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1.
PeerJ ; 12: e17353, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38737736

RESUMO

A series of 12 contiguous caudal vertebrae of an ichthyodectiform fish from the Smoky Hill Chalk Member of the Niobrara Formation is described. The vertebral centra exhibit extensive overgrowth of pathological bone and there is additional pathological bone within the centra and intervertebral spaces, which together resulted in the coossification of most centra. The extent of the pathology is greatest on preural vertebrae 1-3 and decreases anteriorly, which suggests that the pathology began posteriorly and progressed anteriorly. In addition to the pathological overgrowth on bones, the specimen preserves features interpreted as calcified and/or ossified soft tissues associated with the neural and haemal canals. The pathologies are unlike previously described examples of bony pathologies in fish, and it is suggested that they resulted from combined bacterial and fungal infections. As the pathologies developed, they would have adversely impacted the fish's swimming and feeding abilities, and presumably eventually led to the fish's death.


Assuntos
Peixes , Coluna Vertebral , Animais , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Kansas , Coluna Vertebral/patologia , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10624, 2024 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724555

RESUMO

To date, the presence of pulmonary organs in the fossil record is extremely rare. Among extant vertebrates, lungs are described in actinopterygian polypterids and in all sarcopterygians, including coelacanths and lungfish. However, vasculature of pulmonary arteries has never been accurately identified neither in fossil nor extant coelacanths due to the paucity of fossil preservation of pulmonary organs and limitations of invasive studies in extant specimens. Here we present the first description of the pulmonary vasculature in both fossil and extant actinistian, a non-tetrapod sarcopterygian clade, contributing to a more in-depth discussion on the morphology of these structures and on the possible homology between vertebrate air-filled organs (lungs of sarcopterygians, lungs of actinopterygians, and gas bladders of actinopterygians).


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Peixes , Fósseis , Artéria Pulmonar , Animais , Artéria Pulmonar/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Vertebrados/anatomia & histologia , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Filogenia
3.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303198, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701057

RESUMO

The study of morphological characteristics and growth information in fish scales is a crucial component of modern fishery biological research, while it has been less studied in fossil materials. This paper presents a detailed morphological description and growth analysis of a fossil ctenoid scale obtained from the Upper Cretaceous Campanian lacustrine deposits in northeastern China. The morphological features of this fossil scale are well-preserved and consistent with the structures found in ctenoid scales of extant fish species and display prominent ring ornamentation radiating outward from the central focus, with grooves intersecting the rings. A comparative analysis of the morphological characteristics between the fossil ctenoid scale and those well-studied extant fish Mugilidae allows us to explore the applicability of modern fishery biological research methods to the field of fossil scales. The scale length, scale width, the vertical distance from the focus to the apex of the scale, and the total number of radii have been measured. The age of the fish that possessed this ctenoid scale has been estimated by carefully counting the annuli, suggesting an age equal to or more than seven years. The distribution of growth rings on the scale potentially reflects the warm paleoclimatic condition and fish-friendly paleoenvironment prevalent during that period. This paper, moreover, serves as a notable application of fishery biological methods in the examination of fossil materials.


Assuntos
Fósseis , China , Animais , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escamas de Animais/anatomia & histologia
4.
Bioinspir Biomim ; 19(4)2024 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722377

RESUMO

State-of-the-art morphing materials are either very compliant to achieve large shape changes (flexible metamaterials, compliant mechanisms, hydrogels), or very stiff but with infinitesimal changes in shape that require large actuation forces (metallic or composite panels with piezoelectric actuation). Morphing efficiency and structural stiffness are therefore mutually exclusive properties in current engineering morphing materials, which limits the range of their applicability. Interestingly, natural fish fins do not contain muscles, yet they can morph to large amplitudes with minimal muscular actuation forces from the base while producing large hydrodynamic forces without collapsing. This sophisticated mechanical response has already inspired several synthetic fin rays with various applications. However, most 'synthetic' fin rays have only considered uniform properties and structures along the rays while in natural fin rays, gradients of properties are prominent. In this study, we designed, modeled, fabricated and tested synthetic fin rays with bioinspired gradients of properties. The rays were composed of two hemitrichs made of a stiff polymer, joined by a much softer core region made of elastomeric ligaments. Using combinations of experiments and nonlinear mechanical models, we found that gradients in both the core region and hemitrichs can increase the morphing and stiffening response of individual rays. Introducing a positive gradient of ligament density in the core region (the density of ligament increases towards the tip of the ray) decreased the actuation force required for morphing and increased overall flexural stiffness. Introducing a gradient of property in the hemitrichs, by tapering them, produced morphing deformations that were distributed over long distances along the length of the ray. These new insights on the interplay between material architecture and properties in nonlinear regimes of deformation can improve the designs of morphing structures that combine high morphing efficiency and high stiffness from external forces, with potential applications in aerospace or robotics.


Assuntos
Nadadeiras de Animais , Materiais Biomiméticos , Animais , Nadadeiras de Animais/fisiologia , Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Biomimética/métodos , Peixes/fisiologia , Peixes/anatomia & histologia
5.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 53(3): e13052, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735035

RESUMO

One crucial component of the optical system is the ciliary body (CB). This body secretes the aqueous humour, which is essential to maintain the internal eye pressure as well as the clearness of the lens and cornea. The histological study was designed to provide the morphological differences of CB and iris in the anterior eye chambers of the following vertebrate classes: fish (grass carp), amphibians (Arabian toad), reptiles (semiaquatic turtle, fan-footed gecko, ocellated skink, Egyptian spiny-tailed lizard, Arabian horned viper), birds (common pigeon, common quail, common kestrel), and mammals (BALB/c mouse, rabbit, golden hamster, desert hedgehog, lesser Egyptian jerboa, Egyptian fruit bat). The results showed distinct morphological appearances of the CB and iris in each species, ranging from fish to mammals. The present comparative study concluded that the morphological structure of the CB and iris is the adaptation of species to either their lifestyle or survival in specific habitats.


Assuntos
Corpo Ciliar , Iris , Animais , Corpo Ciliar/anatomia & histologia , Iris/anatomia & histologia , Coelhos/anatomia & histologia , Camundongos/anatomia & histologia , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Vertebrados/anatomia & histologia , Répteis/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Aves/anatomia & histologia , Câmara Anterior/anatomia & histologia , Tartarugas/anatomia & histologia , Carpas/anatomia & histologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Anfíbios/anatomia & histologia , Cricetinae , Codorniz/anatomia & histologia , Ouriços/anatomia & histologia , Columbidae/anatomia & histologia , Mesocricetus/anatomia & histologia
6.
Evol Dev ; 26(3): e12478, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38650470

RESUMO

The origin of paired appendages became one of the most important adaptations of vertebrates, allowing them to lead active lifestyles and explore a wide range of ecological niches. The basic form of paired appendages in evolution is the fins of fishes. The problem of paired appendages has attracted the attention of researchers for more than 150 years. During this time, a number of theories have been proposed, mainly based on morphological data, two of which, the Balfour-Thacher-Mivart lateral fold theory and Gegenbaur's gill arch theory, have not lost their relevance. So far, however, none of the proposed ideas has been supported by decisive evidence. The study of the evolutionary history of the appearance and development of paired appendages lies at the intersection of several disciplines and involves the synthesis of paleontological, morphological, embryological, and genetic data. In this review, we attempt to summarize and discuss the results accumulated in these fields and to analyze the theories put forward regarding the prerequisites and mechanisms that gave rise to paired fins and limbs in vertebrates.


