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1.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 42(2): e163-e167, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) aims to preserve the spherical shape of the femoral head. The deformity index (DI) <0.3, measured 2 years from disease onset, is a surrogate measure that predicts that the femoral head will be Stulberg class I or II at skeletal maturity. There is no study that compares the predictive value of DI against a quantitative measure of the shape of the femoral head when the disease heals. We undertook this study to assess the reproducibility of a new method of measurement of DI and see if DI could predict the shape of the femoral head when the disease healed. METHODS: DI was measured 2 years after disease onset and the Sphericity Deviation Score (SDS) was measured at healing of LCPD on radiographs of 43 children. Reproducibility of measurement was tested. Each healed femoral head was classified as spherical or aspherical based on subjective visual assessment. The DI values were compared with SDS values. RESULTS: The reproducibility of measurement of SDS was excellent and superior to that of DI. The mean duration of disease was 3.97±0.96 years. Only 17 of 32 hips with DI values <0.3 at 2 years had spherical femoral heads at healing (SDS <10). Three hips with SDS values <10 had DI values >0.3. The positive and negative predictive values of a DI <0.3 in predicting if the femoral head will be spherical (SDS <10) when the disease healed were 53% and 73%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Though DI can be reproducibly measured the predictive value of a DI <0.3, to accurately identify hips that are likely to heal with spherical femoral heads, is not sufficiently high to justify its use as an outcome measure.


Assuntos
Cabeça do Fêmur , Doença de Legg-Calve-Perthes , Criança , Cabeça do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Doença de Legg-Calve-Perthes/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Cicatrização
2.
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(1): 252-257, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999711

RESUMO

Existence of variations in morphological proportions in human beings has led to the development of different values of tibio femoral angle (TFA) in different populations which is undoubtedly useful in clinical orthopaedic surgery. Meagre literature is available among Indian population. The cross-sectional study was creating baseline data of TFA among Rajasthani population of India with reasonable accuracy and also to correlate these data to radiological findings during July 2014-June 2016. The TFA (in degrees) of 500 healthy subjects from various regions of Rajasthan were measured in standing and supine positions. In addition, the TFA of 134 persons (randomly selected) from study group were also measured on roentgenogram. Subsequently both of these data were compared. The normal range of TFA angle in Rajasthani population was in between 160°-174°. TFA in standing position on right side was 170.96° (with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 170.24 to 171.68) and on left side was 170.14° (with 95% CI = 169.21 to 171.06). Mean TFA in supine position on right side in age group from 21 to 30 years was 167.12±6.73° and in age group from 31-40 years was 167.668±6.7°. No significant difference was observed in posture change and according to age. Statistically significant difference was observed in between radiological and gross measurement which was more in radiological than to clinical measurement of TFA (mean difference = +5.78° units) with 95% CI for the difference is (4.03°-7.53°). Higher values of tibio-femoral angle (TFA) were observed in males as compared to females and in radiological measurements.


Assuntos
Fêmur , Postura , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Radiografia , Adulto Jovem
3.
5.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 102(1): 1-3, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991231

RESUMO

Medical imaging is playing a more and more important role in the new diagnosis and treatment service mode, which is being optimized under the promotion of multiple factors. Based on the concept of promoting the reconstruction of medical imaging with the theories and methods of system science, this paper proposes a new paradigm of systematic diagnosis called multi-factor associated diagnosis system, explains the background, key techniques, and inherent logic of the proposed system, and prospects the application scenarios of the system in the future.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Imagem , Radiografia
6.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 29(Pt 1): 224-229, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985439

RESUMO

Coherent X-ray imaging techniques, such as in-line holography, exploit the high brilliance provided by diffraction-limited storage rings to perform imaging sensitive to the electron density through contrast due to the phase shift, rather than conventional attenuation contrast. Thus, coherent X-ray imaging techniques enable high-sensitivity and low-dose imaging, especially for low-atomic-number (Z) chemical elements and materials with similar attenuation contrast. Here, the first implementation of in-line holography at the NanoMAX beamline is presented, which benefits from the exceptional focusing capabilities and the high brilliance provided by MAX IV, the first operational diffraction-limited storage ring up to approximately 300 eV. It is demonstrated that in-line holography at NanoMAX can provide 2D diffraction-limited images, where the achievable resolution is only limited by the 70 nm focal spot at 13 keV X-ray energy. Also, the 3D capabilities of this instrument are demonstrated by performing holotomography on a chalk sample at a mesoscale resolution of around 155 nm. It is foreseen that in-line holography will broaden the spectra of capabilities of MAX IV by providing fast 2D and 3D electron density images from mesoscale down to nanoscale resolution.


