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1.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-7, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-765581

RESUMO

Ri chicken is the most popular backyard chicken breed in Vietnam, but little is known about the growth curve of this breed. This study compared the performances of models with three parameters (Gompertz, Brody, and Logistic) and models containing four parameters (Richards, Bridges, and Janoschek) for describing the growth of Ri chicken. The bodyweight of Ri chicken was recorded weekly from week 1 to week 19. Growth models were fitted using minpack.lm package in R software and Akaikes information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), and root mean square error (RMSE) were used for model comparison. Based on these criteria, the models having four parameters showed better performance than the ones with three parameters, and the Richards model was the best one for males and females. The lowest and highest value of asymmetric weights (α) were obtained by Bridges and Brody models for each of sexes, respectively. Age and weight estimated by the Richard model were 8.46 and 7.51 weeks and 696.88 and 487.58 g for males and for females, respectively. Differences in the growth curves were observed between males and female chicken. Overall, the results suggested using the Richards model for describing the growth curve of Ri chickens. Further studies on the genetics and genomics of the obtained growth parameters are required before using them for the genetic improvement of Ri chickens.(AU)


O frango Ri é a raça de frango de quintal mais popular do Vietnã, mas pouco se sabe sobre a curva de crescimento dessa raça. Este estudo comparou o desempenho de modelos com três parâmetros (Gompertz, Brody e Logistic) e modelos contendo quatro parâmetros (Richards, Bridges e Janoschek) para descrever o crescimento do frango Ri. O peso corporal do frango Ri foi registrado semanalmente da semana 1 à semana 19. Os modelos de crescimento foram ajustados usando o pacote minpack.lm no software R e o critério de informação de Akaike (AIC); critério de informação bayesiano (BIC) e erro quadrático médio (RMSE) foram usados para comparação de modelos. Com base nesses critérios, os modelos com quatro parâmetros apresentaram melhor desempenho do que os com três parâmetros, sendo o modelo de Richards o melhor para homens e mulheres. O menor e o maior valor dos pesos assimétricos (α) foram obtidos pelos modelos Bridges e Brody para cada um dos sexos, respectivamente. A idade e o peso estimados pelo modelo de Richard foram de 8,46 e 7,51 semanas e 696,88 e 487,58 g para homens e mulheres, respectivamente. Diferenças nas curvas de crescimento foram observadas entre frangos machos e fêmeas. No geral, os resultados sugeriram o uso do modelo de Richards para descrever a curva de crescimento de frangos Ri. Mais estudos sobre a genética e genômica dos parâmetros de crescimento obtidos são necessários antes de usá-los para o melhoramento genético de frangos Ri.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peso Corporal
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249756, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345533

RESUMO

Abstract Ri chicken is the most popular backyard chicken breed in Vietnam, but little is known about the growth curve of this breed. This study compared the performances of models with three parameters (Gompertz, Brody, and Logistic) and models containing four parameters (Richards, Bridges, and Janoschek) for describing the growth of Ri chicken. The bodyweight of Ri chicken was recorded weekly from week 1 to week 19. Growth models were fitted using minpack.lm package in R software and Akaike's information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), and root mean square error (RMSE) were used for model comparison. Based on these criteria, the models having four parameters showed better performance than the ones with three parameters, and the Richards model was the best one for males and females. The lowest and highest value of asymmetric weights (α) were obtained by Bridges and Brody models for each of sexes, respectively. Age and weight estimated by the Richard model were 8.46 and 7.51 weeks and 696.88 and 487.58 g for males and for females, respectively. Differences in the growth curves were observed between males and female chicken. Overall, the results suggested using the Richards model for describing the growth curve of Ri chickens. Further studies on the genetics and genomics of the obtained growth parameters are required before using them for the genetic improvement of Ri chickens.


