Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.701
Filtrar
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257023, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360225

RESUMO

The present study examines the correlations between fifteen morphometric and ten meristic characters and total length (TL) of males, females, and combined sexes of Alepes vari (Cuvier, 1833) collected from Karachi fish harbor, West Wharf of Karachi Coast. Statistical analyses of linear regression relationships show mostly strong correlations (r≥0.70; p<0.05) between total length (TL) and most morphometric characters in males, females, and combined sexes, except the height of pectoral-fin (PFH), and pelvic-fin base length (PelFL); whereas, meristic characters were found to be constant and indicate weak or negative type correlations (r≤0.50; p>0.05) with total length (TL). Hence, according to our present results, there is a direct relationship between the total length of fish and all morphometric characters, which were found to be the best indicators of positive allometric pattern growth in fish. Moreover, analysis of the 2-sample t-test revealed (t-test; p>0.05) that no sexual dimorphism was reported in Alepes vari. Thus, our present study could be valuable in systematic classification, sexual dimorphism, and management of this species on the Karachi coast.


O presente estudo examina as correlações entre 15 caracteres morfométricos e 10 caracteres merísticos e comprimento total (CT) de machos, fêmeas e sexos combinados de Alepes vari (Cuvier, 1833), coletados do porto de Karachi, West Wharf, na costa de Karachi. As análises estatísticas das relações de regressão linear mostraram, principalmente, correlações fortes (r ≥ 0,70; p < 0,05) entre o CT e a maioria dos caracteres morfométricos em machos, fêmeas e sexos combinados, exceto a altura da nadadeira peitoral e o comprimento da base da nadadeira pélvica, enquanto os caracteres merísticos foram constantes, indicando correlações fracas ou negativas (r ≤ 0,50; p > 0,05) com o CT. Portanto, de acordo com nossos resultados, existe uma relação direta entre o CT dos peixes e todos os caracteres morfométricos, que foram considerados os melhores indicadores de crescimento do padrão alométrico positivo em peixes. Além disso, a análise do teste t de duas amostras revelou (teste t; p > 0,05) que nenhum dimorfismo sexual foi relatado em A. vari.


Assuntos
Animais , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Arábia
2.
J Morphol ; 285(1): e21662, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38100743

RESUMO

The Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Krefft 1870), is the sole extant member of the Ceratodontidae within the Dipnoi, a small order of sarcopterygian (lobe-finned) fishes, that is thought to be the earliest branching species of extant lungfishes, having changed little over the last 100 million years. To extend studies on anatomical adaptations associated with the fish-tetrapod transition, the ultrastructure of the cornea and iris is investigated using light and electron (transmission and scanning) microscopy to investigate structure-function relationships and compare these to other vertebrate corneas (other fishes and tetrapods). In contrast to previous studies, the cornea is found to have only three main components, comprising an epithelium with its basement membrane, a stroma with a Bowman's layer and an endothelium, and is not split into a dermal (secondary) spectacle and a scleral cornea. The epithelial cells are large, relatively low in density and similar to many species of non-aquatic tetrapods and uniquely possess numerous surface canals that contain and release mucous granules onto the corneal surface to avoid desiccation. A Bowman's layer is present and, in association with extensive branching and anastomosing of the collagen fibrils, may be an adaptation for the inhibition of swelling and/or splitting of the stroma during its amphibious lifestyle. The dorsal region of the stroma possesses aggregations of pigment granules that act as a yellow, short wavelength-absorbing filter during bright light conditions. Desçemet's membrane is absent and replaced by an incomplete basement membrane overlying a monocellular endothelium. The iris is pigmented, well-developed, vascularised and contractile containing reflective crystals anteriorly. Based upon its ultrastructure and functional adaptations, the cornea of N. forsteri is more similar to amphibians than to other bony fishes and is well-adapted for an amphibious lifestyle.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Córnea , Peixes , Iris , Animais , Austrália , Córnea/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Iris/anatomia & histologia
3.
Rev. biol. trop ; 71(1)dic. 2023.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1514962

