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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18484, 2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323747

RESUMO

Whether melanin-based plumage colouration accurately reflects a bird's quality is still controversial. To better understand potential mechanisms behind the observed variation in plumage colouration, we shifted our attention from a high-level expression of colour to low-level physiological phenomena by targeting the microstructure and pigment content of the feather. In a well-studied model system, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), we combined an experimental manipulation of birds' physiological condition and availability of resources that are key to the production of the studied colouration (phenylalanine and tyrosine (PT). We found that feathers from sparrows fed with the control diet had noticeably lower values of brightness, suggesting a higher quality of the ornamental "blackness" in comparison to those sampled from birds fed with a PT-reduced diet. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy detected higher melanin concentrations in samples from the control than the PT-reduced group. Our multi-level analysis excluded mechanisms such as barbule density and melanosomes' distribution, clearly pointing to the finest-level proxy of colour: the concentration of melanin in melanosomes themselves. Despite melanins being manufactured by birds endogenously, the efficiency of melanogenesis can be noticeably limited by diet. As a result, the birds' plumage colouration is affected, which may entail consequences in social signalling.


Assuntos
Melaninas , Pardais , Animais , Melaninas/metabolismo , Pardais/metabolismo , Plásticos/metabolismo , Plumas/metabolismo , Pigmentação/fisiologia , Dieta
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17118, 2022 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36224206

RESUMO

Enormous amounts of keratinaceous waste make a significant and unexploited protein reserve that can be utilized through bioconversion into high-value products using microbial keratinases. This study was intended to assess the keratinase production from a newly isolated B. velezensis NCIM 5802 that can proficiently hydrolyze chicken feathers. Incubation parameters used to produce keratinase enzyme were optimized through the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with chicken feathers as substrate. Optimization elevated the keratinase production and feather degradation by 4.92-folds (109.7 U/mL) and 2.5 folds (95.8%), respectively. Time-course profile revealed a direct correlation among bacterial growth, feather degradation, keratinase production and amino acid generation. Biochemical properties of the keratinase were evaluated, where it showed optimal activity at 60 °C and pH 10.0. The keratinase was inhibited by EDTA and PMSF, indicating it to be a serine-metalloprotease. Zymography revealed the presence of four distinct keratinases (Mr ~ 100, 62.5, 36.5 and 25 kDa) indicating its multiple forms. NMR and mass spectroscopic studies confirmed the presence of 18 free amino acids in the feather hydrolysates. Changes in feather keratin brought about by the keratinase action were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and spectroscopic (FTIR, Raman) analyses, which showed a decrease in the total crystallinity index (TCI) (1.00-0.63) and confirmed the degradation of its crystalline domain. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the sequential structural changes occurring in the feather keratin during degradation. Present study explored the use of keratinolytic potential of the newly isolated B. velezensis NCIM 5802 in chicken feather degradation and also, unraveled the underlying keratin hydrolysis mechanism through various analyses.


Assuntos
Plumas , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Bacillus , Galinhas/metabolismo , Ácido Edético/metabolismo , Plumas/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Queratinas/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Serina/metabolismo
3.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0271448, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206252

RESUMO

Protocols allowing the in vitro culture of human hair follicles in a serum free-medium up to 9 days were developed 30 years ago. By using similar protocols, we achieved the prolonged maintenance in vitro of juvenile feather follicles (FF) microdissected from young chickens. Histology showed a preservation of the FF up to 7 days as well as feather morphology compatible with growth and/or differentiation. The integrity of the FF wall epithelium was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy at Day 5 and 7 of culture. A slight elongation of the feathers was detected up to 5 days for 75% of the examined feathers. By immunochemistry, we demonstrated the maintenance of expression and localization of two structural proteins: scaffoldin and fibronectin. Gene expression (assessed by qRT-PCR) of NCAM, LCAM, Wnt6, Notch1, and BMP4 was not altered. In contrast, Shh and HBS1 expression collapsed, DKK3 increased, and KRT14 transiently increased upon cultivation. This indicates that cultivation modifies the mRNA expression of a few genes, possibly due to reduced growth or cell differentiation in the feather, notably in the barb ridges. In conclusion, we have developed the first method that allows the culture and maintenance of chicken FF in vitro that preserves the structure and biology of the FF close to its in vivo state, despite transcriptional modifications of a few genes involved in feather development. This new culture model may serve to study feather interactions with pathogens or toxics and constitutes a way to reduce animal experimentation.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Plumas , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Galinhas/genética , Plumas/metabolismo , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Folículo Piloso , Humanos , Morfogênese , Moléculas de Adesão de Célula Nervosa/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(58): 86913-86932, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36271998

RESUMO

Since the dawn of century, tons of keratin bio-waste is generated by the poultry industry annually, and they end up causing environmental havoc. Keratins are highly flexible fibrous proteins which exist in α- and ß- forms and provide mechanical strength and stability to structural appendages. The finding of broad-spectrum protease, keratinase, from thermophilic bacteria and fungi, has provided an eco-friendly solution to hydrolyze the peptide bonds in highly recalcitrant keratinous substances such as nails, feathers, claws, and horns into valuable amino acids. Microorganisms produce these proteolytic enzymes by techniques of solid-state and submerged fermentation. However, solid-state fermentation is considered as a yielding approach for the production of thermostable keratinases. This review prioritized the molecular and biochemical properties of microbial keratinases, and the role of keratinases in bringing prodigious impact for the sustainable progress of the economy. It also emphasizes on the current development in keratinase production with the focus to improve the biochemical properties related to enzyme's catalytic activity and stability, and production of mutant and cloned microbial strains to improve the yield of keratinases. Recently, multitude molecular approaches have been employed to enhance enzyme's productivity, activity, and thermostability which makes them suitable for pharmaceutical industry and for the production of animal feed, organic fertilizers, biogas, clearing of animal hides, and detergent formulation. Hence, it can be surmised that microbial keratinolytic enzymes are the conceivable candidates for numerous commercial and industrial applications.


Assuntos
Queratinas , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Animais , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Queratinas/metabolismo , Biotecnologia/métodos , Plumas/metabolismo , Responsabilidade Social , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
5.
Environ Pollut ; 314: 120284, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206890

RESUMO

Purple Martins (Progne subis) are migratory birds that breed in North America and overwinter and complete their molt in South America. Many of the breeding populations are declining. The eastern North American subspecies of Purple Martin (P. subis subis) comprises >90% of all Purple Martins. This subspecies overwinters and molts in the Amazon Basin, a region that is high in mercury (Hg) contamination, which raises the possibility that observed declines in Purple Martins could be linked to Hg exposure. Exposure to Hg results in numerous and systemic negative health outcomes, including endocrine disruption. Corticosterone (CORT) is a primary modulator of the stress and metabolic axes of vertebrates; thus, it is important in meeting metabolic and other challenges of migration. Because feathers accumulate Hg and hormones while growing, quantification of Hg and CORT in feathers provides an opportunity to retrospectively assess Hg exposure and adrenal activity of birds using minimally invasive methods. We evaluated interrelationships among concentrations of total Hg (THg) and CORT in feathers that grew in the Amazon Basin and body condition (mass, fat score) of these birds in North America. Concentrations of THg in Purple Martin feathers ranged from 1.103 to 8.740 µg/g dw, levels associated with negative physiological impacts in other avian species. Concentrations of CORT did not correlate with THg concentration at the time of feather growth. However, we found evidence that THg concentration may negatively impact the ability of Purple Martins to accumulate fat, which could impair migratory performance and survivorship due to the high energy requirements of migration. This finding suggests potential carryover effects of Hg contamination at the wintering grounds in the Amazon to the summer breeding grounds in North America.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Andorinhas , Animais , Plumas/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Corticosterona/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
BMC Biotechnol ; 22(1): 26, 2022 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the growing concern for the environment, there are trends that bio-utilization of keratinous waste by keratinases could ease the heavy burden of keratinous waste from the poultry processing and leather industry. Especially surfactant-stable keratinases are beneficial for the detergent industry. Therefore, the production of keratinase by Bacillus cereus YQ15 was improved; the characterization and use of keratinase in detergent were also studied. RESULTS: A novel alkaline keratinase-producing bacterium YQ15 was isolated from feather keratin-rich soil and was identified as Bacillus cereus. Based on the improvement of medium components and culture conditions, the maximum keratinase activity (925 U/mL) was obtained after 36 h of cultivation under conditions of 35 °C and 160 rpm. Moreover, it was observed that the optimal reacting temperature and pH of the keratinase are 60 °C and 10.0, respectively; the activity was severely inhibited by PMSF and EDTA. On the contrary, the keratinase showed remarkable stability in the existence of the various surfactants, including SDS, Tween 20, Tween 60, Tween 80, and Triton X-100. Especially, 5% of Tween 20 and Tween 60 increased the activity by 100% and 60%, respectively. Furtherly, the keratinase revealed high efficiency in removing blood stains. CONCLUSION: The excellent compatibility with commercial detergents and the high washing efficiency of removing blood stains suggested its suitability for potential application as a bio-detergent additive.


Assuntos
Bacillus cereus , Detergentes , Animais , Bacillus cereus/metabolismo , Detergentes/química , Estabilidade Enzimática , Plumas/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Queratinas/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Polissorbatos , Tensoativos , Temperatura
7.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(9)2022 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36140679

RESUMO

Feather colors of chickens are not only characteristics of breeds but also as phenotypic markers in chicken breeding. Pure-bred Rhode Island Red (RIR) chicks have a stripe pattern and a non-stripe pattern on the back. The stripe pattern of RIR is generally shown as four longitudinal black stripes on the back and is more likely to appear in females. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify candidate genes controlling the stripe pattern of RIR chicks, and then, based on physical location and biological functions, quantitative RT-PCR analysis was used to validate the differential expression of candidate genes between stripe pattern and non-stripe pattern back skin tissue. The GWAS showed that a major signal contains 768 significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 87 significant small insertions-deletions (INDELs) spanning 41.78 to 43.05 Mb (~1.27 Mb) on GGA1, corresponding to 16 genes associated with stripe pattern phenotype. Among these 16 genes, KITLG and TMTC3 could be considered candidate genes as they showed different expressions between back skin tissues of stripe pattern and non-stripe pattern chicks in value (p = 0.062) and the significant level (p < 0.05), respectively. This study provided novel insight into the mechanisms underlying feather pigmentation and stripe formation in RIR chicks.


Assuntos
Plumas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Plumas/metabolismo , Feminino , Pigmentação/genética , Rhode Island
8.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(10): 634, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127480

RESUMO

Keratinibaculum paraultunense strain KD-1 T (= JCM 18769 T = DSM 26752 T) is a strictly anaerobic rod-shaped bacterium. Under optimal conditions, feather keratin can be completely degraded by strain KD-1 within 24 h. Genomic sequencing showed that the genome was a single circular chromosome consisting of 2,307,997 base pairs (bp), with an average G + C content of 29.8% and no plasmids. A total of 2308 genes were annotated, accounting for 88.87% of the genomic sequence, and 1495 genes were functionally annotated. Among these, genes Kpa0144, Kpa0540, and Kpa0541 encoding the thioredoxin family members were identified, and may encode the potential disulfide reductases, with redox activity for protein disulfide bonds. Two potential keratinase-encoding genes, Kpa1675 and Kpa2139, were also identified, and corresponded to the ability of strain KD-1 to hydrolyze keratin. Strain KD-1 encoded genes involved in the heterotrophic metabolic pathways of 14 amino acids and various carbohydrates. The metabolic pathways for amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism were mapped in strain KD-1 based on KEGG annotations. The complete genome of strain KD-1 provided fundamental data for the further investigation of its physiology and genetics.


Assuntos
Plumas , Queratinas , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Anaerobiose , Animais , Carboidratos , Clostridiaceae , Dissulfetos/metabolismo , Plumas/metabolismo , Queratinas/genética , Queratinas/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Tiorredoxinas/metabolismo
9.
Genes Genomics ; 44(11): 1323-1331, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an essential role in biological processes. However, the expression patterns of lncRNAs that regulate the non-Mendelian inheritance feather phenotypes remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the expression profiles of lncRNAs in the follicles of the late-feathering cocks (LC) and late-feathering hens (LH) that followed genetic rules and the early-feathering hen (EH) and early-feathering cock (EC) that did not conform to the genetic laws. METHODS: We performed RNA sequencing and investigated the differentially expressed lncRNAs (DElncRNAs) between the early- and late-feathering chickens, which function by cis-acting or participate in the competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network. RESULTS: A total of 53 upregulated and 43 downregulated lncRNAs were identified in EC vs. LC, and 58 upregulated and 109 downregulated lncRNAs were identified in EH vs. LH. The target mRNAs regulated by lncRNAs in cis were enriched in the pentose phosphate pathway, TGF-ß signaling pathway and Jak-STAT signaling pathway in EC vs. LC and were associated with the TGF-ß signaling pathway, Wnt signaling pathway, p53 signaling pathway and Jak-STAT signaling pathway in EH vs. LH. In addition, the lncRNA-mediated ceRNA regulatory pathways of hair follicle formation were mainly enriched in the TGF-ß signaling pathway, Wnt signaling pathway, melanogenesis, and calcium signaling pathways. The levels of ENSGALG00000047626 were significantly higher in the late-feathering chickens than in the early-feathering chickens, which regulated the expression of SSTR2 by gga-miR-1649-5p. CONCLUSION: This study provides a novel molecular mechanism of lncRNA's response to the feather rate that does not conform to the genetic laws in chickens.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Biológicos , MicroRNAs , RNA Longo não Codificante , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Plumas/metabolismo , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt
10.
Gene ; 844: 146840, 2022 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36031017

RESUMO

Feather follicles and scales are two types of skin appendages distributed on different parts of avian skin. The morphogenesis and development of scales in waterfowl remain largely unknown. Here, we used H&E staining, ISH and RNA sequencing to reveal the morphological and molecular variations at the early development of scutate scales in goose shank skin. Transcriptome analysis produced 1824 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) regulating the induction of scales and further enriched gene function in cell adhesion and Wnt signaling pathway, etc. A total of 8 candidate genes (ALDOC, CSRP2, KRT15, KRT75, LGALS1, S100A6, OGN and SFRP2) were further detected by RT-qPCR to show upregulated (6 genes) and downregulated (2 genes) from pre-placodal to placode stage during the induction of goose scales. The localization of 7 candidate genes (ALDOC, CSRP2, CD109, KRT15, KRT75, S100A6, and OGN) by ISH suggests the potential roles for dermal and epidermal development during the induction of scutate scales. The dynamic molecular changes and specific gene expression patterns revealed in this report provide general knowledge of scale development in waterfowl as well as skin appendage diversity.


Assuntos
Gansos , Pele , Animais , Plumas/metabolismo , Gansos/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Morfogênese/genética , Pele/metabolismo
11.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(9): 565, 2022 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35982264

RESUMO

The aim of this present work was to explore the potential feather-degrading bacterial isolates were isolated from poultry farm soil. Isolation and screening of keratinase-producing bacterial isolates were performed in keratin agar medium. The potential keratinase-producing bacterial isolates were identified using morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization. Degradation of chicken feather was optimized using different nutrient or physical factors in feather meal broth medium. Soluble peptide, amino acid and free thiol group liberation during feather degradation were estimated too. The isolated bacterial isolates were found significantly degrading the chicken feathers with keratinase enzyme production. The present study revealed a significantly novel feather-degrading Geobacillus thermodenitrificans PS41 bacterial isolate, isolated from poultry farm soil.


Assuntos
Plumas , Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Fazendas , Plumas/química , Plumas/metabolismo , Plumas/microbiologia , Geobacillus , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Solo
12.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(7)2022 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886032

RESUMO

Comparative population genomics and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) offer opportunities to discover human-driven detectable signatures within the genome. From the point of view of evolutionary biology, the identification of genes associated with the domestication of traits is of interest for the elucidation of the selection of these traits. To this end, an F2 population of ducks, consisting of 275 ducks, was genotyped using a whole genome re-sequence containing 12.6 Mb single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and four plumage colors. GWAS was used to identify the candidate and potential SNPs of four plumage colors in ducks (white, spot, grey, and black plumage). In addition, FST and genetic diversity (π ratio) were used to screen signals of the selective sweep, which relate to the four plumage colors. Major genomic regions associated with white, spotted, and black feathers overlapped with their candidate selection regions, whereas no such overlap was observed with grey plumage. In addition, MITF and EDNRB2 are functional candidate genes that contribute to white and black plumage due to their indirect involvement in the melanogenesis pathway. This study provides new insights into the genetic factors that may influence the diversity of plumage color.


Assuntos
Patos , Plumas , Animais , Patos/genética , Plumas/metabolismo , Genoma/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pigmentação/genética
13.
Yi Chuan ; 44(6): 491-500, 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35729097

RESUMO

Sexually dimorphic plumage coloration is widespread in birds in which the male plumage is brighter than the female. This phenomenon is related to the environmental constraints on sexual selection or intraspecific competition between males and females in birds. The physiological factors and genetic regulation mechanism affecting the color of sexual dimorphism plumages in birds have always attracted significant attention in research. Understanding the diversity of sexually dimorphic traits provides insights into the mating strategies of the sexes and their behavior, ecology, and evolution. Interestingly, the ASIP, MC1R, TYRP1, and BCO2 genes have been identified to play a potential role in the coloration of melanin and carotenoids in bird sexual dimorphism plumages, either by controlling the rate and type of melanin or carotene synthesis or degradation by exerting an effect on the pigment biosynthetic pathway. In this review, we systematically summarize the biological significance, the direct causes (chemical and physical color), and the influence of sex hormones in sexually dimorphic plumage coloration. We also investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the roles of some genes on sexual dimorphism coloration, thereby providing a reference for in-depth understanding on the formation mechanism(s) of sexual dimorphic coloration in birds.


Assuntos
Plumas , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Aves/genética , Aves/metabolismo , Cor , Plumas/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Melaninas/genética , Pigmentação/genética
14.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e257473, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544789

RESUMO

Feathers make up 7% of the total weight of adult chickens and keratin protein makes up 85% of the feathers. Today, the keratinase enzymes of some Bacillus strains are used to degrade and process raw keratin waste for animal and poultry feed. According to various studies, the probiotic properties of some spore-shaped Bacillus have also been proven. The study aimed to isolation of the keratinolytic Bacillus bacteria that they have probiotic properties for using in the livestock and poultry feed industry. We were able to isolate 8 strains of Bacillus licheniformis with kreatin degrading properties from the soil of Baharan chicken slaughterhouse (Qom city, Iran) applying heat shock, alcohol- and keratin-rich culture medium, and after microscopic and biochemical analysis, 16S rDNA gene was isolated. The measurement results of keratinase activity showed that the three strains of Bacillus licheniformis pvkr6, pvkr 15, and pvkr41 had the highest activity with 124.08, 101.1, and 100.18 U/ml. The results of probiotic properties evaluation also revealed that among all the isolates, only Bacillus licheniformis pvkr15 and Bacillus licheniformis PTCC 1595 (positive control) were γ-hemolytic strains. The percentage of surface hydrophobicity of the strains was obtained from 3.27 to 30.57. It was also shown that, on average, all the strains had acceptable susceptibility to the tested antibiotics except penicillin G. Bacillus licheniformis pvkr15 with highest keratinase activity (101.1U/ml) was considered an optional probiotics due to its abilities such as (biofilm formation, being safe cause of γ-hemolytic activity, high susceptibility to antibiotics such as streptomycin, gentamicin, cefixime, amoxicillin, tetracycline, vancomycin, erythromycin and having a moderate hydrophilic (hydrophobicity: 19.09%), high survivability in pH 2, 2.5 and 3, strong resistance to bile salts and moderate antagonistic activity against pathogenic bacterium like Proteus mirabilis and the ability to grow under anaerobic conditions). By using this strain, after hydrolysis of keratin protein in the feather structure, to replace part of the protein of livestock and poultry feed, not only is no need to separate bacteria from the feed, but also the strain play role of an useful and effective additive in animal growth.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Probióticos , Matadouros , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/metabolismo , Galinhas , Plumas/química , Plumas/metabolismo , Plumas/microbiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Queratinas/análise , Queratinas/química , Queratinas/metabolismo , Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Probióticos/análise , Probióticos/farmacologia , Solo
15.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248026, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544900

RESUMO

Poultry industry is amongst highly developed industries of Pakistan, fulfilling the protein demand of rapidly increasing population. On the other hand, the untreated poultry waste is causing several health and environmental problems. The current study was designed to check the potential of keratinolytic fungal species for the conversion of chicken-feather waste into biofortified compost. For the purpose, three fungal species were isolated from soil samples. These strains were pure cultured and then characterized phenotypically and genotypically. BLAST searches of 18S rDNA nucleotide sequence of the fungal isolates revealed that the two fungal isolates belonged to genus Aspergillus and one belonged to genus Chrysosporium. Optimum temperature for Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Chrysosporium queenslandicum was 29, 26 and 25 oC, respectively. A. flavus showed maximum (53%) feather degradation, A. niger degraded feather waste up to 37%, while C. queenslandicum showed 21% keratinolytic activity on chicken feathers at their respective temperature optima. The degradation potential of these fungal species showed their ability to form compost that has agro-industrial importance.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Plumas , Animais , Galinhas , Plumas/metabolismo , Plumas/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas , Temperatura
16.
Cell Rep ; 39(8): 110898, 2022 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35613576

RESUMO

The N6-methyladenosine modification (m6A) modulates eukaryotic mRNA decay. In this issue of Cell Reports, Boo et al. describe a mechanism for degradation of m6A-containing mRNAs by 5'-decapping, which occurs through the recruitment of the degradation factor UPF1 via the m6A reader protein YTHDF2.


Assuntos
Adenosina , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA , Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Plumas/metabolismo , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo
17.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(6): 166, 2022 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35460448

RESUMO

Keratinase is an important enzyme that is used to degrade feather wastes produced by poultry industries and slaughterhouses that accumulate rapidly over time. The search for keratinase-producing microorganisms is important to potentially substitute physicochemical treatments of feather waste. In this study, the genome of Bacillus cereus HD1 and its keratinolytic prowess was investigated. The whole-genome shotgun size is 5,668,864 bp consisting of 6083 genes, 69 tRNAs, and 10 rRNAs. The genomic analyses revealed 15 potential keratinase genes and other enzymes that might assist keratin degradation, such as disulfide reductase and cysteine dioxygenase. The optimal conditions for feather degradation and keratinase production by B. cereus HD1 such as incubation time, pH, temperature, yeast extract, and glycerol concentrations were determined to be 5 days, pH 8, 37 °C, 0.05% (w/v), and 0.1% (v/v), respectively. Under optimized conditions, B. cereus HD1 exhibited feather degradation of 65%, with bacterial growth and maximum keratinase activity of 1.3 × 1011 CFU/mL and 41 U/mL, respectively, after 5 days of incubation in a feather basal medium. The findings obtained from this study may facilitate further research into utilizing B. cereus HD1 as a prominent keratinolytic enzymes production host and warrant potential biotechnological applications.


Assuntos
Bacillus cereus , Plumas , Animais , Bacillus cereus/genética , Bacillus cereus/metabolismo , Galinhas , Plumas/química , Plumas/metabolismo , Plumas/microbiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo
18.
Br Poult Sci ; 63(4): 466-474, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35094630

RESUMO

1. Plumage colour is an important recognisable characteristic of duck (Anas platyrhynchos), but the colouration mechanisms remain largely unknown. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of black and white plumage, the following study applied RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to catalogue the global gene expression profiles in the duck feather bulbs of black and white colours.2. Black feather bulbs were collected from Putian Black ducks (B-PTB) and black Longsheng Jade-green ducks (B-LS), while white feather bulbs were collected from Putian White ducks (W-PTW), Putian Black ducks (W-PTB) and Longsheng Jade-green ducks (W-LS). Sixteen cDNA libraries were constructed and sequenced for transcriptional analysis. Three comparison groups were employed to analyse differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including W-PTB versus B-PTB, W-PTW versus B-PTB and W-LS versus B-LS.3. The results showed 180 DEGs between W-PTB and B-PTB, 303 DEGs between W-PTW and B-PTB, and 108 DEGs between W-LS and B-LS. Further analysis showed that 18 DEGs were directly involved in the pigmentation process and melanogenesis signalling pathway. Additionally, the distribution of DEGs varied amongst groups whereby ASIP appeared only in the W-LS versus B-LS group, GNAI1 and ZEB2 appeared only in the W-PTW versus B-PTB group, and KITLG, EDN3 and FZD4 appeared only in W-PTB versus B-PTB.4. The findings suggested that the mechanism of feather albinism may differ between duck breeds. This study provided new information for discovering genes that are important for feather pigmentation and helps elucidate molecular mechanisms involved in black and white plumage in ducks.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Patos , Animais , Galinhas/genética , China , Patos/genética , Plumas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Transcriptoma
19.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 316: 113946, 2022 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822843

RESUMO

In birds, feather corticosterone values (CORTf) are increasingly used as a retrospective and integrative proxy of an individual's physiological state during the period of feather growth. Relatively high CORTf values are usually interpreted as an indicator of exposure to energy-demanding or stressful conditions during feather growth. However, in nestlings this interpretation might not always hold true. The reasons are that, firstly nestlings (especially altricial ones) still develop their hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) reactivity during the growth of their feathers. Hence, at a young age, nestlings might be unable to mount a substantial adrenocortical stress response. Secondly, some species are able to down-regulate their metabolism during food scarcity and therewith probably also their CORT release. Consequently, CORTf values may not unambiguously reflect whether nestlings have suffered from energy-demanding or stress situations. Relatively high CORTf values might indicate either energy-demanding or stressful conditions ('stress responsive hypothesis'), or - conversely - favourable conditions during the period of feather growth ('hypo-responsive hypothesis'). In the altricial Alpine swift (Tachymarptis melba), we tested which factors help to distinguish between the two hypotheses by considering factors which affect CORT release (brood size, weather) and factors which are affected by high CORT levels (nestling size and condition). We measured CORTf in 205 nestlings over 7 years and collected data on brood size, body size, body condition and prevailing weather. Nestling CORTf values were positively correlated with body condition and negatively with adverse weather, supporting the hypo-responsive hypothesis. Results from the Alpine swift study, supplemented with a survey of the literature, show that relatively easily collected parameters on brood size, nestling size and condition, and environmental factors can help to distinguish between the two hypotheses. A meaningful interpretation of nestling CORTf should only be made in the context of species-specific traits.


Assuntos
Corticosterona , Plumas , Animais , Aves/metabolismo , Corticosterona/metabolismo , Plumas/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tempo (Meteorologia)
20.
J Appl Microbiol ; 132(3): 2067-2079, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811844

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the potential of novel Bacillus velezensis P45 as an eco-friendly alternative for bioprocessing poultry by-products into valuable antimicrobial products. METHODS AND RESULTS: The complete genome of B. velezensis P45 was sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform, showing 4455 protein and 98 RNA coding sequences according to the annotation on the RAST server. Moreover, the genome contains eight gene clusters for the production of antimicrobial secondary metabolites and 25 putative protease-related genes, which can be related to feather-degrading activity. Then, in vitro tests were performed to determine the production of antimicrobial compounds using feather, feather meal and brain-heart infusion (BHI) cultures. Antimicrobial activity was observed in feather meal and BHI media, reaching 800 and 3200 AU ml-1 against Listeria monocytogenes respectively. Mass spectrometry analysis indicates the production of antimicrobial lipopeptides surfactin, fengycin and iturin. CONCLUSIONS: The biotechnological potential of B. velezensis P45 was deciphered through genome analysis and in vitro studies. This strain produced antimicrobial lipopeptides growing on feather meal, a low-cost substrate. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF STUDY: The production of antimicrobial peptides by this keratinolytic strain may represent a sustainable alternative for recycling by-products from poultry industry. Furthermore, whole B. velezensis P45 genome sequence was obtained and deposited.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Plumas , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bacillus , Plumas/metabolismo , Genoma Bacteriano , Genômica , Lipopeptídeos/química
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