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1.
Nature ; 626(7997): 119-127, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38200310

RESUMO

The evolution of reproductive barriers is the first step in the formation of new species and can help us understand the diversification of life on Earth. These reproductive barriers often take the form of hybrid incompatibilities, in which alleles derived from two different species no longer interact properly in hybrids1-3. Theory predicts that hybrid incompatibilities may be more likely to arise at rapidly evolving genes4-6 and that incompatibilities involving multiple genes should be common7,8, but there has been sparse empirical data to evaluate these predictions. Here we describe a mitonuclear incompatibility involving three genes whose protein products are in physical contact within respiratory complex I of naturally hybridizing swordtail fish species. Individuals homozygous for mismatched protein combinations do not complete embryonic development or die as juveniles, whereas those heterozygous for the incompatibility have reduced complex I function and unbalanced representation of parental alleles in the mitochondrial proteome. We find that the effects of different genetic interactions on survival are non-additive, highlighting subtle complexity in the genetic architecture of hybrid incompatibilities. Finally, we document the evolutionary history of the genes involved, showing signals of accelerated evolution and evidence that an incompatibility has been transferred between species via hybridization.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons , Peixes , Genes Letais , Especiação Genética , Hibridização Genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais , Animais , Alelos , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Peixes/classificação , Peixes/embriologia , Peixes/genética , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Homozigoto , Genes Letais/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Núcleo Celular/genética , Heterozigoto , Evolução Molecular
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255493, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360217

RESUMO

The demand for products to replace high-cost raw materials, such oil and fish meal, in the manufacture of feed for use in aquaculture, while also guaranteeing the nutritional quality of the diets, is increasing. Silage produced with fish and vegetables residues is a low-cost and efficient protein source. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the physiological and biochemical responses of tambaqui fingerlings fed four different levels of silage included in commercial feed with 28% crude protein, over two periods: 45 and 90 days. Each treatment was carried out over three replications, with 10 tambaqui in each 100 L experimental tank. At the end of each established period, blood samples were collected from five animals from each repetition to determine the hematological and biochemical variables. Body weight and total length, hepatosomatic and liposomal indices and hematocrit of specimens fed with diets supplemented with silage did not exhibit significant changes in both assessment period. After 45 days of feeding, the hemoglobin concentration increased when tambaqui were fed a diet including 20% silage. The red blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin did not change between treatments in either period. The total protein concentrations increased significantly in the plasma of tambaqui fed with diets with the inclusion of 5 and 10% of silage, evaluated after feeding for 45 days. It was found that the groups which had silage included in their diet did not exhibit significant alterations in the evaluated parameters, and the diet was therefore not consider harmful to the health of tambaqui. Therefore, the use of silage as a feed supplement during tambaqui farming is a sustainable alternative for producers, as it leads to a reduction of impacts of fish and vegetables waste disposal.


A procura por insumos que substituam produtos de alto custo, como óleo e farinha de peixe, na fabricação de rações para uso na aquicultura é crescente, sendo necessário garantir a qualidade nutricional das dietas. A silagem produzida a partir de resíduos de pescado e de vegetais apresenta-se como uma alternativa de baixo custo e eficiente fonte proteica. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar as respostas fisiológicas e bioquímicas de alevinos de tambaqui alimentados com quatro níveis de inclusão de silagem em ração comercial com 28% de proteína bruta, em dois períodos: 45 e 90 dias. Cada tratamento foi realizado em três repetições, com 10 tambaquis em cada caixa experimental de 100 L. Ao término de cada período estabelecido, amostras sanguíneas foram coletadas de cinco animais de cada repetição para determinação das variáveis hematológicas e bioquímicas. Peso, comprimento total e índices hepatossomático e lipossomático de espécimes alimentados com silagem não mostraram alterações significativas em ambos os períodos de avaliação, bem como os valores de hematócrito. A concentração de hemoglobina de tambaqui após 45 dias de alimentação aumentou quando foi fornecida dieta com inclusão de 20% de silagem. A contagem de eritrócitos, volume corpuscular médio e hemoglobina corpuscular média não apresentaram alterações entre os tratamentos, em ambos os períodos. As proteínas totais aumentaram significativamente no plasma de tambaquis que receberam dietas com inclusão de 5 e 10% de silagem, avaliados após 45 dias de alimentação. Evidenciou-se que os grupos com inclusão de silagem na dieta não apresentaram alterações significativas nos parâmetros avaliados, assim não sendo prejudiciais à higidez do tambaqui. Portanto, o uso da silagem como suplemento alimentar durante o cultivo do tambaqui é uma alternativa sustentável para produtores, por promover a redução do descarte de resíduos de pescado e da agricultura.


Assuntos
Animais , Aquicultura , Suplementos Nutricionais , Custos e Análise de Custo , Dieta , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254161, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364527

RESUMO

Salinity is one of the most critical environmental parameters regarding fish physiology, modifying food intake and growth performance in many fish species. The present study has investigated the effects of different salinity levels on growth performance, feeding and survival of Asian seabass Lates calcarifer juveniles. Asian seabass juveniles were reared at 0 (T1), 5 (T2), 22 (T3), 36 (T4), and 42 (T5) ppt salinity. Approximately eight hundred thirty fish individuals with an average weight of 1.24±0.52 g were randomly distributed (166 fish/Tank) in 5 concrete tanks (each tank 30×6×4 ft, volume 19,122 L) for forty days. Juveniles were initially fed 42% crude protein-containing diets at a rate of 6% of their body weight per day. The results showed that salinity level had a significant effect on the weight gain (WG), average daily weight gain (ADWG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), survival rate (SR), total biomass and health indices (p<0.05). The highest WG (39.11±1.49 g), ADWG (1.00±0.12 g), SGR (8.74±0.03% d-1) and lowest FCR (0.96±0.20) were observed with T3 treatment, which was significantly higher compared to other treatment groups (p<0.05). Among the health indices, the highest hepatosomatic index and viscerosomatic index were found with T3 treatment, significantly higher than the other groups (p<0.05). No significant differences were found among the treatments in terms of survival rate (p>0.05), but the maximum survival rate (98.89±0.0%) was observed in the T3 and T2 treatments. The maximum level of crude proteins (19.99±1.4%) was found in the whole-body biochemical composition of Asian seabass juveniles in the T3 treatment group. The second-order polynomial regression showed that 20 ppt salinity is optimum for the best growth of Asian seabass. Thus, the present study recommends 20 to 36 ppt salinity for the commercial farming of Asian seabass under a closed aquaculture system.


A salinidade é um dos parâmetros ambientais mais críticos em relação à fisiologia dos peixes, modificando a ingestão de alimentos e o desempenho de crescimento em muitas espécies. O presente estudo investigou os efeitos de diferentes níveis de salinidade no desempenho de crescimento, alimentação e sobrevivência de jovens espécies de robalos asiáticos Lates calcarifer, as quais foram criadas sob salinidade 0 (T1), 5 (T2), 22 (T3), 36 (T4) e 42 (T5) ppt. Aproximadamente 830 indivíduos de peixes com peso médio de 1,24 ± 0,52 g foram distribuídos aleatoriamente (166 peixes / tanque) em cinco tanques de concreto (cada tanque tinha 30 × 6 × 4 pés (9,1 x 1,8 x 1,2 metros), com volume de 19,12 litros) por 40 dias. Os peixes foram inicialmente alimentados com uma dieta contendo 42% de proteína bruta a uma taxa de 6% do seu peso corporal por dia. Os resultados mostraram que o nível de salinidade teve um efeito significativo no ganho de peso (GP), ganho de peso médio diário (GPMD), taxa de crescimento específico (TCE), taxa de conversão alimentar (TCA), taxa de sobrevivência (TS), biomassa total e índices de saúde (p < 0,05). O maior GP (39,11 ± 1,49 g), GPMD (1,00 ± 0,12 g), TCE (8,74 ± 0,03% d-1) e o menor TCA (0,96 ± 0,20) foram observados com o tratamento T3, que foi significativamente superior em comparação com os outros tratamentos (p < 0,05). Entre os índices de saúde, os maiores índices hepatossomáticos e viscerossomáticos foram encontrados no tratamento T3, significativamente superior do que os demais grupos (p < 0,05). Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos quanto à TS (p > 0,05), mas a TS máxima (98,89 ± 0,0%) foi observada nos tratamentos T3 e T2. O nível máximo de proteína bruta (19,99 ± 1,4%) foi encontrado na composição bioquímica dos corpos dos jovens robalos asiáticos no grupo T3. A regressão polinomial de segunda ordem mostrou que a salinidade de 20 ppt é ótima para o melhor crescimento do robalo asiático. Assim, o presente estudo recomenda salinidade de 20 a 36 ppt para o cultivo comercial de robalo asiático em sistema de aquicultura fechado.


Assuntos
Animais , Aquicultura , Salinidade , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sobrevivência
4.
Rev. biol. trop ; 71(1)dic. 2023.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1514959

RESUMO

Introducción: El pargo mancha es un pez marino de alto consumo e interés comercial en Costa Rica que está sometido a una fuerte presión pesquera, la cual puede afectar la diversidad genética y generar problemas por depresión endogámica. Objetivo: Evaluar el estado genético de la población de Lutjanus guttatus mediante el uso microsatélites. Métodos: Se recolectaron muestras entre el 2018 y 2019 y se estudiaron 44 individuos de cada una de las localidades del Golfo de Nicoya y Golfo Dulce. Se realizó la extracción de ADN y la amplificación de diez loci con microsatélites mediante PCR, para la determinación del genotipo, análisis de diversidad genética y estructura poblacional. Resultados: Los parámetros de diversidad indican un elevado polimorfismo asociado con un alto número de alelos obtenidos por locus, pero con bajos niveles de heterocigosidad observada en comparación con la esperada (Ho= 0.774 y 0.800 y He= 0.948 y 0.954 para Golfo de Nicoya y Golfo Dulce, respectivamente). No hay evidencia suficiente para decir que las dos poblaciones son distintas (FST= 0.00264, P > 0.05). La desviación del Equilibrio de Hardy-Weinberg indica la posible mezcla de organismos de origen distinto a los del medio silvestre. Conclusiones: L. guttatus tiene niveles altos de diversidad genética, no hay evidencia de diferenciación en subpoblaciones genéticas, lo que en manejo pesquerías se considera una sola población panmíctica. La posible mezcla de individuos de origen distinto al silvestre sugiere la presencia de organismos de un programa de repoblación o de cultivos comerciales en la región. El uso de marcadores genéticos se recomienda para el monitoreo, además, en programas de repoblación y evaluar su efecto.


Introduction: The spotted snapper is a high-consumption and commercially important marine fish in Costa Rica, subjected to heavy fishing pressures, which can affect genetic diversity and generate problems due to inbreeding depression. Objective: To evaluate the genetic status of the population of Lutjanus guttatus using microsatellites. Methods: Samples were collected between 2018 and 2019, and 44 individuals from each of the localities of the Gulf of Nicoya and the Gulf of Dulce were studied. DNA extraction and amplification of ten loci with microsatellites using PCR were performed, followed by genotyping, analysis of genetic diversity, and population structure. Results: Diversity parameters indicate a high polymorphism associated with a high number of alleles obtained per locus, but with low levels of observed heterozygosity compared to expected (Ho= 0.774 and 0.800, and He= 0.948 and 0.954 for the Gulf of Nicoya and Gulf of Dulce, respectively). There is not enough evidence to say that the two populations are distinct (FST= 0.00264, P > 0.05). Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was recorded, indicating possible mixing of organisms of different origin from the wild environment. Conclusions: L. guttatus presents high levels of genetic diversity, without evidence of differentiation in genetic subpopulations. For fisheries management purposes, they would be considered a single panmictic population. The possible mixing with wild individuals suggests the presence of organisms derived from a restocking or commercial cultivation program carried out in the region. The use of genetic markers is recommended to maintain monitoring, follow up on restocking programs and evaluate their effect.


Assuntos
Animais , Animais Endogâmicos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Costa Rica , Aptidão Genética
5.
Rev. biol. trop ; 71(1): e55101, dic. 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1550725

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: La creciente presencia de plásticos en los ecosistemas acuáticos ha sido considerada como un problema ambiental emergente global. Existen estudios que han demostrado que los microplásticos pueden ser ingeridos por una variedad de organismos acuáticos. La variabilidad natural e importancia del recurso sardina, son razones suficientes para evaluar la presencia de estas partículas en el contenido estomacal, y así generar información acerca de las implicaciones de ingestión de estos contaminantes emergentes. Objetivo: Evaluar la presencia de microplásticos en el contenido estomacal de la sardina y su correlación con la condición fisiológica y reproductiva de los peces estudiados. Metodología: Se evaluaron un total de 800 sardinas, entre abril y mayo del 2022. Se midieron las variables morfométricas longitud total y peso, se determinó el factor de condición y el índice gonadosomático. Se extrajo el tracto digestivo y se determinó el peso del estómago lleno y vacío, además del peso del contenido estomacal para determinar el índice de repleción y vacuidad. Las variables determinadas se correlacionaron con la abundancia de microplásticos. El contenido estomacal fue procesado para extraer los microplásticos y caracterizarlos de forma física. Resultados: El índice de repleción presentó diferencias mensuales; su promedio fue de 0.311. El índice de vacuidad promedio fue de 0.276. La abundancia de microplásticos promedio fue 3 066 ítems, con diferencias mensuales e interacción con respecto al sexo y una frecuencia de aparición de 70.125 %, con un total de 2 402 fibras y 57 fragmentos. Las fibras negras fueron las más abundantes (947 ítems). Encontramos correlaciones bajas y positivas entre la abundancia de microplásticos, el índice gonadosomático y el peso de los organismos. Conclusiones: Estos resultados no pueden ser concluyente con respecto a las consecuencias causadas por este contaminante emergente. Mas estudios son necesarios, incluyendo ensayos de laboratorios con metodologías estandarizadas.


Abstract Introduction: The increasing presence of plastics in aquatic ecosystems has been considered as an emerging global environmental problem. Studies have shown that microplastics can be ingested by a variety of aquatic organisms. The natural variability and importance of the sardine resource are sufficient reasons to evaluate the presence of these particles in stomach contents, and thus generate information about the ingestion implications of these emerging contaminants. Objective: To evaluate the presenc e of microplastics in the stomach contents of sardines and their correlation with the physiological and reproductive condition of the fish studied. Methodology: We evaluated a total of 800 sardines between April and May 2022. We measured total length and weight, and determined the condition factor and the gonadosomatic index. We removed the digestive tract and weighed the stomach both empty and full, as well as the stomach contents to determine the repletion and emptiness index. We correlated the determined variables with the abundance of microplastics. We extracted microplastics and characterized them physically. Results: The filling index presented monthly differences with an average of 0.311. The average vacancy index was 0.276. The average abundance of microplastics was 3 066 items, with monthly differences and interaction with respect to sex and a frequency of appearance of 70.125 %, with a total of 2 402 fibers and 57 fragments. Black fibers were the most abundant (947 items). Low and positive correlations were found between the abundance of microplastics, the gonadosomatic index and the weight of the organisms. Conclusions: These results cannot be conclusive as to the consequences caused by this emerging pollutant. Further study is necessary, including laboratory tests with standardized methodologies.


Assuntos
Animais , Poluição do Mar , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Venezuela , Resíduos Sólidos
6.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 378(1884): 20220139, 2023 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37427477

RESUMO

Among ray-finned fishes that provide parental care, many spawn in constructed nests, ranging from bowls, burrows and ridges to nests made of algae or bubbles. Because a nest by definition is a construction that enhances the nest-builder's fitness by helping it meet the needs of the developing offspring, nest-building behaviour is naturally selected, as is a preference for spawning with mates that provide well-built nests. However, nest-building behaviour can also be sexually selected, when nest traits increase mating success, protect against sperm competition or nest take-overs by conspecifics. Here, we offer a systematic review, with examples of how competition for sites and location of fish nests relates to sexual selection. We examine direct and indirect benefits of mate choice linked to nest traits, and different types of nests, from a sexual selection perspective. Nest-related behaviours are often under both natural and sexual selection, and we disentangle examples where that is the case, with special attention to females. We highlight some taxa in which nest building is likely to be sexually selected, but lack of research has left them uninvestigated. Some of them are established aquarium species, making them particularly amenable for future research. Finally, we compare with arthropods, amphibians and birds. This article is part of the theme issue 'The evolutionary ecology of nests: a cross-taxon approach'.


Assuntos
Peixes , Comportamento de Nidação , Peixes/classificação , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixes/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Preferência de Acasalamento Animal , Reprodução , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida
7.
Nature ; 618(7964): 322-327, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37198484

RESUMO

Individual growth is a fundamental life history trait1-4, yet its macroevolutionary trajectories have rarely been investigated for entire animal assemblages. Here we analyse the evolution of growth in a highly diverse vertebrate assemblage-coral reef fishes. We combine state-of-the-art extreme gradient boosted regression trees with phylogenetic comparative methods to detect the timing, number, location and magnitude of shifts in the adaptive regime of somatic growth. We also explored the evolution of the allometric relationship between body size and growth. Our results show that the evolution of fast growth trajectories in reef fishes has been considerably more common than the evolution of slow growth trajectories. Many reef fish lineages shifted towards faster growth and smaller body size evolutionary optima in the Eocene (56-33.9 million years ago), pointing to a major expansion of life history strategies in this Epoch. Of all lineages examined, the small-bodied, high-turnover cryptobenthic fishes shifted most towards extremely high growth optima, even after accounting for body size allometry. These results suggest that the high global temperatures of the Eocene5 and subsequent habitat reconfigurations6 might have been critical for the rise and retention of the highly productive, high-turnover fish faunas that characterize modern coral reef ecosystems.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Recifes de Corais , Peixes , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/classificação , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , Fatores de Tempo , Adaptação Biológica
8.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 26(1cont): 313-323, jan.-jun. 2023. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1517897

RESUMO

O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar e desenvolver uma nova tecnologia para agricultura familiar, que integre a olericultura com a criação de pintados em tanques elevados de geomembrana com recirculação de água. Para tanto, foram distribuídos aleatoriamente 240 peixes com peso médio de 10,67g em um tanque de geomembrana com capacidade de 30 m3 de água. A qualidade da água foi monitorada analisando as variáveis temperatura da água por meio de um termômetro, oxigênio dissolvido, pH, alcalinidade, nitrito e amônia por meio de kits colorimétricos. O arraçoamento foi realizado duas vezes ao dia às 07h00min e 19h00min com ração extrusada contendo 32% de proteína bruta, durante um período de 204 dias. Mensalmente foram realizadas biometrias para corrigir o arraçoamento, analisar o peso total médio, comprimento total médio, ganho de peso e conversão alimentar. A qualidade da água durante o período experimental não apresentou níveis críticos para a produção dos peixes e no final dos 204 dias de criação os peixes apresentaram peso final médio de 719,4g, comprimento final médio de 48,5cm, ganho de peso final médio de 708,5g e conversão alimentar média de 1,59. Quanto à produtividade das olerícolas, constatou-se que a água do efluente do sistema de criação forneceu quantidades adequadas de nutrientes necessários ao desenvolvimento das plantas. Os resultados indicam que o pintado tem potencial para ser criado em tanques elevados de geomembrana com sistema de recirculação de água e o efluente do sistema pode ser utilizado como uma alternativa para a produção integrada de peixes e olerícolas.(AU)


The present study aimed to evaluate and develop a new technology for family farming, which integrates vegetable farming with the creation of guinea fowl in elevated geomembrane tanks with water recirculation. To this end, 240 fish with an average weight of 10.67g were randomly distributed in a geomembrane tank with a capacity of 30 m3 of water. Water quality was monitored by analyzing the variables water temperature using a thermometer, dissolved oxygen, pH, alkalinity, nitrite and ammonia using colorimetric kits. Feeding was carried out twice a day at 7:00 am and 7:00 pm with extruded feed containing 32% crude protein, over a period of 204 days. Biometrics were carried out monthly to correct the diet, analyze the average total weight, average total length, weight gain and feed conversion. The water quality during the experimental period did not present critical levels for fish production and at the end of the 204 days of creation the fish had an average final weight of 719.4g, average final length of 48.5cm, average final weight gain of 708.5g and average feed conversion of 1.59. Regarding the productivity of the olerícolas, it was found that the effluent water of the rearing system provided adequate amounts of nutrients necessary for the development of the plants. The results indicate that the pintado has the potential to be created in elevated geomembrane tanks with water recirculation system and the effluent of the system can be used as an alternative for the integrated production of fish and olerícolas.(AU)


El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar y desarrollar una nueva tecnología para la agricultura familiar, que integra la olericultura con la creación de pintados en tanques elevados de geomembrana con recirculación de agua. Con este fin, 240 peces con un peso promedio de 10.67g se distribuyeron aleatoriamente en un tanque de geomembrana con una capacidad de 30 m3 de agua. La calidad del agua fue monitoreada mediante el análisis de las variables temperatura del agua por medio de un termómetro, oxígeno disuelto, pH, alcalinidad, nitrito y amoníaco por medio de kits colorimétricos. La alimentación se realizó dos veces al día a las 07:00 y 19:00 con alimento extruido que contenía 32% de proteína cruda, durante un período de 204 días. La biometría se realizó mensualmente para corregir la alimentación, analizar el peso total promedio, la longitud total media, el aumento de peso y la conversión alimenticia. La calidad del agua durante el período experimental no presentó niveles críticos para la producción de peces y al final de los 204 días de cría los peces presentaron un peso final promedio de 719.4g, una longitud final promedio de 48.5cm, una ganancia de peso final promedio de 708.5g y una conversión alimenticia promedio de 1.59. En cuanto a la productividad de las olerícolas, se encontró que el agua efluente del sistema de cría proporcionó cantidades adecuadas de nutrientes necesarios para el desarrollo de las plantas. Los resultados indican que el pintado tiene el potencial de ser creado en tanques elevados de geomembrana con sistema de recirculación de agua y el efluente del sistema puede ser utilizado como una alternativa para la producción integrada de peces y olerícolas.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Agricultura/tendências , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tecnologia/tendências , Pesqueiros , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-18, 2023. map, ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468988

RESUMO

This study was conducted to estimate the diversity and the occurrence of commercially important finfish species collected by twenty fish sampling site of Sindh and Baluchistan coasts of the Arabian Sea in Pakistan from January to December 2019. Additionally, physicochemical characteristics of seawater were analyzed from these selected sites and found to be within suitable ranges required for fish growth and survive. A total of 81287 fish individuals were collected and identified as 49 species belonging to 26 families in our study. The most diversified family was Sparidae (13 species) followed by Carangidae and Lutjanidae (4 species), Mullidae, Serranidae, Ariidae (3 species), and Sciaenidae (2 species). The remaining 20 families were represented by only one species. The values of Shannon diversity index calculated for the four selected habitats revealed that high fish diversity was reported at Sonmiani Coast (H’=1.81), while less at Ormara Coast (H’=0.23). Likewise, Evenness index (E) was high at Sonmiani Coast (E=0.50) and less fish diversity was reported at Ormara Coast (E=0.06). Reducing risks to threatened marine species in coastal habitats also requires conservation actions at multiple scales. Thus, it was concluded that our study could be valuable in providing the more information’s regarding to the diversity of finfish species and their occurrence along the Pakistan Coast. Further, to better understand the effects, regular monitoring and conservation measures should be taken to mitigate the influence of anthropogenic activities and protect finfish diversity from further decline.


Este estudo foi conduzido para estimar a diversidade e a ocorrência de espécies de peixes comercialmente importantes coletadas por vinte locais de amostragem de peixes nas costas de Sindh e Baluchistão do mar da Arábia, no Paquistão, de janeiro a dezembro de 2019. Além disso, as características físico-químicas da água do mar foram analisadas a partir desses peixes locais selecionados e considerados dentro dos intervalos adequados necessários para o crescimento e sobrevivência dos peixes. Um total de 8.1287 indivíduos de peixes foi coletado e identificado como 49 espécies pertencentes a 26 famílias em nosso estudo. A família mais diversificada foi Sparidae (13 espécies), seguida por Carangidae e Lutjanidae (4 espécies), Mullidae, Serranidae, Ariidae (3 espécies) e Sciaenidae (2 espécies). As 20 famílias restantes foram representadas por apenas uma espécie. Os valores do índice de diversidade de Shannon calculados para os quatro habitats selecionados revelaram que uma alta diversidade de peixes foi relatada na costa Sonmiani (H’ = 1,81), enquanto menos na costa Ormara (H’ = 0,23). Da mesma forma, o índice de regularidade (E) foi alto na costa de Sonmiani (E = 0,50) e menos diversidade de peixes foi relatada na costa de Ormara (E = 0,06). A redução dos riscos para as espécies marinhas ameaçadas em habitats costeiros também requer ações de conservação em várias escalas. Assim, concluiu-se que nosso estudo pode ser valioso para fornecer mais informações sobre a diversidade de espécies de peixes finos e sua ocorrência ao longo da costa do Paquistão. Além disso, para compreender melhor os efeitos, medidas regulares de monitoramento e conservação devem ser tomadas para mitigar a influência das atividades antropogênicas e proteger a diversidade de peixes finos de um declínio maior.


Assuntos
Animais , Biodiversidade , Fenômenos Químicos , Peixes/classificação , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água do Mar/química
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-10, 2023. map, tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468827

RESUMO

The colonization pattern of fish assemblages in streams is often studied in the context of environmental filters. On the other hand, when fish assemblages are subjected to anthropogenic effects, variables associated with environmental quality assume more importance. Therefore, this work evaluated the richness and composition of fish from streams sampled at different urbanization levels, aiming to determine any direct effects on the structure of fish assemblages. To accomplish this, samples were collected from 2003 to 2011 at 31 sites distributed among 3 microbasins in the Rio Ivinhema Basin, Alto Rio Paraná. Based on environmental variables, physicochemical of the water and analysis of the use and occupation of the soil, the microbasins were classified into different urbanization levels (low, medium and high). A total of 4,320 individuals were sampled, out of which 57 fish species were recorded. Sampled sites with medium urbanization level presented higher richness compared to sampled sites with high urbanization level which presented lower richness. Species richness in these sites was explained mainly by water temperature and water velocity. Results confirmed that urbanization does directly affect environmental integrity, which, in turn, can lead to the homogenization of stream assemblages.


Estudos sobre assembleias de peixes em riachos enfatizam o papel dos filtros ambientais associados ao padrão de colonização das assembleias, por outro lado, quando a assembleia está sujeita aos efeitos antropogênicos, as variáveis ambientais associadas à qualidade ambiental assumem maior importância. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a riqueza e a composição de peixes de riachos amostrados em diferentes níveis de urbanização, buscando evidenciar se o efeito reflete diretamente na estrutura das assembleias. As amostragens foram realizadas em 31 locais distribuídos em três microbacias na bacia Rio Ivinhema, Alto Rio Paraná, no período de 2003 a 2011. Com base nas variáveis ambientais, físico-químicos da água e análise do uso e ocupação do solo as microbacias foram classificadas em diferentes níveis de urbanização (baixo, médio e alto). Foram amostrados um total 4.320 indivíduos, dos quais foram registradas 57 espécies de peixes. Os locais amostrados com influência média da urbanização apresentaram maior riqueza de espécies, entretanto, os locais amostrados com alta influência da urbanização apresentaram menor riqueza de espécies. Dessa forma, constatamos que a urbanização influencia diretamente na integridade ambiental, que pode levar a homogeneização das assembleias de riachos.


