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2.
Chemosphere ; 315: 137724, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592842

RESUMO

Bird feathers are commonly used to assess environmental contamination by chemical pollutants. However, although neonicotinoid insecticides are widely applied worldwide, feathers have rarely been used to survey the contamination by neonicotinoids in birds. To investigate whether clothianidin, one compound of the neonicotinoid class, is deposited into birds' feathers, we conducted an experiment with 56 wild male and female house sparrows dispatched in 7 aviaries. During this experiment, house sparrows were fed with certified organic seeds treated with clothianidin at an estimated concentration of 0.25 µg/g BW per day and per individual. We collected blood samples and plucked four tail feathers at the onset of the experiment to confirm that no birds were previously exposed to clothianidin. 35 days later, we collected blood samples and the newly grown feathers. Before exposure, a small number of birds showed very low clothianidin concentrations in plasma and feathers. After exposure, the plasma and the newly grown feathers of all birds contained clothianidin. Clothianidin concentrations in feathers were similar in both sexes, but the plasma of males contained clothianidin at higher concentrations than that of females. Our results confirm that ingested clothianidin transits in the plasma and is deposited in feathers during their growth. They also suggest substantial individual variation in the amounts of clothianidin transiting in the plasma and being deposited in feathers that may reflect variation in metabolism and/or access to food in relation to sex, social hierarchy and group dynamics. Whether increasing levels of exposure translate linearly or non-linearly (e.g. saturation process) into increasing clothianidin concentrations in bird plasma and feathers remains to be investigated. To conclude, these results confirm the relevance of using feathers to biomonitor the presence of neonicotinoids, but the relationship between the level of exposure and the concentrations found in feathers remains to be established.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Pardais , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Plumas/química , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/análise , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Inseticidas/análise , Guanidinas/toxicidade , Guanidinas/análise , Sementes/química , Ingestão de Alimentos
3.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 814, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36646769

RESUMO

The ability of animals to sync the timing and location of molting (the replacement of hair, skin, exoskeletons or feathers) with peaks in resource availability has important implications for their ecology and evolution. In migratory birds, the timing and location of pre-migratory feather molting, a period when feathers are shed and replaced with newer, more aerodynamic feathers, can vary within and between species. While hypotheses to explain the evolution of intraspecific variation in the timing and location of molt have been proposed, little is known about the genetic basis of this trait or the specific environmental drivers that may result in natural selection for distinct molting phenotypes. Here we take advantage of intraspecific variation in the timing and location of molt in the iconic songbird, the Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris) to investigate the genetic and ecological drivers of distinct molting phenotypes. Specifically, we use genome-wide genetic sequencing in combination with stable isotope analysis to determine population genetic structure and molting phenotype across thirteen breeding sites. We then use genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) to identify a suite of genes associated with molting and pair this with gene-environment association analysis (GEA) to investigate potential environmental drivers of genetic variation in this trait. Associations between genetic variation in molt-linked genes and the environment are further tested via targeted SNP genotyping in 25 additional breeding populations across the range. Together, our integrative analysis suggests that molting is in part regulated by genes linked to feather development and structure (GLI2 and CSPG4) and that genetic variation in these genes is associated with seasonal variation in precipitation and aridity. Overall, this work provides important insights into the genetic basis and potential selective forces behind phenotypic variation in what is arguably one of the most important fitness-linked traits in a migratory bird.


Assuntos
Passeriformes , Aves Canoras , Animais , Muda/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Aves Canoras/genética , Passeriformes/genética , Plumas/química , Estações do Ano
4.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 858, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36646811

RESUMO

Knowing how animals adapt their phenotype to local temperature and humidity is key to understanding not only ecogeographical rules, but also how species will manage climate change, as current models predict changes in global patterns of temperature and precipitation. In endotherms, colour adaptations in response to climate have been under investigated, and their acclimatization-the individual capacity to reversibly adjust phenotype in response to different environments-is unknown. Geographic trends can provide clues about abiotic variables involved in colouration, as postulated by Gloger's rule, which predicts darker individuals in warm and humid regions. We tested whether house sparrows (Passer domesticus) can adjust colouration when faced with varying humidity conditions. We exposed birds to either a dry (humidity 45%) or a wet environment (70%) six months before their moult, and measured colouration in newly developed feathers in five parts of the body (bib, crown, crown stripe, belly and rump). As predicted by Gloger's rule, birds in wet conditions developed darker (bib and belly) and larger (bib) melanised plumage patches, than birds in dry conditions. Our result provides the first unequivocal evidence that the ability of individual birds to adjust their colouration may be a potential adaptation to climatic changes in endotherms.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Umidade , Fenótipo , Plumas/fisiologia , Aves/fisiologia
5.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 38, 2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593340

RESUMO

Robustness can refer to an animal's ability to overcome perturbations. Intense selection for production traits in livestock has resulted in reduced robustness which has negative implications for livability as well as production. There is increasing emphasis on improving robustness through poultry breeding, which may involve identifying novel phenotypes that could be used in selection strategies. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and associated hormones (e.g., corticosterone) participate in many metabolic processes that are related to robustness. Corticosterone can be measured non-invasively in feathers (FCORT) and reflects the average HPA axis activity over the feather growing period, however measurement is expensive and time consuming. Fault bars are visible feather deformities that may be related to HPA axis activity and may be a more feasible indicator trait. In this study, we estimated variance components for FCORT and fault bars in a population of purebred turkeys as well as their genetic and partial phenotypic correlations with other economically relevant traits including growth and efficiency, carcass yield, and meat quality. The estimated heritability for FCORT was 0.21 ± 0.07 and for the fault bar traits (presence, incidence, severity, and index) estimates ranged from 0.09 to 0.24. The genetic correlation of FCORT with breast weight, breast meat yield, fillet weight, and ultimate pH were estimated at -0.34 ± 0.21, -0.45 ± 0.23, -0.33 ± 0.24, and 0.32 ± 0.24, respectively. The phenotypic correlations of FCORT with breast weight, breast meat yield, fillet weight, drum weight, and walking ability were -0.16, -0.23, -0.18, 0.17, and 0.21, respectively. Some fault bar traits showed similar genetic correlations with breast weight, breast meat yield, and walking ability but the magnitude was lower than those with FCORT. While the dataset is limited and results should be interpreted with caution, this study indicates that selection for traits related to HPA axis activity is possible in domestic turkeys. Further research should focus on investigating the association of these traits with other robustness-related traits and how to potentially implement these traits in turkey breeding.


Assuntos
Plumas , Perus , Animais , Perus/genética , Corticosterona , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , Fenótipo
6.
J Anim Ecol ; 92(1): 4-6, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598357

RESUMO

Research Highlight: Delhey, K., Valcu, M., Dale, J., & Kempenaers, B. (2022). The evolution of carotenoid-based plumage colours in passerine birds. Journal of Animal Ecology, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.13791. Carotenoids, a class of colour pigments, are responsible for red, yellow and orange hues in nature. They play an important role in visual animals, and specially birds, where dietary carotenoids can act as honest sexual signals. Long-standing interest in the function of carotenoid-based colours has led to different hypotheses for their evolutionary drivers. Yet, comparative studies testing the generality of these hypotheses have been previously limited in phylogenetic scope or resolution. In a recent study, Delhey et al. (2022) combined sexual dichromatism, life history and environmental data to investigate the evolution of carotenoid-based colouration in the largest avian radiation, the passerines (Order: Passeriformes). The authors show that the expression of carotenoid-based colours depends on environmental availability, dietary content and body size. They also show that red carotenoids are more often evolutionarily and metabolically derived, and suggest different colours are favoured by natural and sexual selection. These findings shine new light on commonly held hypotheses of carotenoid-colour evolution and contribute to our understanding of how phenotypic diversity evolves.


Assuntos
Passeriformes , Seleção Sexual , Animais , Filogenia , Cor , Plumas , Pigmentação , Carotenoides/metabolismo
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e252059, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339358

RESUMO

Abstract The present study describes the haematological profile, feeding preference, and comparison of morphometric characters of blue rock pigeon (Columba livia) breeding pairs. For this purpose, 25 pairs (25 samples per sex) were sampled through Mist nets from district Okara and Bahawalnagar, Punjab, Pakistan. Birds were then anaesthetized with a combination of ketamine HCL (10 mg/kg) and diazepam (0.2 mg/kg) and subjected to morphometric measurements. 5µL blood also was taken from the jugular vein of each anaesthetized bird for haematological analysis. Few pairs were also dissected to remove gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) for food preferences. Results revealed that there are no significant differences in the haematological parameters and feeding preference of breeding pairs of Columba livia. The gut analysis further revealed, the major portion of gut contents consisted of pea and corn in most of the pairs. Regarding the mensural measurements, significant differences were recorded in the body weight, length of the longest primary feather, and chest circumference, whereas the rest of the studied parameters remain nonsignificant between sexes. So, it is concluded that apart from 3 morphometric parameters (body weight, length of longest primary feather and chest circumference), both sexes are alike in term of morphometry, haematology and food preference.


Resumo O presente estudo descreve o perfil hematológico, a preferência alimentar e a comparação de caracteres morfométricos de casais reprodutores de pombo-rocha (Columba livia). Para tanto, 25 pares (25 amostras por sexo) foram amostrados por meio de redes de névoa do distrito de Okara e Bahawalnagar, Punjab, Paquistão. As aves foram então anestesiadas com uma combinação de cetamina HCL (10 mg/kg) e diazepam (0,2 mg/kg) e submetidas a medidas morfométricas; 5 µL de sangue também foram retirados da veia jugular de cada ave anestesiada para análise hematológica. Poucos pares também foram dissecados para remover o trato gastrointestinal (GITs) para preferências alimentares. Os resultados revelaram que não há diferenças significativas nos parâmetros hematológicos e na preferência alimentar dos casais reprodutores de Columba livia. A análise intestinal revelou ainda que a maior parte do conteúdo intestinal consistia em ervilha e milho na maioria dos pares. Em relação às medidas mensurais, foram registradas diferenças significativas no peso corporal, comprimento da pena primária mais longa e circunferência torácica, enquanto os demais parâmetros estudados permanecem não significativos entre os sexos. Assim, conclui-se que além de três parâmetros morfométricos (peso corporal, comprimento da pena primária mais longa e circunferência torácica), ambos os sexos são semelhantes em termos de morfometria, hematologia e preferência alimentar.


Assuntos
Animais , Columbidae , Preferências Alimentares , Paquistão , Plumas , Melhoramento Vegetal
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246389, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285638

RESUMO

Abstract Poultry industry is expanding rapidly and producing million tons of feather waste annually. Massive production of keratinaceous byproducts in the form of industrial wastes throughout the world necessitates its justified utilization. Chemical treatment of keratin waste is proclaimed as an eco-destructive approach by various researchers since it generates secondary pollutants. Keratinase released by a variety of microbes (bacteria and fungi) can be used for the effective treatment of keratin waste. Microbial degradation of keratin waste is an emerging and eco-friendly approach and offers dual benefits, i.e., treatment of recalcitrant pollutant (keratin) and procurement of a commercially important enzyme (keratinase). This study involves the isolation, characterization, and potential utility of fungal species for the degradation of chicken-feather waste through submerged and solid-state fermentation. The isolated fungus was identified and characterized as Aspergillus (A.) flavus. In a trial of 30 days, it was appeared that 74 and 8% feather weight was reduced through sub-merged and solid-state fermentation, respectively by A. flavus. The pH of the growth media in submerged fermentation was changed from 4.8 to 8.35. The exploited application of keratinolytic microbes is, therefore, recommended for the treatment of keratinaceous wastes to achieve dual benefits of remediation.


Resumo A indústria avícola está se expandindo rapidamente e produzindo milhões de toneladas de resíduos de penas anualmente. A produção massiva de subprodutos queratinosos na forma de resíduos agrícolas e industriais em todo o mundo exige sua utilização justificada. O tratamento químico de resíduos de queratina é proclamado como uma abordagem ecodestrutiva por vários pesquisadores, uma vez que gera poluentes secundários. A queratinase liberada por uma variedade de micróbios (bactérias e fungos) pode ser usada para o tratamento eficaz de resíduos de queratina. A degradação microbiana de resíduos de queratina é uma abordagem emergente e ecológica e oferece benefícios duplos, ou seja, tratamento de poluente recalcitrante (queratina) e obtenção de uma enzima comercialmente importante (queratinase). Este estudo envolve o isolamento, caracterização e utilidade potencial de espécies de fungos para a degradação de resíduos de penas de frango por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O fungo isolado foi identificado e caracterizado como Aspergillus (A.) flavus. Em um ensaio de 30 dias, constatou-se que 74% e 8% do peso das penas foram reduzidos por A. flavus, respectivamente, por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O pH do meio de crescimento em fermentação submersa foi alterado de 4,8 para 8,35. A aplicação explorada de micróbios queratinolíticos é, portanto, recomendada para o tratamento de resíduos ceratinosos para obter benefícios duplos de remediação.


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas , Plumas , Fermentação , Fungos , Resíduos Industriais , Queratinas/metabolismo
9.
Environ Pollut ; 318: 120774, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36496068

RESUMO

Many animals migrate after reproduction to respond to seasonal environmental changes. Environmental conditions experienced on non-breeding sites can have carryover effects on fitness. Exposure to harmful chemicals can vary widely between breeding and non-breeding grounds, but its carryover effects are poorly studied. Mercury (Hg) contamination is a major concern in the Arctic. Here, we quantified winter Hg contamination and its carryover effects in the most abundant Arctic seabird, the little auk Alle alle. Winter Hg contamination of birds from an East Greenland population was inferred from head feather concentrations. Birds tracked with Global Location Sensors (GLS, N = 28 of the total 92) spent the winter in western and central North Atlantic waters and had increasing head feather Hg concentrations with increasing longitude (i.e., eastward). This spatial pattern was not predicted by environmental variables such as bathymetry, sea-surface temperature or productivity, and needs further investigation. Hg concentrations in head feathers and blood were strongly correlated, suggesting a carryover effect of adult winter contamination on the consequent summer concentrations. Head feather Hg concentrations had no clear association with telomere length, a robust fitness indicator. In contrast, carryover negative effects were detected on chick health, as parental Hg contamination in winter was associated with decreasing growth rate of chicks in summer. Head feather Hg concentrations of females were not associated with egg membrane Hg concentrations, or with egg volume. In addition, parental winter Hg contamination was not related to Hg burdens in chicks' body feathers. Therefore, we hypothesise that the association between parental winter Hg exposure and the growth of their chick results from an Hg-related decrease in parental care, and needs further empirical evidence. Our results stress the need of considering parental contamination on non-breeding sites to understand Hg trans-generational effects in migrating seabirds, even at low concentrations.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes , Mercúrio , Animais , Feminino , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mercúrio/análise , Estações do Ano , Plumas/química , Galinhas , Reprodução
10.
Gene ; 854: 147116, 2023 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36526120

RESUMO

The use of direct PCR has been pioneered over the last decade for DNA analysis of biological specimens of distinct origins. The information on how longer these specimens can be stored and amplified by direct PCR is however scanty. Such a piece of information could expedite research and diagnostic studies without compromising the reliability of results. The current study was therefore designed to analyze the effect of storage temperature and duration on direct PCR amplification of biological specimens having either low quantity or high quantity of DNA. Whole blood, dried blood spots (DBS), and feathers from chicken were stored for five years at three different temperatures, viz. room temperature (∼25 °C), 4 °C, and -20 °C. These samples were subjected to crude DNA extraction by diluting them in PBS buffer and heating at 98 °C after 1 day, 7 days, 15 days, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, 3 years and 5 years of storage. The crude DNA was PCR-amplified with the use of DNA sexing primers as well as DNA barcoding primers. Incubation at 98 °C for 10 min of any type of sample in PBS buffer was sufficient for crude DNA extraction. There was irrelevant impact of feather type, DBS matrix nature and storage temperature on amplification success over the period of analysis. It was possible to successfully accomplish the amplification of 96 samples with the use of routine PCR reagents within 3.5-6.0 hrs. In short, economical and fast genetic analysis of commonly used avian samples is feasible after their storage for longer time at room temperature.


Assuntos
Plumas , Manejo de Espécimes , Animais , Temperatura , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , DNA/genética
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19227, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36456596

RESUMO

In the Copper Age, slate engraved plaques were produced massively in the southwestern corner of the Iberian Peninsula. Researchers have speculated about the function of these palm-sized stone objects for more than a century, although most have favored the idea that they represented goddesses, and served ritual purposes. The plaques are engraved with different designs of varying complexity. In some of them, the ones sporting two large frontal eyes, we clearly see owls modelled after two species present in the area: the little owl (Athene noctua), and the long-eared owl (Asio otus). These two species, living in semi-open habitats, were possibly the most abundant owls around the human settlements and surrounding cultivated fields of the Chalcolithic period. People must have been aware of the owl presence and possibly interacted with them. Why owls but no other animals have been the models may relate to the fact they are the most anthropomorphic of all animals, with large frontally-placed eyes in their enormous heads. In the iconography, owls are systematically represented, even today, with their two eyes staring at the observer, as opposed to the lateral view used for any other animal. Additionally, slate is one of the commonest surface rocks in southwestern Iberia, and it provides a blank canvas for engraving lines using pointed tools made of flint, quartz or copper. The way slates exfoliate makes easy to craft owl-looking plaques. To silhouette animals other than owls in a recognizable way would request extra carving abilities and specific tools. Plaque manufacture and design were simple and did not demand high skills nor intensive labor as demonstrated in replication experiments. Owl engravings could have been executed by youngsters, as they resemble owls painted today by elementary school students. This also suggests that schematic drawings are universal and timeless. We propose that the owl-like slate plaques are the remains of a set of objects used in both playful activities and in ritual ceremonies. The actual engraving of the plaques may have been part of the game. Owlish slate plaques were often perforated twice at the top. We interpret this as insertion points for actual bird feathers added to the plaques, right at the place where tufts emerge in live owls. The frontier among play and ritual is diffuse in liminal societies and there is no contradiction in playing with animal-like toys and, at some point, using them as offerings as part of community rituals related, for instance, to the colossal megalithic tombs so characteristic of the Copper Age.


Assuntos
Cefapirina , Estrigiformes , Animais , Criança , Humanos , Placa Amiloide , Plumas , Comportamento Compulsivo , Conscientização
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(51): 16106-16116, 2022 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36524955

RESUMO

The valorization of poultry byproducts, like feathers (processed to feather meal), in animal feed could contribute to the presence of veterinary drugs, including antibiotics. An animal study was carried out to study the fate of sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, and oxytetracycline in feathers, plasma, and droppings of broiler chickens. Cage and floor housing, different from current farm practices, were studied. Samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A longer presence of antibiotics was observed in feathers compared to plasma, with sulfadiazine being present the most. The internal presence (via blood) and the external presence (via droppings) of antibiotics in/on feathers were shown. Analysis of Escherichia coli populations, from droppings and feathers, highlighted that resistant bacteria could be transferred from droppings to feathers in floor-housed animals. The overall results suggest that feathers are a potential reservoir of antimicrobial residues and could contribute to the selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the environment, animals, and humans.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Oxitetraciclina , Humanos , Animais , Antibacterianos/análise , Oxitetraciclina/análise , Galinhas , Plumas/química , Sulfadiazina/farmacologia , Sulfadiazina/análise , Trimetoprima/farmacologia , Trimetoprima/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
13.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 821, 2022 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36510127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hungarian white goose has excellent down production performance and was introduced to China in 2010. The growth and development of feather follicles has an important impact on down production. Goose feather follicles can be divided into primary and secondary feather follicles, both of which originate in the embryonic stage. Msx2 (Msh Homeobox 2) plays a regulatory role in tissues and organs such as eyes, teeth, bones and skin. However, its regulatory mechanism on goose feather follicles development remains unclear. RESULTS: Msx2 gene first increased, then decreased and increased at the end (E13, E18, E23, E28) during embryonic feather follicle development, and the expression level was the highest at E18. The pEGFP-N1-Msx2 overexpression vector and si-Msx2 siRNA vector were constructed to transfect goose embryo dermal fibroblasts. The results showed that the cell viability of ov-Msx2 group was significantly increased, and the gene expression levels of FGF5 and TGF-ß1 genes were significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05), the expressions of PCNA, Bcl2, CDK1, FOXN1 and KGF genes were significantly up-regulated (P < 0.05). After transfection of siRNA vector, the cell viability of the si-Msx2 group was significantly decreased (P < 0.01) compared with the si-NC group. TGF-ß1 expression was significantly up-regulated (P < 0.05), FGF5 expression was extremely significantly up-regulated (P < 0.01), while PCNA, Bcl2, CDK1, FOXN1 and KGF gene expression was significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05). High-throughput sequencing technology was used to mine the exon SNPs of Msx2. A total of 11 SNP loci were screened, four of the SNPs located in exon 1 were missense mutations. The feather follicle diameter of the GC genotype at the G78C site is significantly larger than that of the other two genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Msx2 maybe inhibit the apoptosis of goose dermal fibroblasts and promotes their proliferation. G78C can be used as a potential molecular marker for downy Variety.


Assuntos
Gansos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Animais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Gansos/genética , Plumas , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo
14.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 110(1): 2, 2022 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36484834

RESUMO

Seabirds accumulate mercury (Hg) due to their long-life span together with their high trophic position. A Hg monitoring in Venice's Lagoon using three seabird species occupying different trophic habitat (Thalasseus sandvicensis, Ichthyaetus melanocephalus, and Chroicocephalus ridibundus) confirmed that fledgelings might effectively be used as sentinels of Hg bioavailability. The significant differences in Hg residues in feathers observed among the species highlighted a possible differential exposure due to different diets, with C. ridibundus accumulating more Hg than the other species. Average residues in feathers were not above the threshold associated with adverse effects on birds (5 mg kg- 1). Nevertheless, a large part of the C. ridibundus individuals (58%) exceeded the adverse effect level, underlining the need for strengthening Hg monitoring. Seabirds indeed may provide relevant insight on Hg transfer in food webs and a better picture of the hazards to men when bird species forage on species exploited for human consumption.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes , Mercúrio , Animais , Masculino , Humanos , Mercúrio/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plumas/química , Aves
15.
Biol Lett ; 18(11): 20220393, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36349583

RESUMO

Many animals use shading to infer the three-dimensional (3D) shape of objects, and mimicking natural shading patterns can produce the illusion of 3D form on a flat surface. Over 150 years ago, Charles Darwin noted that the ocelli (eyespots) on the feathers of the great argus Argusianus argus, when held vertically during courtship displays to females, were perfectly shaded to resemble 3D hemispheres to human viewers. We tested whether these ocelli appear 3D to birds by training chickens Gallus gallus domesticus to select images of either convex or concave shapes using shading cues, and then presenting them with images of great argus ocelli. Chickens successfully learned how to discriminate between convex and concave shapes, and treated the great argus pheasant ocelli in the same way as convex training stimuli. Our findings are consistent with previous studies that birds can perceive 3D shape from shading cues in a similar manner to humans. The perception of great argus ocelli as consistent with 3D shape by avian viewers suggests that shape illusions can play a role in male courtship.


Assuntos
Percepção de Forma , Ilusões , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Humanos , Percepção de Profundidade , Plumas , Galinhas
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360819

RESUMO

The high demand for keratinolytic enzymes and the modest presentation of fungal keratinase diversity studies in scientific sources cause a significant interest in identifying new fungal strains of keratinase producers, isolating new enzymes and studying their properties. Four out of the 32 cultures showed a promising target activity on protein-containing agar plates-Aspergillus amstelodami A6, A. clavatus VKPM F-1593, A. ochraceus 247, and Cladosporium sphaerospermum 1779. The highest values of keratinolytic activity were demonstrated by extracellular proteins synthesized by Aspergillus clavatus VKPM F-1593 cultivated under submerged conditions on a medium containing milled chicken feathers. The enzyme complex preparation was obtained by protein precipitation from the culture liquid with ammonium sulfate, subsequent dialysis, and lyophilization. The fraction of a pure enzyme with keratinolytic activity (pI 9.3) was isolated by separating the extracellular proteins of A. clavatus VKPM F-1593 via isoelectric focusing. The studied keratinase was an alkaline subtilisin-like non-glycosylated protease active over a wide pH range with optimum keratinolysis at pH 8 and 50 °C.


Assuntos
Plumas , Queratinas , Animais , Queratinas/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Fungos/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Temperatura
17.
Anim Sci J ; 93(1): e13779, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36345734

RESUMO

Preventing feather pecking (FP) in adult laying hens is important for the welfare of intensively poultry farming. Fear-related behavior in growing female layer chicks may predict FP in adult hens. In this study, in two representative laying breeds (White Leghorn [WL] and Rhode Island Red [RIR]) that have different FP frequencies, we identified a candidate gene associated with fear-related behavior in chicks and FP in adult hens. In the tonic immobility test and open-field test, the behavioral activity was lower in WL chicks than in RIR chicks (P < 0.01), suggesting that WL chicks were more fearful than RIR chicks. Based on previous studies, 51 genes that have been found to be differentially expressed in the brain between high- and low-FP populations were chosen, and their expression levels were screened in the chick diencephalon. This analysis revealed that myeloperoxidase (MPO) gene expression level was higher in WL chicks than that in RIR chicks (P < 0.05). Furthermore, STRING analysis predicted the gene network including MPO and MPO-related genes and revealed the association of these genes with fear-related behavior. These results suggest that MPO is potentially associated with fear-related behavior in growing female layer chicks and FP in adult hens.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Peroxidase , Animais , Feminino , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/metabolismo , Peroxidase/genética , Plumas , Medo , Comportamento Animal , Diencéfalo/metabolismo
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18484, 2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323747

RESUMO

Whether melanin-based plumage colouration accurately reflects a bird's quality is still controversial. To better understand potential mechanisms behind the observed variation in plumage colouration, we shifted our attention from a high-level expression of colour to low-level physiological phenomena by targeting the microstructure and pigment content of the feather. In a well-studied model system, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), we combined an experimental manipulation of birds' physiological condition and availability of resources that are key to the production of the studied colouration (phenylalanine and tyrosine (PT). We found that feathers from sparrows fed with the control diet had noticeably lower values of brightness, suggesting a higher quality of the ornamental "blackness" in comparison to those sampled from birds fed with a PT-reduced diet. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy detected higher melanin concentrations in samples from the control than the PT-reduced group. Our multi-level analysis excluded mechanisms such as barbule density and melanosomes' distribution, clearly pointing to the finest-level proxy of colour: the concentration of melanin in melanosomes themselves. Despite melanins being manufactured by birds endogenously, the efficiency of melanogenesis can be noticeably limited by diet. As a result, the birds' plumage colouration is affected, which may entail consequences in social signalling.


Assuntos
Melaninas , Pardais , Animais , Melaninas/metabolismo , Pardais/metabolismo , Plásticos/metabolismo , Plumas/metabolismo , Pigmentação/fisiologia , Dieta
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18340, 2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316373

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate novel applications for chicken feather waste hydrolysate through a green, sustainable process. Accordingly, an enzymatically degraded chicken feather (EDCFs) product was used as a dual carbon and nitrogen source in the production medium of bacterial cellulose (BC). The yield maximization was attained through applying experimental designs where the optimal level of each significant variable was recorded and the yield rose 2 times. The produced BC was successfully characterized by FT-IR, XRD and SEM. On the other hand, sludge from EDCFs was used as a paper coating agent. The mechanical features of the coated papers were evaluated by bulk densities, maximum load, breaking length, tensile index, Young's modulus, work to break and coating layer. The results showed a decrease in tensile index and an increase in elongation at break. These indicate more flexibility of the coated paper. The coated paper exhibits higher resistance to water vapor permeability and remarkable oil resistance compared to the uncoated one. Furthermore, the effectiveness of sludge residue in removing heavy metals was evaluated, and the sorption capacities were ordered as Cu ++ > Fe ++ > Cr ++ > Co ++ with high affinity (3.29 mg/g) toward Cu ++ and low (0.42 mg/g) towards Co ++ in the tested metal solution.


Assuntos
Plumas , Metais Pesados , Animais , Plumas/química , Galinhas , Esgotos/análise , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Metais Pesados/análise , Celulose/metabolismo
20.
Bioinspir Biomim ; 18(1)2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36317380

RESUMO

Traditional flapping-wing robots (FWRs) obtain lift and thrust by relying on the passive deformation of their wings which cannot actively fold or deform. In contrast, flying creatures such as birds, bats, and insects can maneuver agilely through active folding or deforming their wings. Researchers have developed many bio-inspired foldable or deformable wings (FDWs) imitating the wings of flying creatures. The foldable wings refer to the wings like the creatures' wings that can fold in an orderly manner close to their bodies. Such wings have scattered feathers or distinct creases that can be stacked and folded to reduce the body envelope, which in nature is beneficial for these animals to prevent wing damage and ensure agility in crossing bushes. The deformable wings refer to the active deformation of the wings using active driving mechanisms and the passive deformation under the aerodynamic force, which functionally imitates the excellent hydrodynamic performance of the deformable body and wings of the creatures. However, the shape and external profile changes of deformable wings tend to be much smaller than that of folding wings. FDWs enable the FWRs to improve flight degree of flexibility, maneuverability, and efficiency and reduce flight energy consumption. However, FDWs still need to be studied, and a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art progress of FDWs in FWR design is lacking. This paper analyzes the wing folding and deformation mechanisms of the creatures and reviews the latest progress of FWRs with FDWs. Furthermore, we summarize the current limitations and propose future directions in FDW design, which could help researchers to develop better FWRs for safe maneuvering in obstacle-dense environments.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Robótica , Animais , Voo Animal , Asas de Animais , Aves , Plumas , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Modelos Biológicos
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