RESUMO

Introducción: La Pácora (Plagioscion magdalenae) es una especie nativa de Colombia y en categoría de casi amenazada a nivel del país, de la que poco se conoce acerca de las estructuras con aporte etológico en su historia de vida. Objetivo: Analizar el desarrollo gonadal relacionado con la espermatogénesis de P. magdalenae y las implicaciones taxonómicas a partir de la vejiga natatoria. Métodos: Realizamos siete muestreos en dos periodos climáticos: el primero en octubre de 2019 a febrero de 2020 de recolectas bimensuales y la segunda de octubre 2020 a enero 2021 de recolectas mensuales; con el fin de abarcar cada momento del pulso de inundación de la cuenca baja del Magdalena. Describimos la histomorfología testicular y las características macroscópicas de la vejiga natatoria de la especie. Además, analizamos aspectos como relaciones morfométricas, clases de tallas por sexos, la proporción sexual y la época de madurez sexual. Resultados: Analizamos 142 ejemplares y 4 intervalos de tallas fueron establecidos (entre 145 y 575 mm LE), 66 fueron machos y 73 hembras con una proporción sexual global 1.1:0.9 (hembra-macho) sin diferencias. Los machos tienen testículos de tipo tubular, protegidos por el peritoneo que se encuentra recubierto por la musculatura sónica de la vejiga natatoria, la cual posee forma de ''zanahoria'' sin apéndices, con dos bandas laterales de músculos intrínsecos (promedio entre 6.75 cm de largo y 1.48 cm de ancho) unidos por una aponeurosis y que solo se encuentran en machos sexualmente maduros. Conclusión: Los testículos poseen una organización de tipo lobular irrestricto y la espermatogénesis se da en lóbulos seminíferos. La vejiga natatoria de la Pácora es simple y no tiene estructuras accesorias. La distribución geográfica de P. magdalenae se restringe a la cuenca del río Magdalena en Colombia.


Introduction: The Pácora (Plagioscion magdalenae) is a species native to Colombia and in near-threatened category at the country level, of which little is known about the structures with ethological contribution in its life history. Objective: To analyze the gonadal development related to spermatogenesis of P. magdalenae and the taxonomic implications from the swim bladder. Methods: We collected seven samples in two climatic periods: the first from October 2019 to February 2020 of bimonthly collections, and the second from October 2020 to January 2021 of monthly collections; to cover every moment of the flood pulse of the lower Magdalena basin. We described the testicular histomorphology and macroscopic characteristics of the swim bladder of the species. In addition, we analyzed aspects such as morphometric relationships, size classes by sex, sex ratio and time of sexual maturity. Results: We analyzed 142 specimens and established 4 size intervals (between 145 and 575 mm SL), 66 were males and 73 females with an overall sex ratio of 1.1:0.9 (female-male) with no differences. Males have tubular testes protected by the peritoneum covered by the sonic musculature of the swim bladder, which has a ''carrot'' shape without appendages, with two lateral bands of intrinsic muscles (average between 6.75 cm long and 1.48 cm wide) connected by an aponeurosis and found only in sexually mature males. Conclusion: The testes have an unrestricted lobular organization and spermatogenesis occurs in the seminiferous lobes. The swim bladder of the Pácora is simple and has no accessory structures. The geographic distribution of P. magdalenae is restricted to the Magdalena River basin in Colombia.


Assuntos
Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Gônadas , Colômbia
4.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 19746, 2023 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37957184

RESUMO

Fish speciation was accompanied by changes in the urogenital system anatomy. In evolutionarily modern Teleostei, male reproductive tracts are fully separated from the excretory system, while in evolutionarily ancient Chondrostei and Holostei, the excretory and reproductive tracts are not separated. Sturgeon post-testicular sperm maturation (PTSM) occurring as a result of sperm/urine mixing is phenomenologically well described, while, in holosteans, functional intimacy of seminal ducts with kidney ducts and the existence of PTSM still need to be addressed. In Lepisosteus platostomus (Holostei), sperm samples were collected from testes (TS), efferent ducts (EDS), and Wolffian ducts (WDS). While WDS was motile, no motility was found in TS and EDS. The existence of PTSM was checked by in vitro PTSM procedure. After TS and EDS incubation in seminal fluid from WDS, no more than 5% motile spermatozoa were observed in TS, whereas in EDS the motility percentage was up to 75%. Experimental dyeing of urogenital ducts in gars and sturgeons revealed some differences in the interconnection between sperm ducts and kidneys. It is concluded that post-testicular sperm maturation occurs in gars and suggests that infraclass Holostei occupies an intermediate evolutionary position between Teleostei and Chondrostei in the anatomical arrangement of the urogenital system.


Assuntos
Maturação do Esperma , Testículo , Animais , Masculino , Sêmen , Espermatozoides , Genitália Masculina , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Motilidade dos Espermatozoides
6.
Nature ; 623(7987): 550-554, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37914937

RESUMO

The origin of vertebrate paired appendages is one of the most investigated and debated examples of evolutionary novelty1-7. Paired appendages are widely considered as key innovations that enabled new opportunities for controlled swimming and gill ventilation and were prerequisites for the eventual transition from water to land. The past 150 years of debate8-10 has been shaped by two contentious theories4,5: the ventrolateral fin-fold hypothesis9,10 and the archipterygium hypothesis8. The latter proposes that fins and girdles evolved from an ancestral gill arch. Although studies in animal development have revived interest in this idea11-13, it is apparently unsupported by fossil evidence. Here we present palaeontological support for a pharyngeal basis for the vertebrate shoulder girdle. We use computed tomography scanning to reveal details of the braincase of Kolymaspis sibirica14, an Early Devonian placoderm fish from Siberia, that suggests a pharyngeal component of the shoulder. We combine these findings with refreshed comparative anatomy of placoderms and jawless outgroups to place the origin of the shoulder girdle on the sixth branchial arch. These findings provide a novel framework for understanding the origin of the pectoral girdle. Our evidence clarifies the location of the presumptive head-trunk interface in jawless fishes and explains the constraint on branchial arch number in gnathostomes15. The results revive a key aspect of the archipterygium hypothesis and help reconcile it with the ventrolateral fin-fold model.


Assuntos
Nadadeiras de Animais , Evolução Biológica , Peixes , Fósseis , Vertebrados , Animais , Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Paleontologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Vertebrados/anatomia & histologia , Sibéria
7.
J Morphol ; 284(9): e21632, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37585230

RESUMO

Holocephalans exhibit auxiliary appendages called pre-pelvic claspers (PPCs) that are located anterior to the pelvic fins, while pelvic claspers are pelvic fin modifications located posteriorly as modified metapterygia. Articulation points of the PPCs have not previously been imaged or evaluated in a comparative context, therefore, they may represent modified pelvic fin structures if they articulate with the propterygium. Alternatively, they could represent the only example of an independent third set of paired appendages in an extant taxon, if they articulate independently from any pelvic fin basal cartilages, challenging the current paradigm that extant jawed vertebrates are constrained to two sets of paired appendages. Two extinct groups, including Placoderms and Acanthodians, exhibit variation in the number of paired appendages, suggesting this may be a plesiomorphic trait. We evaluated PPC developmental growth rates, morphology, and articulation points in spotted ratfish (Hydrolagus Colliei, Holocephali). We also compared variation in PPC morphology among representatives of the three extant holocephalan families. Both, the pre-pelvic and pelvic claspers exhibit a dramatic surge in growth at sexual maturity, and then level off, suggesting synchronous development via shared hormonal regulation. While mature females are larger than males, pelvic fin growth and development is faster in males, suggesting a selective advantage to larger fins with faster development. Finally, microcomputed tomography scans revealed that PPCs are not modified propterygia, nor do they articulate with the propterygium. They articulate with the anterior pre-pelvic process on the anterior puboischiadic bar (or pelvic girdle), suggesting that while they are associated with the pelvic girdle, they may indeed represent a third, independent set of paired appendages in extant holocephalans.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Vertebrados , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Pelve , Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia
8.
J Morphol ; 284(8): e21612, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37458082

RESUMO

Mudskippers are a group of amphibious fishes in the family Oxudercidae, whose species inhabit a range of habitats from mostly aquatic to mostly terrestrial. Most of our understanding about habitat preference comes from natural history observations, particularly where they are collected (i.e., low intertidal vs. high intertidal regions). Mudskippers have undergone several morphological changes to accommodate a terrestrial life, including major changes to the pectoral and pelvic girdles. These changes result in a novel crutching gait, which mudskippers use to move over land. Though the appendicular morphology and crutching gait of mudskippers have been described in some species, few studies have compared skeletal structures across the family. In our study, we use microcomputed tomography (µCT) scans to compare the skeletal anatomy of 16 species of aquatic and terrestrial mudskippers. Linear discriminant analysis is used to analyze measurements obtained through geometric morphometrics (landmarks). We found bone structures of the pectoral region in the terrestrial group were significantly longer and wider than those in the aquatic group. Furthermore, a significant difference in anatomy is shown between terrestrial and aquatic genera with both axial and appendicular elements contributing to the separation between groups. This work describes the differences in skeletal morphology associated with terrestriality in mudskippers and provides valuable insights into specific anatomical characteristics contributing to their adaptation to novel environments.


Assuntos
Nadadeiras de Animais , Ecossistema , Animais , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Peixes/anatomia & histologia
9.
Evolution ; 77(9): 2000-2014, 2023 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37345732

RESUMO

The upper and lower jaws of some wrasses (Eupercaria: Labridae) possess teeth that have been coalesced into a strong durable beak that they use to graze on hard coral skeletons, hard-shelled prey, and algae, allowing many of these species to function as important ecosystem engineers in their respective marine habitats. While the ecological impact of the beak is well understood, questions remain about its evolutionary history and the effects of this innovation on the downstream patterns of morphological evolution. Here we analyze 3D cranial shape data in a phylogenetic comparative framework and use paleoclimate modeling to reconstruct the evolution of the labrid beak across 205 species. We find that wrasses evolved beaks three times independently, once within odacines and twice within parrotfishes in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. We find an increase in the rate of shape evolution in the Scarus+Chlorurus+Hipposcarus (SCH) clade of parrotfishes likely driven by the evolution of the intramandibular joint. Paleoclimate modeling shows that the SCH clade of parrotfishes rapidly morphologically diversified during the middle Miocene. We hypothesize that possession of a beak in the SCH clade coupled with favorable environmental conditions allowed these species to rapidly morphologically diversify.


Assuntos
Bico , Perciformes , Animais , Filogenia , Ecossistema , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Evolução Biológica
10.
Nature ; 618(7964): 322-327, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37198484

RESUMO

Individual growth is a fundamental life history trait1-4, yet its macroevolutionary trajectories have rarely been investigated for entire animal assemblages. Here we analyse the evolution of growth in a highly diverse vertebrate assemblage-coral reef fishes. We combine state-of-the-art extreme gradient boosted regression trees with phylogenetic comparative methods to detect the timing, number, location and magnitude of shifts in the adaptive regime of somatic growth. We also explored the evolution of the allometric relationship between body size and growth. Our results show that the evolution of fast growth trajectories in reef fishes has been considerably more common than the evolution of slow growth trajectories. Many reef fish lineages shifted towards faster growth and smaller body size evolutionary optima in the Eocene (56-33.9 million years ago), pointing to a major expansion of life history strategies in this Epoch. Of all lineages examined, the small-bodied, high-turnover cryptobenthic fishes shifted most towards extremely high growth optima, even after accounting for body size allometry. These results suggest that the high global temperatures of the Eocene5 and subsequent habitat reconfigurations6 might have been critical for the rise and retention of the highly productive, high-turnover fish faunas that characterize modern coral reef ecosystems.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Recifes de Corais , Peixes , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/classificação , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , Fatores de Tempo , Adaptação Biológica
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(18): e2220404120, 2023 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37094121

RESUMO

Blinking, the transient occlusion of the eye by one or more membranes, serves several functions including wetting, protecting, and cleaning the eye. This behavior is seen in nearly all living tetrapods and absent in other extant sarcopterygian lineages suggesting that it might have arisen during the water-to-land transition. Unfortunately, our understanding of the origin of blinking has been limited by a lack of known anatomical correlates of the behavior in the fossil record and a paucity of comparative functional studies. To understand how and why blinking originates, we leverage mudskippers (Oxudercinae), a clade of amphibious fishes that have convergently evolved blinking. Using microcomputed tomography and histology, we analyzed two mudskipper species, Periophthalmus barbarus and Periophthalmodon septemradiatus, and compared them to the fully aquatic round goby, Neogobius melanostomus. Study of gross anatomy and epithelial microstructure shows that mudskippers have not evolved novel musculature or glands to blink. Behavioral analyses show the blinks of mudskippers are functionally convergent with those of tetrapods: P. barbarus blinks more often under high-evaporation conditions to wet the eye, a blink reflex protects the eye from physical insult, and a single blink can fully clean the cornea of particulates. Thus, eye retraction in concert with a passive occlusal membrane can achieve functions associated with life on land. Osteological correlates of eye retraction are present in the earliest limbed vertebrates, suggesting blinking capability. In both mudskippers and tetrapods, therefore, the origin of this multifunctional innovation is likely explained by selection for increasingly terrestrial lifestyles.


Assuntos
Piscadela , Perciformes , Animais , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Peixes/anatomia & histologia
12.
Brain Behav Evol ; 98(4): 171-182, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36948163

RESUMO

Brains are very plastic, both in response to phenotypic diversity and to larger evolutionary trends. Differences between taxa cannot be easily attributed to either factors. Comparative morphological data on higher taxonomic levels are scarce, especially in ray-finned fishes. Here we show the great diversity of brain areas of more than 150 species of ray-finned fishes by volumetric measurements using block-face imaging. We found that differences among families or orders are more likely due to environmental needs than to systematic position. Most notable changes are present in the brain areas processing sensory input (chemosenses and lateral line vs. visual system) between salt- and freshwater species due to fundamental differences in habitat properties. Further, some patterns of brain volumetry are linked to characteristics of body morphology. There is a positive correlation between cerebellum size and body depth, as well as the presence of a swim bladder. Since body morphology is linked to ecotypes and habitat selection, a complex character space of brain and body morphology and ecological factors together could explain better the differentiation of species into their ecological niches and may lead to a better understanding of how animals adapt to their environment.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Peixes , Animais , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Ecossistema , Cerebelo , Filogenia
13.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0272246, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36921006

RESUMO

Morphological and developmental similarities, and interactions among developing structures are interpreted as evidences of modularity. Such similarities exist between the dorsal and anal fins of living actinopterygians, on the anteroposterior axis: (1) both fins differentiate in the same direction [dorsal and anal fin patterning module (DAFPM)], and (2) radials and lepidotrichia differentiate in the same direction [endoskeleton and exoskeleton module (EEM)]. To infer the evolution of these common developmental patternings among osteichthyans, we address (1) the complete description and quantification of the DAFPM and EEM in a living actinopterygian (the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss) and (2) the presence of these modules in fossil osteichthyans (coelacanths, lungfishes, porolepiforms and 'osteolepiforms'). In Oncorhynchus, sequences of skeletal elements are determined based on (1) apparition (radials and lepidotrichia), (2) chondrification (radials), (3) ossification (radials and lepidotrichia), and (4) segmentation plus bifurcation (lepidotrichia). Correlations are then explored between sequences. In fossil osteichthyans, sequences are determined based on (1) ossification (radials and lepidotrichia), (2) segmentation, and (3) bifurcation of lepidotrichia. Segmentation and bifurcation patterns were found crucial for comparisons between extant and extinct osteichthyan taxa. Our data suggest that the EEM is plesiomorphic at least for actinopterygians, and the DAFPM is plesiomorphic for osteichthyans, with homoplastic dissociation. Finally, recurrent patterns suggest the presence of a Lepidotrichia Patterning Module (LPM).


Assuntos
Peixes , Fósseis , Animais , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Evolução Biológica
14.
J Morphol ; 284(5): e21584, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36976835

RESUMO

This work reports on the structural characteristics of the respiratory gas bladder of the osteoglossiform fish Heterotis niloticus. The bladder-vertebrae relationships are also analyzed. A slit-shaped orifice in the mediodorsal pharyngeal wall is surrounded by a muscle sphincter and serves as a glottis-like opening to the gas bladder. The dorsolateral internal surface of the gas bladder is lined by a parenchyma of highly vascularized trabeculae and septa displaying an alveolar-like structure. The trabeculae contain, in addition to vessels, numerous eosinophils probably involved in immune responses. The air spaces are endowed with a thin exchange barrier indicating a good potential for respiratory gas exchange. The ventral wall of the gas bladder is a well-vascularized membrane that exhibits an exchange barrier in the luminal face and an inner structure dominated by the presence of a layer of richly innervated smooth muscle. This is suggestive of an autonomous adjustability of the gas bladder ventral wall. The trunk vertebrae show large transverse processes (parapophyses) and numerous surface openings that lead into intravertebral spaces that become invaded by the bladder parenchyma. Curiously, the caudal vertebrae show a regular teleost morphology with neural and hemal arches, but have similar surface openings and intravertebral pneumatic spaces. The African Arowana hence rivals the freshwater butterfly fish Pantodon in its exceptional role of displaying postcranial skeletal pneumaticity outside of Archosauria. The possible significance of these findings is discussed.


Assuntos
Coluna Vertebral , Bexiga Urinária , Animais , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Osso Esponjoso , Faringe
15.
Evolution ; 77(6): 1277-1288, 2023 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36995728

RESUMO

Morphological evolution of the vertebrate skull has been explored across a wide range of tetrapod clades using geometric morphometrics, but the application of these methods to teleost fishes, accounting for roughly half of all vertebrate species, has been limited. Here we present the results of a study investigating 3D morphological evolution of the neurocranium across 114 species of Pelagiaria, a diverse clade of open-ocean teleost fishes that includes tuna and mackerel. Despite showing high shape disparity overall, taxa from all families fall into three distinct morphological clusters. Convergence in shape within clusters is high, and phylogenetic signal in shape data is significant but low. Neurocranium shape is significantly correlated with body elongation and significantly but weakly correlated with size. Diet and habitat depth are weakly correlated with shape, and nonsignificant after accounting for phylogeny. Evolutionary integration in the neurocranium is high, suggesting that convergence in skull shape and the evolution of extreme morphologies are associated with the correlated evolution of neurocranial elements. These results suggest that shape evolution in the pelagiarian neurocranium reflects the extremes in elongation found in body shape but is constrained along relatively few axes of variation, resulting in repeated evolution toward a restricted range of morphologies.


Assuntos
Crânio , Atum , Animais , Filogenia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Evolução Biológica
16.
J Exp Biol ; 226(6)2023 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36779237

RESUMO

Fish swimming modes and the shape of both the fins and body are expected to affect their swimming ability under different flow conditions. These swimming strategies and body morphologies often correspond to distributional patterns of distinct functional groups exposed to natural and variable water flows. In this study, we used a swimming-respirometer to measure energetic costs during prolonged, steady swimming and while station holding in a range of simulated oscillatory wave-surge water flows, within the natural range of flow speeds and wave frequencies on coral reefs. We quantified the net cost of swimming (NCOS, metabolic costs above resting) for four reef fish species with differences in swimming mode and morphologies of the fin and body: a body and caudal fin (BCF) swimmer, the Hawaiian flagtail, Kuhlia xenura, and three pectoral fin swimmers, the kole tang, Ctenochaetus strigosus, the saddle wrasse, Thalassoma duperrey, and the Indo-Pacific sergeant major, Abudefduf vaigiensis. We found that the BCF swimmer had the highest rates of increase in NCOS with increasing wave frequency (i.e. increased turning frequency) compared with the pectoral fin swimmers. The wrasse, with a more streamlined, higher body fineness, had lower rates of increase in NCOS with increasing swimming speeds than the low body fineness species, but overall had the highest swimming NCOS, which may be a result of a higher aerobic swimming capacity. The deep-bodied (low fineness) pectoral fin swimmers (A. vaigiensis and C. strigosus) were the most efficient at station holding in oscillating, wave-surge water flows.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Natação , Animais , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Nadadeiras de Animais , Água , Fenômenos Biomecânicos
17.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0281621, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36787328

RESUMO

Mesopelagic species are enjoining increasing attention due to the growing impact of fisheries activities on deep marine biocenosis. Improving the knowledge base on mesopelagic species is required to enhance their conservation due to the knowledge gaps regarding many species and families. In this context, otoliths can be fundamental to assessing their life history, ecomorphological adaptation to the deep environment and stock composition. The present paper aims to explore the saccular and utricular otoliths morphology and intra-specific variability of the hatchetfish, Argyropelecus hemigymnus, from the Strait of Messina. Lapilli and sagittae were collected from 70 specimens and separated into four size classes. Morphometric, shape and SEM investigations were performed to describe their morphology, contours, and external structural organization, also studying their intraspecific variability related to sample sizes and differences between otolith pairs. Results showed an otolith morphology different from those reported in the literature with fluctuating asymmetry in sagittae and lapilli belonging to Class IV, and a high otolith variability between all the size classes. Data herein described confirm the otoliths singularity of the population from the Strait of Messina, shaped by a unique marine environment for oceanographic and ecological features.


Assuntos
Peixes , Membrana dos Otólitos , Humanos , Animais , Membrana dos Otólitos/anatomia & histologia , Mar Mediterrâneo , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Pesqueiros
18.
Nature ; 614(7948): 486-491, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36725931

RESUMO

Brain anatomy provides key evidence for the relationships between ray-finned fishes1, but two major limitations obscure our understanding of neuroanatomical evolution in this major vertebrate group. First, the deepest branching living lineages are separated from the group's common ancestor by hundreds of millions of years, with indications that aspects of their brain morphology-like other aspects of their anatomy2,3-are specialized relative to primitive conditions. Second, there are no direct constraints on brain morphology in the earliest ray-finned fishes beyond the coarse picture provided by cranial endocasts: natural or virtual infillings of void spaces within the skull4-8. Here we report brain and cranial nerve soft-tissue preservation in Coccocephalus wildi, an approximately 319-million-year-old ray-finned fish. This example of a well-preserved vertebrate brain provides a window into neural anatomy deep within ray-finned fish phylogeny. Coccocephalus indicates a more complicated pattern of brain evolution than suggested by living species alone, highlighting cladistian apomorphies1 and providing temporal constraints on the origin of traits uniting all extant ray-finned fishes1,9. Our findings, along with a growing set of studies in other animal groups10-12, point to the importance of ancient soft tissue preservation in understanding the deep evolutionary assembly of major anatomical systems outside of the narrow subset of skeletal tissues13-15.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Encéfalo , Peixes , Fósseis , Animais , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia , Crânio , Nervos Cranianos/anatomia & histologia
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(4)2023 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36835066

RESUMO

Adult neurogenesis is defined as the ability of specialized cells in the postnatal brain to produce new functional neurons and to integrate them into the already-established neuronal network. This phenomenon is common in all vertebrates and has been found to be extremely relevant for numerous processes, such as long-term memory, learning, and anxiety responses, and it has been also found to be involved in neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Adult neurogenesis has been studied extensively in many vertebrate models, from fish to human, and observed also in the more basal cartilaginous fish, such as the lesser-spotted dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula, but a detailed description of neurogenic niches in this animal is, to date, limited to the telencephalic areas. With this article, we aim to extend the characterization of the neurogenic niches of S. canicula in other main areas of the brain: we analyzed via double immunofluorescence sections of telencephalon, optic tectum, and cerebellum with markers of proliferation (PCNA) and mitosis (pH3) in conjunction with glial cell (S100ß) and stem cell (Msi1) markers, to identify the actively proliferating cells inside the neurogenic niches. We also labeled adult postmitotic neurons (NeuN) to exclude double labeling with actively proliferating cells (PCNA). Lastly, we observed the presence of the autofluorescent aging marker, lipofuscin, contained inside lysosomes in neurogenic areas.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Elasmobrânquios , Neurogênese , Animais , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Cação (Peixe)/fisiologia , Elasmobrânquios/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso , Neurônios , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(4): e2207854119, 2023 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36649436

RESUMO

The Carboniferous (358.9 to 298.9 Ma) saw the emergence of marine ecosystems dominated by modern vertebrate groups, including abundant stem-group holocephalans (chimaeras and relatives). Compared with the handful of anatomically conservative holocephalan genera alive today-demersal durophages all-these animals were astonishingly morphologically diverse, and bizarre anatomies in groups such as iniopterygians hint at specialized ecological roles foreshadowing those of the later, suction-feeding neopterygians. However, flattened fossils usually obscure these animals' functional morphologies and how they fitted into these important early ecosystems. Here, we use three-dimensional (3D) methods to show that the musculoskeletal anatomy of the uniquely 3D-preserved iniopterygian Iniopera can be best interpreted as being similar to that of living holocephalans rather than elasmobranchs but that it was mechanically unsuited to durophagy. Rather, Iniopera had a small, anteriorly oriented mouth aperture, expandable pharynx, and strong muscular links among the pectoral girdle, neurocranium, and ventral pharynx consistent with high-performance suction feeding, something exhibited by no living holocephalan and never clearly characterized in any of the extinct members of the holocephalan stem-group. Remarkably, in adapting a distinctly holocephalan anatomy to suction feeding, Iniopera is more comparable to modern tetrapod suction feeders than to the more closely related high-performance suction-feeding elasmobranchs. This raises questions about the assumed role of durophagy in the evolution of holocephalans' distinctive anatomy and offers a rare glimpse into the breadth of ecological niches filled by holocephalans in a pre-neopterygian world.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Crânio , Animais , Sucção , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Vertebrados/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Comportamento Alimentar
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA