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1.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0262050, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972173

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence (AI) is emerging as a technology at the center of many political, economic, and societal debates. This paper formulates a new AI patent search strategy and applies this to provide a landscape analysis of AI innovation dynamics and technology evolution. The paper uses patent analyses, network analyses, and source path link count algorithms to examine AI spatial and temporal trends, cooperation features, cross-organization knowledge flow and technological routes. Results indicate a growing yet concentrated, non-collaborative and multi-path development and protection profile for AI patenting, with cross-organization knowledge flows based mainly on interorganizational knowledge citation links.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Patentes como Assunto , Algoritmos , Automação/métodos , Difusão de Inovações , Humanos , Propriedade Intelectual , Invenções , Modelos Organizacionais , Modelos Estatísticos , Tecnologia/métodos , Tecnologia/tendências
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769383

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) contains spike proteins that assist the virus in entering host cells. In the absence of a specific intervention, efforts are afoot throughout the world to find an effective treatment for SARS-CoV-2. Through innovative techniques, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are being designed and developed to block a particular pathway of SARS-CoV-2 infection. More than 100 patent applications describing the development of MAbs and their application against SARS-CoV-2 have been registered. Most of them target the receptor binding protein so that the interaction between virus and host cell can be prevented. A few monoclonal antibodies are also being patented for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2. Some of them, like Regeneron® have already received emergency use authorization. These protein molecules are currently preferred for high-risk patients such as those over 65 years old with compromised immunity and those with metabolic disorders such as obesity. Being highly specific in action, monoclonal antibodies offer one of the most appropriate interventions for both the prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2. Technological advancement has helped in producing highly efficacious MAbs. However, these agents are known to induce immunogenic and non-immunogenic reactions. More research and testing are required to establish the suitability of administering MAbs to all patients at risk of developing a severe illness. This patent study is focused on MAbs as a therapeutic option for treating COVID-19, as well as their invention, patenting information, and key characteristics.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virologia , Proteínas M de Coronavírus/imunologia , Humanos , Patentes como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
4.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641339

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic needs no introduction at present. Only a few treatments are available for this disease, including remdesivir and favipiravir. Accordingly, the pharmaceutical industry is striving to develop new treatments for COVID-19. Molnupiravir, an orally active RdRp inhibitor, is in a phase 3 clinical trial against COVID-19. The objective of this review article is to enlighten the researchers working on COVID-19 about the discovery, recent developments, and patents related to molnupiravir. Molnupiravir was originally developed for the treatment of influenza at Emory University, USA. However, this drug has also demonstrated activity against a variety of viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. Now it is being jointly developed by Emory University, Ridgeback Biotherapeutics, and Merck to treat COVID-19. The published clinical data indicate a good safety profile, tolerability, and oral bioavailability of molnupiravir in humans. The patient-compliant oral dosage form of molnupiravir may hit the market in the first or second quarter of 2022. The patent data of molnupiravir revealed its granted compound patent and process-related patent applications. We also anticipate patent filing related to oral dosage forms, inhalers, and a combination of molnupiravir with marketed drugs like remdesivir, favipiravir, and baricitinib. The current pandemic demands a patient compliant, safe, tolerable, and orally effective COVID-19 treatment. The authors believe that molnupiravir meets these requirements and is a breakthrough COVID-19 treatment.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Citidina/análogos & derivados , Descoberta de Drogas , Hidroxilaminas/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Animais , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/química , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Citidina/administração & dosagem , Citidina/química , Citidina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidroxilaminas/administração & dosagem , Hidroxilaminas/química , Patentes como Assunto , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por RNA/metabolismo , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/química , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Proteínas Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
9.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257086, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516562

RESUMO

Patent valuation is required to revitalize patent transactions, but calculating a reasonable value that consumers and suppliers could satisfy is difficult. When machine learning is used, a quantitative evaluation based on a large volume of data is possible, and evaluation can be conducted quickly and inexpensively, contributing to the activation of patent transactions. However, due to patent characteristics, securing the necessary training data is challenging because most patents are traded privately to prevent technical information leaks. In this study, the derived marketable value of a patent through event study is used for patent value evaluation, matching it with the semantic information from the patent calculated using latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA)-based topic modeling. In addition, an ensemble learning methodology that combines the predicted values of multiple predictive models was used to determine the prediction stability. Base learners with high predictive power for each fold were different, but the ensemble model that was trained on the base learners' predicted values exceeded the predictive power of the individual models. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test indicated that the superiority of the accuracy of the ensemble model was statistically significant at the 95% significance level.


Assuntos
Eletricidade , Aprendizado de Máquina/economia , Marketing/economia , Patentes como Assunto , Algoritmos , Mineração de Dados , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Análise de Regressão , Estados Unidos
11.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256956, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473792

RESUMO

This study investigates the topology and dynamics of collaboration networks that exist between inventors and their patent co-authors for patents granted by the USPTO from 2007-2019 (2,241,201 patents and 1,879,037 inventors). We study changes in the configurations of different technology fields via the power-law, small-world, preferential attachment, shrinking diameter, densification law, and gelling point hypotheses. Similar to the existing literature, we obtain mixed results. Based on network statistics, we argue that the sudden rise of large networks in six technology sectors can be understood as a phase transition in which small, isolated networks form one giant component. In two other technology sectors, such a transition occurred much later and much less dramatically. The examination of inventor networks over time reveals the increased complexity of all technology sectors, regardless of the individual characteristics of the network. Therefore, we introduce ideas associated with the technological diversification of inventors to complement our analysis, and we find evidence that inventors tend to diversify into new fields that are less mature. This behavior appears to be correlated with the compliance of some of the expected network rules and has implications for the emerging patterns among the different collaboration networks under consideration here.


Assuntos
Propriedade Intelectual , Invenções , Inventores , Patentes como Assunto , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Interação Social , Análise de Rede Social
14.
Expert Opin Ther Pat ; 31(11): 977-987, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369844

RESUMO

Introduction: The Ser/Thr protein kinase PAK4 is a downstream regulator of Cdc42, mediating cytoskeleton remodeling, and cell motility, and inhibiting apoptosis and transcriptional regulation. Nowadays, efforts in PAK4 inhibitor development are focusing on improving inhibitory selectivity, cellular potency, and in vivo pharmacokinetic properties, and identifying the feasibility of immunotherapy combination in oncology therapy.Areas covered: This review summarized the development of PAK4 inhibitors that reported on patents in the past two decades. According to their binding features, these inhibitors were classified into type I, type I 1/2, and PAMs. Their designing ideas and SAR were elucidated in this review. Moreover, synergistic therapy of PAK4 inhibitors with PD-1/PD-L1 or CAR-T were also summarized .Expert opinion: In the past years, preclinical and clinical studies of PAK4 inhibitors ended in failure due to poor selectivity, cellular activity, or pharmacokinetic issues. There are researchers questioning the reliability of PAK4 as a drug target, particularly PAK4-related therapy is concerned with the distinguishment of the non-kinase functions and catalytic functions triggered by PAK4 phosphorylation. Meanwhile, synergistic effects of PAK4 inhibitors with PD-1/PD-L1 and CAR-T immunotherapy shed light for the development of PAK4 inhibitors.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Quinases Ativadas por p21/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Patentes como Assunto , Quinases Ativadas por p21/metabolismo
15.
Gene ; 803: 145889, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371094

RESUMO

Although seen as a revolution in modern science, gene therapy has been plagued by failed clinical trials and controversial ethics in the last thirty years. Moreover, there is no comprehensive, in-depth, high-quality analysis of global gene therapy patents. This paper proposes a method to correctly retrieve patents to address the issue and use it for the patent landscape. The results show the global patent landscape of gene therapy, with the United States dominating the field, while China has emerged as a leader in recent years. For various reasons, the EU, Korea, and Japan lag in the development of patented technologies. China has edged closer to the US in both live and indefinite patents, with the Chinese Academy of Military Medical Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Sciences leading the way, surpassing primary applicants such as the US Department of Health and Human Services, the University of California, and the University of Pennsylvania. The study also reveals four broad categories of technologies that have been extensively studied in gene therapy: basic biology of the gene and diseases, diseases being treated, gene delivery methods, and potential adverse events. What is more, Adeno-Associated Virus, Retrovirus, and Lentivirus are the most prevalent gene therapy delivery vectors after 2014. The industrial development trend revealed in this paper can provide an evidence-based basis for scientific research management and decision-making.


Assuntos
Terapia Genética , Vetores Genéticos/classificação , Patentes como Assunto , China , Dependovirus/genética , União Europeia , Humanos , Japão , Lentivirus/genética , República da Coreia , Retroviridae/genética , Estados Unidos
16.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361731

RESUMO

Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of sesquiterpenoid plant hormones that play a role in the response of plants to various biotic and abiotic stresses. When released into the rhizosphere, they are perceived by both beneficial symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi and parasitic plants. Due to their multiple roles, SLs are potentially interesting agricultural targets. Indeed, the use of SLs as agrochemicals can favor sustainable agriculture via multiple mechanisms, including shaping root architecture, promoting ideal branching, stimulating nutrient assimilation, controlling parasitic weeds, mitigating drought and enhancing mycorrhization. Moreover, over the last few years, a number of studies have shed light onto the effects exerted by SLs on human cells and on their possible applications in medicine. For example, SLs have been demonstrated to play a key role in the control of pathways related to apoptosis and inflammation. The elucidation of the molecular mechanisms behind their action has inspired further investigations into their effects on human cells and their possible uses as anti-cancer and antimicrobial agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacologia , Lactonas/farmacologia , Micorrizas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Plantas/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Agricultura/métodos , Agroquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Agroquímicos/metabolismo , Agroquímicos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/biossíntese , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Lactonas/isolamento & purificação , Lactonas/metabolismo , Micorrizas/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Patentes como Assunto , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/biossíntese , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Plantas/química , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Controle de Plantas Daninhas/métodos
17.
JAMA ; 326(5): 420-432, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342614

RESUMO

Importance: US law generally requires testing of high-risk medical devices prior to approval, as well as premarket evaluation of moderate-risk medical devices, with the goal of ensuring that the benefits of these products exceed their risks. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) attempts to balance the need for evidence generation with an approval process that facilitates access and encourages innovation. Objective: To review the development of laws and standards affecting the evaluation and oversight of medical devices by the US regulatory system and the outcomes of this system from 1976 to 2020. Evidence Review: Laws enacted by US Congress and regulations promulgated by the FDA through 2020; databases maintained by the FDA of device authorizations from 1976 to 2020; and annual reports of user fees paid to the FDA by industry. Findings: Since Congress and the FDA initiated premarket review of medical devices in 1976, some fundamental innovations in the device regulation system have included special pathways to accelerate availability of investigational devices, more flexible evidence and review requirements, and increased funding to the FDA through industry-paid user fees. From 1987 to 2020, the annual number of novel devices granted premarket approval (which excludes supplements) ranged from 8 to 56 (median, 32), and the number of clearances for 510(k) devices (those that are "substantially equivalent" to marketed devices) ranged from 2804 to 5762 (median, 3404). User fee funding for devices was established in 2002 and annual fees collected increased from $30 million in 2003 (in 2019 dollars) to more than $208 million in 2019; this represented 43% of FDA funding related to the review of medical devices. Although many new devices have led to considerable patient benefit, such as hypodermic needles and magnetic resonance imaging machines, important adverse events caused by some devices, such as an implanted device for birth control and a surgical mesh implant for pelvic organ prolapse, have led to calls to reexamine the regulatory system for such products. Conclusions and Relevance: Over the last 45 years, medical device regulation has become more complex, with more regulatory pathways and greater variations in the evidence and controls required for authorization. Increased FDA support from industry and concern about flexible authorization requirements reflect the tension between efficient access and the need for assurances that products will safely benefit patients.


Assuntos
Aprovação de Equipamentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Regulamentação Governamental/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Legislação Médica/história , Legislação Médica/tendências , Patentes como Assunto/história , Patentes como Assunto/legislação & jurisprudência , Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados , Software/história , Software/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration/história
20.
Am J Law Med ; 47(2-3): 157-175, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405779

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed myriad and complex challenges for our national health care system spanning preparedness, response, access, costs, infrastructure, coordination, and medical innovation. These challenges implicate federal, state, and local agencies and actors, as well as international collaborative bodies. One constant throughout the pandemic has been the pressing need for safe and effective diagnostics, prophylactic vaccines, and drug treatments to counter the virus.1 Inarguably, significant problems with the multi-faceted system of drug and vaccine innovation and regulation manifested long before the COVID-19 pandemic.2 The pandemic, however, has laid bare the inextricable connections among federal funding, patents, product review and approval mechanisms, and the eventual medical products and resulting costs.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/economia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Aprovação de Drogas/legislação & jurisprudência , Órgãos Governamentais , Patentes como Assunto , Terapias em Estudo/economia , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Propriedade Intelectual , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
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