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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e246463, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355899

RESUMO

Abstract Quilombola communities are present in many Brazilian states living in precarious health conditions. This is due to geographic isolation, limitations to the access of the area in which they live in, and the lack of quality in the service when it is needed to be provided. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the quality of life of women from a quilombola community in northeastern Brazil. It is an observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study. 160 adult women were first interviewed through a form to collect a profile and then it was applied the WHOQOL Quality of Life questionnaire - bref. It was observed that the women were on average 40.7 years old (±17.25), married, self-declared black, who did not finish elementary school, housewife, had no income, with their own masonry house, with up to 6 rooms, supplied by a box of community treated water. Quality of Life had median scores in the domains: physical (3.18), psychological (3.4), social relationships (3.45) and environment (2.59). With this research, it was possible to characterize the quilombola community of Santa Luzia do Norte-AL regarding the difficulties of access to health and income generation, issues that affect their health condition. The problems described in this study can contribute to health actions being planned and carried out in order to improve socioeconomic and health conditions in this community, considering the social, political and environmental context, valuing their traditional knowledge and practices.


Resumo As comunidades quilombolas, estão presentes em diversos estados brasileiros, vivendo em condições de saúde mais precárias. Isto ocorre por conta do isolamento geográfico, das limitações de acesso e da falta de qualidade no serviço quando este é prestado. Nesse sentido, o objetivo do estudo foi analisar a qualidade de vida de mulheres de uma comunidade quilombola do nordeste brasileiro. Estudo observacional, transversal e descritivo. Foram entrevistadas 160 mulheres adultas, através de um formulário para a coleta de perfil e do questionário de Qualidade de Vida WHOQOL - bref. Foi observado que as mulheres tinham em média 40,7 anos (±17,25), casadas, autodeclaradas negras, com fundamental incompleto, do lar, sem renda, com moradia de alvenaria, própria, com até 6 cômodos, abastecidas por caixa de água comunitária, tratada. A Qualidade de Vida, apresentou escores medianos nos domínios: físico (3,18), psicológico (3,4), relações sociais (3,45) e meio ambiente (2,59). Com a realização desta pesquisa foi possível caracterizar a comunidade quilombola de Santa Luzia do Norte-AL quanto as dificuldades de acesso a saúde e geração de renda, fatos que repercutem na sua condição de saúde. Os problemas descritos neste estudo podem contribuir para que ações de saúde sejam planejadas e efetivadas com o intuito de melhorar as condições socioeconômicas e de saúde nessa comunidade, considerando-se o contexto social, político e ambiental, valorizando seus saberes e práticas tradicionais.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Qualidade de Vida , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36597367

RESUMO

Objective:To investigate the safety and feasibility of transoral vestibular endoscopy in the treatment of patients with thyroid malignant tumors. Methods:120 patients with thyroid cancer admitted to Xi 'an Central Hospital from January 2019 to December 2021 were selected and randomly divided into endoscopic surgery group(60 cases) and traditional open surgery group(60 cases). The general operation conditions, postoperative complications and postoperative quality of life were compared between the two groups. Results:The intraoperative blood loss, indwelling drainage tube time and average length of hospital stay in the endoscopic surgery group were significantly lower than those in the traditional open surgery group (P<0.05), while the operation time and number of lymph nodes dissected were significantly higher than those in the traditional open surgery group (P<0.05). There was no significant differences in VAS score at 24h after surgery, white blood cell count, TgAb (+) and temporary hypothyroidism between the two groups at 24 h after operation (P >0.05). The CRP, total drainage volume, TgAb and serum calcium in the endoscopic surgery group were higher than those in the traditional open surgery group, and the PTH and Tg were lower than those in the traditional open surgery group (P<0.05).One case of hoarseness,2 cases of extremities numbness, 1 case of subcutaneous effusion and 2 cases of chin nerve injury occurred in the endoscopic surgery group, the total incidence of postoperative complications was 10.00%. Five cases of hoarseness, 11 cases of choking cough limbs numbness, 1 case of drinking water, 1 case of postoperative bleeding and 4 cases of subcutaneous effusion occurred in the traditional open surgery group, the total postoperative incidence of complications was 36.67%, the total incidence of complications in endoscopic surgery group was lower than that in traditional open surgery group (P<0.05). The total scores of physiological status, social/family status, emotional status, functional status and quality of life in endoscopic surgery group were significantly lower than those in traditional open surgery group (P<0.05). Conclusion:The application of oral vestibular endoscopy in the treatment of thyroid malignant tumors has the advantages of good surgical status and postoperative recovery, fewer postoperative complications.The patient was well tolerated,with positive safety,this technique has high clinical application value.


Assuntos
Endoscopia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Humanos , Endoscopia/efeitos adversos , Endoscopia/métodos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Rouquidão/etiologia , Hipestesia/etiologia , Hipestesia/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia
3.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678316

RESUMO

This study aims to explore the associations between nutritional status and health-related quality of life, physical activity, and sleep quality in older exclusively Caucasian adults from Greec who were free of any severe disease. This is a cross-sectional study. Mini Nutritional Assessment was used to assess nutritional status, health-related quality of life was assessed using the Short Form Healthy Survey questionnaire, sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and physical activity levels were assessed via the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. 3405 community-dwelling men and women, over 65 years old from14 different Greek regions were enrolled. Ten-point four percent (10.4%) of the participants were classified as malnourished, while 35.6% were "at risk of malnutrition". A better nutritional status was significantly and independently associated with higher physical activity levels (p = 0.0011) and better quality of life (p = 0.0135), as well as better sleep quality (p = 0.0202). In conclusion, our study highlights the interrelationships between a good nutritional status, a high-quality sleep, active lifestyle, and good quality of life. Further interventional studies are needed to clarify the associations, and test the feasibility of improving the nutritional status, physical activity levels and sleep quality of the elderly, and the impact of these changes on quality of life, and healthy ageing in races beyond Caucasian populations. Public health strategies and policies should be recommended to inform older adults for the necessity to improve their nutritional status and lifestyle habits to improve their health status and to obtain better life expectancy.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , Estado Nutricional , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Qualidade de Vida , Qualidade do Sono , Grécia/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Exercício Físico , Avaliação Geriátrica
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679471

RESUMO

Walking ability of elderly individuals, who suffer from walking difficulties, is limited, which restricts their mobility independence. The physical health and well-being of the elderly population are affected by their level of physical activity. Therefore, monitoring daily activities can help improve the quality of life. This becomes especially a huge challenge for those, who suffer from dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Thus, it is of great importance for personnel in care homes/rehabilitation centers to monitor their daily activities and progress. Unlike normal subjects, it is required to place the sensor on the back of this group of patients, which makes it even more challenging to detect walking from other activities. With the latest advancements in the field of health sensing and sensor technology, a huge amount of accelerometer data can be easily collected. In this study, a Machine Learning (ML) based algorithm was developed to analyze the accelerometer data collected from patients with walking difficulties, who live in one of the municipalities in Denmark. The ML algorithm is capable of accurately classifying the walking activity of these individuals with different walking abnormalities. Various statistical, temporal, and spectral features were extracted from the time series data collected using an accelerometer sensor placed on the back of the participants. The back sensor placement is desirable in patients with dementia and Alzheimer's disease since they may remove visible sensors to them due to the nature of their diseases. Then, an evolutionary optimization algorithm called Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) was used to select a subset of features to be used in the classification step. Four different ML classifiers such as k-Nearest Neighbors (kNN), Random Forest (RF), Stacking Classifier (Stack), and Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGB) were trained and compared on an accelerometry dataset consisting of 20 participants. These models were evaluated using the leave-one-group-out cross-validation (LOGO-CV) technique. The Stack model achieved the best performance with average sensitivity, positive predictive values (precision), F1-score, and accuracy of 86.85%, 93.25%, 88.81%, and 93.32%, respectively, to classify walking episodes. In general, the empirical results confirmed that the proposed models are capable of classifying the walking episodes despite the challenging sensor placement on the back of the patients, who suffer from walking disabilities.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Humanos , Idoso , Qualidade de Vida , Caminhada , Marcha , Aprendizado de Máquina
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679546

RESUMO

Human gait activity recognition is an emerging field of motion analysis that can be applied in various application domains. One of the most attractive applications includes monitoring of gait disorder patients, tracking their disease progression and the modification/evaluation of drugs. This paper proposes a robust, wearable gait motion data acquisition system that allows either the classification of recorded gait data into desirable activities or the identification of common risk factors, thus enhancing the subject's quality of life. Gait motion information was acquired using accelerometers and gyroscopes mounted on the lower limbs, where the sensors were exposed to inertial forces during gait. Additionally, leg muscle activity was measured using strain gauge sensors. As a matter of fact, we wanted to identify different gait activities within each gait recording by utilizing Machine Learning algorithms. In line with this, various Machine Learning methods were tested and compared to establish the best-performing algorithm for the classification of the recorded gait information. The combination of attention-based convolutional and recurrent neural networks algorithms outperformed the other tested algorithms and was individually tested further on the datasets of five subjects and delivered the following averaged results of classification: 98.9% accuracy, 96.8% precision, 97.8% sensitivity, 99.1% specificity and 97.3% F1-score. Moreover, the algorithm's robustness was also verified with the successful detection of freezing gait episodes in a Parkinson's disease patient. The results of this study indicate a feasible gait event classification method capable of complete algorithm personalization.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Humanos , Marcha , Algoritmos , Aprendizado de Máquina
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679807

RESUMO

Aesthetic medicine is a dynamically developing field of medicine. It has an impact not only on the improvement of the external appearance, but also on health and quality of life. Currently, vascular changes affect many patients and significantly diminish the condition of the skin. The development of modern laser therapy has contributed to the successful management of multiple skin conditions, among them vascular lesions. The aim of our study was to show the efficacy of repetitive 532 nm laser therapy in reducing vascular skin lesions located on the facial area. Observations were possible due to the implementation of System of Skin Analysis. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 120 patients (100 women and 20 men) using "VISIA" Skin Analysis System after 532 nm laser therapy. Treatment with the use of the 532 nm vascular laser turned out to be effective in reducing vascular changes in both women and men. The skin phototypes did not significantly affect the therapy efficacy. Neither the age of patients nor number of laser sessions affect therapy efficacy. 532 nm laser therapy is effective in reducing vascular skin lesions located in the face area.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Dermatopatias , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Resultado do Tratamento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pele , Lasers
7.
BMC Geriatr ; 23(1): 47, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36698065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Falls are common among older people in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Falls cause considerable morbidity, mortality and reduced quality of life. Of numerous interventional studies of fall prevention interventions in LTCFs, some reduced falls. However, there are challenges to implementing these interventions in real-world (non-trial) clinical practice, and the implementation techniques may be crucial to successful translation. This systematic review thus aimed to synthesise the evidence on implementation strategies, implementation outcomes and clinical outcomes included in fall prevention intervention studies. METHODS: A systematic search of six electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, Web of Science) and eight grey literature databases was conducted, involving papers published during 2001-2021, in English or Arabic, targeting original empirical studies of fall prevention interventions (experimental and quasi-experimental). Two seminal implementation frameworks guided the categorisation of implementation strategies and outcomes: the Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change (ERIC) Taxonomy and the Implementation Outcomes Framework. Four ERIC sub-categories and three additional implementation strategies were created to clarify overlapping definitions and reflect the implementation approach. Two independent researchers completed title/abstract and full-text screening, quality appraisal assessment, data abstraction and coding of the implementation strategies and outcomes. A narrative synthesis was performed to analyse results. RESULTS: Four thousand three hundred ninety-seven potential papers were identified; 31 papers were included, describing 27 different fall prevention studies. These studies used 39 implementation strategies (3-17 per study). Educational and training strategies were used in almost all (n = 26), followed by evaluative strategies (n = 20) and developing stakeholders' interrelationships (n = 20). Within educational and training strategies, education outreach/meetings (n = 17), distributing educational materials (n = 17) and developing educational materials (n = 13) were the most common, with 36 strategies coded to the ERIC taxonomy. Three strategies were added to allow coding of once-off training, dynamic education and ongoing medical consultation. Among the 15 studies reporting implementation outcomes, fidelity was the most common (n = 8). CONCLUSION: This is the first study to comprehensively identify the implementation strategies used in falls prevention interventions in LTCFs. Education is the most common implementation strategy used in this setting. This review highlighted that there was poor reporting of the implementation strategies, limited assessment of implementation outcomes, and there was no discernible pattern of implementation strategies used in effective interventions, which should be improved and clearly defined. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This systematic review was registered on the PROSPERO database; registration number: CRD42021239604.


Assuntos
Assistência de Longa Duração , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Idoso , Instalações de Saúde , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem
8.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 176, 2023 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36698096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although several studies have evaluated the association between patterns of beverage consumption with different components of quality of life separately, the findings are controversial. In addition, none have examined all components of quality of life together in relation to patterns of beverage consumption. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the association between healthy beverage index (HBI) and quality of life among overweight and obese women. METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, 210 obese and overweight women were recruited from health centers in Tehran, Iran. Using reliable and verified standard protocols, data on beverage intake, socio-demographic, physical activity, and anthropometric variables were assessed. Based on past studies, the predetermined HBI was estimated. Serum samples were used to determine biochemical characteristics, and quality of life was assessed using SF-36 questionnaires. RESULTS: There was a significant association between total QoL score with T2 tertile of HBI in the adjusted model (ß: 13.11, 95% CI: 1.52, 24.69, p-value = 0.027). General health had a significant negative association with T2 (ß: -5.83; 95% CI: - 11.48, - 0.18; p-value = 0.043) and T3 (ß: -6.20; 95% CI: - 12.37, - 0.03; p-value = 0.049). Women with greater adherence to the HBI had a higher physical functioning score, and there was a significant upward trend from the second to the third tertile (7.74 vs 0.62) (-trend = 0.036). There was a significant positive association between mental health with T3 of HBI (ß: 4.26; 95% CI: 1.51, 5.98; p-value = 0.015) and a significant increasing trend was observed with increasing tertiles (P-trend = 0.045). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, there is a significant association between total QoL score, and its components, with HBI among overweight and obese women. However, additional well-designed studies are needed to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Feminino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Bebidas , Nível de Saúde
9.
BMC Psychiatry ; 23(1): 68, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36698111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long COVID patients have experienced a decline in their quality of life due to, in part but not wholly, its negative emotional impact. Some of the most prevalent mental health symptoms presented by long COVID patients are anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders. As such, the need has arisen to analyze the personal experiences of these patients to understand how they are managing their daily lives while dealing with the condition. The objective of this study is to increase understanding about the emotional well-being of people diagnosed with long COVID. METHODS: A qualitative design was created and carried out using 35 patients, with 17 participants being interviewed individually and 18 of them taking part in two focus groups. The participating patients were recruited in November and December 2021 from Primary Health Care (PHC) centers in the city of Zaragoza (Northern Spain) and from the Association of Long COVID Patients in Aragon. The study topics were emotional well-being, social support networks, and experience of discrimination. All an inductive thematic content analyses were performed iteratively using NVivo software. RESULTS: The Long COVID patients identified low levels of self-perceived well-being due to their persistent symptoms, as well as limitations in their daily lives that had been persistent for many months. Suicidal thoughts were also mentioned by several patients. They referred to anguish and anxiety about the future as well as a fear of reinfection or relapse and returning to work. Many of the participants reported that they have sought the help of a mental health professional. Most participants identified discriminatory situations in health care. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to continue researching the impact that Long COVID has had on mental health, as well as to provide Primary Health Care professionals with evidence that can guide the emotional treatment of these patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estereotipagem , Apoio Social , Serviços de Saúde
10.
BMC Oral Health ; 23(1): 42, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36698127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The national oral epidemiological survey conducted every decade has become an indispensable means of detecting changes in oral disease patterns. This study was undertaken to investigate the oral health status and related factors in 12-15-year-old students in Gansu, China. METHODS: According to the methodology adopted by the Fourth National Oral Health Survey, a multi-stage, stratified, random sampling method was used to select 3871 adolescents aged 12-15 years from four regions of Gansu Province for oral examination and questionnaire survey. Caries experience was measured using the Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth (DMFT) index; and periodontal health examination included gingival bleeding, calculus, periodontal pockets and attachment loss. The questionnaire included questions regarding sociodemographic characteristics, and oral health knowledge and behaviors. SPSS20.0 software was used for statistical analysis of the survey data. RESULTS: The mean DMFT index was 0.83 ± 1.42. The prevalence of caries experience was 38.6%, filling rate was 1.6%, and pit and fissure sealing rate was 0.5%. Logistic regression analysis showed that female sex, rural district, older age, non-only child, frequency of dental visits, and toothache experience were the risk factors for caries experience, with OR ranging between 1.280 and 3.831 (p < 0.05). Prevalence of healthy periodontium was 29.8%. Female sex, rural district, and younger age were found to be the protective factors for healthy periodontium, with OR ranging between 1.178 and 1.414 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents in Gansu Province had high prevalence of caries experience along with low filling rate, and low prevalence of healthy periodontium. Therefore, it is necessary to vigorously strengthen oral health education, disease prevention and control programs in the province. This would help improve the oral health-related quality of life of these individuals.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Saúde Bucal , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Qualidade de Vida , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Prevalência
11.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 18(1): 17, 2023 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36698133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTRv) is an ultra-rare, life-shortening disease with a high unmet need. This study examined ATTRv caregiver health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and productivity. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey, including EQ-5D-3L, Hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), and caregiver and patient characteristics questions, was developed to assess ATTRv caregiver burden. A companion general population survey collected EQ-5D-3L, HADS and chronic health conditions data. Caregiver-control group differences in HRQoL were assessed using t-tests and chi-square tests. Ordinary Least Squares regression was used to estimate the disutility of being a caregiver compared to controls stratified by patient ambulatory status. RESULTS: Thirty-six caregivers and matched controls completed the survey (n = 72). The disease severity of patients they cared for was varied: 33% required no assistance walking, 58% required assistance with walking and 9% required a wheelchair/were bedridden. On average, caregivers spent 6 h daily on practical care and 4 h daily on emotional support. Fifty-six percent indicated that they had changed their employment due to providing ATTRv care. Caregivers reported lower HRQoL, as indicated by lower EQ-5D 3L utility scores (M = 0.772, SD = 0.178 vs. M = 0.849, SD = 0.218) and higher HADS anxiety (9.3 vs. 6.1, p < 0.01) and depression (7.6 vs. 4.4, p < 0.01) scores, compared with matched controls. Caregivers were also more likely to report sleep problems (33% vs. 8%, p < 0.01) and stress (42% vs. 0%, p < 0.001) as chronic conditions than controls. CONCLUSIONS: The study results indicate that caring for a person with ATTRv can have a considerable negative impact on caregivers' HRQoL and productivity. The study findings provide important information for economic evaluations of ATTRv treatments.


Assuntos
Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Fardo do Cuidador , Estudos Transversais , Cuidadores/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679439

RESUMO

Clean air in cities improves our health and overall quality of life and helps fight climate change and preserve our environment. High-resolution measures of pollutants' concentrations can support the identification of urban areas with poor air quality and raise citizens' awareness while encouraging more sustainable behaviors. Recent advances in Internet of Things (IoT) technology have led to extensive use of low-cost air quality sensors for hyper-local air quality monitoring. As a result, public administrations and citizens increasingly rely on information obtained from sensors to make decisions in their daily lives and mitigate pollution effects. Unfortunately, in most sensing applications, sensors are known to be error-prone. Thanks to Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies, it is possible to devise computationally efficient methods that can automatically pinpoint anomalies in those data streams in real time. In order to enhance the reliability of air quality sensing applications, we believe that it is highly important to set up a data-cleaning process. In this work, we propose AIrSense, a novel AI-based framework for obtaining reliable pollutant concentrations from raw data collected by a network of low-cost sensors. It enacts an anomaly detection and repairing procedure on raw measurements before applying the calibration model, which converts raw measurements to concentration measurements of gasses. There are very few studies of anomaly detection in raw air quality sensor data (millivolts). Our approach is the first that proposes to detect and repair anomalies in raw data before they are calibrated by considering the temporal sequence of the measurements and the correlations between different sensor features. If at least some previous measurements are available and not anomalous, it trains a model and uses the prediction to repair the observations; otherwise, it exploits the previous observation. Firstly, a majority voting system based on three different algorithms detects anomalies in raw data. Then, anomalies are repaired to avoid missing values in the measurement time series. In the end, the calibration model provides the pollutant concentrations. Experiments conducted on a real dataset of 12,000 observations produced by 12 low-cost sensors demonstrated the importance of the data-cleaning process in improving calibration algorithms' performances.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Inteligência Artificial , Qualidade de Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição do Ar/análise
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679476

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been a growing desire to monitor and control harmful substances arising from industrial processes that impact upon our health and quality of life. This has led to a large market demand for gas sensors, which are commonly based on sensors that rely upon a chemical reaction with the target analyte. In contrast, thermal conductivity detectors are physical sensors that detect gases through a change in their thermal conductivity. Thermal conductivity gas sensors offer several advantages over their chemical (reactive) counterparts that include higher reproducibility, better stability, lower cost, lower power consumption, simpler construction, faster response time, longer lifetime, wide dynamic range, and smaller footprint. It is for these reasons, despite a poor selectivity, that they are gaining renewed interest after recent developments in MEMS-based silicon sensors allowing CMOS integration and smart application within the emerging Internet of Things (IoT). This timely review focuses on the state-of-the-art in thermal conductivity sensors; it contains a general introduction, theory of operation, interface electronics, use in commercial applications, and recent research developments. In addition, both steady-state and transient methods of operation are discussed with their relative advantages and disadvantages presented. Finally, some of recent innovations in thermal conductivity gas sensors are explored.


Assuntos
Eletrônica , Qualidade de Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Gases , Indústrias
14.
Anticancer Res ; 43(2): 733-739, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36697057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Mastectomy is the standard treatment of in-breast-recurrence of breast cancer after breast conserving surgery (BCS) and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). In selected cases, it is possible to preserve the breast if targeted intraoperative radiotherapy (TARGIT-IORT) can be given during the second lumpectomy. This is a comparative analysis of overall survival and quality of life (QoL). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients in our database with in-breast-recurrence and either mastectomy or BCS and TARGIT-IORT were included. Identified patients were offered participation in a prospective QoL-analysis using the BREAST-Q questionnaire. The cohorts were compared for confounding parameters, overall survival, and QoL. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients treated for in-breast-recurrence were included, 21 had received a mastectomy and 16 patients had received BCS with TARGIT-IORT. Mean follow-up was 12.8 years since primary diagnosis and 4.2 years since recurrence. Both groups were balanced regarding prognostic parameters. Overall survival was numerically longer for BCS and TARGIT-IORT, but the numbers were too small for formal statistical analysis. No patient had further in-breast-recurrence. Psychosocial and sexual wellbeing did not differ between both groups. Physical wellbeing was significantly superior for those whose breast could be preserved (p-value=0.021). Patient-reported incidence and severity of lymphedema of the arm was significantly worse in the mastectomy group (p=0.007). CONCLUSION: Preserving the breast by use of TARGIT-IORT was safe with no re-recurrence and no detriment to overall survival in our analysis and led to a statistically significant improvement in physical wellbeing and incidence of lymphedema. These data should increase the confidence in offering breast preservation after in-breast-recurrence of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Linfedema , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais , Humanos , Animais , Feminino , Mastectomia , Mastectomia Segmentar/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Radioterapia
15.
Anticancer Res ; 43(2): 857-864, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36697086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The glycemic profile of patients who have undergone proximal gastrectomy (PG) using a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) device has not been investigated. We aimed to investigate the association between postgastrectomy syndrome and the glycemic profile of patients who underwent PG and its impact on postoperative body weight loss and nutritional status. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively investigated 65 patients with CGM post-surgery. Postoperative glycemic profiles were recorded using a CGM device. To evaluate postgastrectomy syndromes and quality of life (QOL), the Postgastrectomy Syndrome Assessment Scale 37-item questionnaire was employed. The dynamics of albumin and hemoglobin levels were investigated at 1 and 6 months postoperatively. RESULTS: The time below the range (percentage of glucose reading <70 mg/dl) in patients who underwent PG with double-flap (DF) esophagogastrostomy reconstruction was significantly shorter than in those who underwent total gastrectomy (TG). Late dumping scores tended to be better in patients after PG with DF than in those after TG. The body weight loss rate of patients who underwent PG with DF was similar to those who underwent TG. The albumin level at 6 months recovered to the preoperative level in patients who underwent PG with DF, but not in those who underwent TG. Hemoglobin levels at 1 and 6 months postoperatively were significantly higher in patients who underwent PG with DF than in those who underwent TG. CONCLUSION: Proximal gastrectomy with double-flap esophagogastrostomy reconstruction did not improve QOL or body weight loss, as expected, however, suppressed hypoglycemia, late dumping syndrome, and deterioration in nutritional status.


Assuntos
Síndromes Pós-Gastrectomia , Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Glicemia , Síndromes Pós-Gastrectomia/etiologia , Síndromes Pós-Gastrectomia/cirurgia , Gastrectomia/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobinas/análise , Redução de Peso , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Eur Respir Rev ; 32(167)2023 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36697208

RESUMO

Physical inactivity is common in people with chronic airways disease (pwCAD) and associated with worse clinical outcomes and impaired quality of life. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to characterise and evaluate the effectiveness of interventions promoting step-based physical activity (PA) in pwCAD. We searched for studies that included a form of PA promotion and step-count outcome measure. A random-effects model was used to determine the overall effect size using post-intervention values. 38 studies (n=32 COPD; n=5 asthma; n=1 bronchiectasis; study population: n=3777) were included. Overall, implementing a form of PA promotion resulted in a significant increase in step-count: median (IQR) 705 (183-1210) when compared with usual standard care: -64 (-597-229), standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.24 (95% CI: 0.12-0.36), p<0.01. To explore the impact of specific interventions, studies were stratified into subgroups: PA promotion+wearable activity monitor-based interventions (n=17) (SMD 0.37, p<0.01); PA promotion+step-count as an outcome measure (n=9) (SMD 0.18, p=0.09); technology-based interventions (n=12) (SMD 0.16, p=0.01). Interventions promoting PA, particularly those that incorporate wearable activity monitors, result in a significant and clinically meaningful improvement in daily step-count in pwCAD.


Assuntos
Asma , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Exercício Físico
17.
BMC Prim Care ; 24(1): 31, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36698057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND : Polypharmacy is a common global health concern in the older population. Deprescribing has been acknowledged as an important aspect of medication use review that helps to reduce polypharmacy, inappropriate medication uses and medication adverse events, thus ensuring medication optimization and improving health-related quality of life. As physicians are primarily responsible for prescribing and monitoring of drug therapy, their perception of deprescribing and knowledge of available deprescribing tools is highly important. This study aimed to explore physicians' knowledge of deprescribing, deprescribing tools and factors that may affect the deprescribing process. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey carried out among 70 physicians in selected units of a teaching hospital in Nigeria between May and June 2022. Social-demographic information, knowledge of deprescribing and deprescribing tools were obtained using a self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire, while barriers and enablers of medication deprescribing were assessed with modified Revised Patients' Attitudes Towards Deprescribing (rPATD) Questionnaire. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were carried out using SPSS and α was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: Most of the physicians (56; 80.0%) were aware of the term "deprescribing" and had good knowledge (53; 75.7%) of the steps to deprescribing. However, (16; 22.9%) respondents knew of the deprescribing tools, of this, (5; 31.3%) were aware of Beers criteria and STOPP/START criteria. Awareness of the term "deprescribing" was significantly associated with knowledge of deprescribing steps (p = 0.012), while knowledge of deprescribing tools was significantly associated with; awareness of the term "deprescribing" (p = 0.029), and daily encounters with older multimorbid patients (p = 0.031). Very important factor affecting physicians deprescribing decisions include benefit of the medication. The most common barrier is lack of information for a full clinical picture of the patient. CONCLUSION: The physicians had good knowledge of the term "deprescribing" and the steps to deprescribing. Specific measures to target the barriers faced by the physicians in deprescribing medications and policies to implement physicians use of existing guidelines to facilitate their deprescribing decisions are essential.


Assuntos
Desprescrições , Médicos , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Qualidade de Vida , Lista de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropriados
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical exercise can slow down the decline of the cognitive function of the older adults, yet the review evidence is not conclusive. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of aerobic and resistance training on cognitive ability. METHODS: A computerized literature search was carried out using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase SCOPUS, Web of Science, CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), Wanfang, and VIP database to identify relevant articles from inception through to 1 October 2022. Based on a preliminary search of the database and the references cited, 10,338 records were identified. For the measured values of the research results, the standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to synthesize the effect size. RESULTS: Finally, 10 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Since the outcome indicators of each literature are different in evaluating the old cognitive ability, a subgroup analysis was performed on the included literature. The study of results suggests that aerobic or resistance training interventions significantly improved cognitive ability in older adults compared with control interventions with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MD 2.76; 95% CI 2.52 to 3.00), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MD 2.64; 95% CI 2.33 to 2.94), the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (MD 2.86; 95% CI 2.25 to 3.47), the Wechsler Memory Scale (MD 9.33; 95% CI 7.12 to 11.54), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (MD 5.31; 95% CI 1.20 to 9.43), the Trail Making Tests (MD -8.94; 95% CI -9.81 to -8.07), and the Stroop Color and Word Test (MD -5.20; 95% CI -7.89 to -2.51). CONCLUSION: Physical exercise improved the cognitive function of the older adults in all mental states. To improve cognitive ability, this meta-analysis recommended that patients perform at least moderate-intensity aerobic exercise and resistance exercise on as many days as possible in the week to comply with current exercise guidelines while providing evidence for clinicians.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Treinamento de Força , Humanos , Idoso , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Cognição , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Qualidade de Vida
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673856

RESUMO

The present longitudinal study aimed to investigate the burden of disease activity change on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) during the two different pandemic waves in 2020 and 2021. A sample of 221 IBD patients (recruited during March-May 2020 for T0 and March-May 2021 for T1) was included. The psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic (Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R)) and HRQoL (Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ)) were assessed. Post-traumatic COVID-19-related symptoms (IES-R) were not significantly different across the disease activity-related groups. Conversely, IBDQ was consistently higher in patients with persistent, quiescent disease activity compared to the other groups, as expected. Even after controlling for baseline IES-R, repeated-measures ANCOVA showed a non-significant main effect of time (p = 0.60) but a significant time-per-group interaction effect with a moderate effect size (η2 = 0.08). During the two different phases of pandemic restrictions, IBD-specific HRQoL was modified by disease-related factors such as disease activity, rather than by the post-traumatic symptoms of COVID-19. This lends further weight to the need for developing an evidence-based, integrated, biopsychosocial model of care for patients with IBD to identify subjective and objective factors that affect the burden of disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Pandemias , Estudos Longitudinais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population aging all over the world invites older people to be active, considering physical activity (PA) as associated with reduced anxiety, depression and stress and a high quality of life (QOL) in older people. OBJECTIVE: To analyze anxiety, depression, stress and QOL as a function of PA in older people. METHODOLOGY: Descriptive analytical research. Six hundred and ninety older people answered the instrument composed of sociodemographic questions, followed by questions from the WHOQOL-Old, Baecke-Old, WHOQOL-SRPB, Stress Perception Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory. RESULTS: The beneficial effect of PA on the elderly is evident in this sample with such a high QoL (73%) and such a high level of physical activity (84%), and even with an advanced level of education (75%) and high spirituality (99.6%). The influence of PA on the anxiety and stress cluster showed Pearson's chi-square = 9.9, DF = 4, p = 0.04239, critical value = 9.5. The influence of PA on the anxiety, depression and stress cluster showed Pearson's chi-square = 6.8; DF = 5; p-value = 0.24; critical value = 11.1. CONCLUSION: In the elderly, PA has a significant relationship with anxiety, stress and QOL. In addition, the high level of QOL of the elderly in the sample demonstrates the capacity for PA, educational level and spirituality for personal satisfaction.


Assuntos
Depressão , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Idoso , Depressão/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Inquéritos e Questionários
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