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1.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 22(1): 207, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to analyze if the outcome after corneal crosslinking (CXL) in progressive keratoconus patients depends on the stage at which the procedure is performed. This knowledge would help to improve success of CXL and to define surgery indications in those patients. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 124 consecutive eyes of 100 patients with progressive keratoconus undergoing corneal CXL at the University Eye Hospital Tübingen were included. The eyes were graded according to modified Krumeich stages depending on induced myopia or astigmatism, corneal radii, minimum corneal thickness, and morphological changes. The observation period covered November 2008 to September 2018. Preoperatively, 12 and 24 months after CXL, the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was determined and astigmatism as well as tomographic parameters (Kmax, Kmin, central corneal thickness (CCT), minimum corneal thickness (MCT)) were measured by means of a Scheimpflug camera system. RESULTS: BCVA results showed significant differences between the modified Krumeich stages at 12 months (p = 0.014) and at 24 months postoperatively (p = 0.032). Also, astigmatism differed significantly among the stages at 24 months after CXL (p = 0.023). However, no significant differences regarding astigmatism were detectable after 12 months. In terms of Kmax, Kmin, CCT, and MCT, no significant differences between the Krumeich stages were observed. CONCLUSIONS: BCVA showed a significantly higher improvement after CXL in the early stage of keratoconus compared to a higher stage. However, the postinterventional tomographic values did not differ significantly between the different modified Krumeich stages. The significantly higher improvement in BCVA after CXL in the early stage might indicate that earlier intervention provides a higher subjective benefit to the individual. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo , Ceratocone , Colágeno , Córnea , Topografia da Córnea , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Ceratocone/tratamento farmacológico , Ceratocone/cirurgia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Riboflavina/uso terapêutico , Raios Ultravioleta , Acuidade Visual
2.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267957, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503791

RESUMO

It has been reported that 222-nm ultraviolet C (UVC) exerts a germicidal effect on bacteria and viruses as well as UV radiation emitted from a conventional germicidal lamp but is less toxic to the mammalian cells than that from a germicidal lamp. An excimer lamp filled with krypton chloride (KrCl) gas principally emits 222-nm UVC. However, the lamp also emits a wide band of wavelengths other than 222 nm, especially UVC at a longer wavelength than 222 nm and ultraviolet B, which cause DNA damage. There are some reports on the critical role of bandpass filters in reducing the harmful effect of UVC emitted from a KrCl excimer lamp in a human skin model and human subjects. However, the effectiveness of a bandpass filter has not been demonstrated in animal experiments. In the present study, mice were irradiated with UVC emitted from a KrCl excimer lamp with or without a bandpass filter. UVC emitted from an unfiltered KrCl lamp at doses of 50, 150 and 300 mJ/cm2 induced cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer (CPD)-positive cells, whereas UVC emitted from a filtered lamp did not significantly increase CPD-positive cells in the epidermis. The present study suggested that the bandpass filter serves a critical role in reducing the harmful effect of emission outside of 222 nm to mouse keratinocytes.


Assuntos
Cloretos , Criptônio , Animais , Epiderme/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Mamíferos , Camundongos , Dímeros de Pirimidina , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
3.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 8615242, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35509838

RESUMO

Bergapten (BP) or 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) is a furocoumarin compound mainly found in bergamot essential oil but also in other citrus essential oils and grapefruit juice. This compound presents antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, hypolipemic, and anticancer effects and is successfully used as a photosensitizing agent. The present review focuses on the research evidence related to the therapeutic properties of bergapten collected in recent years. Many preclinical and in vitro studies have been evidenced the therapeutic action of BP; however, few clinical trials have been carried out to evaluate its efficacy. These clinical trials with BP are mainly focused on patients suffering from skin disorders such as psoriasis or vitiligo. In these trials, the administration of BP (oral or topical) combined with UV irradiation induces relevant lesion clearance rates. In addition, beneficial effects of bergamot extract were also observed in patients with altered serum lipid profiles and in people with nonalcoholic fatty liver. On the contrary, there are no clinical trials that investigate the possible effects on cancer. Although the bioavailability of BP is lower than that of its 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) isomer, it has fewer side effects allowing higher concentrations to be administered. In conclusion, although the use of BP has therapeutic applications on skin disorders as a sensitizing agent and as components of bergamot extract as hypolipemic therapy, more trials are necessary to define the doses and treatment guidelines and its usefulness against other pathologies such as cancer or bacterial infections.


Assuntos
Metoxaleno , Óleos Voláteis , 5-Metoxipsoraleno , Humanos , Metoxaleno/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes , Extratos Vegetais , Raios Ultravioleta
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5561, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35365725

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the longitudinal efficacy of ultraviolet germicidal disinfection (UV-C) in a non-terminal disinfection context. Moreover, factors influencing enhanced infection prevention behaviors during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic were evaluated. Sixty nursing staff from three medical/surgical wards in a large military hospital were recruited for a survey and microbiological sampling of high-touch surfaces (stethoscope, personal electronic device, common access card, and hospital ID badge) and portable medical equipment (wheelchairs and mobile commodes). Surveys included hand hygiene estimates, frequency/method of cleaning items of interest, perception of UV-C, and factors influencing the use of enhanced disinfection tools. Surveys and microbiological samples were performed prior to and after the installation of a rapid, automated ultraviolet disinfection enclosure for staff use. Both time points preceded the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in the United States. A final survey/sampling time point was carried out eight months after the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants' hand hygiene frequency did not increase throughout the study, with > 80% reporting a minimum of 4 hand hygiene events per patient hour. The cleaning frequency of high-touch surfaces (non-clinical) but not portable medical equipment increased after installation of a UV-C disinfection tool and was sustained eight months into the COVID-19 pandemic. While a modest decrease in bacterial burden was observed after UV-C intervention, a more significant reduction was observed across all surfaces during pandemic time sampling, though no detectable decrease in pathogenic contamination was observed at either time point. Motivators of UV-C use included fear of SARS-CoV-2 contamination and transmission, ease of device use, and access to rapid, automated disinfection tools while deterrents reported included technical concerns, lack of time, and preference for other disinfection methods. Automated, rapid-cycle UV-C disinfection can be efficacious for high-touch surfaces not currently governed by infection prevention and control guidelines. The introduction of enhanced disinfection tools like UV-C can enhance the overall cleaning frequency and is correlated with mild decreases in bacterial burden of high-touch surfaces, this is enhanced during periods of heightened infection threat. Evidence from this study offers insights into the factors which prompt healthcare workers to internalize/dismiss enhanced infection prevention procedures.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Tato , Raios Ultravioleta , Estados Unidos , Xenônio
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5869, 2022 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35393480

RESUMO

The ongoing COVID-19 global pandemic has necessitated evaluating various disinfection technologies for reducing viral transmission in public settings. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation can inactivate pathogens and viruses but more insight is needed into the performance of different UV wavelengths and their applications. We observed greater than a 3-log reduction of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity with a dose of 12.5 mJ/cm2 of 254 nm UV light when the viruses were suspended in PBS, while a dose of 25 mJ/cm2 was necessary to achieve a similar reduction when they were in an EMEM culture medium containing 2%(v/v) FBS, highlighting the critical effect of media in which the virus is suspended, given that SARS-CoV-2 is always aerosolized when airborne or deposited on a surface. It was found that SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility (a measure of the effectiveness of the UV light) in a buffer such as PBS was 4.4-fold greater than that in a cell culture medium. Furthermore, we discovered the attenuation of UVC disinfection by amino acids, vitamins, and niacinamide, highlighting the importance of determining UVC dosages under a condition close to aerosols that wrap the viruses. We developed a disinfection model to determine the effect of the environment on UVC effectiveness with three different wavelengths, 222 nm, 254 nm, and 265 nm. An inverse correlation between the liquid absorbance and the viral susceptibility was observed. We found that 222 nm light was most effective at reducing viral infectivity in low absorbing liquids such as PBS, whereas 265 nm light was most effective in high absorbing liquids such as cell culture medium. Viral susceptibility was further decreased in N95 masks with 222 nm light being the most effective. The safety of 222 nm was also studied. We detected changes to the mechanical properties of the stratum corneum of human skins when the 222 nm accumulative exposure exceeded 50 J/cm2.The findings highlight the need to evaluate each UV for a given application, as well as limiting the dose to the lowest dose necessary to avoid unnecessary exposure to the public.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vírus , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Raios Ultravioleta , Inativação de Vírus/efeitos da radiação
6.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(4): 2030-2038, 2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35393826

RESUMO

It has been verified that, as an emerging contaminant, microplastics are capable of adsorbing certain traditional contaminants like the heavy metal Cd. However, the majority of previous studies only focused on certain types of virgin microplastics, especially for PE and PS. In addition, this adsorption process might be affected by microplastics inevitably undergoing aging and consequent changes in the natural environment. Unfortunately, the relevant reports on aging effects were mainly about organic pollutants, rather than heavy metals. By far, there have been few comprehensive and mechanistic studies on the key aging effects on the Cd adsorption by various types of microplastics. In this study, five representative types of microplastics (i.e., PS, ABS, PP, PVC, and PET) were selected for aging by ultraviolet radiation, and the physicochemical properties of virgin and aged microplastics were thoroughly compared, including specific surface area, crystallinity, surface functional groups, and surface elements. Accordingly, the changes in adsorption isotherms of Cd by microplastics were discussed. The results showed that:① aging induced non-significant changes in specific surface area but a significant decrease in crystallinity. Surface functional groups also changed, including the emergence of a C=O functional group on PS and ABS, the decrease in C=C absorption peak intensity on ABS, and the increase in absorption peak intensities of C=O, C-O, and polar ester groups on PET. Regarding surface C content, C=C/C-C decreased, whereas C-O and O-C=O increased. The total O content and O/C significantly increased as well. ② The Langmuir model well-fitted the adsorption isotherms of Cd by virgin and aged microplastics. Aging significantly expanded the adsorption capacity of Cd by microplastics, as the order of saturated adsorption capacity before aging was ABS (0.2284 mg·g-1)>PVC (0.1360 mg·g-1)>PS (0.1286 mg·g-1)>PP (0.1005 mg·g-1)>PET (0.0462 mg·g-1) and then became PS (0.2768 mg·g-1)>ABS (0.2586 mg·g-1)>PVC (0.1776 mg·g-1)>PP (0.1721 mg·g-1)>PET (0.0951 mg·g-1) after aging. ③ Both crystallinity and surface functional groups played key roles in the adsorption of Cd by microplastics. As for virgin microplastics, crystallinity was negatively correlated with the saturated adsorption capacity of Cd, because the amorphous regions contributed most to Cd adsorption. Aging brought about the decrease in crystallinity and the increase in amorphous regions, which further promoted the oxidation reaction on microplastics. Consequently, oxygen-containing functional groups increased on the surface and eventually expanded the adsorption capacity of Cd by microplastics. Note that certain specific functional groups of various microplastics also had impacts on the adsorption process. These results provide valuable information about the environmental behaviors and interactions of microplastics and heavy metals in nature.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Cádmio , Microplásticos , Plásticos/química , Cloreto de Polivinila , Raios Ultravioleta , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 230: 112440, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35397304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study further assessed the effects of oral and topical applications of boron, which is known to have antiinflammatory and wound healing effects, on photoaging. METHODS: A total of 49 eight-week-old female Wistar albino rats randomly divided into seven groups (control, shaved control, shaved+UVB, topical dermabor 2% (D2), and %5 (D5), systemic sodium perborate tetrahydrate (SPT) 2% (SPT2) and 4% (SPT4). To induce an experimental photoaging, the rats were exposed to UVB at an emission spectrum of 290-320 nm. Biochemical, molecular, skin, histological, and collagen content analyzes were made at the end of the study. RESULTS: Increased skin inflammatory parameters (COX-2, IL-8, NF-KB, IL-6, and TNF-α) levels in UVB-exposed groups were inhibited in all treatment groups. The tissue level of hydroxyproline and elastase was found to decrease in all UVB-exposed group. The level of hydroxyproline was significantly higher in the D2 and D5 groups than in the SPT2 and SPT4 groups. The level of elastase was significantly lower in the D2 and D5 groups than in the SPT2 and SPT4 groups. CONCLUSIONS: In future, boron may be developed as a functionally protective treatment against photoaging caused by UVB, and may be included in sun protection systems.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento da Pele , Animais , Boro/farmacologia , Feminino , Hidroxiprolina , Camundongos , Camundongos Pelados , Elastase Pancreática , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Raios Ultravioleta
8.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 230: 112435, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35398656

RESUMO

Discussion continues over various aspects of sunscreen science: regulation, test methods, sun protection factor (SPF), labelling claims, potentially harmful components, among others. In this paper the UV transmission properties of a number of commercial sunscreens have been determined at constant sunscreen film thickness under different local UV Index conditions. The data demonstrate difficulties facing the public and the sunscreen industry as a whole, even though SPF values and other data stated on the sunscreen packaging are assumed to be correct according to standard testing methods. This work has shown that at realistic application rates the critical factors are the intensity of the incident solar radiation and the accumulated erythema UV dose transmitted over time. In one example, on 'Extreme' UV Index days, an SPF 30 sunscreen under test transmitted one minimal erythema dose (MED) of UV in only 35 min. In another example, although it should not, in theory, transmit one MED until several hours of exposure, this level was reached in 1 h by an SPF 50 sunscreen under these typical Australian summer conditions (UV Index 12) in Wollongong, NSW (34.4°S). Such properties could have severe consequnces if these sunscreens were used by individuals with Fitzpatrick Skin Type 1, organ transplant recipients or other immuno-compromised individuals.


Assuntos
Protetores Solares , Raios Ultravioleta , Austrália , Eritema/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pele , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico
9.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 230: 112444, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35429826

RESUMO

Benzotriazole UV-stabilizers (BUVSs) are commonly used in industry as solar filters, due to their strong UV light absorption. Because of their extended usage, environmental contamination of waters due to BUVSs constitutes a growing concern. Direct photodegradation of BUVSs is not efficient due to their intrinsic thermal pathways to release the absorbed light. Nevertheless, their abatement in natural environments could be assisted by chromophoric dissolved organic matter. Among the BUVSs, three representative candidates were selected, UV-326, UV-327 and UV-328, to demonstrate the potential of Riboflavin (RF) as a natural visible-light absorbing photocatalyst for the abatement of these recalcitrant pollutants under reductive conditions. The use of visible light and DABCO, as a model sacrificial electron donor, generates the radical anion RFTA.-. This key species reacts with the solar filters, achieving their reductive abatement from the medium. Moreover, the participation of every potential reactive species has been investigated by photophysical techniques, together with determination of the quenching rate constant for every reaction pathway. Consequently, evidence supported the main role of the reductive photodegradation pathway, being RFTA.- the key species in the abatement of BUVSs.


Assuntos
Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes , Raios Ultravioleta , Luz , Fotólise , Triazóis
10.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 230: 112442, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35429827

RESUMO

In this paper, we pick up the idea of the "UV-Biometer": the use of erythemal weighted broadband meters for other photobiological endpoints. Therefore, nine different types of broadband meters were considered. A necessity for their calibration is the availability of an action spectrum for the respective effect over the complete solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation range. Unfortunately, such action spectra are rather rare. Here we used the action spectra for non-melanoma skin cancer, DNA-damage, clearing of psoriasis, ICNIRP's workers protection and persistent pigmentation. The action spectrum for vitamin D photosynthesis is taken to estimate the effect of missing effectiveness values in the UV-A range. Application shows that high uncertainties occur especially at low solar elevations. Calibration factors in dependence of total ozone and solar elevation were calculated for all broadband meters and all effects. Analysis shows, that not all of these effects are as appropriate as erythema. The calibration for all effects was applied for a broadband meter that measures the UV-Index operationally within the Austrian UV-Index network. As most of these action spectra have threshold limit values or minimum dose equivalents, irradiance was converted into threshold exposure times. Uncertainties from total ozone during routine operation are estimated. Additionally, we derived conversion factors for erythemally effective irradiance to these effective irradiances. This delivers an easy way to gain biologically effective irradiance without the need of knowing the properties of the instrument. However, this introduces additional uncertainties and not all conversions should be applied.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Raios Ultravioleta , Eritema/etiologia , Humanos , Luz Solar , Vitamina D
11.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 230: 112443, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35429828

RESUMO

Morus alba is a woody shrub of the family Moraceae and used as traditional Chinese medicine for a long history. Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation, as a kind of abiotic stress factor, affected the growth and secondary metabolism in M. alba. Previous studies indicated that the contents of several secondary metabolites such as moracin N, chalcomaricin were significantly increased under high level UV-B radiation and dark incubation in M. alba leaves. To reveal the response mechanism under UV-B radiation and dark incubation in M. alba leaves, SWATH-based quantitative proteomic analysis was performed. Totally, 716 proteins were identified and quantified in the control, UVB, and UVD groups. Among them, 123 proteins and 96 proteins were identified as differentially abundant proteins in UVB group and UVD groups, respectively. Proteins related to photosynthesis, amino acid biosynthesis, and tocopherol biosynthesis were significantly altered in UVB group, while proteins related to the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds were significantly altered in UVD group. In addition, the abundances of proteins involved in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) were significantly increased in both UVB and UVD groups, indicating that UPS combined with secondary mechanism participated in the resistance to UV-B radiation and dark incubation. The obtained results provide novel insight into the effects of high level UV-B radiation on M. alba leaves and on the strategies used for maximizing the chemical constituents and the medicinal value of the M. alba leaves.


Assuntos
Morus , Morus/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteômica , Raios Ultravioleta
12.
J Phys Chem A ; 126(15): 2299-2308, 2022 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35394773

RESUMO

Given the negative impacts of overexposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on humans, sunscreens have become a widely used product. Certain ingredients within sunscreens are responsible for photoprotection and these are known, collectively herein, as ultraviolet (UV) filters. Generally speaking, organic UV filters work by absorbing the potentially harmful UVR and dissipating this energy as harmless heat. This process happens on picosecond time scales and so femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy (FPPS) is an ideal technique for tracking this energy conversion in real time. Coupling FPPS with complementary techniques, including steady-state spectroscopy and computational methods, can provide a detailed mechanistic picture of how UV filters provide photoprotection. As such, FPPS is crucial in aiding the future design of UV filters. This Perspective sheds light on the advancements made over the past two years on both approved and nature-inspired UV filters. Moreover, we suggest where FPPS can be further utilized within sunscreen applications for future considerations.


Assuntos
Protetores Solares , Raios Ultravioleta , Humanos , Análise Espectral , Protetores Solares/química
13.
Front Public Health ; 10: 857553, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35433569

RESUMO

Background: Outdoor workers (OW) receive a higher dose of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) compared to indoor workers (IW) which increases the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Regular sunscreen use reduces the NMSC risk, however, adequate sun-safety behavior among OW is poor. The main objective was to conduct method- and intervention-related elements of a future intervention trial among OW, based on providing sunscreen and assessing sunscreen use on group- and individual level. Methods: This pilot study was conducted at a construction site in the Netherlands from May-August 2021. Nine dispensers with sunscreen (SPF 50+) were installed at the worksite. OW (n = 67) were invited to complete two (cross-sectional) questionnaires on sun-safety behavior, before and after providing sunscreen. Stratum corneum (SC) samples for the assessment of UV-biomarkers were collected from the forehead and behind the ear from 15 OW and 15 IW. The feasibility of the following elements was investigated: recruitment, (loss to) follow-up, outcome measures, data collection, and acceptability of the intervention. Results: The first questionnaire was completed by 27 OW, the second by 17 OW. More than 75 percent of the OW were aware of the risks of sun exposure, and 63% (n = 17) found sunscreen use during worktime important. The proportion of OW never applying sunscreen in the past month was 44.4% (n = 12) before, and 35.3% (n = 6) after providing sunscreen. A majority of OW (59.3%, n = 16) found sunscreen provision encouraging for sunscreen use, the dispensers easy to use (64.7%, n = 17) and placed in practical spots (58.8%, n = 18). Collecting SC-samples was fast and easy, and several UV-biomarkers showed higher levels for sun-exposed compared to less exposed body parts. There was no significant difference in UV-biomarker levels between OW and IW. Conclusions: This pilot study revealed low sunscreen use among OW despite providing sunscreen, overall satisfaction with the sunscreen, and the sufficient awareness of the risks of UVR-exposure. Collecting SC-samples at the workplace is feasible and several UV-biomarkers showed to be promising in assessing UVR-exposure. The low participation rate and high loss to follow-up poses a challenge for future intervention studies.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Exposição Ocupacional , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Biomarcadores , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Projetos Piloto , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Raios Ultravioleta
14.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266487, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35395010

RESUMO

Respiratory viruses are capable of transmitting via an aerosol route. Emerging evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2 which causes COVID-19 can be spread through airborne transmission, particularly in indoor environments with poor ventilation. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems can play a role in mitigating airborne virus transmission. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), a feature that can be incorporated into HVAC systems, can be used to impede the ability of viruses to replicate and infect a host. We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature examining the effectiveness of HVAC design features in reducing virus transmission-here we report results for ultraviolet (UV) radiation. We followed international standards for conducting systematic reviews and developed an a priori protocol. We conducted a comprehensive search to January 2021 of published and grey literature using Ovid MEDLINE, Compendex, and Web of Science Core. Two reviewers were involved in study selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessments. We presented study characteristics and results in evidence tables, and synthesized results across studies narratively. We identified 32 relevant studies published between 1936 and 2020. Research demonstrates that: viruses and bacteriophages are inactivated by UV radiation; increasing UV dose is associated with decreasing survival fraction of viruses and bacteriophages; increasing relative humidity is associated with decreasing susceptibility to UV radiation; UV dose and corresponding survival fraction are affected by airflow pattern, air changes per hour, and UV device location; and UV radiation is associated with decreased transmission in both animal and human studies. While UV radiation has been shown to be effective in inactivating viruses and reducing disease transmission, practical implementation of UVGI in HVAC systems needs to consider airflow patterns, air changes per hour, and UV device location. The majority of the scientific literature is comprised of experimental, laboratory-based studies. Further, a variety of viruses have been examined; however, there are few studies of coronaviruses and none to date of SARS-CoV-2. Future field studies of UVGI systems could address an existing research gap and provide important information on system performance in real-world situations, particularly in the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic. This comprehensive synthesis of the scientific evidence examining the impact of UV radiation on virus transmission can be used to guide implementation of systems to mitigate airborne spread and identify priorities for future research. Trial registration PROSPERO 2020 CRD42020193968.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , COVID-19 , Ar Condicionado , Calefação , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Raios Ultravioleta , Ventilação
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(7)2022 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408239

RESUMO

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an important precursor for the formation of atmospheric sulfate aerosol and acid rain. We present an instrument using Broadband Cavity-Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (BBCEAS) for the measurement of SO2 with a minimum limit of detection of 0.75 ppbv (3-σ) using the spectral range 305.5-312 nm and an averaging time of 5 min. The instrument consists of high-reflectivity mirrors (0.9985 at 310 nm) and a deep UV light source (Light Emitting Diode). The effective absorption path length of the instrument is 610 m with a 0.966 m base length. Published reference absorption cross sections were used to fit and retrieve the SO2 concentrations and were compared to fluorescence standard measurements for SO2. The comparison was well correlated, R2 = 0.9998 with a correlation slope of 1.04. Interferences for fluorescence measurements were tested and the BBCEAS showed no interference, while ambient measurements responded similarly to standard measurement techniques.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Enxofre , Raios Ultravioleta , Aerossóis , Análise Espectral/métodos
16.
Molecules ; 27(7)2022 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408731

RESUMO

Skin aging is a complex process involving photoaging and glycation stress, which share some fundamental pathways and have common mediators. They can cause skin damage and collagen degradation by inducing oxidative stress and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Chenopodium formosanum (CF), also known as Djulis, is a traditional cereal in Taiwan. This study investigated the protection mechanisms of CF extract against ultraviolet (UV) radiation and advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-induced stress. The results indicated that CF extract had strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging effects. It could reduce UV-induced intracellular ROS generation and initiate the antioxidant defense system by activating the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) signaling pathway in human skin fibroblasts. CF extract modulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and transformed growth factor-beta (TGF-ß) signaling pathways to alleviate oxidative stress-induced skin aging. Moreover, the results revealed that CF extract not only promoted collagen synthesis but also improved aging-induced collagen degradation. CF extract attenuated AGEs-induced ROS production and the upregulation of receptor for AGEs (RAGE). The overall results suggest that CF extract provides an effective anti-aging strategy by preventing skin damage from oxidative stress and collagen loss with potent antioxidant, anti-photoaging, and antiglycation activities.


Assuntos
Chenopodium , Envelhecimento da Pele , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Colágeno/metabolismo , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Pele , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
17.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 23(5): 121, 2022 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35459978

RESUMO

Evaluating the dermal absorption of sunscreen UV filters requires the development of a bio-predictable in vitro permeation test (IVPT). This work describes the comparison of two IVPT methods and rank order correlations of in vitro absorption (skin permeation and retention) with the in vivo absorption (AUC and skin retention) of sunscreens. The IVPT was compared regarding the following elements: (1) application of a single finite dose vs. an infinite dose and (2) the use of heat-separated human epidermis vs. dermatomed skin models. The IVPT was used to evaluate dermal absorption of six UV filters (avobenzone, homosalate, octinoxate, octisalate, octocrylene, and oxybenzone) in commercial sunscreens. Both the in vivo and in vitro permeation studies demonstrated that all UV filters were absorbed following a single-dose application. Sunscreens were rank ordered by the amount of the UV filters absorbed. Data obtained from the IVPT method using a single finite dose and heat-separated human epidermis was found to correlate with the clinical data. Rank orders of the cumulative in vitro skin permeation and the in vivo AUC were found comparable for oxybenzone, homosalate, octisalate, and octinoxate. Rank orders of the in vitro and in vivo skin retention of oxybenzone and octinoxate were also comparable. Additional IVPT parameters may be optimized to enhance the discriminatory power for UV filters with low skin permeation potential (e.g., avobenzone and octocrylene).


Assuntos
Absorção Cutânea , Protetores Solares , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Pele/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta
18.
Anal Chem ; 94(15): 5776-5784, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35388686

RESUMO

Characterization of protein glycosylation by tandem mass spectrometry remains challenging owing to the vast diversity of oligosaccharides bound to proteins, the variation in monosaccharide linkage patterns, and the lability of the linkage between the glycan and protein. Here, we have adapted an HCD-triggered-ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) approach for the simultaneous localization of glycosites and full characterization of both glycan compositions and intersaccharide linkages, the latter provided by extensive cross-ring cleavages enabled by UVPD. The method is applied to study glycan compositions based on analysis of glycopeptides from proteolytic digestion of recombinant human coronaviruse spike proteins from SARS-CoV-2 and HKU1. UVPD reveals unique intersaccharide linkage information and is leveraged to localize N-linked glycoforms with confidence.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Proteínas Virais , Glicosilação , Humanos , Polissacarídeos/química , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Raios Ultravioleta
19.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 58(4): 272-278, 2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391514

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effect of corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) for progressive keratoconus and to evaluate changes in the parameters of rigid gas permeable contact lens (RGPCL) fitting after surgery. Methods: It was a prospective cohort study. Fifty-three eyes of 41 keratoconus patients received accelerated CXL in Qingdao Eye Hospital of Shandong First Medical University from May to December 2018. There were 31 males and 10 females, aged (20.46±4.15) years. According to the corneal thickness, de-epithelial CXL (33 eyes) or trans-epithelial CXL (20 eyes) was performed. The best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, refractive power and the thinnest corneal thickness at baseline and at 6 weeks were compared. Corneal topography was performed at baseline and at 6 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Rose K RGPCLs were used before and 6 weeks after surgery, and the fitting status was monitored until 12 months after surgery. The t test was performed to analyze the difference before and after the operation. Results: The best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, refractive power, and the thinnest corneal thickness were not significantly changed over 6 weeks of follow-up, but the Kf, Ks and Kmax values were significantly increased in all patients (all P<0.05). In the de-epithelial group, the Kmax values before the operation, at 3, 6 and 12 months after the operation were (55.00±5.51) diopters (D), (54.73±5.34) D, (54.58±6.15) D and (54.20±5.49) D, respectively, and the decrease at 12 months was significant [(0.80±2.05) D; t=2.25, P=0.001]. In the trans-epithelial group, the Kmax values were (59.43±8.98) D, (57.97±8.79) D, (58.19±8.37) D and (56.94±7.19) D at the four time points, respectively, and the decreases at 3, 6 and 12 months were all significant [(1.46±2.09) D, (1.25±1.82) D, (2.49±3.64) D; t=3.12, 3.06, 3.50; P=0.006, 0.006, 0.007]. The best RGPCL-corrected visual acuity, the diameter and the average diopters of RGPCLs showed no significant change in both groups. The RGPCL base curve decreased by 0.07 mm in the de-epithelial group and by 0.13 mm in the trans-epithelial group (both P<0.05). The design of edge lifting was used in 10 eyes postoperatively in the de-epithelial group compared with 8 eyes preoperatively, and in 4 eyes postopratively in the trans-epithelial group compared with 7 eyes preoperatively. The number of eyes using the toric peripheral design of the lens was increased to 3 compared with 2 preoperatively in the de-epithelial group and from 1 to 4 in the trans-epithelial group. The acceptance rate of RGPCL fitting in both groups increased at 6 and 12 months after surgery compared to 6 weeks after surgery. Conclusions: The corneal curvature became steep slightly at 6 weeks after CXL and gradually recovered and flattened. The Kmax in the trans-epithelial group decreased earlier and more than that in the de-epithelial group. The base curve of the RGPCLs was slightly reduced after 6 weeks, and the toric peripheral design was increasingly needed, but the requirement for the design of the lifted edge was different between the two groups. A good RGPCL fitting can be achieved within 1 year after CXL.


Assuntos
Lentes de Contato , Ceratocone , Adolescente , Colágeno , Topografia da Córnea , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Ceratocone/terapia , Masculino , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Riboflavina , Raios Ultravioleta , Acuidade Visual , Adulto Jovem
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