Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 194
Filtrar
1.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 107(23): 7055-7070, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37750916

RESUMO

Feathers become hazardous pollutants when deposited directly into the environment. The rapid expansion of the poultry industry has significantly increased feather waste, necessitating the development of new ways to degrade and utilize feathers. This study investigated the ability of Bacillus licheniformis WHU to digest intact chicken feathers in water. The results indicated that yields of free amino acids, bioactive peptides, and keratin-derived nano-/micro-particles were improved in bacteria- versus purified keratinase-derived feather hydrolysate. Bacteria-derived feather hydrolysate supplementation induced health benefits in mice, including significantly increased intestinal villus height and zonula occludens-1 protein expression, as well as increased secretory immunoglobulin A levels in the intestinal mucosa and superoxide dismutase activity in serum. Additionally, feather hydrolysate supplementation modulated the mouse gut microbiota, reflected by increased relative abundance of probiotics such as Lactobacillus spp., decreased relative abundance of Proteobacteria at the phylum level and pathogens such as Staphylococcus spp., and increased Bacteroidota/Firmicutes ratio. This study developed a simple, cost-effective method to degrade feathers by B. licheniformis WHU digestion, yielding a hydrolysate that can be directly used as a bioactive nutrient resource. The study findings have applications in the livestock, poultry, and aquaculture industries, which have high demands for cheap protein. KEY POINTS: • Bacillus licheniformis could degrade intact feather in water. • The resulting feather hydrolysate shows prebiotic effects on mouse.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis , Animais , Camundongos , Bacillus licheniformis/metabolismo , Plumas/química , Plumas/metabolismo , Plumas/microbiologia , Água/metabolismo , Galinhas , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Aves Domésticas , Bactérias/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Queratinas/metabolismo
2.
Microbiol Res ; 274: 127439, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37364416

RESUMO

Microbial keratinases have prominent potential in biotransformation of recalcitrant keratin substrates to value-added products which has made keratinases a research focus in the past decades. In this study, an efficient feather-degrading bacterium was isolated and identified as a novel species in Ectobacillus genus and designated as Ectobacillus sp. JY-23. The degradation characteristics analysis revealed that Ectobacillus sp. JY-23 could utilize chicken feathers (0.4% w/v) as the sole nutrient source and degraded 92.95% of feathers in 72 h. A significant increase in sulfite and free sulfydryl group content detected in the feather hydrolysate (culture supernatant) indicated efficient reduction of disulfide bonds, which inferred that the degradation mechanism of isolated strain was a synergetic action of sulfitolysis and proteolysis. Moreover, abundant amino acids were also detected, among which proline and glycine were the predominant free amino acids. Then, the keratinase of Ectobacillus sp. JY-23 was mined and Y1_15990 was identified as the keratinase encoding gene of Ectobacillus sp. JY-23 and designated as kerJY-23. Escherichia coli strain overexpressing kerJY-23 degraded chicken feathers in 48 h. Finally, bioinformatics prediction of KerJY-23 demonstrated that it belonged to the M4 metalloprotease family, which was a third keratinase member in this family. KerJY-23 showed low sequence identity to the other two keratinase members, indicating the novelty of KerJY-23. Overall, this study presents a novel feather-degrading bacterium and a new keratinase in the M4 metalloprotease family with remarkable potential in feather keratin valorization.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Plumas , Animais , Plumas/metabolismo , Plumas/microbiologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Metaloproteases/metabolismo , Queratinas/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
3.
J Appl Microbiol ; 134(2)2023 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36639131

RESUMO

AIMS: Feathers are keratin-rich byproducts of poultry processing, but those are often frequently abandoned as garbage and thus polluting the environment. Therefore, the study focused on the efficient biodegradation, bioactivity, and high-value application of feather keratin. METHODS AND RESULTS: Feather-degrading bacteria were identified, and the degradation properties were characterized. DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) and ABTS (2,2'-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid))radical scavenging assays, cytotoxicity assays, intracellular reactive oxygen scavenging assays, and cell migration assays were used to examine the biological activities of the feather keratin hydrolysis peptides (FKHPs). The results showed that we screened a feather-degrading strain of Bacillus licheniformis 8-4, which achieved complete degradation of 2% (w/v) feathers within 48 h. Notably, the feather fermentation broth was particularly high in FKHPs, which exhibited good DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging ability. Further studies revealed that FKHPs had both the ability to scavenge H2O2-induced ROS from HaCat cells and the ability to promote HaCat cell migration, while remaining non-toxic. CONCLUSIONS: The effective feather-degrading ability of B. licheniformis 8-4 allowed for the fermentation of feather medium to yield active peptides that were both antioxidants and cell-migration enhancers.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Plumas/química , Plumas/metabolismo , Plumas/microbiologia , Queratinas/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Galinhas , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo
4.
Environ Technol ; 44(3): 293-303, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397312

