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1.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(9): 565, 2022 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35982264

RESUMO

The aim of this present work was to explore the potential feather-degrading bacterial isolates were isolated from poultry farm soil. Isolation and screening of keratinase-producing bacterial isolates were performed in keratin agar medium. The potential keratinase-producing bacterial isolates were identified using morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization. Degradation of chicken feather was optimized using different nutrient or physical factors in feather meal broth medium. Soluble peptide, amino acid and free thiol group liberation during feather degradation were estimated too. The isolated bacterial isolates were found significantly degrading the chicken feathers with keratinase enzyme production. The present study revealed a significantly novel feather-degrading Geobacillus thermodenitrificans PS41 bacterial isolate, isolated from poultry farm soil.


Assuntos
Plumas , Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Fazendas , Plumas/química , Plumas/metabolismo , Plumas/microbiologia , Geobacillus , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Solo
2.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e257473, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544789

RESUMO

Feathers make up 7% of the total weight of adult chickens and keratin protein makes up 85% of the feathers. Today, the keratinase enzymes of some Bacillus strains are used to degrade and process raw keratin waste for animal and poultry feed. According to various studies, the probiotic properties of some spore-shaped Bacillus have also been proven. The study aimed to isolation of the keratinolytic Bacillus bacteria that they have probiotic properties for using in the livestock and poultry feed industry. We were able to isolate 8 strains of Bacillus licheniformis with kreatin degrading properties from the soil of Baharan chicken slaughterhouse (Qom city, Iran) applying heat shock, alcohol- and keratin-rich culture medium, and after microscopic and biochemical analysis, 16S rDNA gene was isolated. The measurement results of keratinase activity showed that the three strains of Bacillus licheniformis pvkr6, pvkr 15, and pvkr41 had the highest activity with 124.08, 101.1, and 100.18 U/ml. The results of probiotic properties evaluation also revealed that among all the isolates, only Bacillus licheniformis pvkr15 and Bacillus licheniformis PTCC 1595 (positive control) were γ-hemolytic strains. The percentage of surface hydrophobicity of the strains was obtained from 3.27 to 30.57. It was also shown that, on average, all the strains had acceptable susceptibility to the tested antibiotics except penicillin G. Bacillus licheniformis pvkr15 with highest keratinase activity (101.1U/ml) was considered an optional probiotics due to its abilities such as (biofilm formation, being safe cause of γ-hemolytic activity, high susceptibility to antibiotics such as streptomycin, gentamicin, cefixime, amoxicillin, tetracycline, vancomycin, erythromycin and having a moderate hydrophilic (hydrophobicity: 19.09%), high survivability in pH 2, 2.5 and 3, strong resistance to bile salts and moderate antagonistic activity against pathogenic bacterium like Proteus mirabilis and the ability to grow under anaerobic conditions). By using this strain, after hydrolysis of keratin protein in the feather structure, to replace part of the protein of livestock and poultry feed, not only is no need to separate bacteria from the feed, but also the strain play role of an useful and effective additive in animal growth.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Probióticos , Matadouros , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/metabolismo , Galinhas , Plumas/química , Plumas/metabolismo , Plumas/microbiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Queratinas/análise , Queratinas/química , Queratinas/metabolismo , Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Probióticos/análise , Probióticos/farmacologia , Solo
3.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248026, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544900

RESUMO

Poultry industry is amongst highly developed industries of Pakistan, fulfilling the protein demand of rapidly increasing population. On the other hand, the untreated poultry waste is causing several health and environmental problems. The current study was designed to check the potential of keratinolytic fungal species for the conversion of chicken-feather waste into biofortified compost. For the purpose, three fungal species were isolated from soil samples. These strains were pure cultured and then characterized phenotypically and genotypically. BLAST searches of 18S rDNA nucleotide sequence of the fungal isolates revealed that the two fungal isolates belonged to genus Aspergillus and one belonged to genus Chrysosporium. Optimum temperature for Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Chrysosporium queenslandicum was 29, 26 and 25 oC, respectively. A. flavus showed maximum (53%) feather degradation, A. niger degraded feather waste up to 37%, while C. queenslandicum showed 21% keratinolytic activity on chicken feathers at their respective temperature optima. The degradation potential of these fungal species showed their ability to form compost that has agro-industrial importance.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Plumas , Animais , Galinhas , Plumas/metabolismo , Plumas/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas , Temperatura
4.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(6): 166, 2022 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35460448

RESUMO

Keratinase is an important enzyme that is used to degrade feather wastes produced by poultry industries and slaughterhouses that accumulate rapidly over time. The search for keratinase-producing microorganisms is important to potentially substitute physicochemical treatments of feather waste. In this study, the genome of Bacillus cereus HD1 and its keratinolytic prowess was investigated. The whole-genome shotgun size is 5,668,864 bp consisting of 6083 genes, 69 tRNAs, and 10 rRNAs. The genomic analyses revealed 15 potential keratinase genes and other enzymes that might assist keratin degradation, such as disulfide reductase and cysteine dioxygenase. The optimal conditions for feather degradation and keratinase production by B. cereus HD1 such as incubation time, pH, temperature, yeast extract, and glycerol concentrations were determined to be 5 days, pH 8, 37 °C, 0.05% (w/v), and 0.1% (v/v), respectively. Under optimized conditions, B. cereus HD1 exhibited feather degradation of 65%, with bacterial growth and maximum keratinase activity of 1.3 × 1011 CFU/mL and 41 U/mL, respectively, after 5 days of incubation in a feather basal medium. The findings obtained from this study may facilitate further research into utilizing B. cereus HD1 as a prominent keratinolytic enzymes production host and warrant potential biotechnological applications.


Assuntos
Bacillus cereus , Plumas , Animais , Bacillus cereus/genética , Bacillus cereus/metabolismo , Galinhas , Plumas/química , Plumas/metabolismo , Plumas/microbiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292147

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile, non-spore-forming, aerobic, yellow-pigmented bacterium was isolated from chicken feather waste collected from an abattoir in Bloemfontein, South Africa. A polyphasic taxonomy study was used to describe and name the bacterial isolate, strain 1_F178T. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and sequence comparison data indicated that strain 1_F178T was a member of the genus Chryseobacterium and was closely related to Chryseobacterium jejuense (99.1%) and Chryseobacterium nakagawai (98.7%). Overall genome similarity metrics (average nucleotide identity, digital DNA-DNA hybridization and average amino acid identity) revealed greatest similarity to the C. jejuense and C. nakagawai type strains but were below the threshold for species delineation. Genome sequencing revealed a genome size of 6.18 Mbp and a G+C content of 35.6 mol%. The major respiratory quinone and most abundant polar lipid of strain 1_F178T were menaquinone-6 and phosphatidylethanolamine, respectively. Strain 1_F178T had a typical fatty acid composition for Chryseobacterium species. On the basis of physiological, genotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic data, strain 1_F178T constitutes a novel species of Chryseobacterium, for which the name Chryseobacterium pennae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1_F178T (=LMG 30779T=KCTC 62759T).


Assuntos
Chryseobacterium/classificação , Plumas/microbiologia , Filogenia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Chryseobacterium/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Tamanho do Genoma , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , África do Sul , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
6.
J Mycol Med ; 31(2): 101133, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774386

RESUMO

A total of 70 feathers samples of Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) were collected from 7 Emu farms situated at two districts (Raigad and Thane) of Maharashtra (India) and screened for resident keratinophilic fungi. Among them, 44 isolates were recovered and identified by evaluating characteristic macro- and micro-morphological features. Further gene products corresponding to the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region from all isolates were amplified and sequenced. Homology search was performed using BLAST program against non-redundant nucleotide database, and significantly matched DNA sequences deposited to the NCBI Gene Bank for reference purposes. Eight identified fungal species belongs to 7 different genera named as Aphanoascus terreus Ac_MW577456 (21.43%), Microsporum gypseum Ac_MW580920 (14.29%), Ctenomyces serratus Ac_MW577459 (10.0%), Uncinocarpus orissi Ac_MW577461 (5.17%), Aphanoascus verrucosus Ac_MW577458 (4.29%), Gymnascella dankaliensis Ac_MW577460 (2.86%), Gymnoascoideus petalosporus Ac_MW577462 (2.86%) and Arthroderma tuberculatum Ac_MW577457 (1.43%).


Assuntos
Dromaiidae/microbiologia , Plumas/microbiologia , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Queratinas/metabolismo , Animais , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Dromaiidae/anatomia & histologia , Fazendas , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Índia , Microbiologia do Solo
7.
Biotechnol Lett ; 43(4): 835-844, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386496

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The co-encapsulation of bioactive peptides obtained from degradation of chicken feathers and flexirubin-type pigment produced by Chryseobacterium sp. kr6 into phosphatidylcholine liposomes was investigated. RESULTS: Control empty liposomes showed mean diameter of 168.5 nm, varying to 185.4, 102.0 and 98.5 nm after the encapsulation of peptides, pigment and their co-encapsulation, respectively. Control liposomes presented zeta potential of - 20.9 mV, while the formulations containing the bioactive compounds showed values of - 30 mV or higher in magnitude. Infrared analysis revealed typical spectra for phosphatidylcholine, suggesting that no new chemical bonds were formed after encapsulation. ABTS radical scavenging assay showed that the antioxidant activity of the compounds was maintained after encapsulation. CONCLUSIONS: Feather waste can be a valuable substrate for simultaneous production of antioxidant peptides and pigment by Chryseobacterium sp. kr6, and their encapsulation into liposomes may be a suitable alternative for delivery of these natural antioxidants.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Chryseobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plumas/microbiologia , Polienos/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biotransformação , Cápsulas , Chryseobacterium/metabolismo , Corantes/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Plumas/química , Lipossomos/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Fosfatidilcolinas/química
8.
J Biochem ; 168(5): 499-508, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597969

RESUMO

Prolyl endopeptidase from an aerobic and Gram-negative thermophile Meiothermus ruber H328 (MrPEP) was purified in native and recombinant forms, but both preparations had comparable characteristics. Production of the native MrPEP was increased 10-fold by adding intact chicken feathers. The gene for MrPEP (mrH_2860) was cloned from the genome of strain H328 and found to have no signal sequence at the N-terminus. MrPEP is composed of two major domains: the ß-propeller domain and the peptidase domain with a typical active site motif and catalytic triad. Based on extensive investigations with different types of peptide substrates and FRETS-25Xaa libraries, MrPEP showed strict preferences for Pro residue at the P1 position but broader preferences at the P2 and P3 positions in substrate specificity with stronger affinity for residues at the P3 position of substrate peptides that are longer than four residues in length. In conclusion, the molecular characterization of MrPEP resembles its animal counterparts more closely than bacterial counterparts in function and structure.


Assuntos
Bactérias/enzimologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Plumas/microbiologia , Prolil Oligopeptidases/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Catálise , Galinhas , Plumas/metabolismo , Prolil Oligopeptidases/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Homologia de Sequência , Especificidade por Substrato
9.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 191, 2020 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332852

RESUMO

Feather waste is the highest protein-containing resource in nature and is poorly reused. Bioconversion is widely accepted as a low-cost and environmentally benign process, but limited by the availability of safe and highly efficient feather degrading bacteria (FDB) for its industrial-scale fermentation. Excessive focuses on keratinase and limited knowledge of other factors have hindered complete understanding of the mechanisms employed by FDB to utilize feathers and feather cycling in the biosphere. Streptomyces sp. SCUT-3 can efficiently degrade feather to products with high amino acid content, useful as a nutrition source for animals, plants and microorganisms. Using multiple omics and other techniques, we reveal how SCUT-3 turns on its feather utilization machinery, including its colonization, reducing agent and protease secretion, peptide/amino acid importation and metabolism, oxygen consumption and iron uptake, spore formation and resuscitation, and so on. This study would shed light on the feather utilization mechanisms of FDBs.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Plumas/microbiologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Streptomyces/enzimologia , Resíduos , beta-Queratinas/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Plumas/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Proteólise , Streptomyces/genética , Especificidade por Substrato
10.
Molecules ; 25(7)2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32225031

RESUMO

Chicken feathers are predominantly composed of keratin; hence, valorizing the wastes becomes an imperative. In view of this, we isolated keratinase-producing bacteria and identified them through the 16S rDNA sequence. The process condition for keratinase activity was optimized, and electron micrography of the degradation timelines was determined. Keratinolytic bacteria were isolated and identified as Bacillus sp. FPF-1, Chryseobacterium sp. FPF-8, Brevibacillus sp. Nnolim-K2, Brevibacillus sp. FPF-12 and Brevibacillus sp. FSS-1; and their respective nucleotide sequences were deposited in GenBank, with the accession numbers MG214993, MG214994, MG214995, MG214996 and MG214999. The degree of feather degradation and keratinase concentration among the isolates ranged from 62.5 ± 2.12 to 86.0 ± 1.41(%) and 214.55 ± 5.14 to 440.01 ± 20.57 (U/mL), respectively. In the same vein, 0.1% (w/v) xylose, 0.5% (w/v) chicken feather, an initial fermentation pH of 5.0, fermentation temperature of 25 °C and an agitation speed of 150 rpm, respectively, served as the optimal physicochemical conditions for keratinase activity by Bacillus sp. FPF-1. The time course showed that Bacillus sp. FPF-1 yielded a keratinase concentration of 1698.18 ± 53.99(U/mL) at 120 h. The electron microscopic imaging showed completely structural dismemberment of intact chicken feather. Bacillus sp. FPF-1 holds great potential in the valorization of recalcitrant keratinous biomass from the agro sector into useful products.


Assuntos
Bacillus/enzimologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Plumas/química , Plumas/microbiologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/química , Animais , Bacillus/classificação , Bacillus/genética , Galinhas , Ativação Enzimática , Plumas/ultraestrutura , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Queratinas/química , Queratinas/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Temperatura , Xilose/química
11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12921, 2019 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501471

RESUMO

Birds present a stunning diversity of plumage colors that have long fascinated evolutionary ecologists. Although plumage coloration is often linked to sexual selection, it may impact a number of physiological processes, including microbial resistance. At present, the degree to which differences between pigment-based vs. structural plumage coloration may affect the feather microbiota remains unanswered. Using quantitative PCR and DGGE profiling, we investigated feather microbial load, diversity and community structure among two allopatric subspecies of White-shouldered Fairywren, Malurus alboscapulatus that vary in expression of melanin-based vs. structural plumage coloration. We found that microbial load tended to be lower and feather microbial diversity was significantly higher in the plumage of black iridescent males, compared to black matte females and brown individuals. Moreover, black iridescent males had distinct feather microbial communities compared to black matte females and brown individuals. We suggest that distinctive nanostructure properties of iridescent male feathers or different investment in preening influence feather microbiota community composition and load. This study is the first to point to structural plumage coloration as a factor that may significantly regulate feather microbiota. Future work might explore fitness consequences and the role of microorganisms in the evolution of avian sexual dichromatism, with particular reference to iridescence.


Assuntos
Plumas/microbiologia , Microbiota , Passeriformes , Pigmentação , Animais , Biodiversidade , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Feminino , Masculino , Nova Guiné
12.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(8): 2380-2387, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150322

RESUMO

Strain 7_F195T was previously isolated from chicken feather waste collected from an abattoir in Bloemfontein, South Africa. A polyphasic approach was followed to determine if strain 7_F195T belongs to the genus Chryseobacterium and if the organism can be classified as a new species. The nearest neighbours, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values (indicated in parentheses), were Chryseobacterium flavum KCTC 12877T (98.42 %), Chryseobacterium indologenesLMG 8337T (98.24 %) and Chryseobacterium gleum ATCC 35910T (97.71 %). Genome sequencing revealed a genome size of 4 796 535 bp and a DNA G+C content of 38.6 mol%. The ANI values of strain 7_F195T compared to C. flavum, C. indologenesand C. gleum were 81.45, 81.86 and 82.38 %, respectively. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization values for strain 7_F195T with C. flavum, C. indologenes and C. gleum were 23.7, 23.7 and 24.9 %, respectively. Notable phenotypic differences include the presence of urease activity in C. indologenes LMG 8337T and C. gleum NCTC 11432T, but not in strain 7_F195T or C. flavum KCTC 12877T. The predominant fatty acids of strain 7_F195T were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 1ω9c and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and the most abundant polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. Menaquinone-6 was the only respiratory quinone. Based on the data generated from this polyphasic study, strain 7_F195T represents a novel Chryseobacterium species for which the name Chryseobacteriumpennipullorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 7_F195T (=LMG 30781T=KCTC 62760T).


Assuntos
Chryseobacterium/classificação , Plumas/microbiologia , Filogenia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Chryseobacterium/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , África do Sul , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
13.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 84, 2019 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chicken feather, a byproduct of poultry-processing industries, are considered a potential high-quality protein supplement owing to their crude protein content of more than 85%. Nonetheless, chicken feathers have been classified as waste because of the lack of effective recycling methods. In our previous studies, Bacillus licheniformis BBE11-1 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia BBE11-1 have been shown to have feather-degrading capabilities in the qualitative phase. To efficiently recycle chicken feather waste, in this study, we investigated the characteristics of feather degradation by B. licheniformis BBE11-1 and S. maltophilia BBE11-1. In addition, in an analysis of the respective advantages of the two degradation systems, cocultivation was found to improve the efficiency of chicken feather waste degradation. RESULTS: B. licheniformis BBE11-1 and S. maltophilia BBE11-1 were used to degrade 50 g/L chicken feather waste in batches, and the degradation rates were 35.4% and 22.8% in 96 h, respectively. The degradation rate of the coculture system reached 55.2% because of higher keratinase and protease activities. Furthermore, cocultivation was conducted in a 3 L fermenter by integrating dissolved oxygen control and a two-stage temperature control strategy. Thus, the degradation rate was greatly increased to 81.8%, and the conversion rate was 70.0% in 48 h. The hydrolysates exhibited antioxidant activity and contained large quantities of amino acids (895.89 mg/L) and soluble peptides. CONCLUSIONS: Cocultivation of B. licheniformis BBE11-1 and S. maltophilia BBE11-1 can efficiently degrade 50 g/L chicken feather waste and produce large amounts of amino acids and antioxidant substances at a conversion rate of 70.0%.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacillus licheniformis/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cocultura/métodos , Plumas/microbiologia , Fermentação , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/metabolismo , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Reatores Biológicos , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Resíduos
14.
ISME J ; 13(9): 2363-2376, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127178

RESUMO

The functional relevance of microbiota is a key aspect for understanding host-microbiota interactions. Mammalian skin harbours a complex consortium of beneficial microorganisms known to provide health and immune-boosting advantages. As yet, however, little is known about functional microbial communities on avian feathers, including their co-evolution with the host and factors determining feather microbiota (FM) diversity. Using 16S rRNA profiling, we investigated how host species identity, phylogeny and geographic origin determine FM in free-living passerine birds. Moreover, we estimated the relative abundance of bacteriocin-producing bacteria (BPB) and keratinolytic feather damaging bacteria (FDB) and evaluated the ability of BPB to affect FM diversity and relative abundance of FDB. Host species identity was associated with feather bacterial communities more strongly than host geographic origin. FM functional properties differed in terms of estimated BPB and FDB relative abundance, with both showing interspecific variation. FM diversity was negatively associated with BPB relative abundance across species, whereas BPB and FDB relative abundance was positively correlated. This study provides the first thorough evaluation of antimicrobial peptides-producing bacterial communities inhabiting the feather integument, including their likely potential to mediate niche-competition and to be associated with functional species-specific feather microbiota in avian hosts.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bacteriocinas/biossíntese , Aves/microbiologia , Plumas/microbiologia , Microbiota , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
15.
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 1738-1742, abr.-maio 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-26167

RESUMO

O trabalho objetivou identificar possíveis contaminações microbiológicas no setor produtivo de avicultura de postura agroecológica do Colégio Técnico da Universidade Rural CTUR. As análises microbiológicas comprovaram a presença do fungo do gênero Cladosporium spp. os quais são altamente eficientes em produzir contaminações em ovos, sendo um potencial risco à saúde dos consumidores. Porém quando as amostras foram analisadas isoladamente de penas e ovos foi observado, mais uma vez, que havia crescimento de Cladosporium spp no isolado das penas das aves, mas não havia nenhum crescimento em nenhuma das amostras de ovos coletadas. Ou seja, não foi possível observar a infecção de forma vertical, que seria a ave transmitindo o fungo para o ovo durante a sua formação. Portanto, o setor produz ovos agroecológicos em nível seguro para o consumo.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Plumas/microbiologia , Ovos/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Cladosporium
16.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 95(5)2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985888

RESUMO

The use of feathers as nest material has been proposed as a kind of self-medication strategy because antimicrobial-producing microorganisms living on feathers may defend offspring against pathogenic infections. In this case, it is expected that density of antimicrobial-producing bacteria, and their antimicrobial effects, are higher in feathers that line the nests than in eggshells. Moreover, we know that feather pigmentation and breeding activity may influence density and antimicrobial production of bacteria. To test these predictions, we analyzed bacterial densities and antimicrobial activity of bacterial colonies isolated from bird eggshells and nest-lining feathers against bacterial strains comprising potential pathogens. Samples were collected from spotless starling (Sturnus unicolor) nests, and from artificial nests to isolate the effects of breeding activity on bacterial communities. The composition of feathers lining the nests was experimentally manipulated to create groups of nests with pigmented feathers, with unpigmented feathers, with both types of feathers or without feathers. Although we did not detect an effect of experimental feather treatments, we found that bacterial colonies isolated from feathers were more active against the tested bacterial strains than those isolated from eggshells. Moreover, bacterial density on feathers, keratinolytic bacteria on eggshells and antimicrobial activity of colonies isolated were higher in starling nests than in artificial nests. These results suggest that antimicrobial activity of bacteria growing on nest-lining feathers would be one of the mechanisms explaining the previously detected antimicrobial effects of this material in avian nests, and that breeding activity results in nest bacterial communities with higher antimicrobial activity.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Plumas/química , Passeriformes/fisiologia , Animais , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cruzamento , Casca de Ovo/química , Casca de Ovo/microbiologia , Plumas/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Passeriformes/microbiologia
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(6)2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Down and feather materials have been commonly used and promoted as natural stuffing for warm clothing and bedding. These materials tend to become more allergenic as they become contaminated with microorganisms, in addition to being subjected to several kinds of chemical treatments. The biological or chemical contaminants in these materials pose a major risk to human health, to consumers and manufacturers alike. Here, we report the development of an integrative evaluation method for down and feather materials to assess bacterial contamination and in vivo toxicity. METHODS: To assess bacterial contamination, we quantified 16S ribosomal RNA, performed culture tests, and established a conversion formula. To determine in vivo toxicity, we performed a zebrafish embryo toxicity testing (ZFET). RESULTS: Washing the material appropriately decreases the actual number of bacteria in the down and feather samples; in addition, after washing, 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that the bacterial compositions were similar to those in rinse water. The ZFET results showed that even materials with low bacterial contamination showed high toxicity or high teratogenicity, probably because of the presence of unknown chemical additives. CONCLUSIONS: We established an integrative evaluation method for down and feather safety, based on bacterial contamination with in vivo toxicity testing.


Assuntos
Bioensaio , Plumas , Segurança , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bioensaio/métodos , Plumas/microbiologia , Humanos , Microbiota , Testes de Toxicidade
19.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(11): 1541-1549, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29304560

RESUMO

Pigments synthesised by Chryseobacterium sp. kr6 growing on feather waste were extracted and characterised. The pigment extract was characterised by KOH test, UV-vis, CIELAB colour system, HPLC-DAD-MS, FTIR and its antioxidant capacity was evaluated. A positive bathochromic shift was observed when kr6 colonies or pigment extracts were subjected to alkaline solution (20% KOH) and a λmax at 450 nm was detected for acetone extracts, although no typical fine structure of carotenoids was detected in the electomagnetic spectra. The HPLC profile of the extracted pigment showed that the compound has three different peaks with λmax near 450 nm. The FTIR analysis shows some principal functional groups from a flexirubin-like molecule. The pigmented compound also presents antioxidant activity evaluated by the scavenging of the ABTS radical.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Chryseobacterium/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/química , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carotenoides/análise , Carotenoides/química , Fracionamento Químico , Galinhas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Chryseobacterium/química , Cor , Plumas/microbiologia , Espectrometria de Massas , Estrutura Molecular , Pigmentos Biológicos/farmacologia , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
20.
Mol Ecol ; 28(2): 203-218, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29726053

RESUMO

Parasites and other symbionts are crucial components of ecosystems, regulating host populations and supporting food webs. However, most symbiont systems, especially those involving commensals and mutualists, are relatively poorly understood. In this study, we have investigated the nature of the symbiotic relationship between birds and their most abundant and diverse ectosymbionts: the vane-dwelling feather mites. For this purpose, we studied the diet of feather mites using two complementary methods. First, we used light microscopy to examine the gut contents of 1,300 individual feather mites representing 100 mite genera (18 families) from 190 bird species belonging to 72 families and 19 orders. Second, we used high-throughput sequencing (HTS) and DNA metabarcoding to determine gut contents from 1,833 individual mites of 18 species inhabiting 18 bird species. Results showed fungi and potentially bacteria as the main food resources for feather mites (apart from potential bird uropygial gland oil). Diatoms and plant matter appeared as rare food resources for feather mites. Importantly, we did not find any evidence of feather mites feeding upon bird resources (e.g., blood, skin) other than potentially uropygial gland oil. In addition, we found a high prevalence of both keratinophilic and pathogenic fungal taxa in the feather mite species examined. Altogether, our results shed light on the long-standing question of the nature of the relationship between birds and their vane-dwelling feather mites, supporting previous evidence for a commensalistic-mutualistic role of feather mites, which are revealed as likely fungivore-microbivore-detritivore symbionts of bird feathers.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/genética , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Plumas/parasitologia , Ácaros/genética , Animais , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves/genética , Aves/parasitologia , Ecossistema , Plumas/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Microscopia , Ácaros/microbiologia , Ácaros/patogenicidade , Simbiose/genética
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