Assuntos
Animais , Análise do Solo , Bacias Fluviais/análise , Peixes/classificação , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Urbanização , Usos do Solo , Água/análise , Água/química
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-5, 2023. map, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468965

RESUMO

This study estimated the length–weight relationships of 16 fish species occurring close to the shores of sandy beaches along the lower Negro River basin, Brazilian Amazon. The specimens were captured for one day each month, in October to November 2016, early in the morning and early evening, using trawl net (20 m length and 3.5 m height, 5 mm mesh between opposite knots). Measurements were taken for standard length (SL – 0.1 cm precision) and total weight (TW – 0.01 g precision). The parameters a and b of the equation WT = a.LTb were estimated. The a values ranged from 0.0018 to 0.0226 and b values ranged from 2.5271 to 3.3244. This study also provides new data on of maximum lengths for six species, Amazonsprattus scintilla, Brycon pesu, Moenkhausia megalops, Pachyurus paucirastrus, Reganella depressa and Trachydoras microstomus, and new reports of the LWRs parameters of 15 fish species.


Este estudo estimou as relações comprimento-peso de 16 espécies de peixes que ocorrem às margens de praias arenosas ao longo da bacia do baixo Rio Negro, Amazônia brasileira. As espécies foram capturadas durante um dia de cada mês, de outubro a novembro de 2016, no início da manhã e no início da noite, usando rede de cerco (20 m de comprimento e 3,5 m de altura, 5 malha mm entre nós opostos). As medidas foram feitas para comprimento padrão (SL - precisão de 0,1 cm) e peso total (TW - precisão de 0,01 g). Os parâmetros a e b da equação WT = a.LTb foram estimados. Os valores de a variaram de 0,0018 a 0,0226 e os valores de b variaram de 2,5271 a 3,3244. Este estudo também fornece novos dados sobre comprimentos máximos para seis espécies, Amazonsprattus scintilla, Brycon pesu, Moenkhausia megalops, Pachyurus paucirastrus, Reganella depressa e Trachydoras microstomus, e novos reportes dos parâmetros da LWRs de 15 espécies de peixes.


Assuntos
Animais , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430615

RESUMO

Recent studies have clearly shown that vitamin D3 is a crucial regulator of the female reproductive process in humans and animals. Knowledge of the expression of vitamin D3 receptors and related molecules in the female reproductive organs such as ovaries, uterus, oviduct, or placenta under physiological and pathological conditions highlights its contribution to the proper function of the reproductive system in females. Furthermore, vitamin D3 deficiency leads to serious reproductive disturbances and pathologies including ovarian cysts. Although the influence of vitamin D3 on the reproductive processes of humans and rodents has been extensively described, the association between vitamin D3 and female reproductive function in farm animals, birds, and fish has rarely been summarized. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of vitamin D3 in the reproductive system of those animals, with special attention paid to the expression of vitamin D3 receptors and its metabolic molecules. This updated information could be essential for better understanding animal physiology and overcoming the incidence of infertility, which is crucial for optimizing reproductive outcomes in female livestock.


Assuntos
Colecalciferol , Genitália Feminina , Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Animais Domésticos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais Domésticos/metabolismo , Aves/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aves/metabolismo , Colecalciferol/metabolismo , Colecalciferol/farmacologia , Genitália Feminina/efeitos dos fármacos , Genitália Feminina/metabolismo , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/metabolismo , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixes/metabolismo , Reprodução
13.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262357, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982802

RESUMO

To date, more than 2400 valid fish species have been recorded in the Amazon basin. However, some regions remain poorly documented. This is the case in the Beni basin and in particular in one of its main sub-basins, the Tuichi, an Andean foothills rivers flowing through the Madidi National Park in the Bolivian Amazonia. The knowledge of its ichthyological diversity is, however, essential for the management and protection of aquatic ecosystems, which are threatened by the development of infrastructures (dams, factories and cities), mining and deforestation. Environmental DNA (eDNA) has been relatively little used so far in the Amazon basin. We sampled eDNA from water in 34 sites in lakes and rivers in the Beni basin including 22 sites in the Tuichi sub-basin, during the dry season. To assess the biogeographical patterns of the amazonian ichthyofauna, we implemented a metabarcoding approach using two pairs of specific primers designed and developed in our laboratory to amplify two partially overlapping CO1 fragments, one of 185bp and another of 285bp. We detected 252 fish taxa (207 at species level) among which 57 are newly identified for the Beni watershed. Species compositions are significantly different between lakes and rivers but also between rivers according to their hydrographic rank and altitude. Furthermore, the diversity patterns are related to the different hydro-ecoregions through which the Tuichi flows. The eDNA approach makes it possible to identify and complete the inventory of the ichthyofauna in this still poorly documented Amazon basin. However, taxonomic identification remains constrained by the lack of reference barcodes in public databases and does not allow the assignment of all OTUs. Our results can be taken into account in conservation and management strategies and could serve as a baseline for future studies, including on other Andean tributaries.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , DNA Ambiental/análise , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Peixes/genética , Animais , Brasil , DNA Ambiental/genética , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(1)2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35008920

RESUMO

The objective of the present research was to study the effect of cold shock (3 °C and 6 °C) on fertilized eggs of the sterlet, Acipenser ruthenus L. Cold shock was applied for various durations (30, 60 and 90 min) and the ploidy levels, survival, and genotypes of the treated embryos/larvae were recorded. Analysis of ploidy levels confirmed the presence of diploid, triploid, and mosaic (1n/2n, 2n/3n, and 1n/2n/3n) genotypes in experimental groups, while it was strictly diploid in control groups. Microsatellite genotyping confirmed both the incidence of polyspermy and retention of the 2nd polar body in experimental groups. However, patterns of inheritance in all diploid offspring in experimental and control groups revealed classical Mendelian disomic inheritance. Interestingly, the observed mosaic sterlets had normal morphology and were alive. However, some larvae had abnormal morphology which may be due to haploid syndrome. In all treatment groups (treatments: 3 °C-30 min; 3 °C-60 min; 3 °C-90 min; 6 °C-60 min), where the percentage of polyploid/mosaic larvae were high, the mortality was also high. Whereas, in the control groups (where there were only diploid (2n) larvae), the mortality was relatively low.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Frio/fisiologia , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixes/genética , Ploidias , Alelos , Animais , Segregação de Cromossomos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Peixes/embriologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Análise de Sobrevida
15.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262281, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995331

RESUMO

Ensuring the accuracy of age estimation in fisheries science through validation is an essential step in managing species for long-term sustainable harvest. The current study used Δ14 C in direct validation of age estimation for queen triggerfish Balistes vetula and conclusively documented that triggerfish sagittal otoliths provide more accurate and precise age estimates relative to dorsal spines. Caribbean fish samples (n = 2045) ranged in size from 67-473 mm fork length (FL); 23 fish from waters of the southeastern U.S. (SEUS) Atlantic coast ranged in size from 355-525 mm FL. Otolith-based age estimates from Caribbean fish range from 0-23 y, dorsal spine-based age estimates ranged from 1-14 y. Otolith-based age estimates for fish from the SEUS ranged from 8-40 y. Growth function estimates from otoliths in the current study (L∞ = 444, K = 0.13, t0 = -1.12) differed from spined-derived estimates in the literature. Our work indicates that previously reported maximum ages for Balistes species based on spine-derived age estimates may underestimate longevity of these species since queen triggerfish otolith-based ageing extended maximum known age for the species by nearly three-fold (14 y from spines versus 40 y from otoliths). Future research seeking to document age and growth population parameters of Balistes species should strongly consider incorporating otolith-based ageing in the research design.


Assuntos
Peixes/fisiologia , Membrana dos Otólitos/química , Envelhecimento , Animais , Radioisótopos de Carbono/análise , Pesqueiros , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Longevidade , Membrana dos Otólitos/anatomia & histologia , Datação Radiométrica
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626804

RESUMO

Aquatic hypoxia is both a naturally-occurring and anthropogenically-generated event. Fish species have evolved different adaptations to cope with hypoxic environments, including gill modifications and air breathing. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the respiration of embryonic and larval fishes during critical windows of development. We assessed expression of the genes hif-1α, fih-1, nhe1, epo, gr and il8 using the developing tropical gar as a piscine model during three developmental periods (fertilization to hatch, 1 to 6 days post hatch (dph) and 7 to 12 dph) when exposed to normoxia (~7.43 mg/L DO), hypoxia (~2.5 mg/L DO) or hyperoxia (~9.15 mg/L DO). All genes had higher expression when fish were exposed to either hypoxia or hyperoxia during the first two developmental periods. However, fish continuously exposed to hypoxia had increased expression of the six genes by hatching and 6 dph, and by 12 dph only hif-1α still had increased expression. The middle developmental period was the most hypoxia-sensitive, coinciding with several changes in physiology and morphology. The oldest larvae were the most resilient to gene expression change, with little variation in expression of the six genes compared. This study is the first to relate the molecular response of an air-breathing fish to oxygen availability to developmental critical windows and contributes to our understanding of some molecular responses of developing fish to changes in oxygen availability.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/genética , Peixes/genética , Hiperóxia/veterinária , Hipóxia/veterinária , Animais , Aquicultura , Eritropoetina/genética , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixes/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Hiperóxia/genética , Hiperóxia/fisiopatologia , Hipóxia/genética , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/antagonistas & inibidores , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Interleucina-8/genética , Masculino , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Respiratórios , Trocador 1 de Sódio-Hidrogênio/genética
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-7, 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468551

RESUMO

The present study was conducted for the taxonomic, morphometric and limnological assessment of the commercially important ichthyofauna of Sakhakot Stream, Malakand, Pakistan. The study area was divided into three sites along the water course namely Dargai Stream, Sakhakot Stream and Shergarh Stream. Fish samples were collected randomly during January to August 2017 with the help of fish gears. A taxonomic key was designed for the collected fish specimens. Ten fish species were identified belonging to 3 orders and 4 families. Family Cyprinidae was the dominant family with seven representative species while families Siluridae, Nemacheilidae and Mastacembelidae were represented by one species each. Lower mean total length and standard length was recorded in Puntius conchonius (Hamilton, 1822) as 9.2 ± 0.6 cm and 7.3 ± 0.6 cm respectively, while highest mean total length and standard length was recorded in Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepede, 1800) as 28.1 ± 1.7 cm and 15.9 ± 2.4 cm respectively. Mean pH of the water ranged from 6.1 at Shergarh Stream in August to 8.7 at Sakhakot Stream in January. Average temperature range was recorded from 10.9 °C in January at Dargai Stream to 18.7 °C in August at Shergarh Stream. No statistically significant difference was found for temperature (p = 0.96) and pH (p = 0.14) in the three water streams. The present study will provide a baseline for the rearing and enhancement of wild stock of the commercially important ichthyofauna in the field of aquaculture and fisheries.


O presente estudo foi realizado para a avaliação taxonômica, morfométrica e limnológica da ictiofauna comercialmente importante do Riacho Sakhakot, Malakand, Paquistão. A área de estudo foi dividida em três locais ao longo do curso de água, nomeadamente Riacho Dargai, Riacho Sakhakot e Riacho Shergarh. As amostras de peixes foram coletadas aleatoriamente durante janeiro e agosto de 2017, com a ajuda de artes de peixes. Uma chave taxonômica foi projetada para os espécimes de peixes coletados. Foram identificadas dez espécies de peixes pertencentes a 3 ordens e 4 famílias. A família Cyprinidae foi a família dominante, com sete espécies representativas, enquanto as famílias Siluridae, Nemacheilidae e Mastacembelidae foram representadas por uma espécie cada. O comprimento total médio mais baixo e o comprimento padrão foram registrados em Puntius conchonius (Hamilton, 1822) como 9.2 ± 0.6 cm e 7.3 ± 0.6 cm, respectivamente, enquanto o comprimento total médio e o comprimento padrão mais altos foram registrados em Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepede, 1800) como 28.1 ± 1.7 cm e 15.9 ± 2.4 cm, respectivamente. O pH médio da água variou de 6.1 no Riacho Shergarh em agosto a 8.7 no Riacho Sakhakot em janeiro. A faixa de temperatura média foi registrada de 10.9 °C em janeiro no Riacho Dargai a 18.7 °C em agosto no Riacho Shergarh. Não foi encontrada diferença estatisticamente significativa para temperatura (p = 0,96) e pH (p = 0,14) nos três cursos de água. O presente estudo fornecerá uma linha de base para a criação e aprimoramento do estoque selvagem da ictiofauna comercialmente importante no campo da aquicultura e pesca.


Assuntos
Animais , Classificação/métodos , Cyprinidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixes-Gato , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23470, 2021 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34873242

RESUMO

Marine reserves are known to impact the biomass, biodiversity, and functions of coral reef fish communities, but the effect of protective management on fish traits is less explored. We used a time-series modelling approach to simultaneously evaluate the abundance, biomass, and traits of eight fish families over a chronosequence spanning 44 years of protection. We constructed a multivariate functional space based on six traits known to respond to management or disturbance and affect ecosystem processes: size, diet, position in the water column, gregariousness, reef association, and length at maturity. We show that biomass increased with a log-linear trend over the time-series, but abundance only increased after 20 years of closure, and with more variation among reserves. This difference is attributed to recovery rates being dependent on body sizes. Abundance-weighted traits and the associated multivariate space of the community change is driven by increased proportions over time of the trait categories: 7-15 cm body size; planktivorous; species low in the water column; medium-large schools; and species with high levels of reef association. These findings suggest that the trait compositions emerging after the cessation of fishing are novel and dynamic.


Assuntos
Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixes/fisiologia , Animais , Biodiversidade , Biomassa , Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Recifes de Corais , Ecossistema , Caça , Fenótipo
19.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260192, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793569

RESUMO

In this study, we determined the effects of dietary chitosan on the growth, biochemical composition, gut microbiota, and hematological and histological parameters of juvenile Barbonymus gonionotus. Three test diets containing three different concentrations (1, 2, and 3 g kg-1 feed) of dietary chitosan were formulated. A basal diet without dietary chitosan was considered a control, and the fish were reared for 60 days. Comparing the effects of the dietary chitosan-containing diets with those of the control diet, we found that dietary chitosan significantly improved the muscle growth, nutrient and mineral contents, hematological parameters, lactic acid bacterium abundance, and digestive enzyme activities of B. gonionotus. Moreover, dietary chitosan significantly inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria in fish. Interestingly, an increase in the dietary chitosan level significantly enhanced the protein contents of the muscles and inversely significantly decreased the lipid contents compared to those with the basal diet. Quantitative study revealed that dietary chitosan significantly enhanced the length of intestinal villi, and qualitative study showed that dietary chitosan considerably reduced the fat content in the liver and improved the morphology of the kidney compared to those with the basal diet. Taken together, our results suggest that the application of dietary chitosan at a dose of 1 g kg-1 feed produced the highest benefit to treated B. gonionotus, indicating its potential for safe use in aquaculture.


Assuntos
Quitosana/administração & dosagem , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/metabolismo , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(22)2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34830486

RESUMO

Spermatogenesis is a process of self-renewal and differentiation in spermatogonial stem cells. During this process, germ cells and somatic cells interact intricately to ensure long-term fertility and accurate genome propagation. Spermatogenesis has been intensely investigated in mammals but remains poorly understood with regard to teleosts. Here, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing of ~9500 testicular cells from the male, orange-spotted grouper. In the adult testis, we divided the cells into nine clusters and defined ten cell types, as compared with human testis data, including cell populations with characteristics of male germ cells and somatic cells, each of which expressed specific marker genes. We also identified and profiled the expression patterns of four marker genes (calr, eef1a, s100a1, vasa) in both the ovary and adult testis. Our data provide a blueprint of male germ cells and supporting somatic cells. Moreover, the cell markers are candidates that could be used for further cell identification.


Assuntos
Peixes/genética , Organismos Hermafroditas/genética , Espermatogênese/genética , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Organismos Hermafroditas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , RNA-Seq , Diferenciação Sexual/genética , Análise de Célula Única , Testículo/patologia
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