Resumo O frango Ri é a raça de frango de quintal mais popular do Vietnã, mas pouco se sabe sobre a curva de crescimento dessa raça. Este estudo comparou o desempenho de modelos com três parâmetros (Gompertz, Brody e Logistic) e modelos contendo quatro parâmetros (Richards, Bridges e Janoschek) para descrever o crescimento do frango Ri. O peso corporal do frango Ri foi registrado semanalmente da semana 1 à semana 19. Os modelos de crescimento foram ajustados usando o pacote minpack.lm no software R e o critério de informação de Akaike (AIC); critério de informação bayesiano (BIC) e erro quadrático médio (RMSE) foram usados ​​para comparação de modelos. Com base nesses critérios, os modelos com quatro parâmetros apresentaram melhor desempenho do que os com três parâmetros, sendo o modelo de Richards o melhor para homens e mulheres. O menor e o maior valor dos pesos assimétricos (α) foram obtidos pelos modelos Bridges e Brody para cada um dos sexos, respectivamente. A idade e o peso estimados pelo modelo de Richard foram de 8,46 e 7,51 semanas e 696,88 e 487,58 g para homens e mulheres, respectivamente. Diferenças nas curvas de crescimento foram observadas entre frangos machos e fêmeas. No geral, os resultados sugeriram o uso do modelo de Richards para descrever a curva de crescimento de frangos Ri. Mais estudos sobre a genética e genômica dos parâmetros de crescimento obtidos são necessários antes de usá-los para o melhoramento genético de frangos Ri.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Galinhas , Modelos Teóricos , Peso Corporal , Teorema de Bayes , Asiáticos , Modelos Biológicos
3.
J Health Econ ; 85: 102670, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055079

RESUMO

The Internet has significantly changed people's daily lives, including their health status. In this paper, we study the health implications of Internet access with a specific focus on body weight. We exploit an Internet speed upgrading project in China and conduct a difference-in-differences analysis, where the treatment intensity depends on cities' pre-existing Internet infrastructure conditions. We find consistent and robust evidence that increased Internet access reduces the incidence of being overweight. Regarding the mechanisms behind this result, we provide indirect evidence for the information channel, evidenced by improved health behaviors after the project: less engagement in risky health behaviors and increased participation in preventive health services and exercise. Internet diffusion also increases income, supporting the income channel through which the Internet can affect body weight.


Assuntos
Renda , Acesso à Internet , Peso Corporal , China , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Internet
4.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 966120, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36060949

RESUMO

Melatonin is an indole-like neuroendocrine hormone. A large number of studies have shown that melatonin can improve production performance of ewes, but it is not clear in lambs. In this study, the growth and development of the 2-month-old lambs implanted with melatonin were monitored for 60 days. The results showed that the growth rate of body weight and body skew length of lambs with melatonin treatment were significantly improved compared to the controls. The similar results were also observed in red blood cell count, hematocrit, red blood cell volume distribution width, the levels of growth hormone, testosterone, immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin M and albumin. In addition, the cross sectional area of muscle fibers and adipose cells of lambs with melatonin implantation were also significantly increased compared to the controls (P<0.05). To further explore the potential mechanisms, the muscle and adipose tissue were selected for transcriptome sequencing. KEGG enrichment results showed that melatonin regulated the expression of genes related to apoptotic signaling pathway in muscle and adipocytes. Since the intestinal microbiota are involved in the nutritional balance and animal growth, the 16SrRNA sequencing related to the intestinal microbiota was also performed. The data indicated that the structural differences of fecal microflora mainly occur in the pathways of Cardiovascular disease, Excretory system and Signaling molecules and interaction. In brief, melatonin promotes the growth and development of lambs. The potential mechanisms may be that melatonin increased the growth hormone and testosterone mediated apoptosis signaling pathway and regulated intestinal microbial flora. Our results provide valuable information for melatonin to improve the production of sheep husbandry in the future.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano , Melatonina , Hormônios Adeno-Hipofisários , Animais , Apoptose , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Hormônio do Crescimento , Melatonina/farmacologia , Ovinos , Transdução de Sinais , Testosterona
5.
Dis Markers ; 2022: 2329904, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36061354

RESUMO

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease. Intestinal mucosal injury is a significant factor in UC. Pyroptosis is a kind of programmed cell death induced by inflammatory caspases. Proteasome 20S subunit beta 5 (PSMB5) promotes cell viability. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of PSMB5 on intestinal mucosal injury and to elucidate the underlying processes in dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced UC mice. Kunming (KM) mice received 3% DSS for 5 days to induce UC. We collected clinical symptoms, body weight, colon length, and histological changes. MDA (malondialdehyde) and SOD (superoxide dismutase) levels were determined using an ELISA assay. RT-PCR was used to assess the expression of IL-1ß and IL-18. PSMB5 demonstrated a significant effect against UC by increasing body weight and colon length and decreasing DAI (disease activity index), colon macroscopic damage index (CMDI), histological injury scores, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), MDA, and SOD levels, thereby alleviating histopathological changes and inhibiting oxidative stress. HIEC-6 cells were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) condition with or without PSMB5, along with caspase-1 inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK), NLRP3 inhibitor (MCC950), and ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC). The viability of the cells, the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and intracellular ROS generation were determined using assay kits. Western blot analysis was used to determine the levels of NLRP3, ASC, cleaved caspase-1 (p20), pro-IL-1ß, IL-1ß, pro-IL-18, and IL-18. PSMB5 overexpression enhanced the inflammatory damage in LPS-treated HIEC-6 cells by activating the NLRP3 inflammasome and mediating pyroptosis, as demonstrated by increased LDH release and lower cell viability, as well as increased expression of NLRP3, ASC, cleaved caspase-1 (p20), IL-1, and IL-18. Meanwhile, NAC protected HIEC-6 cells from LPS-induced damage by reversing the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis. In conclusion, PSMB5 may lower HIEC-6 cell susceptibility to LPS and ameliorate UC-induced HIEC-6 cell damage by decreasing ROS generation and hence inhibiting NLRP3-mediated pyroptosis.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Inflamassomos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Caspase 1/farmacologia , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/farmacologia , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Piroptose , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase
6.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 25(8): 741-747, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098200

