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1.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(D1): D1-D10, 2022 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986604

RESUMO

The 2022 Nucleic Acids Research Database Issue contains 185 papers, including 87 papers reporting on new databases and 85 updates from resources previously published in the Issue. Thirteen additional manuscripts provide updates on databases most recently published elsewhere. Seven new databases focus specifically on COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2, including SCoV2-MD, the first of the Issue's Breakthrough Articles. Major nucleic acid databases reporting updates include MODOMICS, JASPAR and miRTarBase. The AlphaFold Protein Structure Database, described in the second Breakthrough Article, is the stand-out in the protein section, where the Human Proteoform Atlas and GproteinDb are other notable new arrivals. Updates from DisProt, FuzDB and ELM comprehensively cover disordered proteins. Under the metabolism and signalling section Reactome, ConsensusPathDB, HMDB and CAZy are major returning resources. In microbial and viral genomes taxonomy and systematics are well covered by LPSN, TYGS and GTDB. Genomics resources include Ensembl, Ensembl Genomes and UCSC Genome Browser. Major returning pharmacology resource names include the IUPHAR/BPS guide and the Therapeutic Target Database. New plant databases include PlantGSAD for gene lists and qPTMplants for post-translational modifications. The entire Database Issue is freely available online on the Nucleic Acids Research website (https://academic.oup.com/nar). Our latest update to the NAR online Molecular Biology Database Collection brings the total number of entries to 1645. Following last year's major cleanup, we have updated 317 entries, listing 89 new resources and trimming 80 discontinued URLs. The current release is available at http://www.oxfordjournals.org/nar/database/c/.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Biologia Molecular , Animais , COVID-19 , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Genoma Microbiano , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Camundongos , Plantas/genética , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteoma , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Transdução de Sinais
2.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 18(1): 2, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Baiku Yao is a branch of the Yao nationality in China. The unique dying process of traditional clothing employed by these people has distinct national characteristics, a profound impact on the production and life of local people, and important research value. For this reason, it is important to investigate and document the dyeing plants and the traditional knowledge involved in the dyeing of Baku Yao traditional clothing. METHODOLOGY: Information on dyeing plants was obtained using the free-list method and interviews with 61 Baiku Yao informants in Guangxi and Guizhou from January 2020 to August 2021. Based on the free-list method, we evaluated and screened out important plants by calculating the cognitive salience value of each plant. RESULTS: The results showed that the people of Baiku Yao have accumulated rich traditional knowledge of dyeing plants and long-term dyeing and other processes. We collected 23 species and recorded the related traditional knowledge, such as the Baiku Yao name, life form, habitat, part(s) used, application type, usage, and area used. The utilization of dyeing plants has a strong relationship with ethnic culture. The Baiku Yao uses unique anti-dyeing material (Ailanthus vilmoriniana) in the cotton dyeing process, they call it "the mother tree". As well as, the results also showed that 15 plants (65.2%) have medicinal value and can be used to treat 18 aliments, and wild plants play a very important role in the life of the Baiku Yao. CONCLUSION: These plants not only meet the color needs of the Baiku Yao people but also have health care effects, aligning with the trends toward green dyeing and the health contentiousness of modern people. This study provides a reference for the inheritance and development of Baiku Yao traditional clothing dyeing culture, will aid the identification of new natural, safe and healthy textile dyes, and is of positive significance in promoting regional economic development, national cultural inheritance, and biodiversity protection.


Assuntos
Corantes , China , Etnobotânica , Humanos , Plantas
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(2): 429-445, 2022 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989570

RESUMO

Quorum sensing (QS) is a signaling mechanism for cell-to-cell communication between bacteria, fungi, and even eukaryotic hosts such as plant and animal cells. Bacteria in real life do not exist as isolated organisms but are found in complex, dynamic, and microecological environments. The study of interspecies QS and interkingdom QS is a valuable approach for exploring bacteria-bacteria interactions and bacteria-host interaction mechanisms and has received considerable attention from researchers. The correct combination of QS signals and receptors is key to initiating the QS process. Compared with intraspecies QS, the signal regulation mechanism of interspecies QS and interkingdom QS is often more complicated, and the distribution of receptors is relatively wide. The present review focuses on the latest progress with respect to the distribution, structure, and signal transduction of interspecies and interkingdom QS receptors and provides a guide for the investigation of new QS receptors in the future.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Percepção de Quorum , Bactérias/genética , Plantas , Transdução de Sinais
4.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 171: 115-127, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34992048

RESUMO

Plant non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are usually defined as small, basic proteins, with a wide distribution in all orders of higher plants. Structurally, nsLTPs contain a conserved motif of eight cysteines, linked by four disulphide bonds, and a hydrophobic cavity in which the ligand is housed. This structure confers stability and enhances the ability to bind and transport a variety of hydrophobic molecules. Their highly conserved structural resemblance but low sequence identity reflects the wide variety of ligands they can carry, as well as the broad biological functions to which they are linked to, such as membrane stabilization, cell wall organization and signal transduction. In addition, they have also been described as essential in resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, plant growth and development, seed development, and germination. Hence, there is growing interest in this family of proteins for their critical roles in plant development and for the many unresolved questions that need to be clarified, regarding their subcellular localization, transfer capacity, expression profile, biological function, and evolution.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas , Plantas , Antígenos de Plantas , Lipídeos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal
5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7, 2022 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013279

RESUMO

Cell polarity is a fundamental feature underlying cell morphogenesis and organismal development. In the Arabidopsis stomatal lineage, the polarity protein BASL controls stomatal asymmetric cell division. However, the cellular machinery by which this intrinsic polarity site is established remains unknown. Here, we identify the PRAF/RLD proteins as BASL physical partners and mutating four PRAF members leads to defects in BASL polarization. Members of PRAF proteins are polarized in stomatal lineage cells in a BASL-dependent manner. Developmental defects of the praf mutants phenocopy those of the gnom mutants. GNOM is an activator of the conserved Arf GTPases and plays important roles in membrane trafficking. We further find PRAF physically interacts with GNOM in vitro and in vivo. Thus, we propose that the positive feedback of BASL and PRAF at the plasma membrane and the connected function of PRAF and GNOM in endosomal trafficking establish intrinsic cell polarity in the Arabidopsis stomatal lineage.


Assuntos
Polaridade Celular/fisiologia , Células Vegetais/fisiologia , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Divisão Celular Assimétrica , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/metabolismo , Plantas
6.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(1): e20200665, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35043851

RESUMO

Ecological knowledge plays a significant role in ensuring efficient ecological restoration. We conducted a systematic review to assess if sufficient ecological knowledge has been accumulated to aid restoration practices for the Cerrado, a Brazilian biome dominated by savanna ecosystems and threatened by anthropogenic disturbances. Most Cerrado restoration studies were performed by few research groups and focused primarily on two vegetation types: cerrado sensu stricto (typical savanna) and riparian forest. We also found that defining reference ecosystems and selecting plant species for restoration programs is neglected, mostly disregarding their original occurrence and proportion of plant growth forms. Furthermore, studies lacked standardized and systematic evaluation of restoration outcomes. Hence, we argue that current ecological knowledge is insufficient to guarantee the success of large-scale ecological restoration of the Cerrado. We strengthen the need to explicitly define the reference ecosystem for each Cerrado ecosystem and use its structure and composition as guidance for ecological restoration research, which should be based on a scientific approach. We encourage investigations into ecological dynamics and natural regeneration of the different vegetation types of the Cerrado and highlight the importance of integrating such knowledge with environmental laws, societal engagement and cost-effective techniques to advance Cerrado ecological restoration.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Brasil , Florestas , Plantas
7.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 113: 281-290, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34963537

RESUMO

As the biggest inter-basin water transfer scheme in the world, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWD) was designed to alleviate the water crisis in North China. The main channel of the middle route of the SNWD is of great concern in terms of the drinking water quality. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the dissolved organic matter (DOM) derived from the planktonic algae causes the rising levels of CODMn along the middle route by monitoring data on water quality (2015-2019, monthly resolution). The results showed that algal density in the main channel increased along the channel and was significantly correlated with CODMn (p < 0.01). Five fluorescent components of DOM, including tyrosine-like (14.85%), tryptophan-like (22.48%), microbial byproduct-like (26.34%), fulvic acid-like (11.41%), and humic acid-like (24.92%) components, were detected. The level of tyrosine-like components increased along the channel and was significantly correlated with algal density (p<0.01), indicating that algae significantly changed the level of DOM in the channel. Algal decomposition and metabolism were found to be the main mechanisms that drive the changes in CODMn. Therefore, controlling algal density would be an important measure to prevent further increase in CODMn and for the guarantee of excellent water quality.


Assuntos
Qualidade da Água , China , Substâncias Húmicas , Plâncton , Plantas , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
8.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 131957, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450367

RESUMO

An increase in technological interventions and ruthless urbanization in the name of development has deteriorated our environment over time and caused the buildup of heavy metals (HMs) in the soil and water resources. These heavy metals are gaining increased access into our food chain through the plant and/or animal-based products, to adversely impact human health. The issue of how to restrict the entry of HMs or modulate their response in event of their ingress into the plant system is worrisome. The current knowledge on the interactive-regulatory role and contribution of different physical, biophysical, biochemical, physiological, and molecular factors that determine the heavy metal availability-uptake-partitioning dynamics in the soil-plant-environment needs to be updated. The present review critically analyses the interactive overlaps between different adaptation and tolerance strategies that may be causally related to their cellular localization, conjugation and homeostasis, a relative affinity for the transporters, rhizosphere modifications, activation of efflux pumps and vacuolar sequestration that singly or collectively determine a plant's response to HM stress. Recently postulated role of gaseous pollutants such as SO2 and other secondary metabolites in heavy metal tolerance, which may be regulated at the whole plant and/or tissue/cell is discussed to delineate and work towards a "not so heavy" response of plants to heavy metals present in the contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Plantas , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
9.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113860, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626947

RESUMO

Humans face threats from air pollutants present in both indoor and outdoor environments. The emerging role of plants in remediating the atmospheric environment is now being actively investigated as a possible solution for this problem. Foliar surfaces of plants (e.g., the leaves of cotton) can absorb a variety of airborne pollutants (e.g., formaldehyde, benzene, trimethylamine, and xylene), thereby reducing their concentrations in indoor environments. Recently, theoretical and experimental studies have been conducted to offer better insights into the interactions between plants and the surrounding air. In our research, an overview on the role of plants in reducing air pollution (often referred to as phytoremediation) is provided based on a comprehensive literature survey. The major issues for plant-based research for the reduction of air pollution in both outdoor and indoor environments are discussed in depth along with future challenges. Analysis of the existing data confirms the effectiveness of phytoremediation in terms of the absorption and purification of pollutants (e.g., by the leaves and roots of plants and trees), while being controlled by different variables (e.g., pore characteristics and planting patterns). Although most lab-scale studies have shown that plants can effectively absorb pollutants, it is important for such studies to reflect the real-world conditions, especially with the influence of human activities. Under such conditions, pollutants are to be replenished continually while the plant surface area to ambient atmosphere volume ratio vastly decreases (e.g., relative to lab-based experiments). The replication of such experimental conditions is the key challenge in this field of research. This review is expected to offer valuable insights into the innate ability of various plants in removing diverse pollutants (such as formaldehyde, benzene, and particulate matter) under different environmental settings.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Plantas
10.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 111963, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450157

RESUMO

The demand for the green synthesis of nanoparticles has gained prominence over the conventional chemical and physical syntheses, which often entails toxic chemicals, energy consumption and ultimately lead to negative environmental impact. In the green synthesis approach, naturally available bio-compounds found in plants and fungi can be effective and have been proven to be alternative reducing agents. Fungi or mushrooms are particularly interesting due to their high content of bioactive compounds, which can serve as excellent reducing agents in the synthesis of nanoparticles. Apart from the economic and environmental benefits, such as ease of availability, low synthesis/production cost, safe and no toxicity, the nanoparticles synthesized from this green method have unique physical and chemical properties. Stabilisation of the nanoparticles in an aqueous solution is exceedingly high, even after prolonged storage with unperturbed size uniformity. Biological properties were significantly improved with higher biocompatibility, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer properties. These remarkable properties allow further exploration in their applications both in the medical and agricultural fields. This review aims to explore the mushroom-mediated biosynthesis of nanomaterials, specifically the mechanism and bio-compounds involved in the synthesis and their interactions for the stabilisation of nanoparticles. Various metal and non-metal nanoparticles have been discussed along with their synthesis techniques and parameters, making them ideal for specific industrial, agricultural, and medical applications. Only recent developments have been explored in this review.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanoestruturas , Fungos , Química Verde , Plantas
11.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 112004, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Greenness exposure may lower blood pressure. However, few studies of this relationship have been conducted with children and adolescents, especially in low and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate associations between greenness around schools and blood pressure among children and adolescents across China. METHODS: We recruited 61,229 Chinese citizens aged 6-18 years from 94 schools in a nationwide cross-sectional study in seven Chinese provinces/province-level municipalities. Participants' blood pressures and hypertension were assessed with standardized protocols. Greenness levels within 500 m and 1,000 m of each school were estimated with three satellite-based indices: vegetation continuous fields (VCF), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI). Generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate associations between greenness and blood pressure, greenness and prevalent hypertension, using coefficient and odds ratio respectively. Stratified analyses and mediation analyses were also performed. RESULTS: One interquartile range increase in greenness was associated with a 17%-20% reduced prevalence of hypertension for all measures of greenness (odds ratios for VCF500m = 20% (95% CI:18%, 23%); for NDVI500m = 17% (95% CI:13%, 21%); and for SAVI500m = 17% (95% CI: 13%, 20%). Increases in greenness were also associated with reductions in systolic blood pressure (0.48-0.58 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (0.26-0.52 mmHg). Older participants, boys, and urban dwellers showed stronger associations than their counterparts. No evidence of mediation was observed for air pollution (i.e., NO2 and PM2.5) and body mass index. CONCLUSION: Higher greenness around schools may lower blood pressure levels and prevalent hypertension among Chinese children and adolescents, particularly in older subjects, boys, and those living in urban districts. Further studies, preferably longitudinal, are needed to examine causality.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Pressão Sanguínea , Meio Ambiente , Hipertensão , Plantas , Adolescente , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas
12.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2363: 235-262, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545497

RESUMO

Transcriptome analyses are widely performed, but the analysis of organelle genome expression is often overlooked. In this chapter, we describe three methods to analyse the accumulation, splicing, editing and processing of plant mitochondrial transcript expression: a classical RT-qPCR assay, an RNA-Seq approach with its bioinformatical and statistical analysis pipeline, as well as a useful complementary technique, the Northern-blot analysis, using short biotinylated oligonucleotides as probes.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Transcriptoma , Plantas/genética , Splicing de RNA , RNA-Seq , Análise de Sequência de RNA
13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2363: 335-340, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545502

RESUMO

Modification of plant mitochondrial genomes is still a difficult task, especially in multicellular plants. Transcription activator-like effector nucleases with a mitochondrial localization signal (mitoTALENs) can cut out a desired sequence from the mitochondrial genome in plants. Although vector construction of mitoTALENs is complicated, the modification efficiency is high enough to achieve homoplasmy of multicopy mitochondrial genomes. Here I describe how to design mitoTALENs to select a target, construct a vector, and select the mitochondrial transformants.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Plantas/genética , Nucleases dos Efetores Semelhantes a Ativadores de Transcrição/genética
14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2368: 43-51, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647246

RESUMO

Tropisms are among the most important growth responses for plant adaptation to the surrounding environment. One of the most common tropisms is root gravitropism. Root gravitropism enables the plant to anchor securely to the soil enabling the absorption of water and nutrients. Most of the knowledge related to the plant gravitropism has been acquired from the flowering plants, due to limited research in non-seed plants. Limited research on non-seed plants is due in large part to the lack of standard research methods. Here, we describe the experimental methods to evaluate gravitropism in representative non-seed plant species, including the non-vascular plant moss Physcomitrium patens, the early diverging extant vascular plant lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii and fern Ceratopteris richardii. In addition, we introduce the methods used for statistical analysis of the root gravitropism in non-seed plant species.


Assuntos
Gravitropismo , Bryopsida , Plantas , Pteridaceae
15.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2368: 81-94, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647250

RESUMO

Despite mechanical stimulation having profound effects on plant growth and development and modulating responses to many other stimuli, including to gravity, much of the molecular machinery triggering plant mechanical responses remains unknown. This gap in our knowledge arises in part from difficulties in applying reproducible, long-term touch stimulation to plants. We describe the design and implementation of the Automated Botanical Contact Device (ABCD) that applies intermittent, controlled, and highly reproducible mechanical stimulation by drawing a plastic sheet across experimental plants. The device uses a computer numerical control platform and continuously monitors plant growth and development using automated computer vision and image analysis. The system is designed around an open-source architecture to help promote the generation of comparable datasets between laboratories. The ABCD also offers a scalable system that could be deployed in the controlled environment setting, such as a greenhouse, to manipulate plant growth and development through controlled, repetitive mechanostimulation.


Assuntos
Plantas , Tato , Gravitação , Desenvolvimento Vegetal
16.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2368: 1-41, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647245

RESUMO

Gravitropism, the growth of roots and shoots toward or away from the direction of gravity, has been studied for centuries. Such studies have not only led to a better understanding of the gravitropic process itself, but also paved new paths leading to deeper mechanistic insights into a wide range of research areas. These include hormone biology, cell signal transduction, regulation of gene expression, plant evolution, and plant interactions with a variety of environmental stimuli. In addition to contributions to basic knowledge about how plants function, there is accumulating evidence that gravitropism confers adaptive advantages to crops, particularly under marginal agricultural soils. Therefore, gravitropism is emerging as a breeding target for enhancing agricultural productivity. Moreover, research on gravitropism has spawned several studies on plant growth in microgravity that have enabled researchers to uncouple the effects of gravity from other tropisms. Although rapid progress on understanding gravitropism witnessed during the past decade continues to be driven by traditional molecular, physiological, and cell biological tools, these tools have been enriched by technological innovations in next-generation omics platforms and microgravity analog facilities. In this chapter, we review the field of gravitropism by highlighting recent landmark studies that have provided unique insights into this classic research topic while also discussing potential contributions to agriculture on Earth and beyond.


Assuntos
Gravitropismo , Plantas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Plantas/genética , Ausência de Peso
17.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2368: 117-131, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647253

RESUMO

Quantitative measurements of plant gravitropic response are challenging. Differences in growth rates between species and environmental conditions make it difficult to compare the intrinsic gravitropic responses of different plants. In addition, the bending movement associated with gravitropism is competing with the tendency of plants to grow straight, through a mechanism called proprioception (ability to sense its own shape). Disentangling these two tendencies is not trivial. Here, we use a combination of modeling, experiment and image analysis to estimate the intrinsic gravitropic and proprioceptive sensitivities of stems, using Arabidopsis as an example.


Assuntos
Gravitropismo , Arabidopsis , Plantas , Madeira
18.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2368: 133-151, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647254

RESUMO

The history of research on gravitropism has been largely confined to the primary root-shoot axis and to understanding how the typically vertical orientation observed there is maintained. Many lateral organs are gravitropic too and are often held at specific non-vertical angles relative to gravity. These so-called gravitropic setpoint angles (GSAs) are intriguing because their maintenance requires that root and shoot lateral organs are able to effect tropic growth both with and against the gravity vector. This chapter describes methods and considerations relevant to the investigation of mechanisms underlying GSA control.


Assuntos
Gravitropismo , Arabidopsis , Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Gravitação , Raízes de Plantas , Plantas
19.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2368: 165-198, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647256

RESUMO

The growth and development of plants during spaceflight have important implications for both basic and applied research supported by NASA and other international space agencies. While there have been many reviews of plant space biology, this chapter attempts to fill a gap in the literature on the actual process and methods of performing plant research in the spaceflight environment. One of the authors (JZK) has been a principal investigator on eight spaceflight projects. These experiences include using the U.S. Space Shuttle, the former Russian Space Station Mir, and the International Space Station, utilizing the Space Shuttle and Space X as launch vehicles. While there are several ways to fly an experiment into space and to obtain a spaceflight opportunity, this review focuses on using the NASA peer-reviewed sciences approach to get an experiment manifested for flight. Three narratives for the implementation of plant space biology experiments are considered from rapid turn around of a few months to a project with new hardware development that lasted 6 years. The many challenges of spaceflight research include logistical and resource constraints such as crew time, power, cold stowage, data downlinks, among others. Additional issues considered are working at NASA centers, hardware development, safety concerns, and the engineering versus science culture in space agencies. The difficulties of publishing the results from spaceflight research based on such factors as the lack of controls, limited sample size, and the indirect effects of the spaceflight environment also are summarized. Lessons learned from these spaceflight experiences are discussed in the context of improvements for future space-based research projects with plants. We also will consider new opportunities for Moon-based research via NASA's Artemis lunar exploration program.


Assuntos
Lua , Plantas , Voo Espacial , Agências Internacionais
20.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2368: 267-279, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647261

RESUMO

To understand gravity resistance in plants, it is necessary to analyze the changes induced when the magnitude of gravity in a growth environment is modified. Microgravity in space provides appropriate conditions for analyzing gravity resistance mechanisms. Experiments carried out in space involve a large number of constraints and are quite different from ground-based experiments. Here, we describe basic procedures for space-based experiments to study gravity resistance in plants. An appropriate cultivation chamber must be selected according to the growing period of the plants and the purpose of the experiment. After cultivation, the plant material is fixed with suitable fixatives in appropriate sample storage containers such as the Chemical Fixation Bag. The material is then analyzed with a variety of methods, depending on the purpose of the experiment. Plant material fixed with the RNAlater® solution can be used sequentially to determine the mechanical properties of the cell wall, RNA extraction (which is necessary for gene-expression analysis), estimate the enzyme activity of cell wall proteins, and measure the levels and compositions of cell wall polysaccharides. The plant material can also be used directly for microscopic observation of cellular components such as cortical microtubules.


Assuntos
Hipergravidade , Plantas , Ausência de Peso , Parede Celular , Microtúbulos , Voo Espacial
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