Assuntos
Nadadeiras de Animais , Evolução Biológica , Peixes , Animais , Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Nadadeiras de Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/genética , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixes/embriologia , Vertebrados/anatomia & histologia , Vertebrados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vertebrados/genética
7.
PeerJ ; 12: e17075, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38495764

RESUMO

Finding a mate is of the utmost importance for organisms, and the traits associated with successfully finding one can be under strong selective pressures. In habitats where biomass and population density is often low, like the enormous open spaces of the deep sea, animals have evolved many adaptations for finding mates. One convergent adaptation seen in many deep-sea fishes is sexual dimorphism in olfactory organs, where, relative to body size, males have evolved greatly enlarged olfactory organs compared to females. Females are known to give off chemical cues such as pheromones, and these chemical stimuli can traverse long distances in the stable, stratified water of the deep sea and be picked up by the olfactory organs of males. This adaptation is believed to help males in multiple lineages of fishes find mates in deep-sea habitats. In this study, we describe the first morphological evidence of sexual dimorphism in the olfactory organs of lanternfishes (Myctophidae) in the genus Loweina. Lanternfishes are one of the most abundant vertebrates in the deep sea and are hypothesized to use visual signals from bioluminescence for mate recognition or mate detection. Bioluminescent cues that are readily visible at distances as far as 10 m in the aphotic deep sea are likely important for high population density lanternfish species that have high mate encounter rates. In contrast, myctophids found in lower density environments where species encounter rates are lower, like those in Loweina, likely benefit from longer-range chemical or olfactory cues for finding and identifying mates.


Assuntos
Peixes , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Ecossistema
8.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2019): 20232258, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531402

RESUMO

Attempts to explain the origin and diversification of vertebrates have commonly invoked the evolution of feeding ecology, contrasting the passive suspension feeding of invertebrate chordates and larval lampreys with active predation in living jawed vertebrates. Of the extinct jawless vertebrates that phylogenetically intercalate these living groups, the feeding apparatus is well-preserved only in the early diverging stem-gnathostome heterostracans. However, its anatomy remains poorly understood. Here, we use X-ray microtomography to characterize the feeding apparatus of the pteraspid heterostracan Rhinopteraspis dunensis (Roemer, 1855). The apparatus is composed of 13 plates arranged approximately bilaterally, most of which articulate from the postoral plate. Our reconstruction shows that the oral plates were capable of rotating around the transverse axis, but likely with limited movement. It also suggests the nasohypophyseal organs opened internally, into the pharynx. The functional morphology of the apparatus in Rhinopteraspis precludes all proposed interpretations of feeding except for suspension/deposit feeding and we interpret the apparatus as having served primarily to moderate the oral gape. This is consistent with evidence that at least some early jawless gnathostomes were suspension feeders and runs contrary to macroecological scenarios that envisage early vertebrate evolution as characterized by a directional trend towards increasingly active food acquisition.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , Animais , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Vertebrados/anatomia & histologia , Arcada Osseodentária/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia
9.
J Fish Biol ; 104(5): 1350-1365, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38332499

RESUMO

Dam construction alters the hydrodynamic conditions, consequently impacting the swimming behavior of fish. To explore the effect of flow hydrodynamics on fish swimming behavior, five endemic fish species in the upper Yangtze River basin were selected. Through high-speed video visualization and computer analysis, these species' swimming patterns under different flow velocities (0.1-1.2 m/s) were investigated. The kinematic and morphological characteristics of the fish were presented. The principal component analysis was used to analyse the main factors influencing the swimming ability of fish and to determine the correlation coefficients among fish behavior indicators. Fish exhibited three different swimming patterns under different flow velocities. Low velocity (0.1-0.3 m/s) corresponds to free motion, middle velocity (0.4-0.7 m/s) corresponds to cruising motion, and high velocity corresponds to stress motion (0.8-1.2 m/s). The fish kinematic index curves were obtained, and four of five fish species showed two extreme points, which means the optimal and adverse swimming strategies can be determined. With the increase in flow velocity, the tail-beat frequency showed an increasing trend, whereas the tail-beat angle and amplitude showed a decreasing trend. Morphological and kinematic parameters were the two main indexes that affect the swimming ability of fish, which accounts for 41.9% and 26.9%, respectively.


Assuntos
Hidrodinâmica , Rios , Natação , Animais , China , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Peixes/fisiologia , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Gravação em Vídeo
10.
J Fish Biol ; 104(5): 1445-1467, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359464

RESUMO

Examination of the original descriptions and available type specimens of nominal species previously regarded as synonyms of Thrissina mystax (Bloch and Schneider, 1801), and many non-type specimens representing an extensive geographic range, confirmed the validities of T. mystax, Thrissina porava (Bleeker, 1849), and Thrissina valenciennesi (Bleeker, 1866). Additionally, Engraulis poorawah Bleeker, 1872, a nominal species previously regarded as a junior synonym of T. mystax, is recognized as a junior synonym of Thrissina malabarica (Bloch, 1795). Diagnoses and detailed color descriptions are given for all of the valid species, in addition to clarification of their taxonomic histories, and neotype designation for T. porava. The phylogenetic relationships among 15 species of Thrissina (including T. porava and T. valenciennesi but not T. mystax) were reconstructed from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. T. porava and T. valenciennesi were not recovered as a monophyletic group, instead being divergent from each other and the other species of Thrissina by 12.4% and >11.7% mean uncorrected distances, respectively, confirming their reciprocal validity.


Assuntos
Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons , Filogenia , Animais , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Peixes/classificação , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética
11.
J Anat ; 244(6): 929-942, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308591

RESUMO

Premaxillary protrusion and the performance advantages it confers are implicated in the success of diverse lineages of teleost fishes, such as Cypriniformes and Acanthomorpha. Although premaxillary protrusion has evolved independently at least five times within bony fishes, much of the functional work investigating this kinesis relates to mechanisms found only in these two clades. Few studies have characterized feeding mechanisms in less-diverse premaxilla-protruding lineages and fewer yet have investigated the distinctive anatomy underlying jaw kinesis in these lineages. Here, we integrated dissection, clearing and staining, histology, micro-CT, and high-speed videography to investigate an isolated and independent origin of jaw protrusion in the hingemouth, Phractolaemus ansorgii, which employs a complex arrangement of bones, musculature, and connective tissues to feed on benthic detritus via a deployable proboscis. Our goals were to provide an integrative account of the underlying architecture of P. ansorgii's feeding apparatus and to assess the functional consequences of this drastic deviation from the more typical teleost condition. Phractolaemus ansorgii's cranial anatomy is distinct from all other fishes in that its adducted lower jaw is caudally oriented, and it possesses a mouth at the terminal end of an elongated, tube-like proboscis that is unique in its lack of skeletal support from the oral jaws. Instead, its mouth is supported primarily by hyaline-cell cartilage and other rigid connective tissues, and features highly flexible lips that are covered in rows of keratinous unculi. Concomitant changes to the adductor musculature likely allow for the flexibility to protrude the mouth dorsally and ventrally as observed during different feeding behaviors, while the intrinsic compliance of the lips allows for more effective scraping of irregular surfaces. From our feeding videos, we find that P. ansorgii is capable of modulating the distance of protrusion, with maximum anterior protrusion exceeding 30% of head length. This represents a previously undescribed example of extreme jaw protrusion on par with many acanthomorph species. Protrusion is much slower in P. ansorgii-reaching an average speed of 2.74 cm/s-compared to acanthomorphs feeding on elusive prey or even benthivorous cypriniforms. However, this reorganization of cranial anatomy may reflect a greater need for dexterity to forage more precisely in multiple directions and on a wide variety of surface textures. Although this highly modified mechanism may have limited versatility over evolutionary timescales, it has persisted in solitude within Gonorynchiformes, representing a novel functional solution for benthic feeding in tropical West African rivers.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Arcada Osseodentária , Animais , Arcada Osseodentária/anatomia & histologia , Arcada Osseodentária/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/fisiologia , Microtomografia por Raio-X
12.
Zoology (Jena) ; 163: 126156, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38422714

RESUMO

Osteoglossiformes (bonytongue fishes) possess many morphological specializations associated with functions such as airbreathing, feeding, and electroreception. The olfactory organ also varies among species, notably in the family Osteoglossidae. Herein, we describe the olfactory organ of an osteoglossid, Heterotis niloticus, to compare it with the olfactory organs of other osteoglossiforms. We demonstrate the presence of an olfactory rosette within the olfactory chamber. This structure consists of a short median raphe surrounded by olfactory lamellae, which possess dorsal lamellar processes. On the surface of the olfactory lamellae, there are secondary lamellae formed by the olfactory epithelium. Within the olfactory epithelium, two zones can be distinguished: parallel brands of sensory cells located in the cavities between the secondary lamellae and a nonsensory area covering the remaining part of the olfactory lamellae. The olfactory epithelium is formed by ciliated and microvillus olfactory sensory neurons, supporting cells, goblet cells, basal cells and ciliated nonsensory cells. Additionally, rodlet cells were observed. The results confirm large variability in terms of the olfactory organ of Osteoglossiformes, particularly of Osteoglossidae, and support the secondary lamellae evolution hypothesis within this family.


Assuntos
Peixes , Mucosa Olfatória , Animais , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Mucosa Olfatória/anatomia & histologia , Mucosa Olfatória/fisiologia , Olfato/fisiologia , Células Caliciformes
13.
J Fish Biol ; 104(4): 1136-1151, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38230582

RESUMO

We investigated the digestive biology of two prevalent leiognathid species in Pranburi River estuary, Thailand: the decorated ponyfish (Nuchequula gerreoides) and the splendid polyfish (Eubleekeria splendens). A total of 632 samples collected from February to April and September to November 2017 were analysed using morphological and histological approaches. The overall structures were similar between the species: a short mucous-cell-rich oesophagus region, a well-developed gastric gland uniformly present across the stomach's mucosal layer, and three finger-like pyloric caeca between the stomach and intestine. However, there were marked differences in the mouth, gill raker, and intestinal coefficient (IC). N. gerreoides had a relatively longer mouth, smoother gill rakers, and an IC of 1.08 ± 0.01, similar to those of other carnivorous fish. In contrast, the gill raker of E. splendens had more villiform teeth that can filter-feed better, and their IC was 2.16 ± 0.02 (i.e., longer intestine). Although digestive structures were generally similar between the ponyfishes, these differences suggest that N. gerreoides is relatively carnivorous with stronger suction, whereas E. splendens may be an omnivorous or herbivorous filter-feeder.


Assuntos
Estuários , Rios , Animais , Tailândia , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Boca
14.
J Anat ; 244(2): 260-273, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37770122

RESUMO

Gut morphology frequently reflects the food organisms digest. Gizzards are organs of the gut found in archosaurs and fishes that mechanically reduce food to aid digestion. Gizzards are thought to compensate for edentulism and/or provide an advantage when consuming small, tough food items (e.g., phytoplankton and algae). It is unknown how widespread gizzards are in fishes and how similar these structures are among different lineages. Here, we investigate the distribution of gizzards across bony fishes to (1) survey different fishes for gizzard presence, (2) compare the histological structure of gizzards in three species, (3) estimate how often gizzards have evolved in fishes, and (4) explore whether anatomical and ecological traits like edentulism and microphagy predict gizzard presence. According to our analyses, gizzards are rare across bony fishes, evolving only six times in a broad taxonomic sampling of 51 species, and gizzard presence is not clearly correlated with factors like gut length or dentition. We find that gizzard morphology varies among the lineages where one is present, both macroscopically (presence of a crop) and microscopically (varying tissue types). We conclude that gizzards likely aid in the mechanical reduction of food in fishes that have lost an oral dentition in their evolutionary past; however, the relative scarcity of gizzards suggests they are just one of many possible solutions for processing tough, nutrient-poor food items. Gizzards have long been present in the evolutionary history of fishes, can be found in a wide variety of marine and freshwater clades, and likely have been overlooked in many taxa.


Assuntos
Peixes , Animais , Moela das Aves/anatomia & histologia , Anatomia Comparada , Peixes/anatomia & histologia
15.
J Anat ; 244(1): 42-62, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37737476

RESUMO

Sturgeons belong to the family Acipenseridae, the most species-rich extant family of Acipenseriformes, a basal actinopterygian group of key importance in assessing the early radiations of the actinopterygians. At the same time, acipenseriforms display unique specializations in the morphology of the snout and jaws which make them a valuable model for studying evolutionary novelties. However, despite a long history of research, the homologies of the snout and the mandibular arch of acipenseriforms remain uncertain preventing further studies on the evolutionary origin of their unique snout and jaw structure, and in particular, of the upper jaw symphysis, the key apomorphy of the group and the preoral snout. In the present study, a detailed description of the upper jaw morphology and development in sturgeons is provided in order to address its composition in terms of the common actinopterygian archetype. Based on the obtained results, the upper jaw of acipenseriforms is assumed to have lost the autopalatine portion, which most likely is represented by the separate cartilages supporting the tentacles. Also, the conventional interpretation of the sturgeon's maxilla as dermopalatine is rejected on the grounds of this bone structure and development. Paedomorphosis is proposed to be the most likely mechanism explaining the evolutionary origin of the upper jaw symphysis and supposed modifications of the snout in sturgeons.


Assuntos
Arcada Osseodentária , Maxila , Animais , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Arcada Osseodentária/anatomia & histologia , Evolução Biológica , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Articulações , Cartilagem
16.
J Anat ; 244(2): 249-259, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37891703

RESUMO

Although the primary function of the swim bladder is buoyancy, it is also involved in hearing, and it can be associated with sonic muscles for voluntary sound production. The use of the swim bladder and associated muscles in sound production could be an exaptation since this is not its first function. We however lack models showing that the same muscles can be used in both movement and sound production. In this study, we investigate the functions of the muscles associated with the swim bladder in different Pteroinae (lionfish) species. Our results indicate that Pterois volitans, P. radiata and Dendrochirus zebra are able to produce long low-frequency hums when disturbed. The deliberate movements of the fin spines during sound production suggest that these sounds may serve as aposematic signals. In P. volitans and P. radiata, hums can be punctuated by intermittent louder pulses called knocks. Analysis of sonic features, morphology, electromyography and histology strongly suggest that these sounds are most likely produced by muscles closely associated with the swim bladder. These muscles originate from the neurocranium and insert on the posterior part of the swim bladder. Additionally, cineradiography supports the hypothesis that these same muscles are involved in altering the swim bladder's length and angle, thereby influencing the pitch of the fish body and participating in manoeuvring and locomotion movements. Fast contraction of the muscle should be related to sound production whereas sustained contractions allows modifications in swim bladder shape and body pitch.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Bexiga Urinária , Animais , Músculos/anatomia & histologia , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Som
17.
J Fish Biol ; 104(1): 284-303, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37877347

RESUMO

Lizardfish (Aulopiforms: Synodontidae), distributed broadly in temperate to tropical waters, are represented globally by 83 species across four genera, with 10 species in Korea. Despite these numbers, few studies have been conducted on the early life history of lizardfishes compared to their adult counterparts. Thus, we conducted molecular identification of 123 Synodontidae larvae collected from the Northwest Pacific (Korea Strait, Yellow Sea, East China Sea, and East Sea) between June 2017 and July 2021, using mitochondrial DNA COI and 16S rRNA sequences. Significant morphological differences were observed in the larvae and juvenile, including variation in melanophore, count, morphometric characteristics, and body shape. The morphological traits of eight species (Harpadon nehereus, Saurida macrolepis, Saurida wanieso, Saurida sp., Synodus hoshinonis, Synodus kaianus, Synodus macrops, and Trachinocephalus trachinus) served as vital data for interpreting the phylogenetic relationships within the Northwest Pacific Synodontidae. Ultimately, the identification key revealed by this study will enable accurate identification of Synodontid larvae and juveniles, and further facilitate our understanding of the phylogenetic relationships within this family.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial , Peixes , Animais , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Larva
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257023, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360225

RESUMO

The present study examines the correlations between fifteen morphometric and ten meristic characters and total length (TL) of males, females, and combined sexes of Alepes vari (Cuvier, 1833) collected from Karachi fish harbor, West Wharf of Karachi Coast. Statistical analyses of linear regression relationships show mostly strong correlations (r≥0.70; p<0.05) between total length (TL) and most morphometric characters in males, females, and combined sexes, except the height of pectoral-fin (PFH), and pelvic-fin base length (PelFL); whereas, meristic characters were found to be constant and indicate weak or negative type correlations (r≤0.50; p>0.05) with total length (TL). Hence, according to our present results, there is a direct relationship between the total length of fish and all morphometric characters, which were found to be the best indicators of positive allometric pattern growth in fish. Moreover, analysis of the 2-sample t-test revealed (t-test; p>0.05) that no sexual dimorphism was reported in Alepes vari. Thus, our present study could be valuable in systematic classification, sexual dimorphism, and management of this species on the Karachi coast.


O presente estudo examina as correlações entre 15 caracteres morfométricos e 10 caracteres merísticos e comprimento total (CT) de machos, fêmeas e sexos combinados de Alepes vari (Cuvier, 1833), coletados do porto de Karachi, West Wharf, na costa de Karachi. As análises estatísticas das relações de regressão linear mostraram, principalmente, correlações fortes (r ≥ 0,70; p < 0,05) entre o CT e a maioria dos caracteres morfométricos em machos, fêmeas e sexos combinados, exceto a altura da nadadeira peitoral e o comprimento da base da nadadeira pélvica, enquanto os caracteres merísticos foram constantes, indicando correlações fracas ou negativas (r ≤ 0,50; p > 0,05) com o CT. Portanto, de acordo com nossos resultados, existe uma relação direta entre o CT dos peixes e todos os caracteres morfométricos, que foram considerados os melhores indicadores de crescimento do padrão alométrico positivo em peixes. Além disso, a análise do teste t de duas amostras revelou (teste t; p > 0,05) que nenhum dimorfismo sexual foi relatado em A. vari.


Assuntos
Animais , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Arábia
19.
J Morphol ; 285(1): e21662, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38100743

RESUMO

The Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Krefft 1870), is the sole extant member of the Ceratodontidae within the Dipnoi, a small order of sarcopterygian (lobe-finned) fishes, that is thought to be the earliest branching species of extant lungfishes, having changed little over the last 100 million years. To extend studies on anatomical adaptations associated with the fish-tetrapod transition, the ultrastructure of the cornea and iris is investigated using light and electron (transmission and scanning) microscopy to investigate structure-function relationships and compare these to other vertebrate corneas (other fishes and tetrapods). In contrast to previous studies, the cornea is found to have only three main components, comprising an epithelium with its basement membrane, a stroma with a Bowman's layer and an endothelium, and is not split into a dermal (secondary) spectacle and a scleral cornea. The epithelial cells are large, relatively low in density and similar to many species of non-aquatic tetrapods and uniquely possess numerous surface canals that contain and release mucous granules onto the corneal surface to avoid desiccation. A Bowman's layer is present and, in association with extensive branching and anastomosing of the collagen fibrils, may be an adaptation for the inhibition of swelling and/or splitting of the stroma during its amphibious lifestyle. The dorsal region of the stroma possesses aggregations of pigment granules that act as a yellow, short wavelength-absorbing filter during bright light conditions. Desçemet's membrane is absent and replaced by an incomplete basement membrane overlying a monocellular endothelium. The iris is pigmented, well-developed, vascularised and contractile containing reflective crystals anteriorly. Based upon its ultrastructure and functional adaptations, the cornea of N. forsteri is more similar to amphibians than to other bony fishes and is well-adapted for an amphibious lifestyle.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Córnea , Peixes , Iris , Animais , Austrália , Córnea/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Iris/anatomia & histologia
20.
Rev. biol. trop ; 71(1)dic. 2023.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1514962

RESUMO

Introducción: La Pácora (Plagioscion magdalenae) es una especie nativa de Colombia y en categoría de casi amenazada a nivel del país, de la que poco se conoce acerca de las estructuras con aporte etológico en su historia de vida. Objetivo: Analizar el desarrollo gonadal relacionado con la espermatogénesis de P. magdalenae y las implicaciones taxonómicas a partir de la vejiga natatoria. Métodos: Realizamos siete muestreos en dos periodos climáticos: el primero en octubre de 2019 a febrero de 2020 de recolectas bimensuales y la segunda de octubre 2020 a enero 2021 de recolectas mensuales; con el fin de abarcar cada momento del pulso de inundación de la cuenca baja del Magdalena. Describimos la histomorfología testicular y las características macroscópicas de la vejiga natatoria de la especie. Además, analizamos aspectos como relaciones morfométricas, clases de tallas por sexos, la proporción sexual y la época de madurez sexual. Resultados: Analizamos 142 ejemplares y 4 intervalos de tallas fueron establecidos (entre 145 y 575 mm LE), 66 fueron machos y 73 hembras con una proporción sexual global 1.1:0.9 (hembra-macho) sin diferencias. Los machos tienen testículos de tipo tubular, protegidos por el peritoneo que se encuentra recubierto por la musculatura sónica de la vejiga natatoria, la cual posee forma de ''zanahoria'' sin apéndices, con dos bandas laterales de músculos intrínsecos (promedio entre 6.75 cm de largo y 1.48 cm de ancho) unidos por una aponeurosis y que solo se encuentran en machos sexualmente maduros. Conclusión: Los testículos poseen una organización de tipo lobular irrestricto y la espermatogénesis se da en lóbulos seminíferos. La vejiga natatoria de la Pácora es simple y no tiene estructuras accesorias. La distribución geográfica de P. magdalenae se restringe a la cuenca del río Magdalena en Colombia.


Introduction: The Pácora (Plagioscion magdalenae) is a species native to Colombia and in near-threatened category at the country level, of which little is known about the structures with ethological contribution in its life history. Objective: To analyze the gonadal development related to spermatogenesis of P. magdalenae and the taxonomic implications from the swim bladder. Methods: We collected seven samples in two climatic periods: the first from October 2019 to February 2020 of bimonthly collections, and the second from October 2020 to January 2021 of monthly collections; to cover every moment of the flood pulse of the lower Magdalena basin. We described the testicular histomorphology and macroscopic characteristics of the swim bladder of the species. In addition, we analyzed aspects such as morphometric relationships, size classes by sex, sex ratio and time of sexual maturity. Results: We analyzed 142 specimens and established 4 size intervals (between 145 and 575 mm SL), 66 were males and 73 females with an overall sex ratio of 1.1:0.9 (female-male) with no differences. Males have tubular testes protected by the peritoneum covered by the sonic musculature of the swim bladder, which has a ''carrot'' shape without appendages, with two lateral bands of intrinsic muscles (average between 6.75 cm long and 1.48 cm wide) connected by an aponeurosis and found only in sexually mature males. Conclusion: The testes have an unrestricted lobular organization and spermatogenesis occurs in the seminiferous lobes. The swim bladder of the Pácora is simple and has no accessory structures. The geographic distribution of P. magdalenae is restricted to the Magdalena River basin in Colombia.


Assuntos
Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Gônadas , Colômbia
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