RESUMO

<b>Background and Objective:</b> The growth hormone (GH) gene plays a role in meat growth and has been shown to increase the growth rate and carcass composition after being given GH. For this function, this gene is used as a strong candidate for genetic markers for meat growth traits. The research objective was to map the growth hormone (GH) gene of the bodyweight of Krui cattle in the Pesisir Barat Regency. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> This research used 30 blood samples of 30 Krui cattle. The method used was by taking quantitative data and blood samples from adult Krui cattle in Pesisir Barat Regency and then the blood samples were analyzed by DNA isolation method. PCR amplification used was a pair of GH-Forward primers: 5 'ATC CAC ACC CCC TCC ACA CAGT 3' and GH- reverse: 5 'CAT TTT CCA CCC TCC CCT ACA G 3', as well as digestion using the RFLP method at the Laboratory of Animal Breeding and Genetics of Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta. Association between genotype and body weight was analyzed descriptively. <b>Results:</b> The results showed that Krui cattle had polymorphic genes with three genotypes found, namely: CC, CT and TT. Cattle with CT genotype had the largest average body weight or meat production compared to those with other genotypes. <b>Conclusion:</b> These results indicated that the GH gene identifier has strong evidence that it can be used as a selection tool with the help of genotypes of body weight traits of Krui meat production in the Pesisir Barat Regency. Krui cattle with CT genotype can be developed further because it has high economic value with high average body weight and meat production.


Assuntos
Hormônio do Crescimento , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Bovinos/genética , Genótipo , Hormônio do Crescimento/genética , Indonésia , Fenótipo
7.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 21(1): 169, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050763

RESUMO

Tirzepatide is the first dual GIP/GLP-1 receptor co-agonist approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in the USA, Europe, and the UAE. Tirzepatide is an acylated peptide engineered to activate the GIP and GLP-1 receptors, key mediators of insulin secretion that are also expressed in regions of the brain that regulate food intake. Five clinical trials in type 2-diabetic subjects (SURPASS 1-5) have shown that tirzepatide at 5-15 mg per week reduces both HbA1c (1.24 to 2.58%) and body weight (5.4-11.7 kg) by amounts unprecedented for a single agent. A sizable proportion of patients (23.0 to 62.4%) reached an HbA1c of < 5.7% (which is the upper limit of the normal range indicating normoglycaemia), and 20.7 to 68.4% lost more than 10% of their baseline body weight. Tirzepatide was significantly more effective in reducing HbA1c and body weight than the selective GLP-1 RA semaglutide (1.0 mg per week), and titrated basal insulin. Adverse events related to tirzepatide were similar to what has been reported for selective GLP-1RA, mainly nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, and constipation, that were more common at higher doses. Cardiovascular events have been adjudicated across the whole study program, and MACE-4 (nonfatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, cardiovascular death and hospital admission for angina) events tended to be reduced over up to a 2 year-period, albeit with low numbers of events. For none of the cardiovascular events analysed (MACE-4, or its components) was a hazard ratio > 1.0 vs. pooled comparators found in a meta-analysis covering the whole clinical trial program, and the upper bounds of the confidence intervals for MACE were < 1.3, fulfilling conventional definitions of cardiovascular safety. Tirzepatide was found to improve insulin sensitivity and insulin secretory responses to a greater extent than semaglutide, and this was associated with lower prandial insulin and glucagon concentrations. Both drugs caused similar reductions in appetite, although tirzepatide caused greater weight loss. While the clinical effects of tirzepatide have been very encouraging, important questions remain as to the mechanism of action. While GIP reduces food intake and body weight in rodents, these effects have not been demonstrated in humans. Moreover, it remains to be shown that GIPR agonism can improve insulin secretion in type 2 diabetic patients who have been noted in previous studies to be unresponsive to GIP. Certainly, the apparent advantage of tirzepatide, a dual incretin agonist, over GLP-1RA will spark renewed interest in the therapeutic potential of GIP in type 2 diabetes, obesity and related co-morbidities.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico , Peso Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/efeitos adversos , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Controle Glicêmico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Metanálise como Assunto , Redução de Peso
8.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 21(1): 172, 2022 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exploratory analysis to determine the effect of semaglutide versus comparators on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in subjects with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Trials of once-weekly subcutaneous (SUSTAIN 3) and once-daily oral (PIONEER 1, 2, 5) semaglutide with hsCRP data were analyzed. Subjects with type 2 diabetes (N = 2482) received semaglutide (n = 1328) or comparators (placebo, n = 339; exenatide extended-release, n = 405; empagliflozin, n = 410). hsCRP ratio to baseline at end-of-treatment was analyzed overall, by clinical cutoff (< 1.0, ≥ 1.0 to ≤ 3.0, or > 3.0 mg/L), by tertile, and by estimated glomerular filtration rate in PIONEER 5 (a trial which was conducted in a population with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease [CKD]). Mediation analyses assessed the effect of change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and/or change in body weight (BW) on hsCRP reductions. RESULTS: Geometric mean baseline hsCRP was similar across trials (range 2.7-3.0 mg/L). Semaglutide reduced hsCRP levels by clinical cutoffs and tertiles from baseline to end-of-treatment in all trials versus comparators (estimated treatment ratios [ETRs] versus comparators: 0.70-0.76; p < 0.01) except versus placebo in PIONEER 5 (ETR [95% CI]: 0.83 [0.67-1.03]; p > 0.05). The effect of semaglutide on hsCRP was partially mediated (20.6-61.8%) by change in HbA1c and BW. CONCLUSIONS: Semaglutide reduced hsCRP ratios-to-baseline versus comparators in subjects with type 2 diabetes (not significant with CKD). This effect was partially mediated via reductions in HbA1c and BW and potentially by a direct effect of semaglutide. Semaglutide appears to have an anti-inflammatory effect, which is being further investigated in ongoing trials. TRIAL REGISTRATIONS: ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT01885208 (first registered June 2013), NCT02906930 (first registered September 2016), NCT02863328 (first registered August 2016), NCT02827708 (first registered July 2016).


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon , Peso Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/farmacologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Cells ; 11(17)2022 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078077

RESUMO

Hyperlipidemia and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are major risk factors for atherosclerosis. Apoe-deficient (Apoe-/-) mice on certain genetic backgrounds develop hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, and T2D when fed a Western diet. Here, we sought to dissect phenotypic and genetic relationships of blood lipids and glucose with atherosclerotic plaque formation when the vasculature is exposed to high levels of cholesterol and glucose. Male F2 mice were generated from LP/J and BALB/cJ Apoe-/- mice and fed a Western diet for 12 weeks. Three significant QTL Ath51, Ath52 and Ath53 on chromosomes (Chr) 3 and 15 were mapped for atherosclerotic lesions. Ath52 on proximal Chr15 overlapped with QTL for plasma glucose, non-HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride. Atherosclerotic lesion sizes showed significant correlations with fasting, non-fasting glucose, non-fasting triglyceride, and body weight but no correlation with HDL, non-HDL cholesterol, and fasting triglyceride levels. Ath52 for atherosclerosis was down-graded from significant to suggestive level after adjustment for fasting, non-fasting glucose, and non-fasting triglyceride but minimally affected by HDL, non-HDL cholesterol, and fasting triglyceride. Adjustment for body weight suppressed Ath52 but elevated Ath53 on distal Chr15. These results demonstrate phenotypic and genetic connections of blood glucose and triglyceride with atherosclerosis, and suggest a more prominent role for blood glucose than cholesterol in atherosclerotic plaque formation of hyperlipidemic mice.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hiperlipidemias , Placa Aterosclerótica , Animais , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/patologia , Glicemia , Peso Corporal/genética , Colesterol , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Hiperlipidemias/complicações , Hiperlipidemias/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Placa Aterosclerótica/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triglicerídeos
10.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079841

RESUMO

MED-02 is a complex supplement containing two probiotic strains, Limosilactobacillus fermentum MG4231 and MG4244, isolated from humans. The anti-obesity effects and safety profile of MED-02 were assessed in overweight and obese subjects. In this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, multicenter study, 100 healthy obese and overweight subjects aged 19-65 years with a body mass index (BMI) between 25 and 31.9 kg/m2 were recruited and randomized to receive a placebo or MED-02 (5 × 109 CFU/day). After 12 weeks of consumption, body fat mass (-1166.82 g vs. -382.08 g; p = 0.024) and body fat percentage (-0.85% vs. -0.11%; p = 0.030), as evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and body weight (-2.06 kg vs. -1.22 kg; p = 0.041), were significantly reduced in the MED-02 group compared to the placebo group. The safety profile did not differ among the groups. No serious adverse effects were observed in either group. These results suggest that MED-02 is a safe and beneficial probiotics that reduces body fat and body weight in overweight or obese individuals.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus fermentum , Probióticos , Tecido Adiposo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Sobrepeso/tratamento farmacológico , Probióticos/uso terapêutico
11.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079907

RESUMO

The problem of overweight and obesity is a growing phenomenon in the entire population. Obesity is associated with many different metabolic disorders and is directly associated with an increased risk of death. The aim of the study was to assess the changes in body composition and physical fitness in children participating in an integrated weight-loss programme and to analyse the possible relationship between changes in body composition and improvements in fitness. Participants of the study were recruited from the "6-10-14 for Health"-multidisciplinary intervention programme for children aged 6 to 15 years old. A total of 170 patients qualified for the study, and 152 patients were enrolled. Statistically significant changes in body composition were found after the end of the intervention program, as measured by both BIA (bioimpedance) and DXA (Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry). The differences in KPRT (Kasch Pulse Recovery Test) results at baseline and after intervention are positively correlated with the difference in fat mass between baseline and the after-intervention measure. Improving physical fitness is positively correlated with a decrease in FM (fat mass) and an increase in FFM (fat-free mass) measured in both absolute values and %. Both BIA and DXA methods proved to be equally useful for measuring body composition.


Assuntos
Programas de Redução de Peso , Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Adolescente , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Impedância Elétrica , Humanos , Obesidade , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Aumento de Peso
12.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079913

RESUMO

(1) Background: Nutritional support is one of the most important cornerstones in the management of patients with severe burns, but the carbohydrate-to-fat ratios in burn nutrition therapy remain highly controversial. In this study, we aimed to discuss the effects of different ratios of carbohydrate-fat through enteral nutrition on the metabolic changes and organ damage in burned rats. (2) Methods: Twenty-four burned rats were randomly divided into 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% fat nutritional groups. REE and body weight were measured individually for each rat daily. Then, 75% of REE was given in the first week after burns, and the full dose was given in the second week. Glucose tolerance of the rats was measured on days 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14. Blood biochemistry analysis and organ damage analysis were performed after 7 and 14 days of nutritional therapy, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and insulin content analysis were performed after 14 days. (3) Results: NMR spectra showed significant differences of glucose, lipid and amino acid metabolic pathways. The energy expenditure increased, and body weight decreased significantly after burn injury, with larger change in the 20%, 5% and 30% fat groups, and minimal change in the 10% fat group. The obvious changes in the level of plasma protein, glucose, lipids and insulin, as well as the organ damage, were in the 30%, 20% and 5% fat groups. In relative terms, the 10% fat group showed the least variation and was closest to normal group. (4) Conclusion: Lower fat intake is beneficial to maintaining metabolic stability and lessening organ damage after burns, but percentage of fat supply should not be less than 10% in burned rats.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Insulinas , Animais , Peso Corporal , Queimaduras/metabolismo , Queimaduras/terapia , Carboidratos , Nutrição Enteral , Glucose , Ratos
13.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(5): 287, 2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36083357

RESUMO

The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of sodium bicarbonate (SB) supplementation in diets and compare its chemical effect with the fiber effect of soybean hulls on performance, nutritional behavior, and carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs. Twenty-eight ram lambs (Dorper × Santa Inês), with an initial body weight of 30.2 ± 4.5 kg and 94 ± 8.4 days old, were used. They were assigned to a randomized complete block design, defined by initial age and body weight. Experimental diets were positive control, diet containing soybean hulls in 400 g/kg dry matter (DM) (CONT), and three diets based on ground flint corn containing 10 (10SB), 20 (20SB), or 30 (30SB) g/kg DM of SB. Among the SB levels, the buffer supplementation quadratically increased dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, as well as increased final and slaughter body weight, which led to higher hot and cold carcass weights, loin muscle area, leg compacity index, and weight of neck, shoulder, rib, and leg cuts, with higher values for the 20SB. Feeding SB linearly decreased the area and height of the papillae. None of the animals presented liver abscess; however, two animals from 30SB and one from CONT had F-rumen lesions. The use of SB provided a similar animal performance when compared to the treatment containing soybean hulls. This shows that the chemical effect of the buffer was efficient and provided greater safety for this type of diet without causing damages to the rumen health. Among the SB levels, the best results were observed in the 20 g/kg level (20SB), which shows that the buffer can be used as a strategy for diets with high inclusion of corn and no fiber source.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bicarbonato de Sódio , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta , Masculino , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico , Soja , Zea mays
14.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry ; 198(13-15): 926-933, 2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36083721

RESUMO

In previous reports, the authors showed a significant overall increase in neoplasms originating from the ovaries (2007) and increased body weights (2007, 2010) in female B6C3F1 mice chronically exposed to low dose-rate γ-rays at 20 mGy/day (total doses = 8 (2007) or 6 Gy (2010)), as well as significant increases in serum leptin, total cholesterol, adipose tissue deposits and liver lipid content (2010). The present study chronicles the progression of ovarian failure in relation to obesity and dyslipidemia in female B6C3F1 mice chronically exposed to low dose-rate of γ-rays from 9 to 43 weeks of age (total dose = 4.8 Gy). We monitored changes in body weights, estrus cycles, ovarian follicle counts, serum cholesterol and serum leptin. The number of mice with irregular estrus cycles and increased body weights (with increased fat deposits) significantly increased from 30-36 weeks of age. Depletion of oocytes in ovaries from irradiated mice at 30 weeks of age (accumulated dose = 3 Gy) was also observed. Findings suggest that obesity in female B6C3F1 mice continuously irradiated with low dose-rate of γ-rays at 20 mGy/day is a consequence of premature menopause due to radiation-induced oocyte depletion.


Assuntos
Leptina , Menopausa Precoce , Peso Corporal , Colesterol , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade/etiologia , Oócitos
15.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 32(9): 1175-1180, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089716

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the protective role of irisin in attenuating nicotine-induced oxidative stress in vascular tissue in mice. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Foundation University, Islamabad, Pakistan, from January 2019 to June 2020. METHODOLOGY: Thirty healthy BALB/c mice were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 was control, group II received nicotine 2 mg/Kg body weight intraperitoneally for 28 days, and group III, in addition, received r-irisin 0.5 µg/g body weight /day via tail vein, for the last 14 days. The tissue anti-oxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GR) and lipid peroxidation marker (TBARS) were estimated. Aortic endothelium was analysed for atherosclerotic changes. The significant difference across groups was calculated using ANOVA. RESULTS: Group II showed statistically significant increase in lipid peroxidation marker (TBARS) levels (1059.04±32.31 ng/ml, p<0.001) and reduction in anti-oxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT and GR) levels (5479.24±25.38 pg/ml, 11.51±0.24 ng/ml and 1924.88±31.23 ng/ml, p<0.001) in aortic tissue homogenate as compared to group I. In Group III, with co- administration of r-irisin, significant improvement in antioxidant enzymes i.e. SOD, CAT, and GR levels (7958.70±110.54 pg/ml, 20.86±0.57 ng/ml, and 2897.18±52.93 ng/ml) and reduction in TBARS levels (239.14±19.90 ng/ml) was observed as compared to Group II (p<0.001). Endothelial damage manifested to type IV on histological examination. Co-administration of r-irisin in group III showed significant improvement in histological grading (only Type I and II lesions were seen). CONCLUSION: Exogenous administration of irisin improves anti-oxidant enzyme levels, ameliorates nicotine-induced oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction in the BALB/c mice. KEY WORDS: Irisin/FNDC-5, Oxidative stress, Anti-oxidant enzymes, Endothelial dysfunction, Atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Fibronectinas , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Aterosclerose/induzido quimicamente , Peso Corporal , Fibronectinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nicotina/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico
16.
Wiad Lek ; 75(8 pt 1): 1932-1937, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089882

RESUMO

A 17-year-old female patient was admitted to the psychoneurological department of Kyiv Clinical Railway Hospital No. 1, due to deterioration of her mental state, a significant decrease in body weight, and no effect of outpatient treatment. The complex treatment program, directed on the correction of all multidimensional disorders with the preliminary psychodiagnostics examination of the patient and her parents according to the FACES-III, DERS, which were monitored in dynamics during the 3,6,9 and 12 months of treatment, was applied. The patient's parents were additionally assessed by TAS, HADS, and the CQLS. We noted that the functioning of the family as a whole influenced the emotional regulation of each of its members; in turn, the emotional regulation of the parents had a direct influence on the patient's emotional regulation, and the patient's emotional regulation influenced changes body weight. The patient's personal psychotherapy and ABFT allowed us to decrease the gap in the attachment relationship between parents and patient and create a safe emotional base for reducing the stress of the relationship with parents at home, which was confirmed by positive dynamics of FACES-III, decrease in difficulties of emotional regulation on DERS and restoration of the patient's normal weight.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Regulação Emocional , Adolescente , Anorexia Nervosa/complicações , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Anorexia Nervosa/terapia , Peso Corporal , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Pais
17.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 153: 113505, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076512

RESUMO

1,8-Cineole, limonene and α-terpineol are the major terpenes present in Callistemon citrinus. This study reports for the first time that terpenes attenuate the oxidative stress in rats fed with high-fat-sucrose diet (HFSD) via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into six groups (n = 6). Control (fed standard food, HFSD (fed with 41.7% fat and 16.6% sucrose), HFSD + 1,8-cineole (0.88 mg/kg body weight), limonene (0.43 mg/kg body weight), α-terpineol (0.32 mg/kg body weight) and a mixture of the three terpenes, given daily by gavage for 15 weeks. Morphometric and biochemical parameters were taken. Paraoxonase (PON1), reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation products malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydroxyalkenals (HNE), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured in liver homogenates. All terpenes showed a remarkable reduction in weight gain, fat deposition, serum glucose and, triacylglycerol levels. However, terpenes presented different effects on the hepatic cell and the oxidative biomarkers. Conversely, the three terpenes and the mixture showed the same positive effect on the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6), leptin and adiponectin levels. Finally, 1,8-cineole, limonene and α-terpineol demonstrate significant anti-inflammatory effects and differential effects on the oxidative stress, suggesting the importance of these terpenes in Callistemon citrinus activities.


Assuntos
Myrtaceae , Terpenos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Peso Corporal , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Eucaliptol/metabolismo , Eucaliptol/farmacologia , Limoneno/metabolismo , Limoneno/farmacologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sacarose/metabolismo , Terpenos/farmacologia
18.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 38(3): 252-257, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36062795

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the effects of antiretrovirals on cardiovascular function and some biochemical indexes in gestational female rats. Methods: Nineteen 9-week-old female and six 10-week-old male SD rats were divided into normal control group (CON) and highly active antiretroviral therapy group (HARRT), 9/10 female rats and 3 male rats were combined into one cage, totally 2 cages. Female rats in CON group were intragastrically given with normal saline (NS, 10 ml/kg) every morning and evening, while female rats in HARRT group were treated with equal volume antiretrovirals (AZT 31.25 mg/kg + 3TC 15.63 mg/kg + LPV/r (41.67/10.42) mg/kg) for 3 months. The body weight and survival rate of female rats were recorded. Echocardiography and multichannel physiological recorder were used to detect arterial blood pressure and cardiac hemodynamic parameters. The levels of blood glucose, blood lipids, myocardial enzymes and liver enzymes were detected by corresponding kits. Myocardial collagen fibers were observed by Masson staining and the ultrastructure of myocardial cells were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Results: All female rats in CON group survived (9/9), while only 6 rats in HARRT group survived (6/10). Compared with CON group, the body weight of female rats in HAART group was decreased significantly(P<0.01); the levels of left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVDd), interventricular septal thickness (IVST), thickness of left ventricular posterior wall (LVPWT) , left atrial diameter (LAD) and arterial diastolic pressure were increased significantly (P<0.05); the level of LVP+dP/dtmax was decreased (P<0.01). The levels of triglyceride, creatine kinase, and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase were decreased (P<0.05 or P<0.01), while the level of glucose was increased (P<0.05). The collagen fibers were increased in myocardial tissue, and ultrastructure of myocardial cells was abnormal. Conclusion: Antiretrovirals during gestation can cause cardiovascular diseases in female rats.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais , Cardiotoxicidade , Miócitos Cardíacos , Animais , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Peso Corporal , Colágeno , Feminino , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/ultraestrutura , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
19.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 44(4): 555-562, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065686

RESUMO

Objective To explore the therapeutic effect of ethambutol tablets (EMB) on pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in rats and whether the action mechanism of EMB is related to Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway. Methods Sixty SD rats were assigned into a control group,a PTB group,a PTB+EMB group (30 mg/kg),and a PTB+EMB+Colivelin (JAK/STAT pathway activator) group (30 mg/kg+1 mg/kg) via the random number table method,with 15 rats in each group.The rats in other groups except the control group were injected with 0.2 ml of 5 mg/ml Mycobacterium tuberculosis suspension to establish the PTB model.After the modeling,the rats were administrated with corresponding drugs for 4 consecutive weeks (once a day).On days 1,14,and 28 of administration,the body weights of rats were measured and the Mycobacterium tuberculosis colonies were counted.Hematoxylin-eosin staining was carried out to detect the pathological changes in the lung tissue.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was employed to measure the levels of interleukin(IL)-6,tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α),IL-1ß,and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in the serum.Flow cytometry was used to determine the levels of T lymphocyte subsets CD3+,CD4+,CD8+,and CD4+/CD8+.The 16S rRNA sequencing was performed to detect the relative abundance of the intestinal microorganisms.Western blotting was employed to determine the expression of the proteins in the JAK/STAT pathway. Results Compared with the control group,the modeling of PTB reduced the rat body weight (on days 14 and 28),increased Mycobacterium tuberculosis colonies,caused severe pathological changes in the lung tissue,and elevated the levels of IL-6,TNF-α,and IL-1ß in serum and CD8+.Moreover,the modeling increased the relative abundance of Bacteroides,Peptococcus,Clostridium,Actinomyces,Lactobacillus,Verrucomicrobium,and Veillonella in the intestine,up-regulated the protein levels of phosphorylated JAK2 and phosphorylated STAT3 in the lung tissue,and lowered the levels of CD3+,CD4+,CD4+/CD8+,and IFN-γ levels (all P<0.001).Compared with the PTB group,PTB+EMB increased the rat body weight (on days 14 and 28),reduced Mycobacterium tuberculosis colonies,alleviated the pathological damage in lung tissue,lowered the levels of IL-6,TNF-α,and IL-1ß in serum and CD8+.Moreover,the treatment decreased the relative abundance of Bacteroides,Peptococcus,Clostridium,Actinomyces,Lactobacillus,Verrucomicrobium,Veillonella in the intestine,down-regulated the protein levels of phosphorylated JAK2 and phosphorylated STAT3 in the lung tissue,and elevated the levels of CD3+,CD4+,CD4+/CD8+,and IFN-γ (all P<0.001).Colivelin weakened the alleviation effect of EMB on PTB (all P<0.001). Conclusion EMB can inhibit the JAK/STAT signaling pathway to alleviate the PTB in rat.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Animais , Peso Corporal , Etambutol/farmacologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Janus Quinases/farmacologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Comprimidos/farmacologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
20.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(16): 5890-5901, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066164

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is a broadly used anaesthetic in total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) that might alter course of disease in patients who underwent oncology surgery. High inter-individual variability of the propofol dose needed for the same level of consciousness during surgical tumour removal is influenced by many factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective observational cohort study of prospectively collected patients data over 20 month's period. The main endpoint of the study was to compare propofol consumption needed for cancer and no cancer surgical interventions. The secondary endpoints were to find out whether there is a difference in recovery time between the two groups of patients and to reveal potential correlations between propofol consumption and age, duration of anaesthesia, body weight and Charlson co-morbidity index (CCI) in cancer and no cancer surgery. RESULTS: There were 103 patients with cancer (mean age 59.3 yr ± 10.7) and 109 patients operated due to other reasons (mean age 47.6 yr ± 17.52). Female sex predominated in both groups (70.9% in cancer and 67.9% in no cancer patients). They differed regarding CCI, 4.48 (±2.1) in cancer in contrast to 1.49 (±1.83) in no cancer patients, and anaesthesia time, 92.67 minutes ± 46.15 vs. 75.24 ± 37.28, respectively (p = 0.0012). Propofol induction dose did not differ significantly between the two groups (p = 0.193), while total propofol consumption was 85.86 mcg/kgBW/min (± 25.98) in cancer and 95.77 (± 31.48) in no cancer patients (p = 0.01). Propofol consumption negatively correlated with duration of anaesthesia and body weight in cancer group. However, in no cancer patients there was very strong negative association with age, duration of anaesthesia and CCI, and significant but weaker negative association with body weight. The time to awakening did not differ significantly between the groups (p = 0.219). CONCLUSIONS: Propofol dose differed in cancer comparing to no cancer patients under general anaesthesia. There was no need for dose adjustment regarding the age and sex in patients with cancer in contrast to no cancer surgery.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Propofol , Anestesia Geral , Anestesia Intravenosa/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Intravenosos , Peso Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/cirurgia
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