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Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 45(1): 88-94, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35000312


In the last decade, interventional pulmonology has developed rapidly, and gradually become a mature subspecialty in modern respiratory medicine, playing a more and more important role in the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory diseases. Especially in recent years, with the development of the related technology, various new technologies of interventional pulmonology came out and are gradually applied to chronic respiratory diseases which were mainly treated with drugs before, greatly expanding the application field of interventional pulmonology. Here, we reviewed the new progress and up-to-date research achievements of interventional pulmonology from 2020 to 2021.

Pneumologia , Broncoscopia , Pesquisa
Brain Nerve ; 74(1): 36-39, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34992169


The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by a new type of coronavirus, has increased the difficulty of studying abroad for basic research. However, the associated system has changed in response to the coronavirus disaster. In addition, a framework has been built to enable research to be conducted even under a new lifestyle. Although there are many differences betwee studying abroad currently and before the pandemic, you should not give up on your dreams; I encourage you to open the door and challenge yourself.

COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa , SARS-CoV-2
J Low Genit Tract Dis ; 26(1): 73-78, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34928256


OBJECTIVE: This series of articles, titled The Vaginal Microbiome, written on behalf of the International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease, aims to summarize the current findings and understanding of the vaginal bacterial microbiota, mainly regarding areas relevant to clinicians specializing in vulvovaginal disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A database search of PubMed was performed, using the search terms "vaginal microbiome" (VMB) with "research," "normal," "neonate," "puberty," "adolescent," "menopause," and "ethnicities," as well as "human microbiome project." Full article texts were reviewed. Reference lists were screened for additional articles. RESULTS: In the last 2 decades, many studies applying molecular techniques were performed, intending to characterize the vaginal microbiota. These studies advanced our understanding of how vaginal health is defined. The first article in this series focuses on the advancement of VMB research, technical definitions, the definition of "normal" VMB, and the dynamics of VMB throughout women's lives. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding how microorganisms inhabiting the vagina interact with each other and with the host is important for a more complete understanding of vaginal health. The clinical application of microbial community sequencing is in its beginning, and its interpretation regarding practical clinical aspects is yet to be determined.

Microbiota , Adolescente , Bactérias , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Menopausa , Pesquisa , Vagina
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(1): e1-e5, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784302


Children, although at lower risk of poor outcomes from COVID-19 relative to adults, still stand to benefit from therapeutic interventions. Understanding of COVID-19 clinical presentation and prognosis in children is essential to optimize therapeutic trials design. This perspective illustrates how to collectively accelerate pediatric COVID-19 therapeutic research and development, based on the experience of the Global Accelerator for Paediatric Formulations.

COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Pesquisa , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Formas de Dosagem , Composição de Medicamentos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Preparações Farmacêuticas , SARS-CoV-2
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26: e20210312, 2022. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1346053


RESUMO Objetivo analisar as interfaces e distinções histórico-conceituais acerca dos estudos documentais, enquanto método de pesquisa, na área da Enfermagem e da saúde. Método ensaio teórico de cunho reflexivo, elaborado com base na literatura nacional e internacional sobre o tema. Resultados apresenta uma teorização acerca da evolução conceitual dos documentos e as contribuições advindas da Escola de Annales, com ênfase na expansão documental, também referida como revolução. Fundamenta conceitos, organização, coleta e análise dos dados documentais e as relações com a pesquisa histórica aplicada à Enfermagem e, por conseguinte, à saúde. Aborda a produção do conhecimento como parte do desenvolvimento da educação e da pesquisa em Enfermagem, no Brasil. Conclusões e implicações para a prática a apropriação das fontes documentais e dos métodos no desenvolvimento da pesquisa, do ensino e da assistência à saúde aguçam a curiosidade e ampliam a capacidade de análise, de crítica e de autonomia de grupos de interesse e estudiosos, esperando-se, com isso, a ampliação do conhecimento relacionado à profissão.

RESUMEN Objetivo analizar las interfaces y distinciones histórico-conceptuales acerca de los estudios documentales cómo método de investigación en el campo de la Enfermería y la salud. Método ensayo teórico con carácter reflexivo basado en la literatura nacional e internacional sobre el tema. Resultados presenta una teorización sobre la evolución conceptual de los documentos y los aportes de la Escuela de los Annales con énfasis en la expansión documental. Apoya conceptos, organización, recolección y análisis de datos documentales y sus relaciones con la investigación histórica en Enfermería y, por consiguiente, en salud. Aborda la producción de conocimiento como parte de la evolución de la educación y la investigación en Enfermería en Brasil. Conclusiones e implicaciones para la práctica la apropiación de fuentes y métodos documentales en el desarrollo de la investigación, la docencia y la salud agudiza la curiosidad y amplía la capacidad de análisis, crítica y autonomía de grupos de interés y académicos.

ABSTRACT Objective to analyze the historical-conceptual interfaces and distinctions regarding documentary studies as a research method in the field of Nursing and health. Method theoretical essay with a reflective nature based on national and international literature on the subject. Results the study presents a theorization about the conceptual evolution of documents and the contributions of Annales School, with emphasis on document expansion, also referred to as revolution. It supports concepts, organization, collection and analysis of documentary data and its relationships with historical research applied to Nursing and, therefore, to health. It addresses the production of knowledge as part of the evolution of education and research in Nursing in Brazil. Conclusions and implications for practice the appropriation of documentary sources and methods in the development of research, teaching and health care sharpens curiosity and expands the capacity for analysis, criticism and autonomy of interest groups and scholars, being expected, with this, the expansion of knowledge related to the profession.

Humanos , Pesquisa/história , Registros , Inquéritos e Questionários , Enfermagem , Informação/história , Pesquisadores
J Glob Health ; 11: 04071, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34912548


Background: This research prioritization aimed to identify major research gaps in maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health (MNCAH) to help mitigate the direct and indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: We adapted the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative methodology. We defined scope, domains, themes and scoring criteria. We approached diverse global experts via email to submit their research ideas in MNCAH and MNCAH-related cross-cutting/health systems area. We curated the research ideas as research questions (RQs) and sent them to the consenting experts for scoring via the online link. For each RQ, the research priority score (RPS) was calculated as an average of individual criterion scores and ranked based on RPS in each area. Results: We identified top-ranked 10 RQs in each maternal, newborn, and child and adolescent health and 5 in the cross-cutting/health systems area. In maternal health, indirect effects on care, measures to improve care, health risks and outcomes, and preventing and managing SARS-CoV-2 infection/COVID-19 disease were priority RQs. In newborn health, clinical characterization and managing SARS-CoV-2 infection/COVID-19 disease, mode of transmission and interventions to prevent transmission were the focus. For child and adolescent health, top-ranked RQs were indirect effects on care, clinical status and outcomes, interventions to protect against SARS-CoV-2 infection/COVID-19 disease, and educational institute-related RQs. The cross-cutting RQs were the effects of the pandemic on availability, access, care-seeking and utilization of MNCAH services and potential solutions. Conclusions: We call on partners, including governments, non-governmental organizations, research institutes, and donors, to address this urgent research agenda.

COVID-19 , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pandemias , Pesquisa , SARS-CoV-2
Dis Aquat Organ ; 147: 141-148, 2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34913442


The increasing study of emerging wildlife pathogens and a lack of policy or legislation regulating their translocation and use has heightened concerns about laboratory escape, species spillover, and subsequent epizootics among animal populations. Responsible self-regulation by research laboratories, in conjunction with institutional-level safeguards, has an important role in mitigating pathogen transmission and spillover, as well as potential interspecies pathogenesis. A model system in disease ecology that highlights these concerns and related amelioration efforts is research focused on amphibian emerging infectious diseases. Whereas laboratory escape of amphibian pathogens has not been reported and may be rare compared with introduction events from trade or human globalization, the threat that novel disease outbreaks with mass mortality effects pose to wild populations warrants thorough biosecurity measures to ensure containment and prevent spillover. Here, we present a case study of the laboratory biosecurity concerns for the emerging amphibian fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans. We conclude that proactive biosecurity strategies are needed to integrate researcher and institutional oversight of aquatic wildlife pathogens generally, and we call for increased national and international policy and legislative enforcement. Furthermore, taking professional responsibility beyond current regulations is needed as development of legal guidance can be slow at national and international levels. We outline the need for annual laboratory risk assessments, comprehensive training for all laboratory personnel, and appropriate safeguards specific to pathogens under study. These strategies are critical for upholding the integrity and credibility of the scientific community and maintaining public support for research on wildlife diseases.

Quitridiomicetos , Micoses , Anfíbios , Animais , Micoses/prevenção & controle , Micoses/veterinária , Pesquisa
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(12): 1500-1506, 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34963251


Vaccination is the most effective measure to prevent influenza. However, due to the existence of antigen drift and/or antigen shift of influenza virus, the vaccine strains often do not match the epidemic strains, so that the protection provided by influenza vaccine is still limited. With the rapid development of new vaccine technology, a kind of influenza vaccine with extensive protection or universal has attracted great attention. It can effectively induce humoral and cellular immunity against the conserved epitopes of influenza virus, provide good protection against various types/subtypes of influenza virus, and has a rapid production platform, which is the ideal goal for the development of a new generation of universal influenza vaccine. This article reviews the latest research progress of influenza universal vaccine.

Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Humanos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa , Tecnologia
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(12): e009358, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34905956
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(22): 5987-5991, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34951190


Real world study(RWS) refers to the process of collecting real world data related to the health of research subjects in the real world environment for pre-set clinical problems and obtaining the status of drug use and potential benefits/risks through analysis. The data are derived from the hospital information system(HIS), medical insurance system, disease registration system, adverse drug reaction monitoring system, etc. Human use experience of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) is a new concept put forward by experts after summarizing the problems existing in clinical trials of new TCM drugs. The data come partially from the real world, and more importantly, such key elements as the formulated prescriptions of new TCM drugs, principles and methods, and clinical applications should be covered. RWS is mainly used for adverse drug reaction monitoring after marketing, benefit evaluation of listed drugs, decision-making of medical treatment and medical insurance, as well as supervision and approval of special medical devices and special drugs. It is complementary to randomized controlled clinical trials. Human use experience is suitable for the research and development of Chinese medicinal compound preparations and the expansion of functions and indications. There are no special provisions for clinical indications and target population. There exists a sequential relationship between the human use experience and clinical trials. Specifi-cally, the summarization of human use experience provides good support for the design and implementation of clinical trials, which is an important segment in the research and development of new TCM drugs. The correlation between real-world data and research results and their reliability should be ensured in RWS, and the unreality should be avoided. The key to summarizing the human use experience is to identify the clinical orientation, target population, course of treatment, usage and dosage of new TCM drugs, and it should be noted that human use experience does not only mean clinical experience. Experimental clinical trial(PCT), a type of study in the real world, has been commonly employed for the summary of human use experience. RWS and human use experience are different research designs targeting different clinical questions in the research and development of new TCM drugs, which can be flexibly selected depending on the actual situation.

Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Prescrições , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pesquisa
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261589, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34936690


Firm's effort on Green technology innovation (hereafter, called G-innovation) is affected by financing constraints, and firm will make a discretionary choice according to its own situation, to achieve the maximization of self-interests. Based on the data of Chinese micro enterprises, firstly, we empirically analyze firms' decision-making towards G-innovation when faced with financing constraints. It supports the view that financing constraints can hinder enterprise technological innovation. And we also make an explanation that the social benefits of green technology innovation are greater than personal benefits, which makes enterprises tend to reduce green technology innovation when facing financing constraints. Then we examine firms' heterogonous behaviors under different internal attributes and external environments. The results reveal that: First, firms are reluctant to pay more efforts to G-innovation when faced with increased financing constraints. Second, firms with different attributes exhibit heterogeneous G-innovation. Political connections will change firms' willingness to innovate, while the structure of property rights and the pollution degree will not. Third, firms under different external environment also exhibit heterogeneous G-innovation. When economic policy uncertainty increases, firms' willingness to innovate weakens. The development of shadow banks fail to improve firm's willingness to innovate.

Invenções , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Poluição Ambiental/economia , Invenções/economia , Pesquisa/economia , Tecnologia/economia
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(12): e0010064, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34928955


BACKGROUND: Among the many collaterals of the COVID-19 pandemic is the disruption of health services and vital clinical research. COVID-19 has magnified the challenges faced in research and threatens to slow research for urgently needed therapeutics for Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) and diseases affecting the most vulnerable populations. Here we explore the impact of the pandemic on a clinical trial for plague therapeutics and strategies that have been considered to ensure research efforts continue. METHODS: To understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the trial accrual rate, we documented changes in patterns of all-cause consultations that took place before and during the pandemic at health centres in two districts of the Amoron'I Mania region of Madagascar where the trial is underway. We also considered trends in plague reporting and other external factors that may have contributed to slow recruitment. RESULTS: During the pandemic, we found a 27% decrease in consultations at the referral hospital, compared to an 11% increase at peripheral health centres, as well as an overall drop during the months of lockdown. We also found a nation-wide trend towards reduced number of reported plague cases. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 outbreaks are unlikely to dissipate in the near future. Declining NTD case numbers recorded during the pandemic period should not be viewed in isolation or taken as a marker of things to come. It is vitally important that researchers are prepared for a rebound in cases and, most importantly, that research continues to avoid NTDs becoming even more neglected.

COVID-19 , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Doenças Negligenciadas/tratamento farmacológico , Peste/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Pesquisa , Medicina Tropical/tendências , Notificação de Doenças , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Humanos , Madagáscar/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Seleção de Pacientes , Peste/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/tendências
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 368(21-24)2021 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34922375