Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.111
Filtrar
1.
Biol Lett ; 20(7): 20240106, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38955226

RESUMO

Feather moulting is a crucial process in the avian life cycle, which evolved to maintain plumage functionality. However, moulting involves both energetic and functional costs. During moulting, plumage function temporarily decreases between the shedding of old feathers and the full growth of new ones. In flying taxa, a gradual and sequential replacement of flight feathers evolved to maintain aerodynamic capabilities during the moulting period. Little is known about the moult strategies of non-avian pennaraptoran dinosaurs and stem birds, before the emergence of crown lineage. Here, we report on two Early Cretaceous pygostylian birds from the Yixian Formation (125 mya), probably referable to Confuciusornithiformes, exhibiting morphological characteristics that suggest a gradual and sequential moult of wing flight feathers. Short primary feathers interpreted as immature are symmetrically present on both wings, as is typical among extant flying birds. Our survey of the enormous collection of the Tianyu Museum confirms previous findings that evidence of active moult in non-neornithine pennaraptorans is rare and likely indicates a moult cycle greater than one year. Documenting moult in Mesozoic feathered dinosaurs is critical for understanding their ecology, locomotor ability and the evolution of this important life-history process in birds.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Aves , Plumas , Fósseis , Muda , Animais , Plumas/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Aves/fisiologia , Aves/anatomia & histologia , Muda/fisiologia , Dinossauros/anatomia & histologia , Dinossauros/fisiologia , Voo Animal , China , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia
2.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1537(1): 74-81, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38963660

RESUMO

This study explores the impact of feathers on the hydrodynamic drag experienced by diving birds, which is critical to their foraging efficiency and survival. Employing a novel experimental approach, we analyzed the kinematics of both feathered and nonfeathered projectiles during their transition from air to water using high-speed imaging and an onboard accelerometer. The drag coefficients were determined through two methods: a direct calculation from the acceleration data and a theoretical approach fitted to the observed velocity profiles. Our results indicate that feathers significantly increase the drag force during water entry, with feathered projectiles exhibiting approximately double the drag coefficient of their smooth counterparts. These findings provide new insights into the role of avian feather morphology in diving mechanics and have potential implications for the design of bioinspired aquatic vehicles in engineering. The study also discusses the biological implications of increased drag due to feathers and suggests that factors such as body shape might play a more critical role in the diving capabilities of birds than previously understood.


Assuntos
Aves , Mergulho , Plumas , Hidrodinâmica , Plumas/fisiologia , Plumas/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Mergulho/fisiologia , Aves/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos
3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 16(28): 36840-36850, 2024 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38954505

RESUMO

White Roman goose (Anser anser domesticus) feathers, comprised of oriented conical barbules, are coated with gland-secreted preening oils to maintain a long-term nonwetting performance for surface swimming. The geese are accustomed to combing their plumages with flat bills in case they are contaminated with oleophilic substances, during which the amphiphilic saliva spread over the barbules greatly impairs their surface hydrophobicities and allows the trapped contaminants to be anisotropically self-cleaned by water flows. Particularly, the superhydrophobic behaviors of the goose feathers are recovered as well. Bioinspired by the switchable anisotropic self-cleaning functionality of white Roman geese, superhydrophobic unidirectionally inclined conical structures are engineered through the integration of a scalable colloidal self-assembly technology and a colloidal lithographic approach. The dependence of directional sliding properties on the shape, inclination angle, and size of conical structures is systematically investigated in this research. Moreover, their switchable anisotropic self-cleaning functionalities are demonstrated by Sudan blue II/water (0.01%) separation performances. The white Roman goose feather-inspired coatings undoubtedly offer a new concept for developing innovative applications that require directional transportation and the collection of liquids.


Assuntos
Plumas , Gansos , Animais , Plumas/química , Anisotropia , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Propriedades de Superfície , Coloides/química
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 945: 173801, 2024 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38857802

RESUMO

Compared to other organic contaminants, birds are rarely studied for their exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mainly due to their effective metabolization of parent PAHs. However, as some studies suggest, exposure to PAHs may result in adverse health effects including decreased survival, especially following oil spills. In the present study, we analyzed samples from a sea duck, the common eider Somateria mollissima including feathers, preen oil, blood, liver and bile, to evaluate whether non- lethally collected samples could be reliably used for avian biomonitoring strategies. Phenanthrene was the only individual PAH detected across sample types, with the highest concentration found in preen gland and the lowest in blood. Significant differences in concentrations were observed between bile vs preen gland and liver vs preen gland, while for most compounds neither blood nor feathers showed detectable levels of parent PAHs. Therefore, the utility of those sample types for PAH exposure assessment may be limited and should be interpreted with caution, moreover as several physiological factors may affect them. Additionally, we also provide a comparison with the available literature to review current avian PAH exposure assessment and outline future research focused needs.


Assuntos
Patos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Animais , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Plumas/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Biológico , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 945: 173815, 2024 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38857804

RESUMO

The presence of plastic debris and organo-brominated compounds in the marine environment poses a concern to wildlife. Plastic can absorb and release chemical compounds, making their ingestion potentially harmful, while chemical compounds have become omnipresent, with a tendency to bioaccumulate in the food web. Seabirds are often used as indicators of marine plastic pollution, yet studies on the exposure of tropical communities to plastic contamination are still scarce. In this study we monitored the amounts of plastics in faeces and organo-brominated compounds ingested/assimilated in feathers by adults and chicks of Cape Verde shearwaters and Bulwer's petrels from Cabo Verde. Anthropogenic pollutants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and naturally generated methoxylated-PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs) were among the probed compounds. The frequency of plastic debris ingestion was similar in both species' adults and chicks, although, the characteristics of the ingested plastic differed. Frequency and number of microplastics increased throughout the nestling season for chicks from both species. All species and age groups showed the presence of PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs. Among PBDEs, Bulwer's petrels exhibited higher concentrations than Cape Verde shearwaters, and chicks had higher concentration profiles than adults. Specifically, Bulwer's petrel chicks showed higher concentrations than Cape Verde shearwater chicks. On the contrary, Cape Verde shearwater adults exhibited higher occurrence and concentrations of MeO-PBDEs when compared to Cape Verde shearwater chicks. We found no effect of plastic loadings or loadings of organohalogen contaminants on body condition or size, although harmful effects may be hidden or reveal themselves in a medium- to long-term. Feather samples from both adults and chicks were shown to be useful for comparing intraspecific contamination levels and appear suitable for the long-term assessment of organohalogen contaminants in seabirds. Species-specific foraging and feeding strategies are likely the drivers of the observed variation in organochlorine contamination burdens among seabird species.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Plásticos/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Aves/metabolismo , Plumas/química , Masculino , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Molecules ; 29(12)2024 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38930826

RESUMO

Psittacofulvins are polyenal dyes responsible for coloring parrot feathers and protecting them against photo-oxidation, harmful radicals, and bacterial degradation. To explain the unusual properties of these compounds, the thermodynamic and global chemical activity descriptors characterizing four natural and three synthetic psittacofulvins, as well as their hydroxyl, carboxyl and dialdehyde derivatives, were determined. To this aim, the DFT method at the B3LYP/QZVP theory level and the C-PCM solvation model were used. The calculations enabled the selection of the projected compounds for the greatest bioactivity and potential applicability as multifunctional ingredients in medicines, cosmetics, supplements, and food, in which they may play a triple role as preservative, radical scavenger, and coloring agent. The results obtained provide arguments for the identification of a fifth psittacofulvin within the parrot feather pigment, characterized by ten conjugated double bonds (docosadecaenal).


Assuntos
Corantes , Animais , Corantes/química , Plumas/química , Termodinâmica , Papagaios , Estrutura Molecular , Modelos Moleculares
8.
J Exp Biol ; 227(11)2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38826104

RESUMO

Once a year, penguins undergo a catastrophic moult, replacing their entire plumage during a fasting period on land or on sea-ice during which time individuals can lose 45% of their body mass. In penguins, new feather synthesis precedes the loss of old feathers, leading to an accumulation of two feather layers (double coat) before the old plumage is shed. We hypothesized that the combination of the high metabolism required for new feather synthesis and the potentially high thermal insulation linked to the double coat could lead to a thermal challenge requiring additional peripheral circulation to thermal windows to dissipate the extra heat. To test this hypothesis, we measured the surface temperature of different body regions of captive gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) throughout the moult under constant environmental conditions. The surface temperature of the main body trunk decreased during the initial stages of the moult, suggesting greater thermal insulation. In contrast, the periorbital region, a potential proxy of core temperature in birds, increased during these same early moulting stages. The surface temperature of the bill, flipper and foot (thermal windows) tended to initially increase during the moult, highlighting the likely need for extra heat dissipation in moulting penguins. These results raise questions regarding the thermoregulatory capacities of penguins in the wild during the challenging period of moulting on land in the current context of global warming.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal , Plumas , Muda , Spheniscidae , Animais , Spheniscidae/fisiologia , Muda/fisiologia , Plumas/fisiologia , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino
9.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304495, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38875228

RESUMO

Discerning assimilated diets of wild animals using stable isotopes is well established where potential dietary items in food webs are isotopically distinct. With the advent of mixing models, and Bayesian extensions of such models (Bayesian Stable Isotope Mixing Models, BSIMMs), statistical techniques available for these efforts have been rapidly increasing. The accuracy with which BSIMMs quantify diet, however, depends on several factors including uncertainty in tissue discrimination factors (TDFs; Δ) and identification of appropriate error structures. Whereas performance of BSIMMs has mostly been evaluated with simulations, here we test the efficacy of BSIMMs by raising domestic broiler chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) on four isotopically distinct diets under controlled environmental conditions, ideal for evaluating factors that affect TDFs and testing how BSIMMs allocate individual birds to diets that vary in isotopic similarity. For both liver and feather tissues, δ13C and δ 15N values differed among dietary groups. Δ13C of liver, but not feather, was negatively related to the rate at which individuals gained body mass. For Δ15N, we identified effects of dietary group, sex, and tissue type, as well as an interaction between sex and tissue type, with females having higher liver Δ15N relative to males. For both tissues, BSIMMs allocated most chicks to correct dietary groups, especially for models using combined TDFs rather than diet-specific TDFs, and those applying a multiplicative error structure. These findings provide new information on how biological processes affect TDFs and confirm that adequately accounting for variability in consumer isotopes is necessary to optimize performance of BSIMMs. Moreover, results demonstrate experimentally that these models reliably characterize consumed diets when appropriately parameterized.


Assuntos
Teorema de Bayes , Isótopos de Carbono , Galinhas , Isótopos de Nitrogênio , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Masculino , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Fígado/metabolismo , Plumas/química , Plumas/metabolismo , Cadeia Alimentar , Modelos Biológicos
10.
J Hazard Mater ; 475: 134927, 2024 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38885586

RESUMO

Herein, we investigated the trophic transfer of mercury (Hg) through food chains in different habitats (namely aquatic, riparian, and terrestrial) through bulk stable isotope analysis of nitrogen (δ15Nbulk) and compound-specific isotope analysis of nitrogen in amino acids (δ15NAA) using bird feathers and their potential food sources from a Hg-contaminated site in southwest China. Results showed similar δ15Nphe for water birds (4.7 ± 2.6 ‰) and aquatic food sources (5.2 ± 2.1 ‰) and for land-based food sources (10.1 ± 0.4 ‰) and terrestrial birds (11.6 ± 3.0 ‰), verifying δ15Nphe as a potential discriminant indicator for different food sources. The trophic positions (TPs) of most organisms based on δ15Nbulk (TPbulk) tended to overestimate compared with those based on δ15NAA (TPAA), especially for predators (such as kingfisher: ΔTP = 1.3). Additionally, significant differences were observed in the aquatic, riparian, and terrestrial food webs between trophic magnification slope (TMS)bulk and TMSAA (p < 0.05). The trophic magnification factor (TMF)AA-multiple based on multiple-AAs in three food webs were higher than the TMFAA and TMFbulk, probably because of the greater variation of δ15Nbaseline, complex food sources or the notably different in individual organisms. Altogether, our results improve the understanding of Hg trophic transfer in aquatic, riparian, and terrestrial food webs.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Aves , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plumas , Cadeia Alimentar , Mercúrio , Isótopos de Nitrogênio , Animais , Mercúrio/análise , Aminoácidos/química , Aminoácidos/análise , Plumas/química , Ecossistema , China , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
J Exp Biol ; 227(13)2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38856174

RESUMO

Organisms regularly adjust their physiology and energy balance in response to predictable seasonal environmental changes. Stressors and contaminants have the potential to disrupt these critical seasonal transitions. No studies have investigated how simultaneous exposure to the ubiquitous toxin methylmercury (MeHg) and food stress affects birds' physiological performance across seasons. We quantified several aspects of energetic performance in song sparrows, Melospiza melodia, exposed or not to unpredictable food stress and MeHg in a 2×2 experimental design, over 3 months during the breeding season, followed by 3 months post-exposure. Birds exposed to food stress had reduced basal metabolic rate and non-significant higher factorial metabolic scope during the exposure period, and had a greater increase in lean mass throughout most of the experimental period. Birds exposed to MeHg had increased molt duration, and increased mass:length ratio of some of their primary feathers. Birds exposed to the combined food stress and MeHg treatment often had responses similar to the stress-only or MeHg-only exposure groups, suggesting these treatments affected physiological performance through different mechanisms and resulted in compensatory or independent effects. Because the MeHg and stress variables were selected in candidate models with a ΔAICc lower than 2 but the 95% confidence interval of these variables overlapped zero, we found weak support for MeHg effects on all measures except basal metabolic rate, and for food stress effects on maximum metabolic rate, factorial metabolic scope and feather mass:length ratio. This suggests that MeHg and food stress effects on these measures are statistically identified but not simple and/or were too weak to be detected via linear regression. Overall, combined exposure to ecologically relevant MeHg and unpredictable food stress during the breeding season does not appear to induce extra energetic costs for songbirds in the post-exposure period. However, MeHg effects on molt duration could carry over across multiple annual cycle stages.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Plumas , Compostos de Metilmercúrio , Muda , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Plumas/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Muda/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Pardais/fisiologia , Metabolismo Basal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Feminino
14.
Curr Microbiol ; 81(8): 227, 2024 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38879855

RESUMO

Microbial degradation of keratin is characterized by its inherent safety, remarkable efficiency, and the production of copious degradation products. All these attributes contribute to the effective management of waste materials at high value-added and in a sustainable manner. Microbial degradation of keratin materials remains unclear, however, with variations observed in the degradation genes and pathways among different microorganisms. In this study, we sequenced the transcriptome of Purpureocillium lilacinum GZAC18-2JMP mycelia on control medium and the medium containing 1% feather powder, analyzed the differentially expressed genes, and revealed the degradation mechanism of chicken feathers by P. lilacinum GZAC18-2JMP. The results showed that the chicken feather degradation rate of P. lilacinum GZAC18-2JMP reached 64% after 216 h of incubation in the fermentation medium, reaching a peak value of 148.9 µg·mL-1 at 192 h, and the keratinase enzyme activity reached a peak value of 211 U·mL-1 at 168 h, which revealed that P. lilacinum GZAC18-2JMP had a better keratin degradation effect. A total of 1001 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from the transcriptome database, including 475 upregulated genes and 577 downregulated genes. Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis of the DEGs revealed that the metabolic pathways related to keratin degradation were mainly sulfur metabolism, ABC transporters, and amino acid metabolism. Therefore, the results of this study provide an opportunity to gain further insight into keratin degradation and promote the biotransformation of feather wastes.


Assuntos
Plumas , Hypocreales , Queratinas , Transcriptoma , Queratinas/metabolismo , Hypocreales/genética , Hypocreales/metabolismo , Animais , Plumas/metabolismo , Galinhas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Micélio/genética , Micélio/metabolismo , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fermentação , Biodegradação Ambiental
15.
Res Vet Sci ; 176: 105340, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38924930

RESUMO

This research delves into the impact of substitution of 7% of poultry meal (PM) with hydrolyzed feather meal (HFM) on the animal performance and fecal microbiota of dogs. The study was conducted on six adult female English setter dogs, split into control (CTR), and treated (TRT) dietary treatment groups, with similarity for age, initial body weight, and body condition score. During 45-days, body weight, body condition score, muscle condition score, fecal consistency score and microbiota were monitored at the beginning of the trial and after 3, 7, 15 and 45 days. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed for these parameters over the whole period of the trial, neither in relation to diet, nor to time, nor to the interaction diet x time. Significant differences were observed for alpha between diets and the TRT group displayed higher evenness compared to the CTR group. Beta diversity analysis revealed distinctions in microbiota composition between the CTR and TRT groups, with the former demonstrating higher biodiversity. Discriminant analysis highlighted 9 significant taxa and 6 of them were significantly different at the Kruskal Wallis test between diets. The results showed an increase in relative abundance (RA) for the CTR group of Streptococcus, Colinsella stercoris, Ruminococcus gnavus, and Bacteroides coprophilus. Conversely, higher RA was observed in the TRT group for Peptostreptococcaceae and Bacteroides uniformis. These findings indicated that the inclusion of hydrolyzed feather meal in the diet of dogs is well accepted and do not have adverse effects in the parameters analyzed.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Dieta , Plumas , Fezes , Animais , Cães/microbiologia , Feminino , Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
J Hazard Mater ; 474: 134810, 2024 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38850936

RESUMO

Feathers are regarded as important nondestructive biomonitoring tools for bird pollutants. However, external contamination of feathers by different pollutants in different bird species remains unclear. In the present study, the feathers of 16 bird species, including terrestrial, freshwater, and marine birds, were analyzed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Bird feathers from an abandoned e-waste recycling site had higher POP concentrations and were more correlated with the POP muscle concentrations than those from the less polluted areas. The significant and positive POP correlations between the feathers and muscles of different species indicate that feathers are a good indicator of inter-species and spatial pollution. For individual species, the most hydrophobic POPs in feathers, such as hepta- to deca-polybrominated diphenyl ethers, had higher proportions than in muscles and worse correlations with muscle POPs compared with other POPs. Results of the chemical mass balance (CMB) model revealed that the gaseous phase, internal pollution, and atmospheric particle phase were the main contributors to low-, medium-, and high-hydrophobicity POPs in feathers, respectively. Overall, this study provides a preliminary but meaningful framework for distinguishing between internal and external contamination in feathers and gives information concerning the fitness of feathers as POP indicators with specific physicochemical properties.


Assuntos
Aves , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plumas , Poluentes Orgânicos Persistentes , Animais , Plumas/química , Especificidade da Espécie , Músculos/química , Resíduo Eletrônico/análise
17.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4174, 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755126

RESUMO

The transition from natal downs for heat conservation to juvenile feathers for simple flight is a remarkable environmental adaptation process in avian evolution. However, the underlying epigenetic mechanism for this primary feather transition is mostly unknown. Here we conducted time-ordered gene co-expression network construction, epigenetic analysis, and functional perturbations in developing feather follicles to elucidate four downy-juvenile feather transition events. We report that extracellular matrix reorganization leads to peripheral pulp formation, which mediates epithelial-mesenchymal interactions for branching morphogenesis. α-SMA (ACTA2) compartmentalizes dermal papilla stem cells for feather renewal cycling. LEF1 works as a key hub of Wnt signaling to build rachis and converts radial downy to bilateral symmetry. Novel usage of scale keratins strengthens feather sheath with SOX14 as the epigenetic regulator. We show that this primary feather transition is largely conserved in chicken (precocial) and zebra finch (altricial) and discuss the possibility that this evolutionary adaptation process started in feathered dinosaurs.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Plumas , Tentilhões , Animais , Plumas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plumas/metabolismo , Galinhas/genética , Tentilhões/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Queratinas/metabolismo , Queratinas/genética , Evolução Biológica , Morfogênese/genética
18.
Curr Microbiol ; 81(7): 179, 2024 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38761211

RESUMO

Enormous aggregates of keratinous wastes are produced annually by the poultry and leather industries which cause environmental degradation globally. To combat this issue, microbially synthesized extracellular proteases known as keratinase are used widely which is effective in degrading keratin found in hair and feathers. In the present work, keratinolytic bacteria were isolated from poultry farm soil and feather waste, and various cultural conditions were optimized to provide the highest enzyme production for efficient keratin waste degradation. Based on the primary and secondary screening methods, the potent keratinolytic strain (HFS_F2T) with the highest enzyme activity 32.65 ± 0.16 U/mL was genotypically characterized by 16S rRNA sequencing and was confirmed as Bacillus velezensis HFS_F2T ON556508. Through one-variable-at-a-time approach (OVAT), the keratinase production medium was optimized with sucrose (carbon source), beef extract (nitrogen source) pH-7, inoculum size (5%), and incubation at 37 °C). The degree of degradation (%DD) of keratin wastes was evaluated after 35 days of degradation in the optimized keratinase production medium devoid of feather meal under submerged fermentation conditions. Further, the deteriorated keratin wastes were visually examined and the hydrolysed bovine hair with 77.32 ± 0.32% degradation was morphologically analysed through Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) to confirm the structural disintegration of the cuticle. Therefore, the current study would be a convincing strategy for reducing the detrimental impact of pollutants from the poultry and leather industries by efficient keratin waste degradation through the production of microbial keratinase.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Biodegradação Ambiental , Meios de Cultura , Plumas , Queratinas , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Bacillus/metabolismo , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/enzimologia , Queratinas/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Animais , Plumas/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura/química , Aves Domésticas , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Bovinos , Microbiologia do Solo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Fermentação , Cabelo
19.
Poult Sci ; 103(7): 103794, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718539

RESUMO

Avian feather color is a fascinating trait, and the genetic mechanism of duck plumage formation is still in the preliminary stage. In this study, feather color of Liancheng White ducks was analyzed by determination of melanin content and RNA-seq analysis. In this research, 9 ducks from Mallards (n = 3), Liancheng White (n = 3) and Pekin ducks (n = 3) were used by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Masson-Fontana staining to reveal the difference of feather melanin content. RNA-seq from 11 hair follicle tissues (1- and 8-wk-old) of Liancheng White ducks (n = 5) and Pekin ducks (n = 7) was used to analyze the candidate genes for the feather melanin synthesis, and Immunofluorescence experiment was used to show the protein expression in 6 black- and white-feathered ducks. Pectorale, skin, liver, fat, brain, heart, kidney, lung, spleen of an 8-wk-old black-feathered Mallard were collected for candidate gene expression. The results showed that the contents of feathers, beak, web melanin in Liancheng White ducks were higher than in Pekin ducks (p < 0.05). Melanin within hair follicles was located in the barb ridge and hair matrix of black feather duck, also we found that TYRP1, TYR, SOX10 genes were differentially expressed between Liancheng White and Pekin ducks (p < 0.05), and these genes were mainly expressed showed in duck skin tissues. This study revealed the unique feather color phenotype of Liancheng White duck shedding light on the transcriptome that underlies it.


Assuntos
Patos , Plumas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Folículo Piloso , Pigmentação , Animais , Plumas/química , Patos/genética , Pigmentação/genética , Folículo Piloso/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Transcriptoma , Melaninas/metabolismo
20.
Br Poult Sci ; 65(3): 265-272, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38785186

RESUMO

1. The potential growth of the chemical and physical components of males and females of the Cobb 700 strain was measured from hatch to 15 weeks of age.2. A four-phase ad libitum feeding programme was used to feed 200 chicks of each sex. All birds were weighed weekly. Ten birds per sex were sampled at 0, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 and 105 d of age. They were weighed before and after plucking to determine the weight of feathers. Physical parts were measured on defeathered birds, whereafter these components were combined, minced, freeze dried to measure water content, and then analysed for protein, lipid and ash content.3. Mature body weights of males and females averaged 8.38 and 6.94 kg, respectively, mature body protein weights averaged 1.48 and 1.19 kg and mature body lipid contents averaged 1.08 and 1.54 kg, respectively.4. Rates of maturing of the empty feather-free body weights of males and females averaged 0.0417 and 0.0402/d, respectively. All chemical and physical components within a sex, other than feathers, had the same rate of maturing. The rate of maturing of feathers, calculated by iteration, in males was lower than in females (0.0324 vs. 0.0357/d) and the mature weight was higher (435 vs. 372 g).5. The ratios of the chemical components to feather-free body protein at maturity for males and females were, for water, 3.80 and 3.34; for lipid, 0.73 and 1.29; and for ash, 0.13 and 0.19, respectively. Separate equations were required for males and females to describe the allometric relationship between lipid and protein in the feather-free body.6. Mature body weights of broilers in this trial were considerably higher than those measured using the same protocol 28 years ago, whereas rates of maturing have remained the same.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Galinhas , Plumas , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Plumas/química , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/fisiologia , Genótipo , Peso Corporal
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA