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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246389, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285638

RESUMO

Abstract Poultry industry is expanding rapidly and producing million tons of feather waste annually. Massive production of keratinaceous byproducts in the form of industrial wastes throughout the world necessitates its justified utilization. Chemical treatment of keratin waste is proclaimed as an eco-destructive approach by various researchers since it generates secondary pollutants. Keratinase released by a variety of microbes (bacteria and fungi) can be used for the effective treatment of keratin waste. Microbial degradation of keratin waste is an emerging and eco-friendly approach and offers dual benefits, i.e., treatment of recalcitrant pollutant (keratin) and procurement of a commercially important enzyme (keratinase). This study involves the isolation, characterization, and potential utility of fungal species for the degradation of chicken-feather waste through submerged and solid-state fermentation. The isolated fungus was identified and characterized as Aspergillus (A.) flavus. In a trial of 30 days, it was appeared that 74 and 8% feather weight was reduced through sub-merged and solid-state fermentation, respectively by A. flavus. The pH of the growth media in submerged fermentation was changed from 4.8 to 8.35. The exploited application of keratinolytic microbes is, therefore, recommended for the treatment of keratinaceous wastes to achieve dual benefits of remediation.


Resumo A indústria avícola está se expandindo rapidamente e produzindo milhões de toneladas de resíduos de penas anualmente. A produção massiva de subprodutos queratinosos na forma de resíduos agrícolas e industriais em todo o mundo exige sua utilização justificada. O tratamento químico de resíduos de queratina é proclamado como uma abordagem ecodestrutiva por vários pesquisadores, uma vez que gera poluentes secundários. A queratinase liberada por uma variedade de micróbios (bactérias e fungos) pode ser usada para o tratamento eficaz de resíduos de queratina. A degradação microbiana de resíduos de queratina é uma abordagem emergente e ecológica e oferece benefícios duplos, ou seja, tratamento de poluente recalcitrante (queratina) e obtenção de uma enzima comercialmente importante (queratinase). Este estudo envolve o isolamento, caracterização e utilidade potencial de espécies de fungos para a degradação de resíduos de penas de frango por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O fungo isolado foi identificado e caracterizado como Aspergillus (A.) flavus. Em um ensaio de 30 dias, constatou-se que 74% e 8% do peso das penas foram reduzidos por A. flavus, respectivamente, por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O pH do meio de crescimento em fermentação submersa foi alterado de 4,8 para 8,35. A aplicação explorada de micróbios queratinolíticos é, portanto, recomendada para o tratamento de resíduos ceratinosos para obter benefícios duplos de remediação.


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas , Plumas , Fermentação , Fungos , Resíduos Industriais , Queratinas/metabolismo
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360819

RESUMO

The high demand for keratinolytic enzymes and the modest presentation of fungal keratinase diversity studies in scientific sources cause a significant interest in identifying new fungal strains of keratinase producers, isolating new enzymes and studying their properties. Four out of the 32 cultures showed a promising target activity on protein-containing agar plates-Aspergillus amstelodami A6, A. clavatus VKPM F-1593, A. ochraceus 247, and Cladosporium sphaerospermum 1779. The highest values of keratinolytic activity were demonstrated by extracellular proteins synthesized by Aspergillus clavatus VKPM F-1593 cultivated under submerged conditions on a medium containing milled chicken feathers. The enzyme complex preparation was obtained by protein precipitation from the culture liquid with ammonium sulfate, subsequent dialysis, and lyophilization. The fraction of a pure enzyme with keratinolytic activity (pI 9.3) was isolated by separating the extracellular proteins of A. clavatus VKPM F-1593 via isoelectric focusing. The studied keratinase was an alkaline subtilisin-like non-glycosylated protease active over a wide pH range with optimum keratinolysis at pH 8 and 50 °C.


Assuntos
Plumas , Queratinas , Animais , Queratinas/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Fungos/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Temperatura
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(58): 86913-86932, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36271998

RESUMO

Since the dawn of century, tons of keratin bio-waste is generated by the poultry industry annually, and they end up causing environmental havoc. Keratins are highly flexible fibrous proteins which exist in α- and ß- forms and provide mechanical strength and stability to structural appendages. The finding of broad-spectrum protease, keratinase, from thermophilic bacteria and fungi, has provided an eco-friendly solution to hydrolyze the peptide bonds in highly recalcitrant keratinous substances such as nails, feathers, claws, and horns into valuable amino acids. Microorganisms produce these proteolytic enzymes by techniques of solid-state and submerged fermentation. However, solid-state fermentation is considered as a yielding approach for the production of thermostable keratinases. This review prioritized the molecular and biochemical properties of microbial keratinases, and the role of keratinases in bringing prodigious impact for the sustainable progress of the economy. It also emphasizes on the current development in keratinase production with the focus to improve the biochemical properties related to enzyme's catalytic activity and stability, and production of mutant and cloned microbial strains to improve the yield of keratinases. Recently, multitude molecular approaches have been employed to enhance enzyme's productivity, activity, and thermostability which makes them suitable for pharmaceutical industry and for the production of animal feed, organic fertilizers, biogas, clearing of animal hides, and detergent formulation. Hence, it can be surmised that microbial keratinolytic enzymes are the conceivable candidates for numerous commercial and industrial applications.


Assuntos
Queratinas , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Animais , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Queratinas/metabolismo , Biotecnologia/métodos , Plumas/metabolismo , Responsabilidade Social , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
4.
Anticancer Res ; 42(11): 5315-5322, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36288876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Clear cell sarcoma of soft tissue (CCSST) and conventional malignant melanoma (MM) are rare and aggressive tumours with similarities in morphology and the expression of melanocytic markers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We established two CCSST cell lines (FU-CCSST-1 and FU-CCSST-2) from soft tissues of the patella and supraclavicular. A MM cell line (FU-MM-1) was established from lymph node metastases of subungual malignant melanoma. RESULTS: FU-CCSST-2 cells were transplantable to immunodeficient mice. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated tumour cells were negative for cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and positive for S100 protein, HMB45, Melan-A, CD146 and SOX10 in all specimens. FU-CCSST-1 and FU-CCSST-2 harboured t(12;22)(q13;q12) translocations with expression of the EWSR1/ATF1 fusion gene. FU-MM-1 demonstrated loss of the short arm of chromosome 9 and harboured wild-type BRAF (codon 469 and 600) and NRAS (codon 12, 13 and 61). CONCLUSION: We report the establishment and characterisation of CCSST and MM cell lines that may have utility in the study of pathogenic mechanisms and development of novel therapeutic reagents.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Sarcoma de Células Claras , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Sarcoma de Células Claras/patologia , Antígeno MART-1/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/metabolismo , Antígeno CD146 , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/metabolismo , Proteínas S100/metabolismo , Queratinas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular
5.
J Cell Sci ; 135(20)2022 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36285538

RESUMO

A large group of keratin genes (n=54 in the human genome) code for intermediate filament (IF)-forming proteins and show differential regulation in epithelial cells and tissues. Keratin expression can be highly informative about the type of epithelial tissue, differentiation status of constituent cells and biological context (e.g. normal versus diseased settings). The foundational principles underlying the use of keratin expression to gain insight about epithelial cells and tissues primarily originated in pioneering studies conducted in the 1980s. The recent emergence of single cell transcriptomics provides an opportunity to revisit these principles and gain new insight into epithelial biology. Re-analysis of single-cell RNAseq data collected from human and mouse skin has confirmed long-held views regarding the quantitative importance and pairwise regulation of specific keratin genes in keratinocytes of surface epithelia. Furthermore, such analyses confirm and extend the notion that changes in keratin gene expression occur gradually as progenitor keratinocytes commit to and undergo differentiation, and challenge the prevailing assumption that specific keratin combinations reflect a mitotic versus a post-mitotic differentiating state. Our findings provide a blueprint for similar analyses in other tissues, and warrant a more nuanced approach in the use of keratin genes as biomarkers in epithelia.


Assuntos
Queratinócitos , Queratinas , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , Queratinas/genética , Queratinas/metabolismo , Epitélio/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética
6.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0273807, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36240204

RESUMO

Keratoconus (KC) is a multifactorial progressive ectatic disorder characterized by local thinning of the cornea, leading to decreased visual acuity due to irregular astigmatism and opacities. Despite the evolution of advanced imaging methods, the exact etiology of KC remains unknown. Our aim was to investigate the involvement of corneal epithelium in the pathophysiology of the disease. Corneal epithelial samples were collected from 23 controls and from 2 cohorts of patients with KC: 22 undergoing corneal crosslinking (early KC) and 6 patients before penetrating keratoplasty (advanced KC). The expression of genes involved in the epidermal terminal differentiation program and of the oxidative stress pathway was assessed by real time PCR analysis. Presence of some of the differentially expressed transcripts was confirmed at protein level using immunofluorescence on controls and advanced KC additional corneal samples. We found statistically significant under-expression in early KC samples of some genes known to be involved in the mechanical resistance of the epidermis (KRT16, KRT14, SPRR1A, SPRR2A, SPRR3, TGM1 and TGM5) and in oxidative stress pathways (NRF2, HMOX1 and HMOX2), as compared to controls. In advanced KC samples, expression of SPRR2A and HMOX1 was reduced. Decreased expression of keratin (KRT)16 and KRT14 proteins was observed. Moreover, differential localization was noted for involucrin, another protein involved in the epidermis mechanical properties. Finally, we observed an immunofluorescence staining for the active form of NRF2 in control epithelia that was reduced in KC epithelia. These results suggest a defect in the mechanical resistance and the oxidative stress defense possibly mediated via the NRF2 pathway in the corneal keratoconic epithelium.


Assuntos
Epitélio Corneano , Ceratocone , Córnea/metabolismo , Proteínas Ricas em Prolina do Estrato Córneo/metabolismo , Epitélio Corneano/metabolismo , Humanos , Queratinas/metabolismo , Ceratocone/genética , Ceratocone/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/genética
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17118, 2022 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36224206

RESUMO

Enormous amounts of keratinaceous waste make a significant and unexploited protein reserve that can be utilized through bioconversion into high-value products using microbial keratinases. This study was intended to assess the keratinase production from a newly isolated B. velezensis NCIM 5802 that can proficiently hydrolyze chicken feathers. Incubation parameters used to produce keratinase enzyme were optimized through the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with chicken feathers as substrate. Optimization elevated the keratinase production and feather degradation by 4.92-folds (109.7 U/mL) and 2.5 folds (95.8%), respectively. Time-course profile revealed a direct correlation among bacterial growth, feather degradation, keratinase production and amino acid generation. Biochemical properties of the keratinase were evaluated, where it showed optimal activity at 60 °C and pH 10.0. The keratinase was inhibited by EDTA and PMSF, indicating it to be a serine-metalloprotease. Zymography revealed the presence of four distinct keratinases (Mr ~ 100, 62.5, 36.5 and 25 kDa) indicating its multiple forms. NMR and mass spectroscopic studies confirmed the presence of 18 free amino acids in the feather hydrolysates. Changes in feather keratin brought about by the keratinase action were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and spectroscopic (FTIR, Raman) analyses, which showed a decrease in the total crystallinity index (TCI) (1.00-0.63) and confirmed the degradation of its crystalline domain. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the sequential structural changes occurring in the feather keratin during degradation. Present study explored the use of keratinolytic potential of the newly isolated B. velezensis NCIM 5802 in chicken feather degradation and also, unraveled the underlying keratin hydrolysis mechanism through various analyses.


Assuntos
Plumas , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Bacillus , Galinhas/metabolismo , Ácido Edético/metabolismo , Plumas/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Queratinas/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Serina/metabolismo
8.
Molecules ; 27(20)2022 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36296627

RESUMO

Griseofulvin is an antifungal polyketide metabolite produced mainly by ascomycetes. Since it was commercially introduced in 1959, griseofulvin has been used in treating dermatophyte infections. This fungistatic has gained increasing interest for multifunctional applications in the last decades due to its potential to disrupt mitosis and cell division in human cancer cells and arrest hepatitis C virus replication. In addition to these inhibitory effects, we and others found griseofulvin may enhance ACE2 function, contribute to vascular vasodilation, and improve capillary blood flow. Furthermore, molecular docking analysis revealed that griseofulvin and its derivatives have good binding potential with SARS-CoV-2 main protease, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD), suggesting its inhibitory effects on SARS-CoV-2 entry and viral replication. These findings imply the repurposing potentials of the FDA-approved drug griseofulvin in designing and developing novel therapeutic interventions. In this review, we have summarized the available information from its discovery to recent progress in this growing field. Additionally, explored is the possible mechanism leading to rare hepatitis induced by griseofulvin. We found that griseofulvin and its metabolites, including 6-desmethylgriseofulvin (6-DMG) and 4- desmethylgriseofulvin (4-DMG), have favorable interactions with cytokeratin intermediate filament proteins (K8 and K18), ranging from -3.34 to -5.61 kcal mol-1. Therefore, they could be responsible for liver injury and Mallory body (MB) formation in hepatocytes of human, mouse, and rat treated with griseofulvin. Moreover, the stronger binding of griseofulvin to K18 in rodents than in human may explain the observed difference in the severity of hepatitis between rodents and human.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Policetídeos , Camundongos , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , Griseofulvina/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Queratinas/metabolismo , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA
9.
Cells ; 11(19)2022 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36231117

RESUMO

Among the 33 human adhesion G-protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs), a unique subfamily of GPCRs, only ADGRF4, encoding GPR115, shows an obvious skin-dominated transcriptomic profile, but its expression and function in skin is largely unknown. Here, we report that GPR115 is present in a small subset of basal and in most suprabasal, noncornified keratinocytes of the stratified epidermis, supporting epidermal transcriptomic data. In psoriatic skin, characterized by hyperproliferation and delayed differentiation, the expression of GPR115 and KRT1/10, the fundamental suprabasal keratin dimer, is delayed. The deletion of ADGRF4 in HaCaT keratinocytes grown in an organotypic mode abrogates KRT1 and reduces keratinocyte stratification, indicating a role of GPR115 in epidermal differentiation. Unexpectedly, endogenous GPR115, which is not glycosylated and is likely not proteolytically processed, localizes intracellularly along KRT1/10-positive keratin filaments in a regular pattern. Our data demonstrate a hitherto unknown function of GPR115 in the regulation of epidermal differentiation and KRT1.


Assuntos
Células Epidérmicas , Queratinócitos , Criança , Células Epidérmicas/metabolismo , Epiderme/metabolismo , Humanos , Queratina-1/genética , Queratina-1/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Queratinas/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232922

RESUMO

We recently determined the RNA sequencing-based microRNA (miRNA) expression signature of colorectal cancer (CRC). Analysis of the signature showed that the expression of both strands of pre-miR-139 (miR-139-5p, the guide strand, and miR-139-3p, the passenger strand) was significantly reduced in CRC tissues. Transient transfection assays revealed that expression of miR-139-3p blocked cancer cell malignant transformation (e.g., cell proliferation, migration, and invasion). Notably, expression of miR-139-3p markedly blocked RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase (AKT) phosphorylation in CRC cells. A combination of in silico database and gene expression analyses of miR-139-3p-transfected cells revealed 29 putative targets regulated by miR-139-3p in CRC cells. RNA immunoprecipitation analysis using an Argonaute2 (AGO2) antibody revealed that KRT80 was efficiently incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex. Aberrant expression of Keratin 80 (KRT80) was detected in CRC clinical specimens by immunostaining. A knockdown assay using small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting KRT80 showed that reducing KRT80 expression suppressed the malignant transformation (cancer cell migration and invasion) of CRC cells. Importantly, inhibiting KRT80 expression reduced AKT phosphorylation in CRC cells. Moreover, hexokinase-2 (HK2) expression was reduced in cells transfected with the KRT80 siRNAs or miR-139-3p. The involvement of miRNA passenger strands (e.g., miR-139-3p) in CRC cells is a new concept in miRNA studies. Our tumor-suppressive miRNA-based approach helps elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , MicroRNAs , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Hexoquinase/metabolismo , Humanos , Queratinas/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Complexo de Inativação Induzido por RNA/genética , Serina/metabolismo , Treonina/metabolismo
11.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(10): 634, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127480

RESUMO

Keratinibaculum paraultunense strain KD-1 T (= JCM 18769 T = DSM 26752 T) is a strictly anaerobic rod-shaped bacterium. Under optimal conditions, feather keratin can be completely degraded by strain KD-1 within 24 h. Genomic sequencing showed that the genome was a single circular chromosome consisting of 2,307,997 base pairs (bp), with an average G + C content of 29.8% and no plasmids. A total of 2308 genes were annotated, accounting for 88.87% of the genomic sequence, and 1495 genes were functionally annotated. Among these, genes Kpa0144, Kpa0540, and Kpa0541 encoding the thioredoxin family members were identified, and may encode the potential disulfide reductases, with redox activity for protein disulfide bonds. Two potential keratinase-encoding genes, Kpa1675 and Kpa2139, were also identified, and corresponded to the ability of strain KD-1 to hydrolyze keratin. Strain KD-1 encoded genes involved in the heterotrophic metabolic pathways of 14 amino acids and various carbohydrates. The metabolic pathways for amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism were mapped in strain KD-1 based on KEGG annotations. The complete genome of strain KD-1 provided fundamental data for the further investigation of its physiology and genetics.


Assuntos
Plumas , Queratinas , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Anaerobiose , Animais , Carboidratos , Clostridiaceae , Dissulfetos/metabolismo , Plumas/metabolismo , Queratinas/genética , Queratinas/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Tiorredoxinas/metabolismo
12.
BMC Biotechnol ; 22(1): 26, 2022 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the growing concern for the environment, there are trends that bio-utilization of keratinous waste by keratinases could ease the heavy burden of keratinous waste from the poultry processing and leather industry. Especially surfactant-stable keratinases are beneficial for the detergent industry. Therefore, the production of keratinase by Bacillus cereus YQ15 was improved; the characterization and use of keratinase in detergent were also studied. RESULTS: A novel alkaline keratinase-producing bacterium YQ15 was isolated from feather keratin-rich soil and was identified as Bacillus cereus. Based on the improvement of medium components and culture conditions, the maximum keratinase activity (925 U/mL) was obtained after 36 h of cultivation under conditions of 35 °C and 160 rpm. Moreover, it was observed that the optimal reacting temperature and pH of the keratinase are 60 °C and 10.0, respectively; the activity was severely inhibited by PMSF and EDTA. On the contrary, the keratinase showed remarkable stability in the existence of the various surfactants, including SDS, Tween 20, Tween 60, Tween 80, and Triton X-100. Especially, 5% of Tween 20 and Tween 60 increased the activity by 100% and 60%, respectively. Furtherly, the keratinase revealed high efficiency in removing blood stains. CONCLUSION: The excellent compatibility with commercial detergents and the high washing efficiency of removing blood stains suggested its suitability for potential application as a bio-detergent additive.


Assuntos
Bacillus cereus , Detergentes , Animais , Bacillus cereus/metabolismo , Detergentes/química , Estabilidade Enzimática , Plumas/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Queratinas/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Polissorbatos , Tensoativos , Temperatura
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078583

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to optimize culture conditions and medium composition to accelerate the biodegradation of chicken feather waste by keratinolytic soil strains of Trichophyton ajelloi, which are poorly known in this respect, as well as to propose hitherto unconsidered culture conditions for these fungi in order to obtain a biopreparation with a high fertilization value. Different pH of the medium, incubation temperatures, amounts of chicken feathers, additional carbon sources, and culture methods were tested. The process of optimizing keratin biodegradation was evaluated in terms of measuring the activity of keratinase, protease, disulfide reductase, concentration of released soluble proteins and peptides, total pool of amino acids, ammonium and sulfate ions, changes in medium pH, and feather weight loss. It was found that the studied fungal strains were capable of decomposing and mineralizing keratin from feather waste. Regarding the fertilizer value of the obtained hydrolysates, it was shown that the release of sulfate and ammonium ions was highest in a stationary culture containing 2% feathers with an initial pH of 4.5 and a temperature of 28 °C. Days 14-21 of the culture were indicated as the optimal culture time for these fungi to obtain biopreparations of high fertilizing value.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Plumas , Compostos de Amônio/análise , Animais , Arthrodermataceae , Biodegradação Ambiental , Galinhas/metabolismo , Plumas/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Queratinas/análise , Queratinas/metabolismo , Sulfatos/análise , Temperatura , Trichophyton/metabolismo
14.
Dev Biol ; 491: 1-12, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36049534

RESUMO

Mammalian corneal development is a multistep process, including formation of the corneal epithelium (CE), endothelium and stroma during embryogenesis, followed by postnatal stratification of the epithelial layers and continuous renewal of the epithelium to replace the outermost corneal cells. Here, we employed the Cre-loxP system to conditionally deplete Pax6 proteins in two domains of ocular cells, i.e., the ocular surface epithelium (cornea, limbus and conjunctiva) (OSE) or postnatal CE via K14-cre or Aldh3-cre, respectively. Earlier and broader inactivation of Pax6 in the OSE resulted in thickened OSE with CE and limbal cells adopting the conjunctival keratin expression pattern. More restricted depletion of Pax6 in postnatal CE resulted in an abnormal cornea marked by reduced epithelial thickness despite increased epithelial cell proliferation. Immunofluorescence studies revealed loss of intermediate filament Cytokeratin 12 and diffused expression of adherens junction components, together with reduced tight junction protein, Zonula occludens-1. Furthermore, the expression of Cytokeratin 14, a basal cell marker in apical layers, indicates impaired differentiation of CE cells. Collectively, our data demonstrate that Pax6 is essential for maintaining proper differentiation and strong intercellular adhesion in postnatal CE cells, whereas limbal Pax6 is required to prevent the outgrowth of conjunctival cells to the cornea.


Assuntos
Córnea , Epitélio Corneano , Animais , Córnea/metabolismo , Epitélio Corneano/metabolismo , Queratina-12/metabolismo , Queratina-14/metabolismo , Queratinas/metabolismo , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
15.
Cell Rep ; 40(13): 111411, 2022 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36170816

RESUMO

Transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß) increases epithelial cancer cell migration and metastasis by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). TGF-ß also inhibits cell proliferation by inducing G1 phase cell-cycle arrest. However, the correlation between these tumor-promoting and -suppressing effects remains unclear. Here, we show that TGF-ß confers higher motility and metastatic ability to oral cancer cells in G1 phase. Mechanistically, keratin-associated protein 2-3 (KRTAP2-3) is a regulator of these dual effects of TGF-ß, and its expression is correlated with tumor progression in patients with head and neck cancer and migratory and metastatic potentials of oral cancer cells. Furthermore, single-cell RNA sequencing reveals that TGF-ß generates two populations of mesenchymal cancer cells with differential cell-cycle status through two distinctive EMT pathways mediated by Slug/HMGA2 and KRTAP2-3. Thus, TGF-ß-induced KRTAP2-3 orchestrates cancer cell proliferation and migration by inducing EMT, suggesting motile cancer cells arrested in G1 phase as a target to suppress metastasis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Bucais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Queratinas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
16.
Mol Biol Cell ; 33(13): ar121, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36001365

RESUMO

Keratin intermediate filaments convey mechanical stability and protection against stress to epithelial cells. Keratins are essential for colon health, as seen in keratin 8 knockout (K8-/-) mice exhibiting a colitis phenotype. We hypothesized that keratins support the nuclear envelope and lamina in colonocytes. K8-/- colonocytes in vivo exhibit significantly decreased levels of lamins A/C, B1, and B2 in a colon-specific and cell-intrinsic manner. CRISPR/Cas9- or siRNA-mediated K8 knockdown in Caco-2 cells similarly decreased lamin levels, which recovered after reexpression of K8 following siRNA treatment. Nuclear area was not decreased, and roundness was only marginally increased in cells without K8. Down-regulation of K8 in adult K8flox/flox;Villin-CreERt2 mice following tamoxifen administration significantly decreased lamin levels at day 4 when K8 levels had reduced to 40%. K8 loss also led to reduced levels of plectin, LINC complex, and lamin-associated proteins. While keratins were not seen in the nucleoplasm without or with leptomycin B treatment, keratins were found intimately located at the nuclear envelope and complexed with SUN2 and lamin A. Furthermore, K8 loss in Caco-2 cells compromised nuclear membrane integrity basally and after shear stress. In conclusion, colonocyte K8 helps maintain nuclear envelope and lamina composition and contributes to nuclear integrity.


Assuntos
Queratina-8 , Queratinas , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Colo/metabolismo , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Queratina-8/genética , Queratinas/metabolismo , Lamina Tipo A/metabolismo , Camundongos , Membrana Nuclear/metabolismo , Plectina/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Tamoxifeno
17.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol ; 30(9): 623-634, 2022 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36036642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the primary origin of some carcinomas may be obscure to clinicians, its identification is crucial as it affects prognosis and treatment (especially novel targeted therapies). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) may be helpful in identifying the primary origin of carcinomas. This retrospective survey aimed to evaluate the frequency and accuracy of each IHC marker used to determine the origin of carcinomas. METHODS: The review of pathology department archives revealed 307 cases of cancer of unknown primary origin (CUP) between 2015 and 2020, which were accessible in the department archives. Demographic information, site of biopsy, clinical and pathologic diagnoses, and IHC results of the patients were collected. RESULTS: The patients included 157 (51.15%) men and 150 (48.85%) women. The age of the patients ranged from 14 to 92 years, including 106 (34.5%) expired cases. In 27% of cases, the primary origin of carcinoma remained unknown. The agreement between pathologic and clinical diagnoses was 59%. The most common pattern of cytokeratin (CK) expression in CUP was CK7+/CK20- (55.3%), followed by CK7-/CK20- (19%), CK7+/CK20+ (15%), and CK7-/CK20+ (10.7%), respectively. CONCLUSION: The IHC analysis may improve the diagnosis of CUPs. However, the origin of some cases remains unknown despite an IHC analysis, thereby necessitating the use of more diagnostic procedures or gene expression studies for reaching a definitive diagnosis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma , Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Proteínas de Filamentos Intermediários/análise , Proteínas de Filamentos Intermediários/metabolismo , Queratina-20/metabolismo , Queratina-7/metabolismo , Queratinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Coloração e Rotulagem , Adulto Jovem
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11819, 2022 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35821396

RESUMO

The casein kinase 1 (CK1) family of serine/threonine protein kinases is involved in diverse cellular events at discrete subcellular compartments. FAM83H acts as a scaffold protein that recruits CK1 to the keratin cytoskeleton or to the nuclear speckles, which are storage sites for splicing factors. We determined the amino acid region of FAM83H required for recruiting CK1 to the keratin cytoskeleton. The subcellular localization of mutant FAM83H proteins with deletions of amino acid residues at different positions was evaluated via immunofluorescence. FAM83H mutants with deleted C-terminal residues 1134-1139, which are conserved among vertebrates, lost the ability to localize and recruit CK1 to the keratin cytoskeleton, suggesting that these residues are required for recruiting CK1 to the keratin cytoskeleton. The deletion of these residues (1134-1139) translocated FAM83H and CK1 to the nuclear speckles. Amino acid residues 1 to 603 of FAM83H were determined to contain the region responsible for the recruitment of CK1 to the nuclear speckles. Our results indicated that FAM83H recruits CK1 preferentially to the keratin cytoskeleton and alternatively to the nuclear speckles.


Assuntos
Caseína Quinase I , Queratinas , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Caseína Quinase I/genética , Caseína Quinase I/metabolismo , Caseína Quinases/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Queratinas/genética , Queratinas/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo
19.
Med Mol Morphol ; 55(4): 329-336, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35789287

RESUMO

Intercalated duct lesions (IDLs) are usually asymptomatic. We report a case of IDL, in which a palpable mass formed. The patient was a 45-year-old Japanese male, who noticed a mass in the left parotid region. The nodular lesion was well-circumscribed, but did not have a fibrous capsule or exhibit infiltrative growth. It contained a small cystic space and consisted of basaloid cells arranged in a cribriform pattern and inner ductal cells. It had some solid areas of nest-like proliferation displaying mild cellular atypia. Immunohistochemically, the luminal cells were positive for cytokeratin (CK)7 and epithelial membrane antigen, and the abluminal cells were positive for CK5/6, p63, and DOG1. S-100 protein-positive stromal cells were also seen. The lesion's cells were all positive for SOX10, and the nuclei of some basaloid cells were positive for ß-catenin. The Ki-67 labeling index was 3.8%. The ductal cells contained diastase-digestion-resistant, Periodic acid Schiff-positive zymogen granules. Genetically, the lesion harbored a missense mutation in the CTNNB1 gene. We diagnosed the lesion as an IDL. As IDLs are usually small non-neoplastic lesions, symptomatic cases are rare. Based on its common immunohistochemical and genetic features, IDL may be a precursor of basal cell adenoma/adenocarcinoma, such as intercalated duct adenoma.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Adenoma , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Glândula Parótida/patologia , beta Catenina , Mucina-1 , Antígeno Ki-67 , Ácido Periódico , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares/patologia , Adenoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Proteínas S100 , Queratinas/metabolismo , Amilases
20.
J Invest Dermatol ; 142(12): 3146-3157.e12, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35853486

RESUMO

The nail unit and hair follicle are both hard keratin-producing organs that share various biological features. In this study, we used digital spatial profiling and single-cell RNA sequencing to define a spatially resolved expression profile of the human nail unit and hair follicle. Our approach showed the presence of a nail-specific mesenchymal population called onychofibroblasts within the onychodermis. Onychodermis and follicular dermal papilla both expressed Wnt and bone morphogenetic protein signaling molecules. In addition, nail matrix epithelium and hair matrix showed very similar expressions profile, including the expression of hard keratins and HOXC13, a transcriptional regulator of the hair shaft. Integration of single-cell RNA sequencing and digital spatial profiling data through computational deconvolution methods estimated epithelial and mesenchymal cell abundance in the nail- and hair-specific regions of interest and revealed close transcriptional similarity between these major skin appendages. To analyze the function of bone morphogenetic proteins in nail differentiation, we treated cultured human nail matrix keratinocytes with BMP5, which are highly expressed by onychofibroblasts. We observed increased expressions of hard keratin and its regulator genes such as HOXC13. Collectively, our data suggest that onychodermis is the counterpart of dermal papilla and that BMP5 in onychofibroblasts plays a key role in the differentiation of nail matrix keratinocytes.


Assuntos
Folículo Piloso , Análise de Célula Única , Humanos , Folículo Piloso/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Unhas/metabolismo , Queratinas/metabolismo
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