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J Ethnopharmacol ; 318(Pt A): 116934, 2024 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37480967


ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Wuweiganlu (WGL) is a well-known formulation described in the "Four Medical Scriptures of Tibetan medicine", which is mainly used for the treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and other chronic ailments prescribed by Tibetan medicine. Nonetheless, the active constituents present in the water extracts of Wuweiganlu (WGLWE) specifically targeting arthritis treatment are largely unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study is to explore the effects and underlying mechanisms of the active components in WGLWE on RA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We utilized ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with Q-TOF mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) to identify the main chemical compositions of WGLWE. The polarization effect of WGLWE on bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) was determined. A rat model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was established by injecting an emulsion of bovine type II collagen mixed with an equal volume of incomplete Freund's adjuvant into the tail, paw and back of rats. A WGLWE-based ointment was topically applied to the legs and paws of the rats for 30 days. The rats' ankles were photographed to measure the degree of swelling. Micro-CT was used to image the knee joint and paw of rats, and the bone mineral density (BMD) and bone volume fraction (BV/TV) of knee joint in rats were analyzed. High-frequency ultrasound imaging of the rat knee joint was performed to observe knee joint effusion. Further, the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, and arginine (Arg-1) in CIA rats were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence (IF) co-staining were employed to detect the expression levels of inflammatory factors in synovium. RESULTS: A total of 28 main components were identified in WGLWE, and these compounds can directly bind to the inflammatory pathway proteins such as JAK2, NFκB and STAT3. In vitro experiments demonstrated that WGLWE promoted the transformation of M1 macrophages into M2 macrophages and suppressed the release of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6. In vivo studies showed that WGLWE effectively reduced ankle swelling, alleviated knee joint effusion, and improved BV/TV while also reducing synovial inflammation levels. Furthermore, WGLWE compounds induced the transition of M1-type macrophages to M2-type macrophages in synovial tissue, resulting in decreased secretion of inflammatory factors TNF-α, WGLWE improved the synovial inflammatory state. CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that WGLWE alleviated joint inflammation in CIA rats and the underlying mechanism may be related to inducing the transformation of bone marrow-derived M1 macrophages to M2 macrophages, leading to an increase in the secretion of anti-inflammatory factors and a decrease in pro-inflammatory factors. Therefore, WGLWE may be used as a potential herbal preparation for the treatment of RA.

Artrite Experimental , Artrite Reumatoide , Ratos , Animais , Bovinos , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Medicina Tradicional Tibetana , Interleucina-6 , Ratos Wistar , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Macrófagos/metabolismo
J Ethnopharmacol ; 318(Pt B): 116972, 2024 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37517568


ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Terminalia argentea Mart. (Combretaceae) is a deciduous tree commonly found in Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay. It occurs in all regions of Brazil and is widespread in the Amazon, Cerrado, Pantanal, Atlantic Rain Forest, and Caatinga Biomes. In the traditional medicine of Brazil, people widely use tea or decoction of its leaf materials for treating gastritis, ulcers, wound healing, and inflammation. AIM OF THE STUDY: The current study aims to evaluate the gastroprotective and ulcer-healing activities of the hydroethanolic extract of T. argentea leaves (HETa) and investigate the underlying mechanisms of action through in vivo and in vitro experiments. METHODS: We extracted the leaves of T. argentea with a 70% hydroethanolic solution (HETa) and performed phytochemical analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MSn). We researched the antiulcer activity using in vivo and in vitro experiments, administering three doses (2, 10, and 50 mg/kg) and different concentrations of 1, 5, and 20 µg/mL, respectively. We verified the acute antiulcer activity using chemical models (acidified ethanol (EtOH/HCl) and indomethacin (IND)) and physiological models (water-immersion stress (WRS)). To induce chronic ulcers, used acetic acid and treated the animals for seven days. To investigate the mechanism of action, conducted assays of antioxidant activity, measured the dosage of inflammatory cytokines, quantified mucus, treated with inhibitors (IND, L-NAME, glibenclamide, and yohimbine), performed histopathological analysis, and measured gastric acid secretion. Furthermore, we performed in vitro experiments on murine macrophage cell lines (RAW 264-7 cells) to quantify nitrite/nitrate and cytokine production and on V79-4 cells to verify cell proliferation/migration. RESULTS: We conducted HPLC and ESI-MSn analyses to obtain a fingerprint of the chemical composition of the HETa, revealing the presence of phenolics (caffeoyl ellagic acid), flavonoids (rutin, quercetin xyloside, quercetin rhamnoside, quercetin glucoside, quercetin galloyl xyloside, quercetin), and tannins (terminalin), respectively. The three doses of HETa reduced acute and chronic ulcers in different models. The mechanism of action involves increasing mucus production and angiogenesis, and it partially involves prostaglandins, nitric oxide, K+ATP channels, and α2-adrenergic receptors. HETa also exhibited antioxidant potential, reducing myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and increasing glutathione (GSH) levels. Moreover, it demonstrated anti-inflammatory action by reducing nitrite/nitrate levels and pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in vivo, and it increased in vitro proliferation/migration of fibroblasts. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows that HETa presents a potent preventive and curative antiulcer effect in different ulcer models, supporting the popular use of homemade preparations of T. argentea leaves. The preventive and gastric healing ulcer activity of HETa involves multiple targets, including increasing the gastric mucus barrier, antioxidant defenses, and anti-inflammatory effects on gastric mucosa repair. Phytochemical analysis identified the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and tannins in HETa, and the antiulcer activity may be attributable to the combined effect of these constituents.

Antiulcerosos , Úlcera Gástrica , Terminalia , Ratos , Camundongos , Animais , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Fitoterapia , Úlcera/tratamento farmacológico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Quercetina/análise , Nitratos , Nitritos , Ratos Wistar , Etanol/química , Taninos/análise , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Gástrica/metabolismo , Indometacina/farmacologia , Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Antiulcerosos/uso terapêutico , Antiulcerosos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Citocinas/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Modelos Teóricos
J Ethnopharmacol ; 318(Pt B): 117004, 2024 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37544342


ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pyracantha crenulata (D.Don) M.Roem., a plant of high nutritional and medicinal value is traditionally employed for its analgesic property in joint and body pain in the Kumaun region of Western Himalaya. AIM OF THE STUDY: To validate the traditional claims for analgesic property of Pyracantha crenulata. METHODS: Hydroethanolic extract of P. crenulata leaves and fruits were tested for their analgesic potential in rodent models for algesia by tail immersion test, tail flick test, Eddy's hot plate model, and formalin induced paw irritation test in Wistar rats. Molecular docking and dynamics studies were also performed to understand the possible mechanisms. RESULTS: Both P. crenulata fruit extract and leaf extract exhibited significant amelioration in all the tested experimental models of algesia acting through central and peripheral mechanisms. The efficacy in reducing nociception was found comparable to diclofenac that was used as a reference standard. Molecular docking and dynamic simulation studies further established binding affinity of gallic acid (confirmed to be present in P. crenulata leaf extract through HPTLC profiling) with cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and mu-opioid receptors, suggesting the modulatory effect of these extracts on COX-2 and mu-opioid receptors in combating algesia. CONCLUSION: P. crenulata extracts produce analgesic effects plausibly through COX-2 and mu-opioid receptor mediated pathways.

Frutas , Pyracantha , Ratos , Animais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Pyracantha/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ratos Wistar , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos/análise , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250936, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345557


Abstract This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Glutamine, as a dipeptide or a free amino acid form, on the progression of burn injuries in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were burned with a comb metal plate heated in boiling water (98 °C) for three minutes, creating four rectangular full-thickness burn areas separated by three unburned interspaces (zone of stasis) in both dorsum sides. The animals were randomized into three groups (n=10): saline solution (G1-Control) and treated groups that orally received Glutamine as dipeptide (G2-Dip) or free amino acid (G3-FreeAA). Two and seven days after burn injury, lesions were photographed for unburned interspaces necrosis evolution assessment. Seven days after injury, glutathione seric was measured and histopathological analysis was performed. By photographs, there was a significant reduction in necrosis progression in G3-Free-AA between days two and seven. Histopathological analysis at day 7 showed a significantly higher stasis zone without necrosis and a higher number of fibroblasts in G2-Dip and G3-FreeAA compared with G1-Control. Also, glutathione serum dosage was higher in G2-Dip. The plasmatic glutathione levels were higher in the G2-Dip than the G1-Control, and there was a trend to higher levels in G3-FreeAA. The reduction in histological lesions, greater production of fibroblasts, and greater amounts of glutathione may have benefited the evolution of burn necrosis, which showed greater preservation of interspaces.

Resumo Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da Glutamina, como um dipeptídeo ou forma de aminoácido livre, na progressão de queimaduras em ratos. Trinta ratos Wistar machos foram queimados com um pente de metal aquecido em água fervente (98 °C) por três minutos, criando quatro áreas retangulares queimadas separadas por três interesespaços não queimados (zona de estase) em ambos os lados do dorso. Os animais foram randomizados em três grupos (n = 10): solução salina (G1-Controle) e grupos tratados que receberam glutamina via oral como dipeptídeo (G2-Dip) ou aminoácido livre (G3-FreeAA). Dois e sete dias após a queimadura, as lesões foram fotografadas para avaliação da evolução da necrose entre os espaços não queimados. Sete dias após a lesão, foi dosada a glutationa sérica e realizada análise histopatológica. Pelas fotografias, houve uma redução significativa na progressão da necrose no G3-Free-AA entre os dias dois e sete. A análise histopatológica no dia 7 mostrou uma zona de estase significativamente maior sem necrose e número mais elevado de fibroblastos em G2-Dip e G3-FreeAA em comparação com G1-Controle. Os níveis plasmáticos de glutationa foram maiores no G2-Dip em relação ao G1-Controle, e houve tendência a níveis mais elevados no G3-FreeAA. A redução das lesões histológicas, maior produção de fibroblastos, maior quantidade de glutationa podem ter beneficiado a evolução da necrose da queimadura, que mostrou maior preservação dos interespaços.

Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Queimaduras/tratamento farmacológico , Glutamina , Ratos Wistar , Dipeptídeos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Aminoácidos
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253616, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355880


Abstract This study evaluated the effect of the volatile oil of Alpinia zerumbet (VOAz) on caveolin-1 gene expression and muscular fibrosis. The rats were immobilized to induce fibrosis of the gastrocnemius muscle, and they were treated with VOAz. Collagen quality was assessed by histology and the expression of the caveolin-1 (CAV-1) gene was evaluated using qPCR. Histomorphological analysis indicated a significant reduction in the perimeter, width, and intensity of collagen in the treated groups, thus showing that the oil was effective in regulating the quality of collagen at the three concentrations. The results of expression levels suggested a decrease in the lesioned group and in two treatment groups (0.0115 µg/g and 0.009 µg/g). However, with the lowest concentration (0.0065 µg/g), no significant difference was observed, with levels similar to those found in healthy tissue. Therefore, the results showed that VOAz has the potential to be a non-invasive and low-cost alternative to aid in the treatment of muscular fibrosis.

Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito do óleo volátil de Alpinia zerumbet (OVAz) na expressão do gene da caveolina-1 e na fibrose muscular. Os ratos foram imobilizados para induzir a fibrose do músculo gastrocnêmio, e foram tratados com OVAz. A qualidade do colágeno foi avaliada com histologia e à expressão do gene caveolina-1 (CAV-1) foi avaliada usando qPCR. A análise histomorfológica indicou uma redução significativa no perímetro, largura e intensidade do colágeno nos grupos tratados. Os resultados dos níveis de expressão sugeriram diminuição nos grupos de lesão e em dois grupos de tratamento (0,0115 µg/g e 0,009 µg/g). No entanto, com a menor concentração (0,0065 µg/g), não foi observada diferença significativa, apresentando níveis semelhantes aos encontrados em tecido saudável. O uso do OVAz foi eficaz para reverter as alterações do colágeno causadas pela fibrose, e sua menor concentração apresentou uma possível tendência de aumento na expressão do CAV-1. Portanto, os resultados mostraram que o OVAz tem potencial para ser uma alternativa não invasiva e de baixo custo para auxiliar no tratamento da fibrose muscular.

Animais , Ratos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Colágeno/metabolismo , Alpinia/química , Caveolina 1/metabolismo , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrose , Óleos de Plantas/farmacologia , Brasil , Ratos Wistar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Músculos/patologia
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254552, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360202


Anti-tuberculosis drugs are reported to cause hepatotoxicity, which varies from asymptomatic rise of the hepatic enzymes. Hepatoprotective plants plays important role to protect liver. This study investigated the hepatoprotective potential of the Solanum lycopersicum in rats intoxicated with Isoniazid and Rifampicin (INH+RIF) to induce hepatotoxicity. Thirty wistar albino rats were divided into five groups of six animals each. Group 1 rats were kept control while groups II, III, IV and V were administered with INH+RIF (75+150 mg/kg) orally, for seven consecutive days. For treatment, rats in group III received silymarin while animals in group IV and V were provided with 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg of Solanum lycopersicum extract, respectively. On day 0 and 8th blood samples were collected for the analysis of hepatic biomarkers. The data were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni's post hoc test for statistical analysis. Hepatotoxicity induced by INH+RIF resulted in significant elevation of serum hepatic enzymes including Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin while decreased the albumin level. The Solanum lycopersicum at dose of 80 mg/kg significantly reduced the hepatic enzymes AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin while the albumin level was significantly increased. The treatment had non-significant effect on body and liver weight. Drug induced hepatotoxicity can be effectively treated with Solanum lycopersicum at 80 mg/kg dose.

As drogas antituberculose são relatadas como causadoras de hepatotoxicidade, ocasionando o aumento assintomático das enzimas hepáticas. As plantas hepatoprotetoras desempenham um papel importante na proteção do fígado. Este estudo investigou o potencial hepatoprotetor de Solanum lycopersicum em ratos que foram intoxicados com isoniazida e rifampicina (INH + RIF) para induzir hepatotoxicidade. Trinta ratos wistar albinos foram divididos em cinco grupos de seis animais cada. Os ratos do grupo 1 representaram o grupo controle, enquanto os ratos dos grupos II, III, IV e V receberam INH + RIF (75 + 150 mg/kg) por via oral, por sete dias consecutivos. Para o tratamento, os ratos do grupo III receberam silimarina, enquanto os animais do grupo IV e V receberam 40 mg/kg e 80 mg/kg de extrato de S. lycopersicum, respectivamente. Nos dias 0 e 8, foram coletadas amostras de sangue para análise de biomarcadores hepáticos. Os dados foram submetidos a teste unilateral (ANOVA) e post hoc de Bonferroni para análise estatística. A hepatotoxicidade induzida por INH + RIF resultou em elevação significativa das enzimas hepáticas séricas, incluindo aspartato aminotransferase (AST), alanina aminotransferase (ALT), fosfatase alcalina (ALP) e bilirrubina total, enquanto houve a diminuição do nível de albumina. O S. lycopersicum, na dose de 80 mg / kg, reduziu significativamente as enzimas hepáticas AST, ALT, ALP e bilirrubina, enquanto o nível de albumina aumentou de forma significativa. O tratamento não teve efeito significativo no peso corporal e hepático. A hepatotoxicidade induzida por drogas pode ser tratada de forma eficaz com S. lycopersicum na dose de 80 mg/kg.

Animais , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Solanum lycopersicum , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Antituberculosos
J Ethnopharmacol ; 318(Pt A): 116900, 2024 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37442489


ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sharbat-e-bazoori Motadil (SBM) is a polyherbal formulation that have been used for centuries as a part of the Unani system of medicine for renal disease. AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of this study was to explore and validate the nephroprotective potential of sugar-free SBM (SF-SBM) and its mechanisms of action against sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced nephrotoxicity in HEK-293 cells. Additionally, the study aimed to assess the quality control of SF-SBM and investigate its effects using an in vivo rat model with pattern recognition following oral administration of SF-SBM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The nephroprotective effect of SF-SBM was investigated using both an HEK-293 cell line and Wistar rats. Nephrotoxicity was induced in these models by administering NaF at a concentration of 600 ppm (parts per million) for a duration of seven days. The SF-SBM formulation was standardized using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) to assess the presence of marker compounds, namely gallic acid, quercetin, and ferulic acid. Metabolite characterization of SF-SBM was carried out using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) with a monolithic capillary silica-based C18 column. This analytical technique allowed for the identification of bioactive substances and verification of the identified markers. Acute toxicity of SF-SBM was evaluated in Wistar rats by administering a single oral dose of 2000 mg/kg of SF-SBM. The nephroprotective efficacy of SF-SBM was further assessed at low (LD), medium (MD) and high (HD) doses of 32.1, 64.2, and 128.4 mg/kg, respectively, administered orally. Nephrotoxicity was induced in Wistar rats by adding NaF to their drinking water for seven days. Biochemical and urine markers were analyzed to evaluate the antioxidant, inflammatory, and apoptotic potential of SF-SBM. Additionally, histopathological analysis and immunohistochemical alterations in the expression of caspase-3 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-4 (NOX-4) in kidney tissue were performed to confirm the findings of the in vivo experiments. Furthermore, in vivo pattern recognition of SF-SBM metabolites, identified through GC-MS metabolomics, and in-silico docking analysis of major metabolites in plasma were conducted to gain further insights. RESULT: Phytochemical analysis using HPTLC, TLC-bioautography, and UPLC-MS revealed the presence of several bioactive constituents in SF-SBM, including ferulic acid, gallic acid (GA), ellagic acid, quercetin, and apigenin. These compounds exhibit diverse pharmacological properties. In vitro studies demonstrated the protective effect of SF-SBM on HEK-293 cell line against nephrotoxicity. The acute toxicity study of SF-SBM at a dose of 2000 mg/kg showed no mortality or signs of toxicity throughout the 14-day observation period. In the in vivo studies, administration of NaF resulted in significant elevation (P < 0.001) of biochemical and urine parameters, indicating oxidative, inflammatory, and apoptotic stress. Histopathological examination revealed severe depletion of Bowman's capsule, and immunohistochemistry demonstrated negative immunostaining for caspase-3 and reduced NOX-4 reactions. Pre-treatment with SF-SBM significantly attenuated the elevated biochemical and urine markers, restored the antioxidant enzyme levels (such as SOD, CAT, GSH, GPx and NO), and regulated the expression of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß, CASP-3) in kidney tissue at doses of SF-SBM-MD (64.2 mg/kg) and SF-SBM-HD (128.4 mg/kg), showing comparable results to those of α-Ketoanalogue. Histopathological assessment demonstrated improvements in tissue damage. Pattern recognition analysis of SF-SBM identified the presence of 56 metabolites at different time intervals. Additionally, in-silico studies revealed strong interactions of SF-SBM with a binding energy of -6.5 and -5.6 kcal for 4C2N. CONCLUSION: The phytoconstituents present in SF-SBM play a crucial role in its nephroprotective action by acting as potent antioxidants and reducing proinflammatory and apoptotic damage in rat cells. This indicates that SF-SBM has promising potential for the treatment of nephrotoxicity.

Antioxidantes , Fluoreto de Sódio , Ratos , Humanos , Animais , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Ratos Wistar , Fluoreto de Sódio/toxicidade , Fluoreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Quercetina/farmacologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Células HEK293 , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Estresse Oxidativo , Rim , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia
J Ethnopharmacol ; 318(Pt A): 116911, 2024 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37451488


ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In traditional system of medicine, Piper species, or its components are widely used to treat many diseases including memory improvement. One of the wild species Piper trioicum Roxb. (Piperaceae) is found in South Asian countries. The whole plant is used as folk medicine to improve memory. AIM OF THE STUDY: To our knowledge, no previous research has investigated the neuroprotective activities of P. trioicum. So, we studied the ameliorative effect of P. trioicum in attenuating cognitive deficit in scopolamine induced neurotoxicity in experimental rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar rats were exposed to scopolamine (3 mg/kg, i. p.) for 14 consecutive days, and the effect of P. trioicum (HAPT; oral, 300, 400 mg/kg) on scopolamine-invoked neurotoxicity in brain were studied. During the experimental period, behaviour analyses of rats were observed 30 min post-drug administration. The role of antioxidants of HAPT in scavenging cellular oxygen/peroxyl radicals were studied. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitions, and mode of inhibition kinetics of HAPT were studied. Pathogenic cellular oxidative (MDA, GSH, SOD, and CAT), DNA damage (8-oxodG), neurochemical (acetyl- and, butyryl-cholinesterase), ß-secretase (BACE-1 and 2), MAPτ, and neuroinflammation (IL-6, TNF-α) biomarkers in extension to the histopathological observation of brain cortex were studied. GC-MS/MS analysis was carried out to investigate the presence of bioactive constituents in HAPT. RESULTS: HAPT, a rich source of phenol and flavonoid type antioxidants were responsible in quenching oxygen/peroxyl radicals and protected the cellular membrane, and lipoproteins against ROS in DPPH, ORAC, and CAPe tests. HAPT inhibited acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities, and showed competitive-inhibition (reversible) towards cholinesterase activities. HAPT-400 significantly improved the learning and memory-impairment by restoring oxidative MDA, GSH, SOD, CAT, and DNA damage (8-oxodG) markers of serum, and cortex. It also improved acetyl- and, butyryl-cholinesterase, ß-secretase, and MAPτ level in brain by restoring proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, and TNF-α indicators in neurotoxic rats. GC-MS/MS reported therapeutic significance active compounds were molecular-docked towards target proteins, found that proscillaridin showed the highest affinity towards AChE, BuChE, BACE1, and BACE2 with binding energy of ΔGb -9.1, ΔGb -10.2, ΔGb -11.4 and ΔGb -11.5 Kcal/mol, respectively. Cymarin and morphine-3-glucuronide showed the second highest binding affinity towards AChE (ΔGb -8.8) and BuChE (ΔGb -10.0), respectively. In BACE-1, betulin showed the second highest binding affinity ΔGb -10.7 Kcal/mol and in BACE-2, morphine-3-glucuronide showed the second highest binding affinity ΔGb -9.8 Kcal/mol. CONCLUSIONS: Synergistic impact of proscillaridin, Cymarin, morphine-3-glucuronide, betulin like compounds in HAPT improved memory impairment, healing of tissue architecture of cortex with the restoration of neurochemical, neuroinflammation, and oxidative indicators in neurotoxic rats.

Piper , Proscilaridina , Ratos , Animais , Escopolamina/farmacologia , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Piper/metabolismo , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina , Cimarina , Interleucina-6 , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase , Cognição , Oxigênio , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 31: e3726, Jan.-Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1424054


Abstract Objective: to evaluate the effect of photobiomodulation with low-level 660 nm laser alone or associated with Human Amniotic Membrane in the repair of partial-thickness burns in rats. Method: an experimental study conducted with 48 male Wistar rats, randomized into four groups: Control, Human Amniotic Membrane, Low-Level Laser Therapy, and Low-Level Laser Therapy associated with Human Amniotic Membrane. The histopathological characteristics of the skin samples were analyzed 7 and 14 days after the burn. The data obtained were submitted to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: the histological analysis of the burn injuries showed a decrease in inflammation (p<0.0001) and an increase in proliferation of fibroblasts (p<0.0001) mainly at 7 days in all treatments related to the control group. At 14 days, the greater effectiveness in accelerating the healing process was significant (p<0.0001) in the Low-Level Laser Therapy group associated with the Human Amniotic Membrane. Conclusion: the association of photobiomodulation therapies with the Human Amniotic Membrane allowed verifying a reduction in the healing process time of the experimental lesions, stimulating its proposal as a treatment protocol in partial-thickness burns.

Resumo Objetivo: avaliar o efeito da fotobiomodulação com laser de baixa intensidade 660 nm isoladamente ou associada à membrana amniótica humana no reparo de queimaduras de espessura parcial em ratos. Método: estudo experimental com 48 ratos Wistar machos, randomizados em quatro grupos: Controle, Membrana Amniótica Humana, Terapia a Laser de Baixa Intensidade e Terapia a Laser de Baixa Intensidade associado à Membrana Amniótica Humana. As características histopatológicas das amostras de pele foram analisadas aos 7 e 14 dias após a queimadura. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos aos testes de Kolmogorov-Smirnov e Mann Whitney. Resultados: a análise histológica das lesões por queimadura mostrou a diminuição da inflamação (p <0,0001) e aumento da proliferação de fibroblastos (p <0,0001), principalmente nos 7 dias em todos os tratamentos relacionados ao grupo controle. Aos 14 dias, a maior efetividade na aceleração do processo cicatricial foi significativa (p<0,0001) no grupo Terapia a Laser de Baixa Intensidade associado à Membrana Amniótica Humana. Conclusão: a associação das terapias de fotobiomodulação à membrana amniótica humana permitiu comprovar redução no tempo do processo cicatricial das lesões experimentais, estimulando sua proposição como protocolo de tratamento em queimaduras de espessura parcial.

Resumen Objetivo: evaluar el efecto de la fotobiomodulación con láser de baja intensidad 660 nm de sola o combinada con la membrana amniótica humana en la reparación de quemaduras de espesor parcial en ratas. Método: estudio experimental con 48 ratas Wistar macho, aleatorizadas en cuatro grupos: Control, Membrana Amniótica Humana, Terapia con Láser de Baja Intensidad y Terapia con Láser de Baja Intensidad combinada con la Membrana Amniótica Humana. Las características histopatológicas de las muestras de piel fueron analizadas a los 7 y 14 días después de la quemadura. Los datos obtenidos fueron sometidos a las pruebas de Kolmogorov-Smirnov y Mann-Whitney. Resultados: el análisis histológico de las lesiones por quemadura mostró una disminución de la inflamación (p <0,0001) y un aumento de la proliferación de fibroblastos (p <0,0001) principalmente a los 7 días en todos los tratamientos en comparación con el grupo control; a los 14 días, en el grupo de Terapia con Láser de Baja Intensidad combinada con la Membrana Amniótica Humana la mayor efectividad en la aceleración del proceso de cicatrización fue significativa (p<0,0001). Conclusión: la asociación de terapias de fotobiomodulación con la membrana amniótica humana permitió comprobar que hubo una reducción en el tiempo del proceso de cicatrización de lesiones experimentales, lo cual favorece que se proponga como protocolo de tratamiento en quemaduras de espesor parcial.

Animais , Ratos , Pele/lesões , Cicatrização , Queimaduras/patologia , Queimaduras/terapia , Ratos Wistar , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Âmnio/patologia
Food Res Int ; 172: 113095, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37689868


A diet rich in sugar and fat can promote metabolic disorders development, especially in the intestine. Chia flour (Salvia hispanica. L) is a source of dietary fiber, alpha-linolenic fatty acid (ALA), bioactive peptides, and phenolics, promoting health benefits. This study aimed to analyze chia flour's effect on gut microbiota modulation and intestinal health in adult male Wistar rats fed a high-fat and high-fructose (HFHF) diet. Male Wistar rats (n = 10/group) were fed the diets standard (AIN-93M) or HFHF (31% saturated fat and 20% fructose) in the first phase to induce metabolic disorders. In the second phase, the rats were fed AIN-93M, HFHF, or HFHF plus 14.7% chia flour (HFHF + CF) for 10 weeks. The consumption of chia flour increased the ALA (3.24 ± 0.24) intake and significantly improved immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels (1126.00 ± 145.90), goblet cells number (24.57 ± 2.76), crypt thickness (34.37 ± 5.86), crypt depth (215.30 ± 23.19), the longitudinal muscle layer (48.11 ± 5.04), cecum weight (4.39 ± 0.71), Shannon index (p < 0.05), and significantly increased the production of acetic (20.56 ± 4.10) and butyric acids (5.96 ± 1.50), Monoglobus sp., Lachnospiraceae sp., and Prevotellaceae sp. abundance. Furthermore, chia significantly reduced the cecal pH content (7.54 ± 1.17), body mass index (0.62 ± 0.03) and weight (411.00 ± 28.58), and Simpson index (p < 0.05). Therefore, chia intake improved intestinal health parameters and functionality in rats with metabolic disorders, which demonstrates to be an effective strategy for gut microbiota modulation.

Farinha , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Masculino , Ratos , Animais , Ratos Wistar , Frutose , Salvia hispanica , Dieta
Pharm Biol ; 61(1): 1431-1445, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37674371


CONTEXT: Duhuo Jisheng pill (DHJS) is a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The effective components and therapeutic mechanisms of DHJS for treating RA are still unclear. OBJECTIVE: To explore the potential mechanism of DHJS against RA by means of network pharmacology and experimental verification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A network pharmacology and molecular docking analysis based on phytochemistry was used to elucidate the mechanism of DHJS against RA. The targets of DHJS anti-RA active ingredient were obtained by searching TCMSP, ETCM and TCMSID. The RA model induced by collagen was established in Wistar rats. The rats in the DHJS group were administered doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg for a period of 10 d. The expression of targets was measured with Western blot. RESULTS: Network pharmacology analysis showed that the anti-RA effect of DHJS was mediated by targets involved in immunity, inflammation and apoptosis, as well as PI3K-Akt and NF-κB signalling pathways. Of 2.0 g/kg DHJS significantly alleviated the ankle inflammation (IL-6: 62.73 ± 8.39 pg/mL, IL-1ß: 50.49 ± 11.47 pg/mL, TNF-α: 16.88 ± 3.05 pg/mL, IL-17A: 12.55 ± 1.87 pg/mL, IL-10: 16.24 ± 3.00 pg/mL), comparing with the model group (IL-6: 92.02 ± 13.25 pg/mL, IL-1ß: 71.85 ± 4.12 pg/mL, TNF-α: 25.64 ± 3.69 pg/mL, IL-17A: 22.14 ± 4.56 pg/mL, IL-10: 9.51 ± 3.03 pg/mL) (p < 0.05). Moreover, the protein expression of p-PI3K, p-AKT and p-p65 significantly decreased after DHJS administration. CONCLUSIONS: DHJS could alleviate the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) by the PI3K/AKT/NF-κB signalling pathway.

Artrite Reumatoide , NF-kappa B , Animais , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Interleucina-10 , Interleucina-17 , Interleucina-6 , Farmacologia em Rede , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação
Cir Cir ; 91(4): 457-467, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37677953


OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to compare the anti-adhesive effects of contractubex and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) particles in rats treated with the uterine horn adhesion model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Newly adult, 60 Wistar albino rats were used as experimental animals. The modified rat uterine horn adhesion model was used to induce intra-abdominal adhesion. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1 were studied for biochemical and immunohistochemical examination. RESULTS: TNF-α decreased in each group, while it decreased more in G2 and G3 than in G1. IL-1ß decreased in each group, while it decreased the most in G3. TGF-ß1 and VEGF localization was less in the G2 compared to G1, the least TGF-ß1 and VEGF immunolocalization was detected in the G3 and G4. For both antibodies, the least localization among all groups belonged to G3. From day 7 to day 21, the highest TGF-ß1 immunolocalization was observed in G1, lesser localization in G2 and lowest in G3. CONCLUSION: DCPD nanoparticles show promise as a clinical antiadhesive agent and should be further evaluated in experimental animal models and human trials.

OBJETIVO: En este estudio, nuestro objetivo fue comparar los efectos antiadhesivos de las partículas de contractubex (CTX) y fosfato dicálcico dihidratado (DCPD) en ratas tratadas con el modelo de adhesión del cuerno uterino. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Como animales de experimentación se utilizaron 60 ratas Wistar albinas, recién adultas. Se usó el modelo de adhesión del cuerno uterino de rata modificado para inducir la adhesión intraabdominal. Se estudiaron TNF-α, IL-1, VEGF y TGF-ß1 para examen bioquímico e inmunohistoquímico. RESULTADOS: el TNF-α disminuyó en cada grupo, mientras que disminuyó más en G2 y G3 que en G1. IL-1ß disminuyó en cada grupo, mientras que disminuyó más en G3. La localización de TGF-ß1 y VEGF fue menor en G2 en comparación con G1, la menor inmunolocalización de TGF-ß1 y VEGF se detectó en G3 y G4. Para ambos anticuerpos, la localización mínima entre todos los grupos pertenecía a G3. Desde el día 7 hasta el día 21, la mayor inmunolocalización de TGF-ß1 se observó en G1, menor localización en G2 y menor en G3. CONCLUSIÓN: las nanopartículas de DCPD se muestran prometedoras como agentes antiadhesivos clínicos y deben evaluarse más en modelos animales experimentales y ensayos en humanos.

Traumatismos Abdominais , Nanopartículas , Traumatismos Torácicos , Adulto , Animais , Ratos , Humanos , Ratos Wistar , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg ; 29(9): 963-971, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37681716


BACKGROUND: Our target was to show the role of high mobility group box-1/receptor for (HMGB1/RAGE) interaction in feces intraperitoneal injection procedure (FIP)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) pathophysiology, to investigate the effect of papaverine on RAGE associated NF-κB pathway by determining the level of soluble RAGE (sRAGE) and HMGB1, and to support this hypothesis by evaluating inflammatory biochemical, oxidative stress markers, Hounsfield unit (HU) value in computed tomography (CT), and histo-pathological results. METHODS: FIP was performed on 37 Wistar rats for creating a sepsis-induced ALI model. The animals were assigned into four groups as follows: Normal control (no treatment), placebo (FIP and saline), and receiving 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg per day papaverine. Twenty h after FIP, CT examination was performed for all animals, and HU value of the lung parenchyma was measured. The plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, HMGB1, sRAGE, C-reactive protein (CRP) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and lactic acid (LA) were determined and PaO2 and PaCO2 were measured from arterial blood sample. Lung damage was assessed by histopathological. RESULTS: TNF-, IL-6, CRP, HMGB1, MDA, LA levels, histopathologic scores, and HU values of CT were significantly increased and sRAGE levels were decreased in the saline-treated group against normal group (all P<0.05). Papaverine significantly reversed all results regardless of the dose (all P<0.05) and demonstrated inhibition of HMGB1/RAGE interaction through increasing sRAGE levels and suppresses the pro-inflammatory cytokines. CONCLUSION: We concluded that papaverine has ameliorating effects in rat model of ALI.

Lesão Pulmonar Aguda , Proteína HMGB1 , Radiologia , Sepse , Ratos , Animais , Papaverina/farmacologia , Papaverina/uso terapêutico , Ratos Wistar , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/etiologia , Proteína C-Reativa , Ácido Láctico
Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg ; 29(9): 949-955, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37681723


INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE: Acute mesenteric ischemia is especially seen in the elderly population. It has an increasing incidence in today's world where the average life expectancy is increasing. Early diagnosis is the most important factor reducing morbidity and mortality, and there is still no marker with high sensitivity and specificity for early diagnosis.In this study, we aimed to find a more sensitive and specific serum marker in the early diagnosis of mesenteric ischemia by comparing thiol with the currently used markers C-reactive protein and lactate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In our study, 32 Wistar Albino male rats, 10-12 weeks old, weighing 250-300 g, were used. 32 rats were divided into 4 groups, one of which was the control group. The superior mesenteric artery of the other 3 groups was ligated. Blood samples were taken after 2 hours from the first group, 4 hours from the second group, and 6 hours from the third group. Then the rats were sacrificed. Mesenteric ischemia and its level were observed in sacrificed subjects. The samples were separated under appropriate conditions and analyzed biochemically. RESULTS: As the ischemia time increased, CRP increased and this increase was found to be statistically insignificant (p>0.05). The changes in lactate were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). The difference between the changes of total and native thiol values was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Although CRP is a non-specific parameter in the early diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia, lactate maintains its importance as seen in our study. Differences in total thiol and native thiol changes were statistically significant. The fact that this significant difference is observed at the 4th hour values, reveals the importance of these parameters in early diagnosis. Thanks to the economic and fast results of thiol parameters, it is thought that new studies to be added to the literature can lead to the diagnosis of mesenteric ischemia.

Ácido Láctico , Isquemia Mesentérica , Idoso , Humanos , Animais , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Isquemia Mesentérica/diagnóstico , Modelos Animais , Compostos de Sulfidrila
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(17)2023 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37685833


Cancer during pregnancy presents a delicate coexistence, imposing ethical and professional challenges on both the patient and medical team. In this study, we aimed to explore in a pre-clinical model the impact of tumour evolution in serum, placental and foetal metabolomics profiles during pregnancy in a time-course manner. Pregnant Wistar rats were distributed into two experimental groups: Control (C) and Walker-256 tumour-bearing (W). The rats were euthanised on three different gestational periods: at 12 days post-conception (dpc), at 16 dpc, and at 19 dpc. Serum, placenta and foetal metabolomic profiles were performed by 1H-NMR spectra following the analyses using Chenomx NMR Analysis Software V8.3. The tumour evolution was exponential, affecting the placental metabolomic profile during all the pregnancy stages. The placental tissue in tumour-bearing dams developed at a lower speed, decreasing the foetus's weight. Associated with the serum metabolomic changes related to tumour growth, the placental metabolomic alterations impacted many metabolic pathways related to energy provision, protein synthesis and signalling, which directly harmed the foetus's development. The development of the foetus is clearly affected by the damage induced by the tumour evolution, which alters the metabolic profile of both the serum and the placenta, impairing early embryonic development.

Neoplasias , Placenta , Feminino , Gravidez , Animais , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Feto , Metabolômica
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(17)2023 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37686083


Brain aging is associated with a progressive decrease in learning abilities, memory, attention, decision making, and sensory perception. Age-related cognitive disturbances may be related to a decrease in the functional capacities of the hippocampus. This brain region is essential for learning and memory, and the lifelong neurogenesis occurring in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus may be a key event mediating the mnemonic functions of the hippocampus. In the present study, we investigated whether age-related changes in hippocampal neurogenesis are associated with learning and memory disturbances. Four- and 24-month-old rats were trained to find a hidden platform in a water maze. Though the older group showed higher latency to search the platform as compared to the younger group, both groups learned the task. However, the density of proliferating (PCNA-positive), differentiating (Dcx-positive), and new neurons (pre-labeled BrdU-positive) was significantly lower in the hippocampus of aged rats as compared to young ones. This inhibition of neurogenesis could be related to increased local production of nitric oxide since the density of neurons expressing neuronal NO-synthase was higher in the aged hippocampus. Thus, we can suggest that an age-related decrease in neurogenesis is not directly associated with place learning in aged rats.

Aprendizagem , Memória , Masculino , Ratos , Animais , Ratos Wistar , Hipocampo , Neurogênese
Nutrients ; 15(17)2023 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37686852


Exercise training positively regulates glucose metabolism. This study investigated the impact of training and detraining on glucose metabolism, lipid profiles, and liver enzymes. Twenty-six rats completed an initial 4-week moderate-intense training (T0-T4). Then, the animals were randomly assigned to two groups at the end of week 4: AT4: detraining for 8 weeks; AT8: training for 8 weeks and 4-week detraining. Six animals were sacrificed at T0 and T4, four animals/group at T8, and three/group at T12. The study continued for 12 weeks, and all parameters were assessed at T0, T4, T8, and T12. IPGTT significantly improved after 4 weeks of training (p < 0.01) and was further reduced in AT8 at T8. In AT8, 8-week training significantly reduced total cholesterol at T4 and T12 vs. T0 (p < 0.05), LDL at T4, T8, and T12 vs. T0 (p < 0.01), ALP at T8, T12 vs. T0 (p < 0.01), and increased HDL at T8 and ALT at T8 and T12 vs. T0 (p < 0.05). Triglycerides and hexokinase activity increased significantly at T4 and T8 (p < 0.05) and then decreased at T12 in AT8. Pyruvate and glycogen increased at T12 in AT8 vs. AT4. Eight-week training improved LPL and ATGL expressions. Training positively modulated insulin, glucose metabolism, and lipid profiles, but detraining reduced the benefits associated with the initial training.

Glucose , Ácido Pirúvico , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Fígado , Ratos Wistar , Triglicerídeos
J Orthop Surg Res ; 18(1): 670, 2023 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37691099


BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA), characterized by inflammation and articular cartilage degradation, is a prevalent arthritis among geriatric population. This paper was to scrutinize the novel mechanism of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) NEAT1 in OA etiology. METHODS: A total of 10 OA patients and 10 normal individuals was included in this study. Cell model of OA was built in human normal chondrocytes induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). An OA Wistar rat model was established through intra-articular injection of L-cysteine and papain mixtures (proportion at 1:2) into the right knee. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was employed to ascertain the expression levels of NEAT1, microRNA (miR)-374b-5p and post-GPI attachment to protein 1 (PGAP1), while dual-luciferase reporter experiments were used for the validation of target relationship among them. Cell cycle and apoptosis were calculated by flow cytometry analysis. CCK-8 assay was done to evaluate the proliferative potentials of chondrocytes. The levels of cell cycle-related proteins (Cyclin A1, Cyclin B1 and Cyclin D2) and pro-apoptotic proteins (Caspase3 and Caspase9) were measured by western blotting. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1beta (IL-1ß) and IL-6 levels were determined via ELISA. Hematoxylin & eosin (HE) Staining was used for pathological examination in OA rats. RESULTS: Pronounced downregulation of NEAT1 and PGAP1 and high amounts of miR-374b-5p were identified in OA patients, LPS-induced chondrocytes and OA rats. NEAT1 targeted miR-374b-5p to control PGAP1 expression. Loss of NEAT1 or upregulation of miR-374b-5p dramatically accelerated apoptosis, led to the G1/S arrest and promoted the secretion of inflammatory cytokines in LPS-induced chondrocytes, while ectopic expression of PGAP1 exhibited the opposite influences on chondrocytes. Additionally, we further indicated that upregulation of miR-374b-5p attenuated the effects of PGAP1 overexpression on LPS-induced chondrocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced NEAT1 induces the development of OA via miR-374b-5p/PGAP1 pathway. This suggests that the regulatory axis NEAT1/miR-374b-5p/PGAP1 is a novel and prospective target for OA treatment.

MicroRNAs , Osteoartrite , RNA Longo não Codificante , Idoso , Humanos , Animais , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Regulação para Baixo/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos , Osteoartrite/genética , MicroRNAs/genética
Mol Med ; 29(1): 123, 2023 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37691124


BACKGROUND: Trastuzumab (Trz)-induced cardiotoxicity (TIC) is one of the most common adverse effects of targeted anticancer agents. Although oxidative stress, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, and ferroptosis have been identified as potential mechanisms underlying TIC, the roles of pyroptosis and necroptosis under TIC have never been investigated. It has been shown that inhibition of acetylcholinesterase function by using donepezil exerts protective effects in various heart diseases. However, it remains unknown whether donepezil exerts anti-cardiotoxic effects in rats with TIC. We hypothesized that donepezil reduces mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative stress, and cardiomyocyte death, leading to improved left ventricular (LV) function in rats with TIC. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to be Control or Trz groups (Trz 4 mg/kg/day, 7 days, I.P.). Rats in Trz groups were assigned to be co-treated with either drinking water (Trz group) or donepezil 5 mg/kg/day (Trz + DPZ group) via oral gavage for 7 days. Cardiac function, heart rate variability (HRV), and biochemical parameters were evaluated. RESULTS: Trz-treated rats had impaired LV function, HRV, mitochondrial function, and increased inflammation and oxidative stress, leading to apoptosis, ferroptosis, and pyroptosis. Donepezil co-treatment effectively decreased those adverse effects of TIC, resulting in improved LV function. An in vitro study revealed that the cytoprotective effects of donepezil were abolished by a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonist. CONCLUSIONS: Donepezil exerted cardioprotection against TIC via attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, inflammation, and cardiomyocyte death, leading to improved LV function through mAChR activation. This suggests that donepezil could be a novel intervention strategy in TIC.

Acetilcolinesterase , Cardiotoxicidade , Masculino , Animais , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Cardiotoxicidade/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiotoxicidade/etiologia , Trastuzumab/efeitos adversos , Donepezila , Apoptose , Inflamação
Gac Med Mex ; 159(4): 337-343, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37699206


BACKGROUND: Ursolic acid (UA) is found in many plants, and has been reported to have anti-protease, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, nephroprotective, hepatoprotective, and cardioprotective effects. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ursolic acid in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (AP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to 4 equal groups: Sham, acute pancreatitis, treatment, and ursolic acid group. RESULTS: Serum amylase levels in the AP and treatment groups were significantly higher than in the others (p < 0.05). In addition, serum IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were significantly higher in the AP group in comparison with the treatment group. Although pancreatic tissue total oxidant activity in the AP and treatment groups was similar, pancreatic tissue total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in the treatment group than in the AP group. CONCLUSIONS: Damage to the pancreas and remote organs in AP was observed to be reduced by UA. In addition, oxidative stress was observed to be decreased by the effect of UA.

ANTECEDENTES: El ácido ursólico se encuentra en numerosas plantas y se ha informado que tiene efectos antiproteasas, antioxidantes, antiinflamatorios, antimicrobianos, nefroprotectores, hepatoprotectores y cardioprotectores. OBJETIVO: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar los efectos del ácido ursólico en la pancreatitis aguda inducida por ceruleína. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Treinta y dos ratas albinas Wistar fueron asignadas aleatoriamente a cuatro grupos iguales: grupo simulado, grupo de pancreatitis aguda, grupo de tratamiento y grupo de ácido ursólico. RESULTADOS: Los niveles de amilasa sérica en los grupos de pancreatitis aguda y de tratamiento fueron significativamente más altos que en los otros grupos (p < 0.05). Además, los niveles séricos de IL-1ß, IL-6 y TNF-α fueron significativamente más altos en el grupo de pancreatitis aguda en comparación con el grupo de tratamiento. Aunque la actividad oxidante total del tejido pancreático en ambos grupos fue similar, la capacidad antioxidante total del tejido pancreático en el grupo de tratamiento fue significativamente mayor. CONCLUSIÓN: Se observó que el ácido ursólico reduce el daño al páncreas y órganos remotos en la pancreatitis aguda, al igual que el estrés oxidativo.

Pancreatite , Triterpenos , Ratos , Animais , Pancreatite/induzido quimicamente , Pancreatite/tratamento farmacológico , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Ceruletídeo , Ratos Wistar , Doença Aguda , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico