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1.
Hig. Aliment. (Online) ; 38(298): e1144, jan.-jun. 2024.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1531444

RESUMO

As falhas na higienização em um estabelecimento de alimentos podem refletir em problemas causando a contaminação ou deterioração do produto produzido. Esta pesquisa foi motivada por reclamações de consumidores informando que os queijos apresentaram fungos, mesmo estando dentro do prazo de validade e por solicitação do Serviço de Inspeção Municipal. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a contaminação ambiental em uma agroindústria da agricultura familiar produtora de queijo colonial no Sudoeste Paranaense. Foram realizadas a contagem para aeróbios mesófilos em equipamentos e superfícies que entram em contato com o alimento e análise microbiológica ambiental de bolores e leveduras na sala de secagem dos queijos. A coleta foi realizada com método de esfregaço de suabe estéril para aeróbios mesófilos e semeadas em placas de Petri com Ágar Padrão de Contagem. Para a coleta ambiental foram expostas placas de Petri com ágar Saboraund durante 15 minutos. Os resultados demonstraram ausência de contaminação nas superfícies, mas foram encontrados bolores e leveduras de forma acentuada na sala de secagem dos queijos, o que pode contribuir para a deterioração do produto, diminuindo sua validade. Para minimizar as perdas por contaminação é necessário que o processo de higienização dos ambientes seja realizado de forma eficiente.


Failures in hygiene in a food establishment can result in problems causing contamination or deterioration of the product produced. This research was motivated by complaints from consumers reporting that the cheeses had mold, even though they were within their expiration date and at the request of the Municipal Inspection Service. This research was to evaluate environmental contamination in an agroindustry in the family farm producing colonial cheese in Southwest Paraná. For the microbiological assessment of environmental contamination, counting for mesophilic aerobes was carried out on equipment and surfaces that come into contact with food and, environmental microbiological analysis of molds and yeast in the cheese drying room. The collection was carried out using the sterile swab smear for mesophilic aerobes and seeded in Petri dishes with Counting Standard Agar. For environmental collection, sheets of Petri with Saboraund agar for 15 minutes. The results demonstrated absence of contamination on surfaces. But the presence of molds and yeasts in the drying room cheeses, which can contribute to the deterioration of the product and thus reduce the validity. To minimize losses due to contamination, it is It is necessary that the process of cleaning and disinfecting environments is carried out efficiently.


Assuntos
Higiene dos Alimentos , Queijo/microbiologia , Brasil , Boas Práticas de Fabricação , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle
2.
Molecules ; 29(9)2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731432

RESUMO

Dairy products are highly susceptible to contamination from microorganisms. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and propolis film as protective coatings for cheese. For this, microbiological analyses were carried out over the cheese' ripening period, focusing on total mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and moulds, lactic acid bacteria, total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacteriaceae. Physicochemical parameters (pH, water activity, colour, phenolic compounds content) were also evaluated. The statistical analysis (conducted using ANOVA and PERMANOVA) showed a significant interaction term between the HPMC film and propolis (factor 1) and storage days (factor 2) with regard to the dependent variables: microbiological and physicochemical parameters. A high level of microbial contamination was identified at the baseline. However, the propolis films were able to reduce the microbial count. Physicochemical parameters also varied with storage time, with no significant differences found for propolis-containing films. Overall, the addition of propolis to the film influenced the cheeses' colour and the quantification of phenolic compounds. Regarding phenolic compounds, their loss was verified during storage, and was more pronounced in films with a higher percentage of propolis. The study also showed that, of the three groups of phenolic compounds (hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonoids), hydroxycinnamic acids showed the most significant losses. Overall, this study reveals the potential of using HPMC/propolis films as a coating for cheese in terms of microbiological control and the preservation of physicochemical properties.


Assuntos
Queijo , Conservação de Alimentos , Derivados da Hipromelose , Própole , Queijo/microbiologia , Queijo/análise , Própole/química , Derivados da Hipromelose/química , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Food Res Int ; 186: 114306, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729707

RESUMO

The aim of this research was to find out the effect of different combinations of starter and non-starter cultures on the proteolysis of Castellano cheese during ripening. Four cheese batches were prepared, each containing autochthonous lactobacilli and or Leuconostoc, and were compared with each other and with a control batch, that used only a commercial starter. To achieve this, nitrogen fractions (pH 4.4-soluble nitrogen and 12 % trichloroacetic acid soluble nitrogen, polypeptide nitrogen and casein nitrogen), levels of free amino acids and biogenic amines were assessed. Texture and microstructure of cheeses were also evaluated. Significant differences in nitrogen fractions were observed between batches at different stages of ripening. The free amino acid content increased throughout the cheese ripening process, with a more significant increase occurring after the first 30 days. Cheeses containing non-starter lactic acid bacteria exhibited the highest values at the end of the ripening period. Among the main amino acids, GABA was particularly abundant, especially in three of the cheese batches at the end of ripening. The autochthonous lactic acid bacteria were previously selected as non-producers of biogenic amines and this resulted in the absence of these compounds in the cheeses. Analysis of the microstructure of the cheese reflected the impact of proteolysis. Additionally, the texture profile analysis demonstrated that the cheese's hardness intensified as the ripening period progressed. The inclusion of autochthonous non-starter lactic acid bacteria in Castellano cheese production accelerated the proteolysis process, increasing significantly the free amino acids levels and improving the sensory quality of the cheeses.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Aminas Biogênicas , Queijo , Proteólise , Queijo/microbiologia , Queijo/análise , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Leuconostoc/metabolismo , Leuconostoc/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nitrogênio/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Fermentação
4.
Food Res Int ; 187: 114308, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763625

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a significant public health threat, with the food production chain, and, specifically, fermented products, as a potential vehicle for dissemination. However, information about dairy products, especially raw ewe milk cheeses, is limited. The present study analysed, for the first time, the occurrence of AMRs related to lactic acid bacteria (LAB) along a raw ewe milk cheese production chain for the most common antimicrobial agents used on farms (dihydrostreptomycin, benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin and polymyxin B). More than 200 LAB isolates were obtained and identified by Sanger sequencing (V1-V3 16S rRNA regions); these isolates included 8 LAB genera and 21 species. Significant differences in LAB composition were observed throughout the production chain (P ≤ 0.001), with Enterococcus (e.g., E. hirae and E. faecalis) and Bacillus (e.g., B. thuringiensis and B. cereus) predominating in ovine faeces and raw ewe milk, respectively, along with Lactococcus (L. lactis) in whey and fresh cheeses, while Lactobacillus and Lacticaseibacillus species (e.g., Lactobacillus sp. and L. paracasei) prevailed in ripened cheeses. Phenotypically, by broth microdilution, Lactococcus, Enterococcus and Bacillus species presented the greatest resistance rates (on average, 78.2 %, 56.8 % and 53.4 %, respectively), specifically against polymyxin B, and were more susceptible to dihydrostreptomycin. Conversely, Lacticaseibacillus and Lactobacillus were more susceptible to all antimicrobials tested (31.4 % and 39.1 %, respectively). Thus, resistance patterns and multidrug resistance were reduced along the production chain (P ≤ 0.05). Genotypically, through HT-qPCR, 31 antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and 6 mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were detected, predominating Str, StrB and aadA-01, related to aminoglycoside resistance, and the transposons tnpA-02 and tnpA-01. In general, a significant reduction in ARGs and MGEs abundances was also observed throughout the production chain (P ≤ 0.001). The current findings indicate that LAB dynamics throughout the raw ewe milk cheese production chain facilitated a reduction in AMRs, which has not been reported to date.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Queijo , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Lactobacillales , Leite , Animais , Queijo/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Ovinos , Lactobacillales/genética , Lactobacillales/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillales/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Fenótipo , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Genótipo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 493, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diet plays an important role in Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection, and our objective was to investigate potential connections between dietary patterns, specific food groups, and HP infection status in U.S. adults. METHODS: The data for this study was obtained from the NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Survey) database for the year 1999-2000. This cross-sectional study involved the selection of adults aged 20 years and older who had undergone dietary surveys and HP testing. Factor analysis was employed to identify dietary patterns, and logistic regression models were utilized to assess the association between these dietary patterns and specific food groups with HP infection status. RESULT: Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, our final analysis included 2,952 individuals. The median age of participants was 51.0 years, and 48.7% were male. In the study population, the overall prevalence of HP infection was 44.9%. Factor analysis revealed three distinct dietary patterns: High-fat and high-sugar pattern (including solid fats, refined grains, cheese, and added sugars); Vegetarian pattern (comprising fruits, juices, and whole grains); Healthy pattern (encompassing vegetables, nuts and seeds, and oils). Adjusted results showed that the high-fat and high-sugar pattern (OR = 0.689, 95% CI: 0.688-0.690), vegetarian pattern (OR = 0.802, 95% CI: 0.801-0.803), and healthy pattern (OR = 0.717, 95% CI: 0.716-0.718) were all linked to a lower likelihood of HP infection. Further analysis of the high-fat and high-sugar pattern revealed that solid fats (OR = 0.717, 95% CI: 0.716-0.718) and cheese (OR = 0.863, 95% CI: 0.862-0.864) were protective factors against HP infection, while refined grains (OR = 1.045, 95% CI: 1.044-1.046) and added sugars (OR = 1.014, 95% CI: 1.013-1.015) were identified as risk factors for HP infection. CONCLUSION: Both the Vegetarian pattern and the Healthy pattern are associated with a reduced risk of HP infection. Interestingly, the High-fat and High-sugar pattern, which is initially considered a risk factor for HP infection when the score is low, becomes a protective factor as the intake increases. Within this pattern, animal foods like solid fats and cheese play a protective role, while the consumption of refined grains and added sugars increases the likelihood of HP infection.


Assuntos
Queijo , Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Queijo/microbiologia , Adulto , Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar
6.
Food Res Int ; 183: 114214, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760141

RESUMO

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a toxin produced by several Aspergillus species, mainly those belonging to section Circumdati and section Nigri. The presence of OTA in cheese has been reported recently in cave cheese in Italy. As artisanal cheese production in Brazil has increased, the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of ochratoxin A and related fungi in artisanal cheese consumed in Brazil. A total of 130 samples of artisanal cheeses with natural moldy rind at different periods of maturation were collected. Of this total, 79 samples were collected from 6 producers from Canastra region in the state of Minas Gerais, since this is the largest artisanal cheese producer region; 13 samples from one producer in the Amparo region in the state of São Paulo and 36 samples from markets located in these 2 states. Aspergillus section Circumdati occurred in samples of three producers and some samples from the markets. A. section Circumdati colony counts varied from 102 to 106 CFU/g. Molecular analysis revealed Aspergillus westerdijkiae (67 %) as the most frequent species, followed by Aspergillus ostianus (22 %), and Aspergillus steynii (11 %). All of these isolates of A. section Circumdati were able to produce OTA in Yeast Extract Sucrose Agar (YESA) at 25 °C/7 days. OTA was found in 22 % of the artisanal cheese samples, ranging from 1.0 to above 1000 µg/kg, but only five samples had OTA higher than 1000 µg/kg. These findings emphasize the significance of ongoing monitoring and quality control in the artisanal cheese production process to minimize potential health risks linked to OTA contamination.


Assuntos
Aspergillus , Queijo , Contaminação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Ocratoxinas , Ocratoxinas/biossíntese , Ocratoxinas/análise , Queijo/microbiologia , Queijo/análise , Brasil , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana
7.
Food Microbiol ; 121: 104514, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38637076

RESUMO

The enzymatic repertoire of starter cultures belonging to the Lactococcus genus determines various important characteristics of fermented dairy products but might change in response to the substantial environmental changes in the manufacturing process. Assessing bacterial proteome adaptation in dairy and other food environments is challenging due to the high matrix-protein concentration and is even further complicated in particularly cheese by the high fat concentrations, the semi-solid state of that matrix, and the non-growing state of the bacteria. Here, we present bacterial harvesting and processing procedures that enable reproducible, high-resolution proteome determination in lactococcal cultures harvested from laboratory media, milk, and miniature Gouda cheese. Comparative proteome analysis of Lactococcus cremoris NCDO712 grown in laboratory medium and milk revealed proteome adaptations that predominantly reflect the differential (micro-)nutrient availability in these two environments. Additionally, the drastic environmental changes during cheese manufacturing only elicited subtle changes in the L. cremoris NCDO712 proteome, including modified expression levels of enzymes involved in flavour formation. The technical advances we describe offer novel opportunities to evaluate bacterial proteomes in relation to their performance in complex, protein- and/or fat-rich food matrices and highlight the potential of steering starter culture performance by preculture condition adjustments.


Assuntos
Queijo , Produtos Fermentados do Leite , Lactococcus lactis , Animais , Proteoma/metabolismo , Fermentação , Queijo/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Lactococcus lactis/genética , Lactococcus lactis/metabolismo
8.
Food Microbiol ; 121: 104521, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38637083

RESUMO

Natural whey starters (NWS) are cultures with undefined multiple-strains species commonly used to speed up the fermentation process of cheeses. The aim of this study was to explore the diversity and the viability of Comté cheese NWS microbiota. Culture-dependent methods, i.e. plate counting and genotypic characterization, and culture-independent methods, i.e. qPCR, viability-qPCR, fluorescence microscopy and DNA metabarcoding, were combined to analyze thirty-six NWS collected in six Comté cheese factories at two seasons. Our results highlighted that NWS were dominated by Streptococcus thermophilus (ST) and thermophilic lactobacilli. These species showed a diversity of strains based on Rep-PCR. The dominance of Lactobacillus helveticus (LH) over Lactobacillus delbrueckii (LD) varied depending on the factory and the season. This highlighted two types of NWS: the type-ST/LD (LD > LH) and the type-ST/LH (LD < LH). The microbial composition varied depending on cheese factory. One factory was distinguished by its level of culturable microbial groups (ST, enterococci and yeast) and its fungi diversity. The approaches used to estimate the viability showed that most NWS cells were viable. Further investigations are needed to understand the microbial diversity of these NWS.


Assuntos
Queijo , Lactobacillus delbrueckii , Lactobacillus helveticus , Soro do Leite , Queijo/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/análise , Streptococcus thermophilus/genética
9.
Food Microbiol ; 121: 104531, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38637091

RESUMO

The present study aimed to assess the occurrence and counts of Staphylococcus aureus in Brazilian artisanal cheeses (BAC) produced in five regions of Brazil: Coalho and Manteiga (Northeast region); Colonial and Serrano (South); Caipira (Central-West); Marajó (North); and Minas Artisanal cheeses, from Araxá, Campos das Vertentes, Cerrado, Serro and Canastra microregions (Southeast). The resistance to chlorine-based sanitizers, ability to attach to stainless steel surfaces, and antibiogram profile of a large set of S. aureus strains (n = 585) were assessed. Further, a total of 42 isolates were evaluated for the presence of enterotoxigenic genes (sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, sei, sej, and ser) and submitted to typing using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). BAC presented high counts of S. aureus (3.4-6.4 log CFU/g), varying from 25 to 62.5%. From the S. aureus strains (n = 585) assessed, 16% could resist 200 ppm of sodium hypochlorite, whereas 87.6% produced strong ability to attach to stainless steel surfaces, corroborating with S. aureus ability to persist and spread in the environment. Furthermore, the relatively high frequency (80.5%) of multidrug-resistant S. aureus and the presence of enterotoxin genes in 92.6% of the strains is of utmost attention. It reveals the lurking threat of SFP that can survive when conditions are favorable. The presence of enterotoxigenic and antimicrobial-resistant strains of S. aureus in cheese constitutes a potential risk to public health. This result calls for better control of cheese contamination sources, and taking hygienic measures is necessary for food safety. More attention should be paid to animal welfare and hygiene practices in some dairy farms during manufacturing to enhance the microbiological quality of traditional cheese products.


Assuntos
Queijo , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Animais , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Queijo/microbiologia , Brasil , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Aço Inoxidável/análise , Enterotoxinas/genética , Leite/microbiologia
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(17): 9567-9580, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627202

RESUMO

Monascus is a filamentous fungus that has been used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. When used as an auxiliary fermenting agent in the manufacturing of cheese, Monascus cheese is obtained. Citrinin (CIT) is a well-known hepatorenal toxin produced by Monascus that can harm the kidneys structurally and functionally and is frequently found in foods. However, CIT contamination in Monascus cheese is exacerbated by the metabolic ability of Monascus to product CIT, which is not lost during fermentation, and by the threat of contamination by Penicillium spp. that may be introduced during production and processing. Considering the safety of consumption and subsequent industrial development, the CIT contamination of Monascus cheese products needs to be addressed. This review aimed to examine its occurrence in Monascus cheese, risk implications, traditional control strategies, and new research advances in prevention and control to guide the application of biotechnology in the control of CIT contamination, providing more possibilities for the application of Monascus in the cheese industry.


Assuntos
Queijo , Citrinina , Contaminação de Alimentos , Monascus , Monascus/metabolismo , Monascus/química , Queijo/microbiologia , Queijo/análise , Citrinina/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Fermentação
11.
Open Vet J ; 14(3): 779-786, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38682148

RESUMO

Background: Milk-borne bacteria cause degradation of milk products and constitute a significant risk to public health. Aim: The objectives of the present study are to determine the microbiological quality of dairy products and to investigate pathogenic microorganisms. Methods: A total of 60 samples of raw milk, homemade cheese, and yogurt were randomly selected from different retail marketplaces in Basrah. The bacteriological and biochemical tests were utilized to identify the pathogens in dairy samples, as well as the molecular technique was used as an accurate diagnostic test. Results: The prevalence of contamination of milk products with various isolates was estimated as 50% (95% Cl: 36.8-63.2). The mean of total bacteria count for cheese was 7.29 ± 2.70, raw milk 4.62 ± 2.86, and yogurt 2.87 ± 1.05, with a significant p-value (p = 0.001). The mean count of aerobic spore-forming (ASF) contaminated raw milk was analyzed as 3.77 ± 1.18 and less contamination detected in the yogurt samples with mean of ASF was estimated as 2.52 ± 1.47 SD log 10 CFU/ml. A range of important microorganisms to human health were identified by employing the VITEK_2 system and sequencing 16S rDNA gene, including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aerogenosa, and Bacillus cereus. Conclusion: The study indicates that there is a high level of bacterial contamination in dairy products with different bacteria species, which is medically important. Therefore, food safety management must be implemented to reduce biological risks carried by dairy products and ensure healthy food for consumers.


Assuntos
Laticínios , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Leite , Animais , Laticínios/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Leite/microbiologia , Medição de Risco , Iraque/epidemiologia , Queijo/microbiologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/classificação , Iogurte/microbiologia
12.
Microbiome ; 12(1): 78, 2024 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38678226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Artisanal cheeses usually contain a highly diverse microbial community which can significantly impact their quality and safety. Here, we describe a detailed longitudinal study assessing the impact of ripening in three natural caves on the microbiome and resistome succession across three different producers of Cabrales blue-veined cheese. RESULTS: Both the producer and cave in which cheeses were ripened significantly influenced the cheese microbiome. Lactococcus and the former Lactobacillus genus, among other taxa, showed high abundance in cheeses at initial stages of ripening, either coming from the raw material, starter culture used, and/or the environment of processing plants. Along cheese ripening in caves, these taxa were displaced by other bacteria, such as Tetragenococcus, Corynebacterium, Brevibacterium, Yaniella, and Staphylococcus, predominantly originating from cave environments (mainly food contact surfaces), as demonstrated by source-tracking analysis, strain analysis at read level, and the characterization of 613 metagenome-assembled genomes. The high abundance of Tetragenococcus koreensis and Tetragenococcus halophilus detected in cheese has not been found previously in cheese metagenomes. Furthermore, Tetragenococcus showed a high level of horizontal gene transfer with other members of the cheese microbiome, mainly with Lactococcus and Staphylococcus, involving genes related to carbohydrate metabolism functions. The resistome analysis revealed that raw milk and the associated processing environments are a rich reservoir of antimicrobial resistance determinants, mainly associated with resistance to aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, and ß-lactam antibiotics and harbored by aerobic gram-negative bacteria of high relevance from a safety point of view, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Acinetobacter, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and that the displacement of most raw milk-associated taxa by cave-associated taxa during ripening gave rise to a significant decrease in the load of ARGs and, therefore, to a safer end product. CONCLUSION: Overall, the cave environments represented an important source of non-starter microorganisms which may play a relevant role in the quality and safety of the end products. Among them, we have identified novel taxa and taxa not previously regarded as being dominant components of the cheese microbiome (Tetragenococcus spp.), providing very valuable information for the authentication of this protected designation of origin artisanal cheese. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Queijo , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Microbiota , Queijo/microbiologia , Queijo/normas , Microbiota/fisiologia , Transferência Genética Horizontal/genética , Metagenoma/genética , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética
13.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 77(4)2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573828

RESUMO

There is growing interest in using autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that provide unique sensory characteristics to dairy products without affecting their safety and quality. This work studied the capacity of three Brazilian indigenous nonstarter LABs (NSLAB) to produce biogenic amines (BAs) and evaluated their effect on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs), microbial LAB communities, and physicochemical profile of short-aged cheese. Initially, the strain's potential for biosynthesis of BAs was assessed by PCR and in vitro assays. Then, a pilot-scale cheese was produced, including the NSLAB, and the microbial and VOC profiles were analyzed after 25 and 45 days of ripening. As a results, the strains did not present genes related to relevant BAs and did not produce them in vitro. During cheese ripening, the Lactococci counts were reduced, probably in the production of alcohols and acid compounds by the NSLAB. Each strain produces a unique VOC profile that changes over the ripening time without the main VOCs related to rancid or old cheese. Particularly, the use of the strain Lacticaseibacillus. paracasei ItalPN16 resulted in production of ester compounds with fruity notes. Thus, indigenous NSLAB could be a valuable tool for the enhancement and diversification of flavor in short-aged cheese.


Assuntos
Queijo , Lactobacillales , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Lactobacillales/genética , Queijo/microbiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Brasil , Lactobacillus
14.
Food Microbiol ; 120: 104483, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431328

RESUMO

Wooden vats are used in the production of some traditional cheeses as the biofilms on wooden vat surfaces are known to transfer large quantities of microbes to cheese. However, the safety of using wooden vats for cheese production remains controversial as the porous structure of wood provides an irregular surface that may protect any attached pathogen cells from cleaning and sanitation processes. On the other hand, the absence of pathogens in wooden vats has been reported in multiple studies and wooden materials have not been associated with foodborne illness outbreaks. The present study determined the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) during the production of an uncooked pressed cheese in wooden vats as well as their ability to transfer to the wood and then to milk used in subsequent batches of cheese production in the absence of formal cleaning. Results from the study indicate that pathogens inoculated in milk grew during production of the uncooked cheese, but showed limited ability to colonize the wooden vats and contaminate subsequent batches. These results suggest that the risks of using wooden vats to produce cheese is low if the milk is of high microbiological quality.


Assuntos
Queijo , Listeria monocytogenes , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica , Animais , Queijo/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Microbiologia de Alimentos
15.
Metab Eng ; 83: 24-38, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460783

RESUMO

Cheese taste and flavour properties result from complex metabolic processes occurring in microbial communities. A deeper understanding of such mechanisms makes it possible to improve both industrial production processes and end-product quality through the design of microbial consortia. In this work, we caracterise the metabolism of a three-species community consisting of Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium freudenreichii during a seven-week cheese production process. Using genome-scale metabolic models and omics data integration, we modeled and calibrated individual dynamics using monoculture experiments, and coupled these models to capture the metabolism of the community. This model accurately predicts the dynamics of the community, enlightening the contribution of each microbial species to organoleptic compound production. Further metabolic exploration revealed additional possible interactions between the bacterial species. This work provides a methodological framework for the prediction of community-wide metabolism and highlights the added value of dynamic metabolic modeling for the comprehension of fermented food processes.


Assuntos
Queijo , Modelos Biológicos , Queijo/microbiologia , Lactococcus lactis/metabolismo , Lactococcus lactis/genética , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Lactobacillus plantarum/genética , Propionibacterium freudenreichii/metabolismo , Propionibacterium freudenreichii/genética
16.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 415: 110635, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432055

RESUMO

Biopreservation is an approach consisting of using microorganisms as protective cultures and/or their metabolites to optimize the microbiological quality and shelf life of food by ensuring safety or reducing food waste. Biopreservation strain selection pipelines mainly focus on inhibition strength to identify strains of interest. However, in addition to inhibition strength, inhibition activity must be able to be expressed despite significant variations in food matrix properties. In this study, the anti-Listeria monocytogenes EGDelux properties of a collection of 77 Carnobacterium maltaromaticum strains were investigated by high throughput competition assays under varying conditions of co-culture inoculation level, time interval between inoculation with C. maltaromaticum and L. monocytogenes, pH, and NaCl, resulting in 1309 different combinations of C. maltaromaticum strains and culture conditions. This screening led to the selection of two candidate strains with potent and robust anti-L. monocytogenes activities. Deferred growth inhibition assays followed by halo measurements, and liquid co-culture followed by colony counting, revealed that these two strains exhibit a wide anti-Listeria spectrum. Challenge tests in Camembert and Saint-Nectaire cheese revealed both strains were able to inhibit a cocktail of five strains of L. monocytogenes with high potency and high reproducibility. These results highlight the importance of including the robustness criterion in addition to potency when designing a strain selection process for biopreservation applications.


Assuntos
Carnobacterium , Queijo , Listeria monocytogenes , Eliminação de Resíduos , Queijo/microbiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Microbiologia de Alimentos
17.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 90(3): e0227623, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319095

RESUMO

Consumer demand for plant cheeses is increasing, but challenges of improving both flavor and quality remain. This study investigated the microbiological and physicochemical impact of seed germination and fermentation with Bacillus velezensis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens on the ripening of plant cheese analogs. Chlorine treatment or addition of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis controlled microbial growth during seed germination. Lp. plantarum and Lc. lactis also served as starter cultures for the acidification of soy and lupine milk and were subsequently present in the unripened plant cheese as dominant microbes. Acidification also inhibited the growth and metabolic activity of bacilli but Bacillus spores remained viable throughout ripening. During plant cheese ripening, Lc. lactis was inactivated before Lp. plantarum and the presence of bacilli during seed germination delayed Lc. lactis inactivation. Metagenomic sequencing of full-length 16S rRNA gene amplicons confirmed that the relative abundance of the inoculated strains in each ripened cheese sample exceeded 99%. Oligosaccharides including raffinose, stachyose, and verbascose were rapidly depleted in the initial stage of ripening. Both germination and the presence of bacilli during seed germination had impact on polysaccharide hydrolysis during ripening. Bacilli but not seed germination enhanced proteolysis of plant cheese during ripening. In conclusion, the use of germination with lactic acid bacteria in combination with Bacillus spp. exhibited the potential to improve the quality of ripened plant cheeses with a positive effect on the reduction of hygienic risks. IMPORTANCE: The development of novel plant-based fermented food products for which no traditional templates exist requires the development of starter cultures. Although the principles of microbial flavor formation in plant-based analogs partially overlap with dairy fermentations, the composition of the raw materials and thus likely the selective pressure on the activity of starter cultures differs. Experiments that are described in this study explored the use of seed germination, the use of lactic acid bacteria, and the use of bacilli to reduce hygienic risks, to acidify plant milk, and to generate taste-active compounds through proteolysis and fermentative conversion of carbohydrates. The characterization of fermentation microbiota by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods also confirmed that the starter cultures used were able to control microbial communities throughout 90 d of ripening. Taken together, the results provide novel tools for the development of plant-based analogs of fermented dairy products.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Queijo , Lactobacillales , Lactococcus lactis , Animais , Germinação , Queijo/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Sementes , Lactobacillales/genética , Bacillus/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Lactococcus lactis/genética , Leite/microbiologia
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(4)2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38397005

RESUMO

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can be used as starters in the development of GABA-enriched functional fermented foods. In this work, four GABA-producing strains each of Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus species were isolated from cow's milk, and their phenotypic, technological, and safety profiles determined. Genome analysis provided genetic support for the majority of the analyzed traits, namely, GABA production, growth in milk, and the absence of genes of concern. The operon harboring the glutamate decarboxylase gene (gadB) was chromosomally encoded in all strains and showed the same gene content and gene order as those reported, respectively, for L. lactis and S. thermophilus. In the latter species, the operon was flanked (as in most strains of this species) by complete or truncated copies of insertion sequences (IS), suggesting recent acquisition through horizontal gene transfer. The genomes of three L. lactis and two S. thermophilus strains showed a gene encoding a caseinolytic proteinase (PrtP in L. lactis and PrtS in S. thermophilus). Of these, all but one grew in milk, forming a coagulum of good appearance and an appealing acidic flavor and taste. They also produced GABA in milk supplemented with monosodium glutamate. Two L. lactis strains were identified as belonging to the biovar. diacetylactis, utilized citrate from milk, and produced significant amounts of acetoin. None of the strains showed any noticeable antibiotic resistance, nor did their genomes harbor transferable antibiotic resistance genes or genes involved in toxicity, virulence, or pathogenicity. Altogether these results suggest that all eight strains may be considered candidates for use as starters or components of mixed LAB cultures for the manufacture of GABA-enriched fermented dairy products.


Assuntos
Queijo , Lactobacillales , Lactococcus lactis , Animais , Leite/microbiologia , Lactococcus lactis/genética , Streptococcus thermophilus/genética , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico , Genômica , Fermentação , Queijo/microbiologia
19.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 23(1): e13262, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38284577

RESUMO

The growing emphasis on dietary health has facilitated the development of plant-based foods. Plant proteins have excellent functional attributes and health-enhancing effects and are also environmentally conscientious and animal-friendly protein sources on a global scale. The addition of plant proteins (including soy protein, pea protein, zein, nut protein, and gluten protein) to diverse cheese varieties and cheese analogs holds the promise of manufacturing symbiotic products that not only have reduced fat content but also exhibit improved protein diversity and overall quality. In this review, we summarized the utilization and importance of various plant proteins in the production of hybrid cheeses and cheese analogs. Meanwhile, classification and processing methods related to these cheese products were reviewed. Furthermore, the impact of different plant proteins on the microstructure, textural properties, physicochemical attributes, rheological behavior, functional aspects, microbiological aspects, and sensory characteristics of both hybrid cheeses and cheese analogs were discussed and compared. Our study explores the potential for the development of cheeses made from full/semi-plant protein ingredients with greater sustainability and health benefits. Additionally, it further emphasizes the substantial chances for scholars and developers to investigate the optimal processing methods and applications of plant proteins in cheeses, thereby improving the market penetration of plant protein hybrid cheeses and cheese analogs.


Assuntos
Queijo , Animais , Queijo/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas , Dieta
20.
Fungal Genet Biol ; 171: 103862, 2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38218228

RESUMO

Although Penicillium molds can have significant impacts on agricultural, industrial, and biomedical systems, the ecological roles of Penicillium species in many microbiomes are not well characterized. Here we utilized a collection of 35 Penicillium strains isolated from cheese rinds to broadly investigate the genomic potential for secondary metabolism in cheese-associated Penicillium species, the impact of Penicillium on bacterial community assembly, and mechanisms of Penicillium-bacteria interactions. Using antiSMASH, we identified 1558 biosynthetic gene clusters, 406 of which were mapped to known pathways, including several mycotoxins and antimicrobial compounds. By measuring bacterial abundance and fungal mRNA expression when culturing representative Penicillium strains with a cheese rind bacterial community, we observed divergent impacts of different Penicillium strains, from strong inhibitors of bacterial growth to those with no impact on bacterial growth or community composition. Through differential mRNA expression analyses, Penicillium strains demonstrated limited differential gene expression in response to the bacterial community. We identified a few shared responses between the eight tested Penicillium strains, primarily upregulation of nutrient metabolic pathways, but we did not identify a conserved fungal response to growth in a multispecies community. These results in tandem suggest high variation among cheese-associated Penicillium species in their ability to shape bacterial community development and highlight important ecological diversity within this iconic genus.


Assuntos
Queijo , Microbiota , Penicillium , Queijo/microbiologia , Penicillium/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Microbiota/genética , Genômica , Bactérias , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
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