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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250607, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355881

RESUMO

Abstract Newcastle disease (ND) is an infectious, highly contagious and lethal disease of avian species. It is considered that ducks are natural reservoir or carrier for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and are resistant against different strains of NDV. Current study was designed to evaluate the pathogenesis of Newcastle disease in domestic ducks through histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and serum biochemical changes. For this purpose, eighty ducks were reared for 42 days and divided in two groups A and B. Ducks in group A were challenged with (NDV) at rate of 0.1 ml of ELD50 (virus titer 107.32/100µl) on second week of age, whereas Group B was control negative. Splenomegaly, atrophy of thymus and necrotic lesion in kidney were observed on 9th day of post infection. Hepatic degeneration and mononuclear cell infiltration were noticed in proventriculus and intestine in challenged ducks. Viral antigen detected in lungs, intestine, proventriculus and lymphoid organs of infected ducks through IHC. Albumin and total protein values were significantly low in infected groups A as compared to control group B. ALT, AST, and ALP values were significantly high in infected group A. On 5th and 7th day of post infection oropharyngeal swabs were negative for NDV and cloacal swabs were positive for NDV through Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. It is concluded that ducks are susceptible to NDV and virulent strain of NDV caused disease in ducks.


Resumo A doença de Newcastle (DN) é uma doença infecciosa, altamente contagiosa e letal de espécies aviárias. Considera-se que os patos são reservatórios ou portadores naturais do vírus da doença de Newcastle (VDN) e são resistentes a diferentes cepas de VDN. O presente estudo foi desenvolvido para avaliar a patogênese da DN em patos domésticos por meio de histopatologia, imuno-histoquímica (IHQ) e alterações bioquímicas séricas. Para este propósito, 80 patos foram criados por 42 dias e divididos em dois grupos A e B. Os patos do grupo A foram submetidos ao VDN a uma taxa de 0,1 ml de ELD50 (título viral de 107,32 / 100 µl) na segunda semana de idade, enquanto o Grupo B foi controle negativo. Esplenomegalia, atrofia do timo e lesão necrótica no rim foram observadas no 9º dia pós-infecção. Degeneração hepática e infiltração de células mononucleares foram observadas no proventrículo e intestino em patos infectados. Antígeno viral foi detectado em pulmões, intestino, proventrículo e órgãos linfoides de patos infectados por IHQ. Os valores de albumina e proteína total foram significativamente baixos no grupo A infectado em comparação com o grupo B. Os valores de ALT, AST e ALP foram significativamente altos no grupo A. No 5º e no 7º dia após a infecção, os esfregaços orofaríngeos foram negativos para VDN, enquanto os esfregaços cloacais foram positivos para VDN por meio da reação em cadeia da polimerase via transcriptase reversa. Conclui-se que os patos são suscetíveis ao VDN e à cepa virulenta de VDN que causou doenças em patos.


Assuntos
Animais , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle , Patos , Doença de Newcastle/diagnóstico
2.
Food Chem ; 401: 134148, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099823

RESUMO

Resistant starch (RS) has caught much attention for its potential to exert a beneficial impact on intestine and certain members of its resident microbiota. In this study, we examined how dietary RS promotes intestinal barrier in meat ducks by microbiome-metabolomics analysis. Ducklings were fed corn-soybean basal diet or RS diet. Dietary RS improved intestinal morphology and enhanced barrier function in ileum, evidenced by lower permeability and upregulated tight junction proteins and Mucin-2 gene expression. Microbiome analysis showed that RS administration elevated the proportion of Firmicutes and butyrate-producing bacteria, and increased butyrate contents in cecum. Furthermore, significant alterations in metabolic profiles were observed, with most of these were associated with the amino acid metabolism (especially tryptophan), lipid metabolism, and intestinal inflammation. Together, diet with RS improved gut integrity and caused corresponding alterations in gut metabolome and microbiome, yielding better insights of the mechanism by RS improved the gut system of ducks.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Amido Resistente , Animais , Mucina-2/farmacologia , Triptofano , Amido/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Carboidratos da Dieta , Patos/metabolismo , Butiratos , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas
3.
Meat Sci ; 195: 108997, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36244076

RESUMO

Meat adulteration affects customers and the market. Existing meat authentication methods usually rely on special devices, and thus are limited to professional use only. Fake lamb or beef slices made from duck and fat appear in some Chinese hotpot restaurants. This study present a customer-conducted method for detecting such adulteration. The method takes a single image as input, and authenticates it by using the textural features of meat slices. The authentication is rapid and non-destructive. The only device required is a mobile phone with a camera. A lightweight (thus high-efficient) convolutional neural network architecture called MTx-Net was built for this task. Fourteen convolutional layers in four blocks were used for extracting valid visual features. Techniques like residuals, depth-wise convolution, dropout and batch normalization were employed in the neural network. For training and testing the neural network, 77956 meat images were collected using 225Kg of meats. This method achieves 99.38% and 98.20% accuracy on lamb and beef slice authentication, respectively.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Carne Vermelha , Ovinos , Bovinos , Animais , Carne Vermelha/análise , Carne/análise , Patos
4.
Gene ; 848: 146864, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067863

RESUMO

Duck meat is starting to receive more attention due to its unique meaty characteristics. Pekin duck is an important breed resource of meat duck, which has been used in meat production and product research. However, the study about whole genome resequencing analysis of ducks for meat production has not been reported and the underlying mechanisms of meat production remain undefined. Here, lines with high lean meat percentage (S, n = 30) and low lean meat percentage (Z, n = 30) were used to analyze. The values of body weight, breast meat weight and leg meat weight in S line (body weight: 3,071 ± 26.83 g), breast meat: 391.3 ± 6.670 g; leg meat: 121.1 ± 2.184 g) were significantly higher than those in Z line (body weight: 2,584 ± 38.53 g, breast meat: 263.9 ± 6.984 g; leg meat: 110.1 ± 3.645 g). The values of body size in Z line (26.47 ± 0.1571 cm) were significantly higher than that in S line (25.38 ± 0.2475 cm). A total of 14,220,037 SNPs were obtained from 19 individuals by whole-genome resequencing, and the separate analyses of FST (range from 0.30 to 0.52) and log2θπ ratio (range from 5.8 to 8.1) revealed 50 and 124 candidate genes in the top 0.1% regions respectively, which involved in 209 and 298 candidate regions. The integration of two approaches resulted in 7 overlapping genes. Notably, AUTS2 gene is related to activator of developmental regulator. As expected, we found that in the chr29:2.29-2.30 Mb region of AUTS2, the FST value is 0.32, and the S line (π = 7.3 × 10 -5) shows a very low level of π value compared with Z line (π = 8.8 × 10 -3). Genotyping and GWAS analysis showed that 2 candidate SNPs (chr29:2,296,787 and chr29:2,296,832) were associated with high meat percentage, which were verified by Sanger sequencing. Taken together, lean meat percentage was much higher in S line individuals by comparing with Z line. The integration of FST and θπ resulted in only 7 overlapping genes that in the top 0.1% candidate regions of them. The chr29:2,296,787 and chr29:2,296,832 in the AUTS2 gene could be important molecular markers for high lean meat adaptation selection in S line.


Assuntos
Patos , Carne , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Peso Corporal/genética , Cruzamento , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Patos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(45): e2214344119, 2022 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322747

RESUMO

Conventional avian genome editing is mediated by isolation, culture, and genome editing of primordial germ cells (PGCs); screening and propagating the genome-edited PGCs; and transplantation of the PGCs into recipient embryos. The PGC-mediated procedures, however, are technically difficult, and therefore, the conventional method has previously been utilized only in chickens. Here, we generated germline mosaic founder chicken and duck lines without the PGC-mediated procedures by injecting an adenovirus containing the CRISPR-Cas9 system into avian blastoderms. Genome-edited chicken and duck offspring produced from the founders carried different insertion or deletion mutations without mutations in the potential off-target sites. Our data demonstrate successful applications of the adenovirus-mediated method for production of genome-edited chicken and duck lines.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Edição de Genes , Animais , Edição de Genes/métodos , Galinhas/genética , Patos/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Adenoviridae/genética , Células Germinativas
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18804, 2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335150

RESUMO

Aerial drones are increasingly being used as tools for ecological research and wildlife monitoring in hard-to-access study systems, such as in studies of colonial-nesting birds. Despite their many advantages over traditional survey methods, there remains concerns about possible disturbance effects that standard drone survey protocols may have on bird colonies. There is a particular gap in the study of their influence on physiological measures of stress. We measured heart rates of incubating female common eider ducks (Somateria mollissima) to determine whether our drone-based population survey affected them. To do so, we used heart-rate recorders placed in nests to quantify their heart rate in response to a quadcopter drone flying transects 30 m above the nesting colony. Eider heart rate did not change from baseline (measured in the absence of drone survey flights) by a drone flying at a fixed altitude and varying horizontal distances from the bird. Our findings suggest that carefully planned drone-based surveys of focal species have the potential to be carried out without causing physiological impacts among colonial-nesting eiders.


Assuntos
Patos , Dispositivos Aéreos não Tripulados , Animais , Feminino , Patos/fisiologia , Aves , Animais Selvagens , Organismos Aquáticos
7.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(11)2022 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360326

RESUMO

TRIM25, as a significant member of the TRIM family, has been frequently demonstrated in regulating the host's antiviral response by activating innate immunity. Ducks are often asymptomatic carriers of influenza A viruses, but the beneficial roles of TRIM25 in modulating the immune response remain largely unknown in ducks. In this study, we characterized the TRIM25, which contains a 16 bp 5'-UTR, a 279 bp 3'-UTR and a 2052 bp ORF that encodes 683 amino acid residues. In addition, we found that duTRIM25 transcripts were widely expressed in the 10 tissues tested, with higher expression levels in the kidney, liver, muscle and spleen and lower expression levels in the duodenum and blood. In addition, the six kinds of virus- or bacteria-mimicking stimuli were transfected into DEFs, and duTRIM25 was induced significantly with 5'ppp dsRNA stimulation. Furthermore, overexpression of duTRIM25 followed by treatment with 5'ppp dsRNA resulted in an increase in IFN-ß. The SPRY domain of duTRIM25 contributed to promoting IFN-ß activity in DEFs challenged with 5'ppp dsRNA. Taken together, our findings suggest that duck TRIM25 can induce the production of IFN-ß against double-stranded RNA virus stimuli and that the SPRY domain of duTRIM25 was critical for the infection.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Patos , Animais , Interferon beta/genética , Imunidade Inata/genética , RNA de Cadeia Dupla , Clonagem Molecular
8.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(5): e0188322, 2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36197298

RESUMO

Duck infectious serositis, also known as Riemerella anatipestifer disease, infects domestic ducks, geese, and turkeys and wild birds. However, the regulatory mechanism of its pathogenicity remains unclear. The PhoPR two-component system (TCS) was first reported in Gram-negative bacteria in our previous research and was demonstrated to be involved in virulence and gene expression. Here, DNA affinity purification sequencing (DAP-seq) was applied to further explore the regulation of PhoPR in relation to pathogenicity in R. anatipestifer. A conserved motif was identified upstream of 583 candidate target genes which were directly regulated by PhoP. To further confirm the genes which are regulated by PhoR and PhoP, single-gene-deletion strains were constructed. The results of transcriptome analysis using next-generation RNA sequencing showed 136 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the ΔphoP strain and the wild type (WT) and 183 DEGs between the ΔphoR strain and the WT. The candidate target genes of PhoP were further identified by combining transcriptome analysis and DAP-seq, which revealed that the main direct regulons of PhoP are located on the membrane and PhoP is involved in regulating aerotolerance. Using the in vivo duck model, the pathogenicity of ΔphoP and ΔphoR mutants was found to be significantly lower than that of the WT. Together, our findings provide insight into the direct regulation of PhoP and suggest that phoPR is essential for the pathogenicity of R. anatipestifer. The gene deletion strains are expected to be candidate live vaccine strains of R. anatipestifer which can be used as ideal genetic engineering vector strains for the expression of foreign antigens. IMPORTANCE Riemerella anatipestifer is a significant pathogen with high mortality in the poultry industry that causes acute septicemia and infectious polyserositis in ducks, chickens, geese, and other avian species. Previously, we characterized the two-component system encoded by phoPR and found that R. anatipestifer almost completely lost its pathogenicity for ducklings when phoPR was deleted. However, the mechanism of PhoPR regulation of virulence in R. anatipestifer had not been deeply explored. In this study, we utilized DAP-seq to explore the DNA-binding sites of PhoP as a response regulator in the global genome. Furthermore, phoP and phoR were deleted separately, and transcriptomics analysis of the corresponding gene deletion strains was performed. We identified a series of directly regulated genes of the PhoPR two-component system. The duckling model showed that both PhoP and PhoR are essential virulence-related factors in R. anatipestifer.


Assuntos
Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Galinhas , Patos/metabolismo , Patos/microbiologia , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/veterinária , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Vacinas Atenuadas , Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Genoma Bacteriano
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 985993, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36275745

RESUMO

Duck cholera (duck hemorrhagic septicemia) is a highly contagious disease caused by Pasteurella multocida, and is one of the major bacterial diseases currently affecting the duck industry. Type A is the predominant pathogenic serotype. In this study, the genes encoding the lipoproteins VacJ, PlpE, and the outer membrane protein OmpH of P. multocida strain PMWSG-4 were cloned and expressed as proteins in E. coli. The recombinant VacJ (84.4 kDa), PlpE (94.8 kDa), and OmpH (96.7 kDa) proteins were purified, and subunit vaccines were formulated with a single water-in-oil adjuvant, while killed vaccines were prepared using a single oil-coated adjuvant. Antibody responses in ducks vaccinated with recombinant VacJ, PlpE, and OmpH proteins formulated with adjuvants were significantly antigenic (p<0.005). Protectivity of the vaccines was evaluated via the intraperitoneal challenge of ducks with 20 LD50 doses of P. multocida A: 1. The vaccine formulation consisting of rVacJ, rPlpE, rOmpH, and adjuvant provided 33.3%, 83.33%, and 83.33% protection, respectively, the vaccine formulation consisting of three recombinant proteins, rVacJ, rPlpE, rOmpH and adjuvant, was 100% protective, and the killed vaccine was 50% protective. In addition, it was shown through histopathological examination and tissue bacterial load detection that all vaccines could reduce tissue damage and bacterial colonization to varying (p<0.001). These findings indicated that recombinant PlpE or OmpH fusion proteins formulated with oil adjuvants have the potential to be used as vaccine candidates against duck cholera subunits.


Assuntos
Cólera , Infecções por Pasteurella , Pasteurella multocida , Animais , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/metabolismo , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa , Vacinas Bacterianas , Patos , Escherichia coli/genética , Lipoproteínas , Infecções por Pasteurella/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Pasteurella/veterinária , Pasteurella multocida/genética , Pasteurella multocida/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados , Vacinas de Subunidades
10.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(5): e0244922, 2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36214697

RESUMO

Tembusu virus (TMUV), an avian mosquito-borne flavivirus, was first identified from Culex tritaeniorhynchus in 1955. To validate the effects of the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) in viral host-specific adaptation, we generated a set of chimeric viruses using CQW1 (duck strain) and MM 1775 (mosquito strain) as backbones with heterogeneous 3'UTRs. Compared with rMM 1775, rMM-CQ3'UTR (recombinant MM 1775 virus carrying the 3'UTR of CQW1) exhibited enhanced proliferation in vitro, with peak titers increasing by 5-fold in duck embryonic fibroblast (DEF) cells or 12-fold in baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells; however, the neurovirulence of rMM-CQ3'UTR was attenuated in 14-day-old Kunming mice via intracranial injection, with slower weight loss, lower mortality, and reduced viral loads. In contrast, rCQ-MM3'UTR showed similar growth kinetics in vitro and neurovirulence in mice compared with those of rCQW1. Then, the Stem-loop I (SLI) structure, which showed the highest variation within the 3'UTR between CQW1 and MM 1775, was further chosen for making chimeric viruses. The peak titers of rMM-CQ3'UTRSLI displayed a 15- or 4-fold increase in vitro, and the neurovirulence in mice was attenuated, compared with that of rMM 1775; rCQ-MM3'UTRSLI displayed comparable multiplication ability in vitro but was significantly attenuated in mice, in contrast with rCQW1. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the TMUV SLI structure of the 3'UTR was responsible for viral host-specific adaptation of the mosquito-derived strain in DEF and BHK-21 cells and regulated viral pathogenicity in 14-day-old mice, providing a new understanding of the functions of TMUV 3'UTR in viral host switching and the pathogenicity changes in mice. IMPORTANCE Mosquito-borne flaviviruses (MBFVs) constitute a large number of mosquito-transmitted viruses. The 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of MBFV has been suggested to be relevant to viral host-specific adaptation. However, the evolutionary strategies for host-specific fitness among MBFV are different, and the virulence-related structures within the 3'UTR are largely unknown. Here, using Tembusu virus (TMUV), an avian MBFV as models, we observed that the duck-derived SLI of the 3'UTR significantly enhanced the proliferation ability of mosquito-derived TMUV in baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) and duck embryonic fibroblast (DEF) cells, suggesting that the SLI structure was crucial for viral host-specific adaptation of mosquito-derived TMUVs in mammalian and avian cells. In addition, all SLI mutant viruses exhibited reduced viral pathogenicity in mice, indicating that SLI structure was a key factor for the pathogenicity in mice. This study provides a new insight into the functions of the MBFV 3'UTR in viral host switching and pathogenicity changes in mice.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Infecções por Flavivirus , Flavivirus , Cricetinae , Camundongos , Animais , Virulência , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Patos , Flavivirus/genética , Mamíferos
11.
Vet Microbiol ; 274: 109578, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183519

RESUMO

Hydropericardium hepatitis syndrome (HHS), a novel poultry disease, is caused by fowl adenovirus 4 (FAdV-4). It mainly infects 3-5-week-old broilers. In July 2015, the first outbreak of HHS occurred in the broilers in east China, which caused great economic losses to the poultry industry. In June 2019, infectious disease was detected with suspected HHS symptoms on a duck farm in Linyi City, Shandong Province. The main necropsy lesions included pericardial effusion and hepatitis. In this study, we isolated a strain of FAdV-4 from naturally infected ducks and named it SDLY190604, and the hexon gene sequence was amplified and analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In order to study the effect of FAdV-4 on Cherry Valley ducks, we inoculated three-week-old ducks with 0.2 ml of FAdV-4 virus fluid (TCID50 of 10-6.3/0.1 ml) by orally, subcutaneously and intramuscularly. Clinical signs, gross lesions and histopathological changes, cytokines and viral load were detected and recorded within 15 days after infection. The results showed that ducks in the experimental groups exhibited typical symptoms of hydropericardium and hepatitis. The histopathological sections showed multiple-organ damage, including serious liver and kidney damage with elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, probably due to the infection and innate immune response. Later, immunosuppression occurred, resulting in decreased levels of cytokines. The viral load indicated that the virus could be present in several organs of the ducks, with the highest viral DNA found in the liver, followed by the kidney. Compared to the subcutaneous and oral groups, the intramuscular group exhibited the highest viral load. In summary, this study can increase our understanding of the pathogenicity of FAdV-4 in ducks and provide a basis for further understanding of the virus, imparting new insights into disease research.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae , Aviadenovirus , Hepatite , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Patos , Infecções por Adenoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Sorogrupo , Galinhas , Virulência , DNA Viral , Adenoviridae/genética , Evolução Molecular , Citocinas/genética , China/epidemiologia
12.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 948237, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36262184

RESUMO

Salmonella Entertidis (SE) often causes persistent infections and egg contamination in laying ducks. Hcp, the core structural and effector proteins of the Type VI Secretion System (T6SS) in SE, contributes to bacterial invasion, adhesion and virulence. However, little is known about the effect of Hcp on the host's infection responses and egg contamination incidences in duck. Herein, we generated an hcp deletion mutant SE MY1△hcp and detected its ability to invade duck granulosa cells (dGCs) and contaminate eggs. In comparison with MY1-infected group, the SE adhesion decreased by 15.96% in MY1△hcp-infected dGCs, and the apoptosis in MY1△hcp-infected dGCs decreased by 26.58% and 30.99% at 3 and 6 hours postinfection, respectively. However, the expression levels of immunogenic genes TLR4, NOD1, TNFα, IL-1ß and proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1ß, TNF-α release were markedly lower in the dGCs inoculated with MY1△hcp than that of the wild type. Besides, the laying ducks were challenged with MY1 or MY1△hcp in vivo, respectively. The lower egg production and higher egg contamination were observed in MY1-infected ducks in comparison with MY1△hcp-infected birds. Furthermore, the host's infection response of differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) to Salmonella effector Hcp was identified using quantitative proteomics. A total of 164 DAPs were identified between the MY1- and MY1△hcp-infected cells, which were mainly engaged in the immune, hormone synthesis, cell proliferation and cell apoptotic process. Among them, STAT3, AKT1, MAPK9, MAPK14, and CREBBP were the center of the regulatory network, which might serve as key host response regulators to bacterial Hcp. In conclusion, we demonstrated that effector Hcp contributed to not only SE invasion, induction of dGCs apoptosis, and trigger of immune responses, but also enhanced contamination incidences. Also, the STAT3, AKT1, MAPK9, MAPK14, and CREBBP were identified as host's infection response regulators of bacterial Hcp in duck. Overall, these results not only offered a novel evidence of SE ovarian transmission but also identified some promising candidate regulators during SE infection.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase 14 Ativada por Mitógeno , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Salmonelose Animal , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo VI , Animais , Feminino , Patos , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella enteritidis/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Galinhas/microbiologia , Incidência , Interleucina-6 , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Hormônios
13.
J Exp Biol ; 225(20)2022 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36305674

RESUMO

As diving foragers, sea ducks are vulnerable to underwater anthropogenic activity, including ships, underwater construction, seismic surveys and gillnet fisheries. Bycatch in gillnets is a contributing source of mortality for sea ducks, killing hundreds of thousands of individuals annually. We researched underwater hearing in sea duck species to increase knowledge of underwater avian acoustic sensitivity and to assist with possible development of gillnet bycatch mitigation strategies that include auditory deterrent devices. We used both psychoacoustic and electrophysiological techniques to investigate underwater duck hearing in several species including the long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis), surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) and common eider (Somateria mollissima). Psychoacoustic results demonstrated that all species tested share a common range of maximum auditory sensitivity of 1.0-3.0 kHz, with the long-tailed ducks and common eiders at the high end of that range (2.96 kHz), and surf scoters at the low end (1.0 kHz). In addition, our electrophysiological results from 4 surf scoters and 2 long-tailed ducks, while only tested at 0.5, 1 and 2 kHz, generally agree with the audiogram shape from our psychoacoustic testing. The results from this study are applicable to the development of effective acoustic deterrent devices or pingers in the 2-3 kHz range to deter sea ducks from anthropogenic threats.


Assuntos
Patos , Pesqueiros , Humanos , Animais , Patos/fisiologia , Acústica , Audição
14.
Arch Razi Inst ; 77(2): 861-867, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36284964

RESUMO

Avian Influenza Viruses (AIV) are the causative agents of Avian Influenza (AI), which is a contagious and zoonotic disease in birds. Among birds, wild waterfowls and ducks are the primary and natural reservoirs of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAI). This study aimed to identify and differentiate between two AIV subtypes (i.e., hemagglutinin and neuraminidase from domestic ducks by hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) and neuraminidase inhibition (NI) assays. To this end, 962 cloacal swabs were collected from domestic ducks being sold at different Iranian Live Bird Markets in Gilan, Mazandaran, and Golestan provinces, located at the southern coast of the Caspian Sea. The samples were inoculated in 10-day-old embryonated specific pathogen-free chicken eggs, and subsequently, harvested allantoic fluids were subjected to agar gel immunodiffusion, HI, and NI assays. In total, five positive samples, including two H4N2 and three H3N2 AIV subtypes were identified. Isolation of H4N2 and H3N2 viruses has never been reported from Iranian domestic ducks previously. This finding further suggests the diversity of LPAI viruses in Iranian ducks and also shows that the HI and NI assays are highly efficient in determining AIV subtypes.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Aviária , Animais , Patos , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Neuraminidase/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2 , Hemaglutininas , Ágar , Filogenia , Galinhas
15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(22): 15365-15376, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36288568

RESUMO

Outbreaks of avian influenza virus (AIV) have raised public concerns recently. Airborne AIV has been evaluated in live poultry markets and case farms; however, no study has discussed airborne AIV in ambient air in the winter habitats of migratory birds. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate airborne AIV, specifically H5, H7, and H9, in a critical winter habitat of migratory birds and assess the factors influencing airborne AIV transmission in ambient air to provide novel insights into the epidemiology of avian influenza. A total of 357 ambient air samples were collected in the Aogu Wetland, Taiwan, Republic of China, between October 2017 and December 2019 and analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The effects of environmental factors including air pollutants, meteorological factors, and the species of the observed migratory birds on the concentration of airborne AIV were also analyzed. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the relationship between airborne AIV in ambient air and the influence factors in the winter habitats of migratory birds, demonstrating the benefits of environmental sampling for infectious disease epidemiology. The positive rate of airborne H7 (12%) was higher than that of H5 (8%) and H9 (10%). The daily mean temperature and daily maximum temperature had a significant negative correlation with influenza A, H7, and H9. Cold air masses and bird migration were significantly associated with airborne H9 and H7, respectively. In addition, we observed a significant correlation between AIV and the number of pintails, common teals, Indian spot-billed ducks, northern shovelers, Eurasian wigeons, tufted ducks, pied avocets, black-faced spoonbills, and great cormorants. In conclusion, we demonstrated the potential for alternative surveillance approaches (monitoring bird species) as an indicator for influenza-related risks and identified cold air masses and the presence of specific bird species as potential drivers of the presence and/or the airborne concentration of AIV.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Aviária , Influenza Humana , Animais , Humanos , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Aves , Patos , Ecossistema
16.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275852, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36219598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The avian influenza virus (AIV) causes significant economic losses by infecting poultry and occasional spillover to humans. Backyard farms are vulnerable to AIV epidemics due to poor health management and biosecurity practices, threatening rural households' economic stability and nutrition. We have limited information about the risk factors associated with AIV infection in backyard poultry in Bangladesh. Hence, we conducted a cross-sectional survey comprising epidemiological and anthropological investigations to understand the poultry rearing practices and risk factors of AIV circulation among backyard poultry in selected rural communities. METHODS: We sampled 120 poultry from backyard farms (n = 30) of the three selected communities between February 2017 and January 2018. We tested swab samples for the matrix gene (M gene) followed by H5, H7, and H9 subtypes using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). We applied multivariable logistic regression for risk factor analysis. Furthermore, we conducted an observational study (42 hours) and informal interviews (n = 30) with backyard farmers to record poultry-raising activities in rural communities. RESULTS: We detected that 25.2% of the backyard poultry tested positive for AIV, whereas 5% tested positive for H5N1 and 10.8% tested positive for H9N2. Results showed that scavenging in both household garden and other crop fields has higher odds of AIV than scavenging in the household garden (AOR: 24.811; 95% CI: 2.11-292.28), and keeping a cage inside the house has higher odds (AOR:14.5; 95% CI: 1.06-198.51) than keeping it in the veranda, cleaning the cage twice a week or weekly has a higher risk than cleaning daily (AOR: 34.45; 95% CI: 1.04-1139.65), dumping litter or droppings (AOR: 82.80; 95% CI: 3.91-1754.59) and dead birds or wastage (AOR: 109.92, 95% CI: 4.34-2785.29) near water bodies and bushes have a higher risk than burring in the ground, slaughtering and consuming sick birds also had a higher odd of AIV (AOR: 73.45, 95% CI: 1.56-3457.73) than treating the birds. The anthropological investigation revealed that household members had direct contact with the poultry in different ways, including touching, feeding, slaughtering, and contacting poultry feces. Poultry is usually kept inside the house, sick poultry are traditionally slaughtered and eaten, and most poultry raisers do not know that diseases can transmit from backyard poultry to humans. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the circulation of H5N1 and H9N2 virus in backyard poultry in rural communities; associated with species, scavenging area of the poultry, location of the poultry cage, the practice of litter, wastage, droppings, and dead bird disposal, and practice of handling sick poultry. We suggest improving biosecurity practices in backyard poultry and mass awareness campaigns to reduce incidences of AIV in household-level poultry farms in rural communities in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1 , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2 , Influenza Aviária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas , Estudos Transversais , Patos , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/genética , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Aves Domésticas , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por RNA , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Água
17.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36298766

RESUMO

Aquatic bird bornavirus 1 (ABBV-1) is a neurotropic virus that infects waterfowls, resulting in persistent infection. Experimental infection showed that both Muscovy ducks and chickens support persistent ABBV-1 infection in the central nervous system (CNS), up to 12 weeks post-infection (wpi), without the development of clinical disease. The aim of the present study was to describe the transcriptomic profiles in the brains of experimentally infected Muscovy ducks and chickens infected with ABBV-1 at 4 and 12 wpi. Transcribed RNA was sequenced by next-generation sequencing and analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and differential gene expression. The functional annotation of differentially expressed genes was evaluated by gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis. The PCA showed that the infected ducks sampled at both 4 and 12 wpi clustered separately from the controls, while only the samples from the chickens at 12 wpi, but not at 4 wpi, formed a separate cluster. In the ducks, more genes were differentially expressed at 4 wpi than 12 wpi, and the majority of the highly differentially expressed genes (DEG) were upregulated. On the other hand, the infected chickens had fewer DEGs at 4 wpi than at 12 wpi, and the majority of those with high numbers of DEGs were downregulated at 4 wpi and upregulated at 12 wpi. The functional annotation showed that the most enriched GO terms were immune-associated in both species; however, the terms associated with the innate immune response were predominantly enriched in the ducks, whereas the chickens had enrichment of both the innate and adaptive immune response. Immune-associated pathways were also enriched according to the KEGG pathway analysis in both species. Overall, the transcriptomic analysis of the duck and chicken brains showed that the main biological responses to ABBV-1 infection were immune-associated and corresponded with the levels of inflammation in the CNS.


Assuntos
Bornaviridae , Vírus de RNA , Animais , Patos , Galinhas , Bornaviridae/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Transcriptoma , Vírus de RNA/genética , Encéfalo , RNA/metabolismo
18.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36298780

RESUMO

For industrial vaccine production, overwhelming the existing antiviral innate immune response dominated by type I interferons (IFN-I) in cells would be a key factor improving the effectiveness and production cost of vaccines. In this study, we report the construction of an IFN-I receptor 1 (IFNAR1)-knockout DF-1 cell line (KO-IFNAR1), which supports much more efficient replication of the duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Transcriptomic analysis of DTMUV-infected KO-IFNAR1 cells demonstrated that DTMUV mainly activated genes and signaling pathways related to cell growth and apoptosis. Among them, JUN, MYC and NFKBIA were significantly up-regulated. Furthermore, knockdown of zinc-fingered helicase 2 (HELZ2) and interferon-α-inducible protein 6 (IFI6), the two genes up-regulated in both wild type and KO-IFNAR1 cells, significantly increased the replication of DTMUV RNA. This study paves the way for further studying the mechanism underlying the DTMUV-mediated IFN-I-independent regulation of virus replication, and meanwhile provides a potential cell resource for efficient production of cell-based avian virus vaccines.


Assuntos
Infecções por Flavivirus , Flavivirus , Interferon Tipo I , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Patos , Galinhas/genética , Transcriptoma , Flavivirus/genética , Linhagem Celular , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Antivirais , Apoptose , RNA , Interferon-alfa/genética , Zinco
19.
Food Res Int ; 161: 111859, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36192983

RESUMO

Poultry products are an essential animal source of protein for humans. Many factors could destroy the balance of the poultry production chain and cause an overstock of products, which need to be stored in the frozen storage warehouse for a long time. The long-term frozen storage may affect the quality of meat products. In this study, the changes of small molecular substances were revealed in duck meat during long-term storage using non-targeted metabolomics. The results showed that compared with fresh meat, even if the meat is stored under frozen storage conditions, the number of differential metabolites of frozen storage meat continues to increase with the prolongation of storage time, indicating that the meat composition has changed significantly with the storage time increased. With the increase in storage time, the nitrogen-containing small molecular compounds in duck meat increased (carnosine and anserine, aspartic acid, and tyrosine, 1H-indole-3-acetamide, 2-Hydroxyphenethylamine, 2-Naphylamine, allocystathionine, and O-phosphoethanolamine), the nucleotides decomposition process strengthened (IMP and AMP, GMP and UMP), and the content of organic acid increased (5-hydroxy indole acetic acid, 5-hydroxypentanoic acid and phenylacetate, taurine) and carbohydrate (1-O-sinapoyl-beta-d-glucose, 4-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-d-mannose, and alpha-d-glucose). These small molecular substances can be used as biomarkers to detect long-term stored duck meat deterioration. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that protein catabolism, nucleotide catabolism, fat decomposition and oxidation, and carbohydrate decomposition were the main metabolic processes of meat deterioration during the long-term storage of duck meat. In addition, Non-target metabolome technology is a powerful tool to reveal the meat deterioration process during long-term storage systematically. This study provided a reference for optimizing domestic poultry meat storage methods and ensuring food safety.


Assuntos
2-Hidroxifenetilamina , Carnosina , 2-Hidroxifenetilamina/metabolismo , Monofosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Anserina/metabolismo , Ácido Aspártico/metabolismo , Carboidratos , Carnosina/metabolismo , Patos/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Inosina Monofosfato/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fenilacetatos/metabolismo , Taurina/metabolismo , Tirosina/metabolismo , Uridina Monofosfato/metabolismo
20.
Animal ; 16(11): 100652, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265190

RESUMO

There is an urgent need to evaluate and introduce alternatives for the unsustainable and traditional feed stuffs in poultry. This study evaluated the effects of graded replacement of soybean meal (SBM) by peanut meal (PNM) on egg production, egg quality, oxidative status, and yolk fatty acid profile in laying ducks. In total, 360 Longyan ducks aged 21 weeks were allocated to five treatments, each containing six replicates of 12 birds. Birds were fed the diets containing PNM replacing 0 (control), 25, 50, 75 or 100% of SBM for 16 weeks. With the increase of PNM level, egg production was improved (quadratic, P < 0.05), egg weight and feed consumption were decreased, feed conversion ratio and egg mass were impaired at 100% PNM, and yolk colour was enhanced (quadratic, P < 0.05). Plasma malondialdehyde concentration was increased at 100% PNM, while plasma glutathione concentration was decreased (quadratic, P < 0.01) as PNM substitution increased. Total cholesterol content in yolk decreased (P < 0.01) in response to increased PNM substitution. The contents of saturated fatty acids C20:0 and C22:0 in yolk increased (linear or quadratic, P < 0.05) with increased PNM substitution, but the contents of saturated fatty acid C18:0, monounsaturated fatty acid C22:1, and polyunsaturated fatty acids C18:3n-3 and C22:6n-3 in yolk were decreased (linear, P < 0.05) as PNM replacement increased. The contents in yolk of polyunsaturated fatty acid C18:2n-6, C20:2n-6, C20:3n-6, C20:4n-6, and total amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids increased with the highest contents obtained at 75% PNM substitution. The ratio between n-6 and n-3 increased (linear, P < 0.05) as PNM substitution increased. The transcript abundance in liver of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors γ and fatty acid synthase showed quadratic (P < 0.05) responses with PNM replacement, with the highest expression of both genes being obtained with 75% substitution with PNM. Replacement of dietary SBM with 100% PNM decreased egg production and antioxidant capacity and increased the ratio of omega fatty acid in yolk between n-6 and n-3 in laying ducks. The obtained results indicate that PNM can be used to replace up to 75% of SBM in the diet of laying ducks without negative effects on the egg-laying production or egg quality. The regression model indicated that the maximal egg mass was obtained at no more than 67.6% replacement of SBM with PNM in the diet of laying ducks.


Assuntos
Patos , Fabaceae , Animais , Patos/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Ração Animal/análise , Soja/metabolismo , Arachis/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Estresse Oxidativo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Gema de Ovo , Suplementos Nutricionais
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