrubs, as well as water, had a positive effect on the environmental restoration benefits, whereas buildings and paving had a negative effect. Among environmental features, trees and shrubs, water, and buildings exerted the strongest effects on environment restoration. In the future, combining spatial characteristics and environmental components will aid improvement of the restorative qualities of urban green space.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Parques Recreativos , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos
8.
Environ Res ; 203: 111822, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352232

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The greenspace sector includes a broad range of occupations: gardeners, landscapers, municipal workers, maintenance operators of public facilities, golf-course employees and other sports facilities, horticulturists, plant and tree nursery workers etc. The health impact of occupational pesticide exposure has mainly been studied among farmers. Other professionals such as greenspace workers are also extremely exposed, presenting specific exposure features (practices, types of pesticide used). The aim of this review was to summarize epidemiological literature that examine the relationship between pesticide exposure and the risk of cancer and long-term health effects in greenspace workers. METHOD: Six main groups of greenspace workers were identified and examined through a systematic literature review based on PubMed and Scopus. The studies were then grouped according to their design, health outcomes and the type of population studied. RESULTS: Forty-four articles were selected among the 1679 identified. Fifteen studies were conducted exclusively among greenspace workers, while ten also studied these workers with other pesticide applicators. Six were cohorts from the general population in which greenspace workers were identified. Elevated risks were found in several studies for leukaemia, soft-tissue sarcoma, multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Parkinson's disease. DISCUSSION: The majority of studies used rough parameters for defining exposure such as job titles which could lead to the misclassification of exposure, with the risk of false or positive negative conclusions. Health outcomes were mainly collected through registries or death certificates, and information regarding potential confounders was often missing. CONCLUSION: The review identified only 15 studies conducted exclusively among greenspace workers. Elevated risk was found for several sites of cancer and Parkinson's diseases. Further epidemiological research is needed, conducted specifically on these workers, to better characterize this population, its exposure to pesticides and the related health effects.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas , Neoplasias , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Exposição Ocupacional , Praguicidas , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Parques Recreativos , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/toxicidade
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149728, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454139

RESUMO

Sampling design in soil science is critical because the lack of reliable methods and collecting samples requires tremendous work and resources. The aims were to obtain an optimal sampling design for assessing potentially toxic elements pollution using pilot Pb soil samples from the urban green space area of Shanghai, China. Two general steps have been used. The first step is to determine the optimum sample size against improving the prediction accuracy and monitoring costs using the spatial simulated annealing (SSA) algorithm. Secondly, we evaluated their likely placement of new extra sampling points by integrated SSA with k-means (SSA+ k-means) and expert-based (SSA+ expert-based) sampling methods. The improvement of sampling design by the integrated sampling approaches was evaluated using mean kriging variance (MKV), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). The findings indicated that adding and placing 350 new monitoring points upon the existing sampling design by SSA increased the prediction accuracy by 64.35%. The MKV for the optimized SSA+ k-means sample was lower than by 4.12 mg/kg, 9.46 mg/kg compared with locations optimized by SSA and SSA+ expert-based method, respectively. Optimizing new sampling locations by SSA+ k-means sampling method was reduced MAPE by 9.26% and RMSE by 7.13 mg/kg compared to optimizing by SSA alone. However, there was no improvement in placing the new sampling points in SSA+ expert-based sampling method; instead, it increased the error by 8.11%. This paper shows integrating optimization approaches to evaluate the existing sampling design and optimize a new optimal sampling design.


Assuntos
Parques Recreativos , Solo , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149869, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461470

RESUMO

The ratio of the perceived extent of natural sounds to the perceived extent of traffic noise in the environment has been demonstrated to be important for soundscapes, whereas research on the influence of human sounds has been limited. To examine this influence, this study proposes a human sound-based index named the red soundscape index (RSI), which is defined as the ratio of the perceived extent of human sounds to the perceived extent of other sounds. Sound pressure levels and crowd density were collected at 41 sites in 9 urban parks, and pedestrian streets in Harbin, China, and the perceived extent of various sounds was investigated by a questionnaire survey. The results confirmed a significant positive correlation between crowd density and RSI, and the A-weighted sound pressure level increased linearly with increasing RSIn (the ratio of human sounds to natural sounds) and decreased with increasing RSIt (the ratio of human sounds to traffic noises). Interestingly, the overall soundscape assessment linearly decreases with the increase in RSIn in the range of (0.8-1.5). The relationship with RSIt first shows an increase and then a decrease in a parabolic form, in which the axis of symmetry is RSIt = 2. Correspondingly, urban open spaces can be divided into three categories based on the variation trend, and different types have significant differences in overall soundscape assessment, pleasantness, and calmness. Among these, pleasantness is the highest in the sites of natural sound predominance perception. At the same time, this factor becomes the lowest in the sites of human sound predominance perception and middle in the site of balanced perception. Consequently, RSI is expected to be useful in soundscape prediction in urban open spaces.


Assuntos
Ruído , Som , China , Aglomeração , Humanos , Parques Recreativos
11.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 111983, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506785

RESUMO

The study focused on the justice of residents' opportunity to engage in healthy behavior under different environments is not vast, especially in a hilly dwelling environment. Therefore, this paper investigates environmental inequalities in a hilly urban environment in the context of the booming real estate market in China, comprised of health promotion-related elements, namely, built environment, physical activity facilities, street infrastructure, green spaces, and environmental perceptions. The multi-source data are used to calculate environmental attributes and the socioeconomic status of communities. We take the central districts of Dalian city as the research area and measure environmental equity across different socioeconomic residential areas using the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance. The results reveal the spatial disparities in physical activity facilities, street greening, and positive perceptions between different communities. However, green injustice is mitigated in the hilly neighborhoods when we consider only ground-level greenness. This paper studies environmental justice by taking a health-enhancing view, and the results of this study can provide guidance on hilly urban development for government leaders and planners.


Assuntos
Características de Residência , Ambiente Construído , China , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Parques Recreativos
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 3): 150551, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627115

RESUMO

Exposure to urban greenspaces promotes a variety of mental health benefits. However, much of the evidence for these benefits is biased towards high-income countries. In contrast, urban areas in low-income settings that have the highest rates of urbanisation remain understudied. Given the increasing burden of mental ill-health associated with urbanisation in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), there is a clear need to better understand the role urban greenspaces play in mitigating mental ill-health. Here we use a novel combination of research methods (participatory video, focus groups and the Q-methodology) in a rapidly urbanising low-income city (Kathmandu, Nepal). We explored residents' perspectives on ecosystem services, and the pathways linking greenspaces to mental health. Residents indicated that greenspaces are linked to mental health through pathways such as reducing harm (exposure to air pollution and heat), restoring capacities (attention restoration and stress reduction), building capacities (encouraging physical activity, fostering social cohesion and child development) and causing harm (human - wildlife conflicts, gender discrimination). It is likely that a combination of such pathways triggers mental health impacts. Of all ecosystem services, cultural services such as providing settings for recreation, or intellectual or mental interactions with greenspaces involving analytical, symbolic, spiritual or religious activities were most preferred. Our findings emphasise that cultural ecosystem services provide a fundamental basic need which all people, including low-income residents, depend on to participate meaningfully in society. Urban greenspaces therefore play a pivotal role in reducing the burden of mental ill-health for low-income residents in LMICs. Greater efforts to increase the quantity, quality and accessibility of greenspaces may help to address current health inequalities in LMICs.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Saúde Mental , Criança , Humanos , Parques Recreativos , Pobreza
13.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt D): 112367, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774510

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively affected many people's psychological health. Impacts may be particularly severe among socially vulnerable populations such as college students, a group predisposed to mental health problems. Outdoor recreation and visits to greenspaces such as parks offer promising pathways for addressing the mental health challenges associated with COVID-19. During the early stages of the pandemic (March-May 2020), we surveyed 1280 college students at four large public universities across the United States (U.S.) to assess how, and why, outdoor recreation and park use changed since the emergence of COVID-19. We also measured students' self-reported levels of emotional distress (a proxy for psychological health) and assessed potential demographic and contextual correlates of distress, including county-level per capita park area and greenness, using generalized linear models. We found that 67% of students reported limiting outdoor activities and 54% reported reducing park use during the pandemic. Students who reduced their use of outdoor spaces cited structural reasons (e.g., lockdowns), concerns about viral transmission, and negative emotions that obstructed active lifestyles. Students who maintained pre-pandemic park use levels expressed a desire to be outdoors in nature, often with the explicit goal of improving mental and physical health. Emotional distress among students was widespread. Models showed higher levels of emotional distress were associated with reducing park use during the pandemic and residing in counties with a smaller area of parks per capita. This study of U.S. college students supports the value of park-based recreation as a health promotion strategy for diverse populations of young adults during a time of crisis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Angústia Psicológica , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Pandemias , Parques Recreativos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudantes , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(1): 44-50, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932451

RESUMO

Legionella pneumophila is the cause of Legionnaires' disease, a life-threatening pneumonia that occurs after inhalation of aerosolized water containing the bacteria. Legionella growth occurs in stagnant, warm-to-hot water (77°F-113°F) that is inadequately disinfected. Piped hot spring water in Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas, USA, has naturally high temperatures (>135°F) that prevent Legionella growth, and Legionnaires' disease has not previously been associated with the park or other hot springs in the United States. During 2018-2019, Legionnaires' disease occurred in 5 persons after they visited the park; 3 of these persons were potentially exposed in spa facilities that used untreated hot spring water. Environmental testing revealed Legionella bacteria in piped spring water, including 134°F stagnant pipe water. These findings underscore the importance of water management programs to reduce Legionella growth in plumbing through control activities such as maintaining hot water temperatures, reducing stored water age, and ensuring adequate water flow.


Assuntos
Fontes Termais , Legionella pneumophila , Doença dos Legionários , Arkansas , Humanos , Doença dos Legionários/epidemiologia , Doença dos Legionários/prevenção & controle , Parques Recreativos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Água , Microbiologia da Água , Abastecimento de Água
16.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(11): 3883-3892, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34898104

RESUMO

Hainan Tropical Rainforest National Park has the most representative and largest contiguous tropical rainforest in China, which has advantages in exploring the realization mechanism of ecological product value in national parks. Based on the basic framework of "The Technical Guideline on Gross Ecosystem Product (GEP)", we constructed a GEP accounting system in line with the characteristics of tropical rain forest national park, and calculated the GEP of Hainan Tropical Rainforest National Park in 2019. The results showed that the GEP of Hainan Tropical Rainforest National Park in 2019 was 204.513 billion yuan, and the GEP per unit area was 0.046 billion yuan·km-2. Among all the service types, the value of material services was 4.850 billion yuan, accounting for 2.4% of the total GEP in the national park. The ecosystem regulation service value was 168.891 billion yuan, accounting for 82.6%. The value of cultural services was 30.772 billion yuan, accounting for 15.0%. Among different ecosystem types, the unit area value of the tropical rain forest ecosystem represented by mountain rain forest, lowland rain forest, deciduous monsoon forest, and tropical cloud forest was much higher than that of plantation or other ecosystems, indicating the dominant role of tropical rain forest ecosystem in providing ecosystem services. In addition, based on the GEP accounting results of the national park, we put forward relevant suggestions for further exploring the realization path and realization mechanism of ecological product value.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Floresta Úmida , China , Florestas , Parques Recreativos
17.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261734, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941957

RESUMO

Although they are only home to 16% of the global human population, high-income countries produce approximately one third of the world's waste, the majority of which goes to landfills. To reduce pressure on landfills and natural systems, environmental messaging should focus on reducing consumption. Messages that signal social norms have the potential to influence people to reduce their consumption of comfort goods, such as straws, which are not a necessity for most people. We conducted a randomized field-experiment at a marine park in Portugal to test whether different normative messages reduced visitors' paper straw use when compared to non-normative messages. We found that a message framed around a positive injunctive norm significantly reduced straw use compared to a non-normative message. We estimated that using the message at 17 park concession stands could keep over 27500 straws out of landfills annually and save the park money after two years.


Assuntos
Parques Recreativos , Normas Sociais , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Humanos , Portugal
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948578

RESUMO

Despite the danger of the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, visits to natural tourism destinations such as national parks are continuing, though people are using less congested trails or minimizing personal contact. Given the danger from COVID-19, the purpose of our study was to use an expanded theory of planned behavior to analyze whether tourists intend to continue to visit national parks. Another purpose for our study was to compare an extant research model based on the theory of planned behavior with the extended model we developed. Frequency analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modeling, and other statistical techniques, such as correlation analysis, parsimonious fit index, and squared multiple correlations were employed according to the appropriate objectives. Additionally, the number of 351 participants joined the survey. Our study found that perception of risk of COVID-19 negatively affected attitude and perceived behavioral control in both models. Moreover, the perceived behavioral control had a positive effect on coping behavior. Given the analytical results, our study presents not only theoretical implications for understanding the behavior of those who visit national parks, but also practical implications for operation and management of national parks during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adaptação Psicológica , Humanos , Intenção , Pandemias , Parques Recreativos , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948761

RESUMO

Worldwide, over half of the global population is living in urban areas. The metropolitan areas are highly populated and environmentally non-green regions on the planet. In green space regions, plants, grass, and green vegetation prevent soil erosion, absorb air pollutants, provide fresh and clean air, and minimize the burden of diseases. Presently, the entire world is facing a turmoil situation due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This study investigates the effect of the green space environment on air pollutants particulate matter PM2.5, PM10, carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), incidence and mortality of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in environmentally highly green and less-green countries. We randomly selected 17 countries based on the Environmental Performance Index (EPI) data. The 60% of the EPI score is based on seven categories: "biodiversity and habitat, ecosystem, fisheries, climate change, pollution emissions, agriculture, and water resources". However, 40% of the score is based on four categories: "air quality, sanitation and drinking water, heavy metals, and waste management". The air pollutants and SARS-CoV-2 cases and deaths were recorded from 25 January 2020, to 11 July 2021. The air pollutants "PM2.5, PM10, CO, and O3" were recorded from the metrological websites, Air Quality Index-AQI, 2021. The COVID-19 daily cases and deaths were obtained from the World Health Organization. The result reveals that air pollutants mean values for PM2.5 110.73 ± 1.09 vs. 31.35 ± 0.29; PM10 80.43 ± 1.11 vs. 17.78 ± 0.15; CO 7.92 ± 0.14 vs. 2.35 ± 0.03 were significantly decreased (p < 0.0001) in environmentally highly green space countries compared to less-green countries. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 cases 15,713.61 ± 702.42 vs. 3445.59 ± 108.09; and deaths 297.56 ± 11.27 vs. 72.54 ± 2.61 were also significantly decreased in highly green countries compared to less-green countries. The green environment positively impacts human wellbeing. The policymakers must implement policies to keep the living areas, surroundings, towns, and cities clean and green to minimize air pollution and combat the present pandemic of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Cidades , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Incidência , Pandemias , Parques Recreativos , Material Particulado/análise , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 28(4): 579-584, 2021 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969214

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Echinococcus multilocularis has been endemic in red foxes in eastern and central parts of Europe, and E. granulosus s. l. identified in wolves in some countries. In recent years, wolves hale emerged as potentially important definitive hosts of E. multilocularis. OBJECTIVE: This aim of the survey was to record indirectly using nested-PCR test with faecal samples the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis and E. granulosus s. l. in the two species of wild canids in the protected area of the Tatra National Park (TNP) in Western Carpathian, southern mountainous part of Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From February to June 2019, experienced staff of TNP randomly collected fox and wolf faeces on and off hiking trails at altitudes from 850 m to 2,000 m above sea level. In total, 91 faecal samples from red foxes and 19 from wolves were collected. Genomic DNA was obtained by direct extraction from faecal samples using a commercial kit, and from taeniid eggs retrieved from the same samples after flotation. RESULTS: A nested PCR screening of 91 red fox faeces indicated the prevalence of E. multilocularis of 4.4%. Positive samples were confirmed by sequencing parts of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1). Neither genomic DNA of E. multilocularis nor of E. granulosus s.l. was obtained from 19 wolves faeces, nor from taeniid eggs retrieved from these samples by initial flotation. CONCLUSIONS: The current results show that humans might be exposed to a risk of fox tapeworm infection in nature, even at high altitude inan alpine zone, in an environment contaminated by roaming red foxes encouraged by food leftovers on mountain trails.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Echinococcus multilocularis , Lobos , Animais , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus multilocularis/genética , Fezes , Raposas , Humanos , Parques Recreativos , Polônia/epidemiologia
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