Assuntos
Holografia , Imageamento Tridimensional , Radiografia , Síncrotrons , Raios X
7.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 29(Pt 1): 239-246, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985441

RESUMO

Rodents are used extensively as animal models for the preclinical investigation of microvascular-related diseases. However, motion artifacts in currently available imaging methods preclude real-time observation of microvessels in vivo. In this paper, a pixel temporal averaging (PTA) method that enables real-time imaging of microvessels in the mouse brain in vivo is described. Experiments using live mice demonstrated that PTA efficiently eliminated motion artifacts and random noise, resulting in significant improvements in contrast-to-noise ratio. The time needed for image reconstruction using PTA with a normal computer was 250 ms, highlighting the capability of the PTA method for real-time angiography. In addition, experiments with less than one-quarter of photon flux in conventional angiography verified that motion artifacts and random noise were suppressed and microvessels were successfully identified using PTA, whereas conventional temporal subtraction and averaging methods were ineffective. Experiments performed with an X-ray tube verified that the PTA method could also be successfully applied to microvessel imaging of the mouse brain using a laboratory X-ray source. In conclusion, the proposed PTA method may facilitate the real-time investigation of cerebral microvascular-related diseases using small animal models.


Assuntos
Artefatos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Animais , Camundongos , Microvasos/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia , Raios X
8.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 38(1): 36-39, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986580

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The tibial toddler's fracture is an important diagnosis in both emergency and urgent care, presenting as acute onset lower extremity pain or limping in a young child. Diagnosis and management may be challenging because of an extensive differential diagnosis. The objectives of this study were to provide an overview of the toddler's fracture and to guide clinicians by summarizing up to date literature for both diagnosis and management this common condition. METHODS: This study analyzed literature from the PubMed database from the years of 1964 to 2018. The main focus was on the diagnosis and management of the toddler's fracture. RESULTS: This review demonstrates that diagnosis is primarily made through history and physical examination, as radiographs are often negative at initial presentation. Treatment involves a short period of immobilization, which can be facilitated through the use of a cast, a splint, or no external support. Successful healing and a full return to normal activities and development are near universal. CONCLUSIONS: Although a stable fracture with an excellent prognosis, opportunities exist to improve toddler's fractures diagnosis and treatment protocols, to optimize clinical management.


Assuntos
Fraturas da Tíbia , Humanos , Lactente , Exame Físico , Prognóstico , Radiografia , Contenções , Fraturas da Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas da Tíbia/terapia
9.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 23(1): 22, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whole body standing alignment (WBSA) in terms of biomechanics can be evaluated accurately only by referring the gravity line (GL) which lies on the gravity center (GC). Here, we introduce a method for estimating GL and simultaneous WBSA measurement using the EOS® imaging system and report on the reproducibility and reliability of the method. METHODS: A 3-dimensional (3D) avatar to estimate GC was created following three steps: 3D reconstruction of the bone based on EOS images; deformation into a generic morphotype (MakeHuman statistical model) before density integration with 3D rasterization of the full body into 1-mm3 voxels (the content of each voxel is considered homogeneous); computation of the density of all the voxels provides the center of mass, which can be projected onto the floor as the GC of the full body, providing the GL in relation to the WBSA. The repeatability, reproducibility, and accuracy of the estimated GC and body weight of the avatar were compared with clinical estimation using a force plate in healthy volunteers and patients with degenerative and deformative diseases. RESULTS: Statistical analyses of the data revealed that the repeatability and reproducibility of the estimation was high with intra-rater and inter-rater intraclass correlation coefficient. ≥0.999. The coordinate values of the GC and body weight estimation did not differ significantly between the avatar and force plate measurements, demonstrating the high accuracy of the method. CONCLUSION: This new method of estimating GC and WBSA is reliable and accurate. Application of this method could allow clinicians to quickly and qualitatively evaluate WBSA with GL with various spinal malalignment pathologies.


Assuntos
Coluna Vertebral , Posição Ortostática , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Radiografia , Cintilografia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Dentomaxillofac Radiol ; 51(1): 20210197, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233515

RESUMO

In the last few years, artificial intelligence (AI) research has been rapidly developing and emerging in the field of dental and maxillofacial radiology. Dental radiography, which is commonly used in daily practices, provides an incredibly rich resource for AI development and attracted many researchers to develop its application for various purposes. This study reviewed the applicability of AI for dental radiography from the current studies. Online searches on PubMed and IEEE Xplore databases, up to December 2020, and subsequent manual searches were performed. Then, we categorized the application of AI according to similarity of the following purposes: diagnosis of dental caries, periapical pathologies, and periodontal bone loss; cyst and tumor classification; cephalometric analysis; screening of osteoporosis; tooth recognition and forensic odontology; dental implant system recognition; and image quality enhancement. Current development of AI methodology in each aforementioned application were subsequently discussed. Although most of the reviewed studies demonstrated a great potential of AI application for dental radiography, further development is still needed before implementation in clinical routine due to several challenges and limitations, such as lack of datasets size justification and unstandardized reporting format. Considering the current limitations and challenges, future AI research in dental radiography should follow standardized reporting formats in order to align the research designs and enhance the impact of AI development globally.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Radiologia , Inteligência Artificial , Humanos , Radiografia , Radiografia Dentária Digital
11.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 85: 102299, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34929450

RESUMO

Forensic age estimation is an invaluable aspect of human identification. Out of these many means of age estimation, few regions with untapped potential for assistance in forensic age estimation are the age-related changes in the laryngeal cartilages. As the age advances, the thyroid and cricoid cartilages undergo gradual calcification in an individual. These age-related changes can be visualized in both the living and the dead using conventional radiography and can be objectively assessed. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the age-related changes in the laryngeal cartilages and the results may be utilized for age estimation in forensic examinations. The laryngeal cartilages were carefully dissected using standard procedures from 75 cadavers of age ranging from 17 to 65 years, during the post-mortem examination. The laryngeal cartilages were radiographed and replaced in the body cavity before culminating the post-mortem examination. The calcification of both cartilages was studied by using the standard grading method. Calcification scores of individual regions of both the laryngeal cartilages show a statistically significant positive correlation with chronological age (P < 0.05). Regression models derived from the degree of calcification of thyroid and cricoid cartilages showed standard error of estimates that ranged between 9.90 and 11.07 years. Considering the standard error of estimates of the regression analysis, the present study concludes that these regression models can be used in adjunct with other methods of age estimation such as the skeletal and dental age or when such methods are not viable as in cases of charred or mutilated remains.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Cricoide , Glândula Tireoide , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Autopsia , Cartilagem Cricoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Cartilagens Laríngeas/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia , Cartilagem Tireóidea/diagnóstico por imagem , Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
12.
Skeletal Radiol ; 51(1): 153-159, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132888

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) is superior in fracture detection than conventional radiography; however, dose is increased. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) offers higher spatial resolution and lower dose than MDCT. Manufacturers offer an ultra-low-dose algorithm. This study compares the diagnostic accuracy of the ultra-low-dose CBCT (ULDCBCT) with that of the standard-dose CBCT (SDCBCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 64 patients were scanned with both the SDCBCT and the ULDCBCT protocols. Both studies were reported by two consultant radiologists with fellowship training in emergency radiology separated in time. The reporter recorded a diagnosis of fracture or normal and diagnostic confidence using a 5-point Likert scale. The gold standard was taken as the SDCBCT. Reporters were blinded to the indication and the SDCBCT report. Cases of discrepancy were resolved by consensus. RESULTS: There were 34 fractures and 30 cases had no fracture. Several fractures were missed using the UDCBCT, and there were also several cases of overdiagnosis. ULD was inferior to SD for fracture diagnosis (p < 0.00001). The diagnostic accuracy of ULDCBCT was 82.8% (75.1-88.9 CI). The diagnostic accuracy of plain radiograph was 64% (55.1-75.7% CI). Diagnostic confidence was reduced; the mean confidence for SDCBCT was 4.68 vs 4.12 for ULDCBCT (p < 0.001). The Kappa for interobserver agreement was 0.6. CONCLUSION: ULDCBCT is inferior to SDCBCT in fracture detection and confidence is reduced. For diagnostic studies, the standard dose should be used.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas , Radiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Radiografia
13.
Skeletal Radiol ; 51(1): 171-182, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143230

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Plain radiographs are a globally ubiquitous means of investigation for injuries to the musculoskeletal system. Despite this, initial interpretation remains a challenge and inaccuracies give rise to adverse sequelae for patients and healthcare providers alike. This study sought to address the limited, existing meta-analytic research on the initial reporting of radiographs for skeletal trauma, with specific regard to diagnostic accuracy of the most commonly injured region of the appendicular skeleton, the lower limb. METHOD: A prospectively registered, systematic review and meta-analysis was performed using published research from the major clinical-science databases. Studies identified as appropriate for inclusion underwent methodological quality and risk of bias analysis. Meta-analysis was then performed to establish summary rates for specificity and sensitivity of diagnostic accuracy, including covariates by anatomical site, using HSROC and bivariate models. RESULTS: A total of 3887 articles were screened, with 10 identified as suitable for analysis based on the eligibility criteria. Sensitivity and specificity across the studies were 93.5% and 89.7% respectively. Compared with other anatomical subdivisions, interpretation of ankle radiographs yielded the highest sensitivity and specificity, with values of 98.1% and 94.6% respectively, and a diagnostic odds ratio of 929.97. CONCLUSION: Interpretation of lower limb skeletal radiographs operates at a reasonably high degree of sensitivity and specificity. However, one in twenty true positives is missed on initial radiographic interpretation and safety netting systems need to be established to address this. Virtual fracture clinic reviews and teleradiology services in conjunction with novel technology will likely be crucial in these circumstances.


Assuntos
Extremidade Inferior , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
14.
Skeletal Radiol ; 51(1): 191-200, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160680

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tarsal coalition is known to cause abnormal talocrural stress, hindfoot malalignment, and ankle sprains. These can all be associated with osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the talar dome. We present the first detailed description of a series of talar OCDs occurring in patients with tarsal coalition, with the goal of determining whether there is an increased prevalence of OCDs among patients with tarsal coalition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied ankle MRIs in 57 patients with tarsal coalitions, excluding those with a reported inciting traumatic event. The MRIs were performed on magnetic field strengths ranging from 0.3 to 1.5 T and included axial, coronal, and sagittal T1 and T2 or PD fat-suppressed sequences. We evaluated the morphology and location of classically described OCDs in these patients, type and location of concomitant tarsal coalition, and, when available, the presence of pes planus and hindfoot valgus on weight-bearing radiographs. Chi-squared analysis was used to compare categorical variables and a Student's t test was used for parametric continuous variables. Additionally, logistic regression was used to compute the odds ratio of talar OCD associated with patient age, gender, laterality, pes planus status, hindfoot valgus status, and coalition type. RESULTS: Eighty-nine percent of tarsal coalitions were non-osseous coalitions and the calcaneonavicular space was the most common site of abnormal tarsal connection (54.4%). In the 29 patients with tarsal coalitions and talar OCDs, OCDs commonly occurred medially (75.9%). In the sagittal plane, talar OCDs occurred centrally, with only one case sparing the central talar dome. The mean surface area of the 29 OCDs was 89.7 mm2. Both osseous coalition and hindfoot valgus were associated with smaller talar OCD mean surface area (p = 0.015 and p = 0.0001, respectively). There was no association between depth and surface area of talar OCD with either coalition location or presence of pes planus (coalition location: p = 0.455 for depth and p = 0.295 for surface area; presence of pes planus: p = 0.593 for depth and p = 0.367 for surface area). CONCLUSION: Talar OCD prevalence is higher in patients with tarsal coalition than that reported for the general population. This occurrence may relate to altered biomechanics and repetitive talocrural stress owing to altered subtalar motion, particularly given the findings of increased odds of talar OCD in older patients, as well as weak associations between OCD surface area and both non-osseous coalition and hindfoot alignment. However, we did not find any specific OCD morphologic features attributable to the precise location of the tarsal coalition.


Assuntos
Pé Chato , Osteocondrite Dissecante , Ossos do Tarso , Coalizão Tarsal , Idoso , Pé Chato/diagnóstico por imagem , Pé Chato/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Osteocondrite Dissecante/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteocondrite Dissecante/epidemiologia , Radiografia , Ossos do Tarso/diagnóstico por imagem , Coalizão Tarsal/diagnóstico por imagem
15.
Gut ; 71(1): 10-15, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452179

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is no evidence-based treatment for persistent dysphagia after laparoscopic fundoplication. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pneumatic dilation on persistent dysphagia after laparoscopic fundoplication. DESIGN: We performed a multicentre, single-blind, randomised sham-controlled trial of patients with persistent dysphagia (>3 months) after laparoscopic fundoplication. Patients with an Eckardt symptom score ≥4 were randomly assigned to pneumatic dilation (PD) using a 35 mm balloon or sham dilation. Primary outcome was treatment success, defined as an Eckardt score <4 and a minimal reduction of 2 points in the Eckardt score after 30 days. Secondary outcomes included change in stasis on timed barium oesophagogram, change in high-resolution manometry parameters and questionnaires on quality of life, reflux and dysphagia symptoms. RESULTS: Forty-two patients were randomised. In the intention-to-treat analysis, the success rates of PD (7/21 patients (33%)) and sham dilation (8/21 patients (38%)) were similar after 30 days (risk difference -4.7% (95% CI (-33.7% to 24.2%) p=0.747). There was no significant difference in change of stasis on the timed barium oesophagogram after 2 min (PD vs sham: median 0.0 cm, p25-p75 range 0.0-4.3 cm vs median 0.0 cm, p25-p75 range 0.0-0.0; p=0.122) or change in lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation pressure (PD vs sham: 10.54±6.25 vs 14.60±6.17 mm Hg; p=0.052). Quality of life, reflux and dysphagia symptoms were not significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Pneumatic dilation with a 35 mm balloon is not superior to sham dilation for the treatment of persistent dysphagia after fundoplication.


Assuntos
Cateterismo , Transtornos de Deglutição/terapia , Fundoplicatura/efeitos adversos , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Esôfago/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Laparoscopia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Radiografia , Método Simples-Cego
16.
Curr Probl Diagn Radiol ; 51(1): 12-16, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275668

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Twitter is one of the world's leading social media platforms, and the most popular such forum for medical professionals. We previously examined how Twitter is used in radiology and suggested methods of optimizing Twitter for radiology education. Here we address those in the radiology community who have not yet embraced Twitter or those who have just begun, offering insights or hacks to make the reader more comfortable with initiating or better leveraging a Twitter account to enhance their radiology work lives. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed our Twitter account (@ctisus), dedicated to radiology education and based in the Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science at Johns Hopkins Hospital, to ascertain how we could best use the platform for radiology education. We also used the healthcare social media monitoring website Symplur to track the use of 7 radiology-related hashtags from March 6 to April 4, 2021. RESULTS: Over the 30-day period, we found that #radiology was used 12,311 times; #RadRes (radiology residents) was used 7864 times; #IRad (interventional radiology) was used 6176 times; #FOAMrad (free and open access radiology education) was used 3661 times; #medicalimaging was used 3317 times; #RadTwitter (radiology Twitter) was used 942 times; and #RadEd (radiology education) was used 697 times. This collection of 7 keywords is among the most popularly used by the radiology community. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience suggests that the radiology community is on Twitter to enhance radiology education. Twitter may seem to be a daunting field of misinformation, but radiologists as well as radiology fellows and residents worldwide have found it to be a platform rich with information and opportunity. Twitter allows information and media to be sent instantly throughout the world. We encourage those in the radiology world not yet or barely using Twitter to get started or more involved in this useful and popular social media platform.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Comunicação , Humanos , Radiografia , Radiologia Intervencionista
17.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 145(1): 53-62, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426963

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to characterize the associations between sagittal spinopelvic alignment and motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: The study included patients with idiopathic PD (aged <80 years and with abnormal posture). All patients underwent whole-spine lateral and coronal radiography. Sagittal spinopelvic alignment was evaluated using nine parameters. Motor symptoms were evaluated using the Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) part III score-with bradykinesia and axial motor sub-scores. Multivariate analysis was used to analyze associations between motor symptoms and sagittal spinopelvic alignment in PD patients according to sex. RESULTS: The study subjects were 79 PD patients (39 men, 40 women; median age, 70 years). Clear sex-related differences were noted. In male patients, the MDS-UPDRS part III score correlated significantly with cervical sagittal vertical axis (SVA), and bradykinesia and axial motor scores correlated significantly with SVA, cervical SVA, and T1 slope. In female patients, the MDS-UPDRS part III score correlated significantly with thoracic kyphosis, bradykinesia score correlated significantly with cervical SVA and thoracic kyphosis, and the axial motor score correlated significantly with SVA, cervical SVA, T1 slope, sacral slope, and pelvic tilt. CONCLUSION: Our results showed clear correlations among various motor symptoms and sagittal global alignment in PD patients and that these correlations are different in female PD patients and their male counterparts.


Assuntos
Cifose , Doença de Parkinson , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Cifose/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem , Postura , Radiografia
19.
Clin Imaging ; 81: 67-71, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619566

RESUMO

PURPOSE: International student surveys have shown significant anxiety about pursuing radiology as a career due to artificial intelligence (AI). For a counterpart study in the US, we examined the impact of AI on US medical students' choice of radiology as a career, and how such impact is influenced by students' opinions on and exposures to AI and radiology. METHODS: Students across 32 US medical schools participated in an anonymous online survey. The respondents' radiology ranking with and without AI were compared. Among those considering radiology within their top 3 choices, change in radiology ranking due to AI was statistically examined for association with baseline characteristics, subjective opinions, and prior exposures. RESULTS: AI significantly lowered students' preference for ranking radiology (P < .001). One-sixth of students who would have chosen radiology as the first choice did not do so because of AI, and approximately half of those considering radiology within their top 3 choices remained concerned about AI. Ranking radiology lower due to AI was associated with greater concerns about AI (P < .001), less perceived understanding of radiology (P = .02), predicting a decrease in job opportunities (P < .001), and exposure to AI through medical students/family (P = .03) as well as through radiology attendings and residents (P = .03). Education on AI during radiology rotations, followed by pre-clinical lectures, was the most preferred way to learn about AI. CONCLUSION: AI has a significantly negative impact on US medical students' choice of radiology as a career, a phenomenon influenced by both individual concerns and exposure to AI from the medical community.


Assuntos
Radiologia , Estudantes de Medicina , Inteligência Artificial , Humanos , Radiografia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Int J Med Inform ; 157: 104627, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773800

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of texture features for detecting radiographic patellofemoral osteoarthritis (PFOA) from knee lateral view radiographs. DESIGN: We used lateral view knee radiographs from The Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST) public use datasets (n  = 5507 knees). Patellar region-of-interest (ROI) was automatically detected using landmark detection tool (BoneFinder), and subsequently, these anatomical landmarks were used to extract three different texture ROIs. Hand-crafted features, based on Local Binary Patterns (LBP), were then extracted to describe the patellar texture. First, a machine learning model (Gradient Boosting Machine) was trained to detect radiographic PFOA from the LBP features. Furthermore, we used end-to-end trained deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) directly on the texture patches for detecting the PFOA. The proposed classification models were eventually compared with more conventional reference models that use clinical assessments and participant characteristics such as age, sex, body mass index (BMI), the total Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) score, and tibiofemoral Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade. Atlas-guided visual assessment of PFOA status by expert readers provided in the MOST public use datasets was used as a classification outcome for the models. Performance of prediction models was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC AUC), the area under the precision-recall (PR) curve -average precision (AP)-, and Brier score in the stratified 5-fold cross validation setting. RESULTS: Of the 5507 knees, 953 (17.3%) had PFOA. AUC and AP for the strongest reference model including age, sex, BMI, WOMAC score, and tibiofemoral KL grade to predict PFOA were 0.817 and 0.487, respectively. Textural ROI classification using CNN significantly improved the prediction performance (ROC AUC = 0.889, AP = 0.714). CONCLUSION: We present the first study that analyses patellar bone texture for diagnosing PFOA. Our results demonstrates the potential of using texture features of patella to predict PFOA.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite do Joelho , Patela , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Patela/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia , Raios X
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