RESUMO

Keratinous biomass valorization for value-added products presents a high prospect in ecological management and the advancement of the bio-economy. Consequently, soil samples from the poultry dumpsite were collected. The bacteria isolated on the basal salt medium were screened for keratinolytic activity. The potent chicken feathers degrading bacteria were identified through 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Fermentation process conditions were optimized, and the amino acid compositions of the feather hydrolysate were likewise quantified. Ten (10) proteolytic bacteria evaluated on skimmed milk agar showed intact chicken feather degradation ranging from 33% (WDS-03) to 88% (FPS-09). The extracellular keratinase activity ranged from 224.52 ± 42.46 U/mL (WDS-03) to 834.55 ± 66.86 U/mL (FPS-07). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, the most potent keratinolytic isolates coded as FPS-07, FPS-09, FPS-01, and WDS-06 were identified as Chryseobacterium aquifrigidense FANN1, Chryseobacterium aquifrigidense FANN2, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ANNb, and Bacillus sp. ANNa, respectively. C aquifrigidense FANN2 maximally produced keratinase (1460.90 ± 26.99 U/mL) at 72 h of incubation under optimal process conditions of pH (6), inoculum side (5%; v/v), temperature (30°C), and chicken feather (25 g/L). The feather hydrolysate showed a protein value of 67.54%, with a relative abundance of arginine (2.84%), serine (3.14%), aspartic acid (3.33%), glutamic acid (3.73%), and glycine (2.81%). C. aquifrigidense FANN2 yielded high keratinase titre and dismembered chicken feathers into amino acids-rich hydrolysate, highlighting its significance in the beneficiation of recalcitrant keratinous wastes into dietary proteins as potential livestock feed supplements.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Plumas , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/metabolismo , Plumas/química , Plumas/metabolismo , Plumas/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Filogenia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/análise , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/genética , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Queratinas/análise , Queratinas/genética , Queratinas/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
5.
Mol Ecol ; 32(9): 2115-2133, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35152516

RESUMO

The microbiota is suggested to be a fundamental contributor to host reproduction and survival, but associations between microbiota and fitness are rare, especially for wild animals. Here, we tested the association between microbiota and two proxies of breeding performance in multiple body sites of the black-legged kittiwake, a seabird species. First we found that, in females, nonbreeders (i.e., birds that did not lay eggs) hosted different microbiota composition to that of breeders in neck and flank feathers, in the choanae, in the outer-bill and in the cloacae, but not in preen feathers and tracheae. These differences in microbiota might reflect variations in age or individual quality between breeders and nonbreeders. Second, we found that better female breeders (i.e., with higher body condition, earlier laying date, heavier eggs, larger clutch, and higher hatching success) had lower abundance of several Corynebacteriaceae in cloaca than poorer female breeders, suggesting that these bacteria might be pathogenic. Third, in females, better breeders had different microbiota composition and lower microbiota diversity in feathers, especially in preen feathers. They had also reduced dispersion in microbiota composition across body sites. These results might suggest that good breeding females are able to control their feather microbiota-potentially through preen secretions-more tightly than poor breeding females. We did not find strong evidence for an association between reproductive outcome and microbiota in males. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that natural variation in the microbiota is associated with differences in host fitness in wild animals, but the causal relationships remain to be investigated.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Microbiota , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Aves , Microbiota/genética , Bactérias , Plumas/microbiologia , Reprodução
6.
Biotechnol Appl Biochem ; 70(3): 1258-1269, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36579721

RESUMO

Valorization of chicken feather is a long-sought approach for its sustainable disposal. Being protein rich, hydrolyzed chicken feather has a wide range of applications, not limited to formulation of microbiological culture media, animal feed, and biofertilizers, but extends to synthesis of bioplastic films, cosmetics, and biomedicals. In this study, a potent keratinolytic isolate was recovered from soil and identified by 16S rRNA as Bacillus thuringiensis. Feather degradation by the isolate was optimized through response surface methodology. First, one-variable-at-a-time technique to assign the factors that affect feather degradation, then Box-Behnken central composite design model were employed. The model, involving three independent variables (initial pH, inoculum size, and concentration of supplementary glucose), was significant (R2  = 0.9716). According to the model, complete feather degradation is obtained at an inoculum size of B. thuringiensis B4 equal to 1 × 1010  CFU/ml, when feather meal broth is supplemented with 1.5% (w/v) glucose and pH adjusted to 8.5. Protein content of the lysate was 327.8 ± 25 µg/ml, and no carbohydrates were detected. SEM/EDX analysis has shown that the hydrolysate consisted mainly of O, P, S, and Se in addition to carbon, while FTIR images assured the presence of carboxyl and amino groups characteristic of peptides and amino acids.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/metabolismo , Plumas/química , Plumas/metabolismo , Plumas/microbiologia , Hidrolisados de Proteína/análise , Hidrolisados de Proteína/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/metabolismo
7.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(9): 565, 2022 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35982264

RESUMO

The aim of this present work was to explore the potential feather-degrading bacterial isolates were isolated from poultry farm soil. Isolation and screening of keratinase-producing bacterial isolates were performed in keratin agar medium. The potential keratinase-producing bacterial isolates were identified using morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization. Degradation of chicken feather was optimized using different nutrient or physical factors in feather meal broth medium. Soluble peptide, amino acid and free thiol group liberation during feather degradation were estimated too. The isolated bacterial isolates were found significantly degrading the chicken feathers with keratinase enzyme production. The present study revealed a significantly novel feather-degrading Geobacillus thermodenitrificans PS41 bacterial isolate, isolated from poultry farm soil.


Assuntos
Plumas , Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Fazendas , Plumas/química , Plumas/metabolismo , Plumas/microbiologia , Geobacillus , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Solo
8.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e257473, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544789

RESUMO

Feathers make up 7% of the total weight of adult chickens and keratin protein makes up 85% of the feathers. Today, the keratinase enzymes of some Bacillus strains are used to degrade and process raw keratin waste for animal and poultry feed. According to various studies, the probiotic properties of some spore-shaped Bacillus have also been proven. The study aimed to isolation of the keratinolytic Bacillus bacteria that they have probiotic properties for using in the livestock and poultry feed industry. We were able to isolate 8 strains of Bacillus licheniformis with kreatin degrading properties from the soil of Baharan chicken slaughterhouse (Qom city, Iran) applying heat shock, alcohol- and keratin-rich culture medium, and after microscopic and biochemical analysis, 16S rDNA gene was isolated. The measurement results of keratinase activity showed that the three strains of Bacillus licheniformis pvkr6, pvkr 15, and pvkr41 had the highest activity with 124.08, 101.1, and 100.18 U/ml. The results of probiotic properties evaluation also revealed that among all the isolates, only Bacillus licheniformis pvkr15 and Bacillus licheniformis PTCC 1595 (positive control) were γ-hemolytic strains. The percentage of surface hydrophobicity of the strains was obtained from 3.27 to 30.57. It was also shown that, on average, all the strains had acceptable susceptibility to the tested antibiotics except penicillin G. Bacillus licheniformis pvkr15 with highest keratinase activity (101.1U/ml) was considered an optional probiotics due to its abilities such as (biofilm formation, being safe cause of γ-hemolytic activity, high susceptibility to antibiotics such as streptomycin, gentamicin, cefixime, amoxicillin, tetracycline, vancomycin, erythromycin and having a moderate hydrophilic (hydrophobicity: 19.09%), high survivability in pH 2, 2.5 and 3, strong resistance to bile salts and moderate antagonistic activity against pathogenic bacterium like Proteus mirabilis and the ability to grow under anaerobic conditions). By using this strain, after hydrolysis of keratin protein in the feather structure, to replace part of the protein of livestock and poultry feed, not only is no need to separate bacteria from the feed, but also the strain play role of an useful and effective additive in animal growth.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Probióticos , Matadouros , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/metabolismo , Galinhas , Plumas/química , Plumas/metabolismo , Plumas/microbiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Queratinas/análise , Queratinas/química , Queratinas/metabolismo , Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Probióticos/análise , Probióticos/farmacologia , Solo
9.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248026, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544900

RESUMO

Poultry industry is amongst highly developed industries of Pakistan, fulfilling the protein demand of rapidly increasing population. On the other hand, the untreated poultry waste is causing several health and environmental problems. The current study was designed to check the potential of keratinolytic fungal species for the conversion of chicken-feather waste into biofortified compost. For the purpose, three fungal species were isolated from soil samples. These strains were pure cultured and then characterized phenotypically and genotypically. BLAST searches of 18S rDNA nucleotide sequence of the fungal isolates revealed that the two fungal isolates belonged to genus Aspergillus and one belonged to genus Chrysosporium. Optimum temperature for Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Chrysosporium queenslandicum was 29, 26 and 25 oC, respectively. A. flavus showed maximum (53%) feather degradation, A. niger degraded feather waste up to 37%, while C. queenslandicum showed 21% keratinolytic activity on chicken feathers at their respective temperature optima. The degradation potential of these fungal species showed their ability to form compost that has agro-industrial importance.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Plumas , Animais , Galinhas , Plumas/metabolismo , Plumas/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas , Temperatura
10.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(6): 166, 2022 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35460448

RESUMO

Keratinase is an important enzyme that is used to degrade feather wastes produced by poultry industries and slaughterhouses that accumulate rapidly over time. The search for keratinase-producing microorganisms is important to potentially substitute physicochemical treatments of feather waste. In this study, the genome of Bacillus cereus HD1 and its keratinolytic prowess was investigated. The whole-genome shotgun size is 5,668,864 bp consisting of 6083 genes, 69 tRNAs, and 10 rRNAs. The genomic analyses revealed 15 potential keratinase genes and other enzymes that might assist keratin degradation, such as disulfide reductase and cysteine dioxygenase. The optimal conditions for feather degradation and keratinase production by B. cereus HD1 such as incubation time, pH, temperature, yeast extract, and glycerol concentrations were determined to be 5 days, pH 8, 37 °C, 0.05% (w/v), and 0.1% (v/v), respectively. Under optimized conditions, B. cereus HD1 exhibited feather degradation of 65%, with bacterial growth and maximum keratinase activity of 1.3 × 1011 CFU/mL and 41 U/mL, respectively, after 5 days of incubation in a feather basal medium. The findings obtained from this study may facilitate further research into utilizing B. cereus HD1 as a prominent keratinolytic enzymes production host and warrant potential biotechnological applications.


Assuntos
Bacillus cereus , Plumas , Animais , Bacillus cereus/genética , Bacillus cereus/metabolismo , Galinhas , Plumas/química , Plumas/metabolismo , Plumas/microbiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292147

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile, non-spore-forming, aerobic, yellow-pigmented bacterium was isolated from chicken feather waste collected from an abattoir in Bloemfontein, South Africa. A polyphasic taxonomy study was used to describe and name the bacterial isolate, strain 1_F178T. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and sequence comparison data indicated that strain 1_F178T was a member of the genus Chryseobacterium and was closely related to Chryseobacterium jejuense (99.1%) and Chryseobacterium nakagawai (98.7%). Overall genome similarity metrics (average nucleotide identity, digital DNA-DNA hybridization and average amino acid identity) revealed greatest similarity to the C. jejuense and C. nakagawai type strains but were below the threshold for species delineation. Genome sequencing revealed a genome size of 6.18 Mbp and a G+C content of 35.6 mol%. The major respiratory quinone and most abundant polar lipid of strain 1_F178T were menaquinone-6 and phosphatidylethanolamine, respectively. Strain 1_F178T had a typical fatty acid composition for Chryseobacterium species. On the basis of physiological, genotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic data, strain 1_F178T constitutes a novel species of Chryseobacterium, for which the name Chryseobacterium pennae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1_F178T (=LMG 30779T=KCTC 62759T).


Assuntos
Chryseobacterium/classificação , Plumas/microbiologia , Filogenia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Chryseobacterium/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Tamanho do Genoma , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , África do Sul , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
12.
J Mycol Med ; 31(2): 101133, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774386

RESUMO

A total of 70 feathers samples of Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) were collected from 7 Emu farms situated at two districts (Raigad and Thane) of Maharashtra (India) and screened for resident keratinophilic fungi. Among them, 44 isolates were recovered and identified by evaluating characteristic macro- and micro-morphological features. Further gene products corresponding to the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region from all isolates were amplified and sequenced. Homology search was performed using BLAST program against non-redundant nucleotide database, and significantly matched DNA sequences deposited to the NCBI Gene Bank for reference purposes. Eight identified fungal species belongs to 7 different genera named as Aphanoascus terreus Ac_MW577456 (21.43%), Microsporum gypseum Ac_MW580920 (14.29%), Ctenomyces serratus Ac_MW577459 (10.0%), Uncinocarpus orissi Ac_MW577461 (5.17%), Aphanoascus verrucosus Ac_MW577458 (4.29%), Gymnascella dankaliensis Ac_MW577460 (2.86%), Gymnoascoideus petalosporus Ac_MW577462 (2.86%) and Arthroderma tuberculatum Ac_MW577457 (1.43%).


Assuntos
Dromaiidae/microbiologia , Plumas/microbiologia , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Queratinas/metabolismo , Animais , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Dromaiidae/anatomia & histologia , Fazendas , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Índia , Microbiologia do Solo
13.
Biotechnol Lett ; 43(4): 835-844, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386496

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The co-encapsulation of bioactive peptides obtained from degradation of chicken feathers and flexirubin-type pigment produced by Chryseobacterium sp. kr6 into phosphatidylcholine liposomes was investigated. RESULTS: Control empty liposomes showed mean diameter of 168.5 nm, varying to 185.4, 102.0 and 98.5 nm after the encapsulation of peptides, pigment and their co-encapsulation, respectively. Control liposomes presented zeta potential of - 20.9 mV, while the formulations containing the bioactive compounds showed values of - 30 mV or higher in magnitude. Infrared analysis revealed typical spectra for phosphatidylcholine, suggesting that no new chemical bonds were formed after encapsulation. ABTS radical scavenging assay showed that the antioxidant activity of the compounds was maintained after encapsulation. CONCLUSIONS: Feather waste can be a valuable substrate for simultaneous production of antioxidant peptides and pigment by Chryseobacterium sp. kr6, and their encapsulation into liposomes may be a suitable alternative for delivery of these natural antioxidants.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Chryseobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plumas/microbiologia , Polienos/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biotransformação , Cápsulas , Chryseobacterium/metabolismo , Corantes/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Plumas/química , Lipossomos/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Fosfatidilcolinas/química
14.
J Biochem ; 168(5): 499-508, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597969

RESUMO

Prolyl endopeptidase from an aerobic and Gram-negative thermophile Meiothermus ruber H328 (MrPEP) was purified in native and recombinant forms, but both preparations had comparable characteristics. Production of the native MrPEP was increased 10-fold by adding intact chicken feathers. The gene for MrPEP (mrH_2860) was cloned from the genome of strain H328 and found to have no signal sequence at the N-terminus. MrPEP is composed of two major domains: the ß-propeller domain and the peptidase domain with a typical active site motif and catalytic triad. Based on extensive investigations with different types of peptide substrates and FRETS-25Xaa libraries, MrPEP showed strict preferences for Pro residue at the P1 position but broader preferences at the P2 and P3 positions in substrate specificity with stronger affinity for residues at the P3 position of substrate peptides that are longer than four residues in length. In conclusion, the molecular characterization of MrPEP resembles its animal counterparts more closely than bacterial counterparts in function and structure.


Assuntos
Bactérias/enzimologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Plumas/microbiologia , Prolil Oligopeptidases/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Catálise , Galinhas , Plumas/metabolismo , Prolil Oligopeptidases/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Homologia de Sequência , Especificidade por Substrato
15.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 191, 2020 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332852

RESUMO

Feather waste is the highest protein-containing resource in nature and is poorly reused. Bioconversion is widely accepted as a low-cost and environmentally benign process, but limited by the availability of safe and highly efficient feather degrading bacteria (FDB) for its industrial-scale fermentation. Excessive focuses on keratinase and limited knowledge of other factors have hindered complete understanding of the mechanisms employed by FDB to utilize feathers and feather cycling in the biosphere. Streptomyces sp. SCUT-3 can efficiently degrade feather to products with high amino acid content, useful as a nutrition source for animals, plants and microorganisms. Using multiple omics and other techniques, we reveal how SCUT-3 turns on its feather utilization machinery, including its colonization, reducing agent and protease secretion, peptide/amino acid importation and metabolism, oxygen consumption and iron uptake, spore formation and resuscitation, and so on. This study would shed light on the feather utilization mechanisms of FDBs.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Plumas/microbiologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Streptomyces/enzimologia , Resíduos , beta-Queratinas/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Plumas/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Proteólise , Streptomyces/genética , Especificidade por Substrato
16.
Molecules ; 25(7)2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32225031

RESUMO

Chicken feathers are predominantly composed of keratin; hence, valorizing the wastes becomes an imperative. In view of this, we isolated keratinase-producing bacteria and identified them through the 16S rDNA sequence. The process condition for keratinase activity was optimized, and electron micrography of the degradation timelines was determined. Keratinolytic bacteria were isolated and identified as Bacillus sp. FPF-1, Chryseobacterium sp. FPF-8, Brevibacillus sp. Nnolim-K2, Brevibacillus sp. FPF-12 and Brevibacillus sp. FSS-1; and their respective nucleotide sequences were deposited in GenBank, with the accession numbers MG214993, MG214994, MG214995, MG214996 and MG214999. The degree of feather degradation and keratinase concentration among the isolates ranged from 62.5 ± 2.12 to 86.0 ± 1.41(%) and 214.55 ± 5.14 to 440.01 ± 20.57 (U/mL), respectively. In the same vein, 0.1% (w/v) xylose, 0.5% (w/v) chicken feather, an initial fermentation pH of 5.0, fermentation temperature of 25 °C and an agitation speed of 150 rpm, respectively, served as the optimal physicochemical conditions for keratinase activity by Bacillus sp. FPF-1. The time course showed that Bacillus sp. FPF-1 yielded a keratinase concentration of 1698.18 ± 53.99(U/mL) at 120 h. The electron microscopic imaging showed completely structural dismemberment of intact chicken feather. Bacillus sp. FPF-1 holds great potential in the valorization of recalcitrant keratinous biomass from the agro sector into useful products.


Assuntos
Bacillus/enzimologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Plumas/química , Plumas/microbiologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/química , Animais , Bacillus/classificação , Bacillus/genética , Galinhas , Ativação Enzimática , Plumas/ultraestrutura , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Queratinas/química , Queratinas/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Temperatura , Xilose/química
17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12921, 2019 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501471

RESUMO

Birds present a stunning diversity of plumage colors that have long fascinated evolutionary ecologists. Although plumage coloration is often linked to sexual selection, it may impact a number of physiological processes, including microbial resistance. At present, the degree to which differences between pigment-based vs. structural plumage coloration may affect the feather microbiota remains unanswered. Using quantitative PCR and DGGE profiling, we investigated feather microbial load, diversity and community structure among two allopatric subspecies of White-shouldered Fairywren, Malurus alboscapulatus that vary in expression of melanin-based vs. structural plumage coloration. We found that microbial load tended to be lower and feather microbial diversity was significantly higher in the plumage of black iridescent males, compared to black matte females and brown individuals. Moreover, black iridescent males had distinct feather microbial communities compared to black matte females and brown individuals. We suggest that distinctive nanostructure properties of iridescent male feathers or different investment in preening influence feather microbiota community composition and load. This study is the first to point to structural plumage coloration as a factor that may significantly regulate feather microbiota. Future work might explore fitness consequences and the role of microorganisms in the evolution of avian sexual dichromatism, with particular reference to iridescence.


Assuntos
Plumas/microbiologia , Microbiota , Passeriformes , Pigmentação , Animais , Biodiversidade , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Feminino , Masculino , Nova Guiné
18.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(8): 2380-2387, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150322

RESUMO

Strain 7_F195T was previously isolated from chicken feather waste collected from an abattoir in Bloemfontein, South Africa. A polyphasic approach was followed to determine if strain 7_F195T belongs to the genus Chryseobacterium and if the organism can be classified as a new species. The nearest neighbours, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values (indicated in parentheses), were Chryseobacterium flavum KCTC 12877T (98.42 %), Chryseobacterium indologenesLMG 8337T (98.24 %) and Chryseobacterium gleum ATCC 35910T (97.71 %). Genome sequencing revealed a genome size of 4 796 535 bp and a DNA G+C content of 38.6 mol%. The ANI values of strain 7_F195T compared to C. flavum, C. indologenesand C. gleum were 81.45, 81.86 and 82.38 %, respectively. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization values for strain 7_F195T with C. flavum, C. indologenes and C. gleum were 23.7, 23.7 and 24.9 %, respectively. Notable phenotypic differences include the presence of urease activity in C. indologenes LMG 8337T and C. gleum NCTC 11432T, but not in strain 7_F195T or C. flavum KCTC 12877T. The predominant fatty acids of strain 7_F195T were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 1ω9c and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and the most abundant polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. Menaquinone-6 was the only respiratory quinone. Based on the data generated from this polyphasic study, strain 7_F195T represents a novel Chryseobacterium species for which the name Chryseobacteriumpennipullorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 7_F195T (=LMG 30781T=KCTC 62760T).


Assuntos
Chryseobacterium/classificação , Plumas/microbiologia , Filogenia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Chryseobacterium/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , África do Sul , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
19.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 84, 2019 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chicken feather, a byproduct of poultry-processing industries, are considered a potential high-quality protein supplement owing to their crude protein content of more than 85%. Nonetheless, chicken feathers have been classified as waste because of the lack of effective recycling methods. In our previous studies, Bacillus licheniformis BBE11-1 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia BBE11-1 have been shown to have feather-degrading capabilities in the qualitative phase. To efficiently recycle chicken feather waste, in this study, we investigated the characteristics of feather degradation by B. licheniformis BBE11-1 and S. maltophilia BBE11-1. In addition, in an analysis of the respective advantages of the two degradation systems, cocultivation was found to improve the efficiency of chicken feather waste degradation. RESULTS: B. licheniformis BBE11-1 and S. maltophilia BBE11-1 were used to degrade 50 g/L chicken feather waste in batches, and the degradation rates were 35.4% and 22.8% in 96 h, respectively. The degradation rate of the coculture system reached 55.2% because of higher keratinase and protease activities. Furthermore, cocultivation was conducted in a 3 L fermenter by integrating dissolved oxygen control and a two-stage temperature control strategy. Thus, the degradation rate was greatly increased to 81.8%, and the conversion rate was 70.0% in 48 h. The hydrolysates exhibited antioxidant activity and contained large quantities of amino acids (895.89 mg/L) and soluble peptides. CONCLUSIONS: Cocultivation of B. licheniformis BBE11-1 and S. maltophilia BBE11-1 can efficiently degrade 50 g/L chicken feather waste and produce large amounts of amino acids and antioxidant substances at a conversion rate of 70.0%.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacillus licheniformis/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cocultura/métodos , Plumas/microbiologia , Fermentação , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/metabolismo , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Reatores Biológicos , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Resíduos
20.
ISME J ; 13(9): 2363-2376, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127178

RESUMO

The functional relevance of microbiota is a key aspect for understanding host-microbiota interactions. Mammalian skin harbours a complex consortium of beneficial microorganisms known to provide health and immune-boosting advantages. As yet, however, little is known about functional microbial communities on avian feathers, including their co-evolution with the host and factors determining feather microbiota (FM) diversity. Using 16S rRNA profiling, we investigated how host species identity, phylogeny and geographic origin determine FM in free-living passerine birds. Moreover, we estimated the relative abundance of bacteriocin-producing bacteria (BPB) and keratinolytic feather damaging bacteria (FDB) and evaluated the ability of BPB to affect FM diversity and relative abundance of FDB. Host species identity was associated with feather bacterial communities more strongly than host geographic origin. FM functional properties differed in terms of estimated BPB and FDB relative abundance, with both showing interspecific variation. FM diversity was negatively associated with BPB relative abundance across species, whereas BPB and FDB relative abundance was positively correlated. This study provides the first thorough evaluation of antimicrobial peptides-producing bacterial communities inhabiting the feather integument, including their likely potential to mediate niche-competition and to be associated with functional species-specific feather microbiota in avian hosts.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bacteriocinas/biossíntese , Aves/microbiologia , Plumas/microbiologia , Microbiota , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA