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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130690, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343949

RESUMO

Enzymatic-assisted extraction using Flavourzyme® has been demonstrated to be a useful methodology to obtain wine lees (WL) enriched in phenolic compounds and with enhanced antihypertensive activity. Nevertheless, taking into account that Flavourzyme® possess proteolytic activity, the release of bioactive peptides should not be ruled out. In this study, we investigate the presence of antihypertensive peptides in the WL hydrolysate. Peptides were separated into fractions by ultrafiltration and RP-HPLC. Next, peptide identification by nano-HPLC-(Orbitrap)MS/MS was performed in the fractions showing the highest angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory (ACEi) activities. Six peptides were identified; three of them showing ACEi (IC50) values lower than 20 µM. The peptide antihypertensive effect was evaluated in spontaneously hypertensive rats at an oral dose of 10 mg/kg bw. Peptides FKTTDQQTRTTVA, NPKLVTIV, TVTNPARIA, LDSPSEGRAPG and LDSPSEGRAPGAD exhibited antihypertensive activity, confirming that they could contribute to the blood pressure-lowering effect of the WL hydrolysate. These peptides have a great potential as functional ingredients to manage hypertension.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Vinho , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos , Hidrolisados de Proteína , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
2.
Food Chem ; 369: 130950, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474288

RESUMO

Naringenin, a lipophilic flavanone of citrus fruits, was encapsulated for enhanced bioavailability using biodegradable polymers of polylactic acid/polyvinyl alcohol (PLA/PVA) as well as zein/pectin as P/P-Nar-NPs and Z/P-Nar-NPs, respectively. The formulation variables were optimized using response surface methodology to achieve smaller particle size with higher surface charge and encapsulation efficiencies. The optimized formulations were physically characterized by SEM, FTIR, TGA and XRD techniques. Compared to Z/P-Nar-NPs, the P/P-Nar-NPs had better encapsulation efficiency and sustained release of naringenin under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Furthermore, the oral administration of single dose of free and nanoforms of naringenin in rats (90 mg/kg b.wt) showed higher efficacy of PLA/PVA in improving the relative bioavailability of naringenin (4.7-fold) as compared to the zein/pectin polymer (1.9-fold). Overall, the present study provides insights into the formulation performance of the encapsulated bioactive compound under different polymeric matrices.


Assuntos
Flavanonas , Nanopartículas , Zeína , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Portadores de Fármacos , Tamanho da Partícula , Pectinas , Poliésteres , Álcool de Polivinil , Ratos
3.
Ultrasonics ; 118: 106580, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555738

RESUMO

Recently, a method for estimating three-dimensional acoustic impedance profiles in cultured cells and human dermal organs was proposed by interpreting the reflected ultrasonic signal based on a 1-D transmission line model for acoustic impedance microscopy (AIM). However, AIM has a disadvantage that reflected signals from cells overlap with that from a reference substrate. Additionally, the amplitudes of the reflected signals from the specimens are significantly weaker than that from the substrate. In this paper, we proposed a new method for separation of those signals based on a concept of clutter filter, which had been developed for a color Doppler method in medical ultrasonic imaging. The proposed filter using singular value decomposition (SVD) could separate original signals into desired signals such as those from the substrate and cells. Additionally, an effect from a tilt of the substrate was investigated in this study. Separability of the proposed filter was evaluated by two investigations. First one was to evaluate the separability by estimating a correlation coefficient between the filtered signal and signal reflected from a position only with the substrate. Second one was to compare a slope of the substrate estimated from the original signal with that estimated from the filtered signals from the substrate. The experimental results showed that the proposed filter could separate signals from the substrate, and the compensation of the tilt of the substrate could improve the performance of the proposed filter.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/ultraestrutura , Células Cultivadas/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Acústica/instrumentação , Animais , Desenho de Equipamento , Ratos , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126705, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315017

RESUMO

In this study, a novel method-atom surface fragment contribution (ASFC)-was proposed for assessing the properties of compounds. We developed a predictive model using the ASFC method based on the sigma surface areas (Sσ-surface) of fragments/groups for estimating the toxicity of ILs. A toxicity dataset of 140 ILs towards leukemia rat cell line (ICP-81) was gathered and employed to train and validate models. The Sσ-surface values of atoms in each group were firstly calculated from the COSMO profiles of cations and anions for ILs. Then the Sσ-surface values of 26 groups were obtained and used as input descriptors for modelling. The R2 and MSE of the built ASFC model were 0.924 and 0.071, respectively. Results indicate that the ASFC model developed by the new approach possesses great accuracy and reliability. In total, the ASFC method has extensive potential for the application of estimating diverse properties of ILs and other compounds due to its remarkable advantages.


Assuntos
Líquidos Iônicos , Animais , Ânions , Cátions , Líquidos Iônicos/toxicidade , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Ratos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
5.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 605: 146-154, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311309

RESUMO

The ability to formulate cubosomes and hexosomes with a single lipid by changing only the colloidal stabiliser presents a unique opportunity to directly compare the biological performance of these uniquely structured nanoparticles. This was explored here via the encapsulation and brain delivery of a model anti-seizure drug, phenytoin, in selachyl alcohol cubosomes and hexosomes. Nanoparticles were prepared with Pluronic® F127 or Tween 80® as the stabiliser and characterised. The internal nanostructure of nanoparticles shifted from hexosomes when using Pluronic® F127 as the stabiliser to cubosomes when using Tween 80® and was conserved following loading of phenytoin, with high encapsulation efficiencies (>97%) in both particle type. Cytotoxicity towards brain endothelial cells using the hCMEC/D3 line was comparable regardless of stabiliser type. Finally, in vivo brain delivery of phenytoin encapsulated in cubosomes and hexosomes after intravenous administration to rats was studied over a period of 60 min, showing cubosomes to be superior to hexosomes, both in terms of brain concentrations and brain to plasma ratio. While the role of stabiliser and/or internal nanostructure remains to be conclusively determined, this study is the first in vivo comparison of cubosomes and hexosomes for the delivery of a therapeutic drug molecule across the BBB and into the brain.


Assuntos
Cristais Líquidos , Nanopartículas , Animais , Encéfalo , Células Endoteliais , Tamanho da Partícula , Fenitoína , Poloxâmero , Ratos
6.
Med Gas Res ; 12(1): 18-23, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472498

RESUMO

Cytoreg is an ionic therapeutic agent comprising a mixture of hydrochloric, sulfuric, phosphoric, hydrofluoric, oxalic, and citric acids. In diluted form, it has demonstrated efficacy against human cancers in vitro and in vivo. Although Cytoreg is well tolerated in mice, rats, rabbits, and dogs by oral and intravenous administration, its mechanism of action is not documented. The acidic nature of Cytoreg could potentially disrupt the pH and levels of ions and dissolved gases in the blood. Here, we report the effects of the intravenous administration of Cytoreg on the arterial pH, oxygen and carbon dioxide pressures, and bicarbonate, sodium, potassium, and chloride concentrations. Our results demonstrate that Cytoreg does not disturb the normal blood pH, ion levels, or carbon dioxide content, but increases oxygen levels in rats. These data are consistent with the excellent tolerability of intravenous Cytoreg observed in rabbits, and dogs. The study was approved by the Bioethics Committee of the University of the Andes, Venezuela (CEBIOULA) (approval No. 125) on November 3, 2019.


Assuntos
Equilíbrio Ácido-Base , Antineoplásicos , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Bicarbonatos/farmacologia , Cães , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Camundongos , Coelhos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
7.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 2): 132089, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509765

RESUMO

Plant essential oil-based insecticides, with special reference to those that may be obtained from largely available biomasses, represent a valuable tool for Integrated Pest Management. However, the sublethal effects and the potential effects on aggressive insect traits of these green insecticides are understudied. Herein, the lethal and sub-lethal effects of the carlina oxide, constituting more than 97% of the whole Carlina acaulis (Asteraceae) root essential oil (EO), were determined against an invasive polyphagous tephritid pest, Ceratitis capitata (medfly). The carlina oxide was formulated in a mucilaginous solution containing carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt, sucrose, and hydrolysed proteins, showing high ingestion toxicity on medfly adults. The behavioural effects of carlina oxide at LC10 and LC30 were evaluated on the medfly aggressive traits, which are crucial for securing reproductive success in both sexes. Insecticide exposure affected the directionality of aggressive actions, but not the aggression escalation intensity and duration. The EO safety to mammals was investigated by studying its acute toxicity on the stomach, liver, and kidney of rats after oral administration. Only the highest dose (1000 mg/kg) of the EO caused modest neurological signs and moderate effects on the stomach, liver, and kidney. The other doses, which are closer to the practical use of the EO when formulated in protein baits, did not cause side effects. Overall, C. acaulis-based products are effective and safe to non-target mammals, deserving further consideration for eco-friendly pesticide formulations.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Ceratitis capitata , Inseticidas , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Mamíferos , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Ratos
8.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 3): 132269, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562704

RESUMO

Studies have indicated that ambient pollutant exposure correlates with nasal disease, in which nasal mucosa microbiota play a crucial role. However, the association between exposure to real-ambient air pollutants and the composition of nasal mucosa microbiota has not been well studied. This study aimed to explore the composition of nasal mucosa microbiota after exposure to real-ambient air pollutants with a special system. We monitored PM2.5, O3, etc. in the system and confirmed PM2.5 and O3 were the main pollutants. SD rats were exposed to the system for 16 weeks in summer or 22 weeks in autumn-winter. The concentrations of PM2.5 were 24.00 µg/m3 in the Summer stage and 22.21 µg/m3 in the autumn-winter stage. The O3 concentrations were 25.46 and 13.55 µg/m3, respectively. Exposure altered bacterial beta diversity in the summer stage. There were 4 and 3 different bacteria at the king, order, family and genus levels between the two groups at the two stages, respectively. The abundance of opportunistic pathogens changed, Pseudomonas decreased in summer stage, and Bifidobacterium increased in the autumn-winter stage. The influence of the season on the nasal mucosa microbiota was analyzed. The alpha diversity of the autumn-winter stage was higher than that of the summer stage. LEfSe analysis revealed 34 differential bacterial taxa at the king, order, family and genus level in the two control groups and 31 of the two exposure groups, which were not the same as the bacteria between the control groups and exposure groups. We found that PM2.5 combined with O3 exposure was associated with the composition of the nasal mucosa microbiota and the abundance of opportunistic pathogens, in which season likely impacted the microbiota.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mucosa Nasal , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estações do Ano
9.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 3): 132284, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563782

RESUMO

Among polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), listed by the Stockholm convention as Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), hexachloronaphthalenes are considered the most toxic and raise the highest concern. Of these, 1,2,3,5,6,7-hexachloronaphthalanene (PCN67) is considered the main congener affecting human health due to its hepatotoxicity and its ability to disturb the reproductive, endocrine, and hematological systems. It is also prevalent in human serum/plasma, milk, and adipose tissue. However, little is known about its neurotoxicity, despite the fact that anorectic effects have been observed in workers occupationally exposed to PCNs and in animal research on PCN67. Since dopamine is involved in many aspects of food intake, the aim of this study was to confirm whether PCN67 affects dopamine synthesis in differentiated PC12 cells, a widely used model of neurosecretion. Our results show that exposure to PCN67 resulted in diminished dopamine content and release. Moreover, PCN67 also affected the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and lowered the expression of vesicular monoamine transporter 1 (VMAT1). In addition, significantly lower expression of antioxidant enzymes, including catalase, glutathione peroxidase and copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, was observed in comparison to the vehicle. In conclusion, PCN67 appears to disturb dopaminergic transmission by altering tyrosine hydroxylation, reducing VMAT1 expression and impairing antioxidant protection. Our study provides a potential mechanism for how PCN67 may cause dopamine deficiency and contribute to neuronal death by affecting cellular antioxidant potency; however, this conclusion requires further research.


Assuntos
Dopamina , Síndromes Neurotóxicas , Animais , Humanos , Naftalenos/toxicidade , Células PC12 , Ratos
10.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 207: 114431, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710728

RESUMO

Sinapine thiocyanate (ST) is an index component and pharmacological active component of Semen Sinapis and Semen Raphani, and it is widely used to relieving cough and asthma. This study aimed to obtain the metabolic and pharmacokinetic characterization of ST. The metabolic profiles of ST were obtained from rat plasma, urine, and feces via ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q/TOF-MS). Thirteen metabolites were structurally identified, and the proposed metabolic pathways of ST included deamination, demethylation, hydrogenation, dehydration, and extensive conjugation, including glucuronidation and sulfonation. ST was selected as the plasma marker for the pharmacokinetic study. A simple and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the quantitation of ST in rat plasma. The linear range of ST was 0.1-500 ng/mL (R2 = 0.9976), and the lowest limit of quantification was 0.1 ng/mL. The intra-precision and inter-precision of the assay were 1.31-5.12% and 2.72-7.66%, and the accuracy (RE%) ranged from - 4.88% to 3.82% and - 3.47% to 6.18%. The extraction recovery, matrix effect, and stability of ST were within acceptable limits. The established method was validated and successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of ST. For pharmacokinetic experiments, the male Sprague-Dawley rats were administrated with ST solution intravenously (2 mg/kg) or orally (100 mg/kg). The oral absolute bioavailability of ST was calculated as 1.84%, and the apparent volume of distribution of intravenous and intragastric administrations were 107.51 ± 21.16 L/kg and 78.60 ± 14.44 L/kg, respectively. The maximum plasma concentration was 47.82 ± 18.77 nM, and the time to maximum peak was 88.74 ± 20.08 min for the intragastric dosing group. According to the pharmacokinetic and metabolic profiling results, metabolites with high abundance of ST in bio-fluids would be the next object in tissue distribution and pharmacodynamic study.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tiocianatos , Administração Oral , Animais , Colina/análogos & derivados , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
11.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 207: 114432, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715580

RESUMO

The traditional Chinese medicine syndrome "Kidney yang deficiency" is a kind of chronic kidney disease. With the development of society, the incidence of chronic kidney disease is increasing year by year, which also brings great economic pressure to people. Semen Cuscutae is an important traditional Chinese medicine to tonify liver and kidney, mainly used to tonify deficiency of liver and kidney, spleen and kidney deficiency and diarrhea. Although there are a lot of research at the molecular and cellular level to study the Semen Cuscutae on the treatment of Kidney yang deficiency syndrome, but there's no comprehensive research complete with metabolomics method from plasma, feces and urine metabolites aspects. The purpose of this study is to find the potential differential biomarkers of the Kidney yang deficiency model and blank group rats in plasma, urine and feces, and to investigate the mechanism of Semen Cuscutae in the treatment of Kidney yang deficiency syndrome. In this study, ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) was used to identify potential biomarkers. Through the analysis of metabolic profiles of plasma, urine, and feces, as well as multivariate statistical analysis and pathway analysis, the therapeutic mechanism of Semen Cuscutae for Kidney yang deficiency syndrome was described. The results showed that there were 69 differential metabolites in plasma, 93 differential metabolites in feces and 62 differential metabolites in urine, and the changes of the levels of these biomarkers showed that Semen Cuscutae had a good therapeutic effect on Kidney yang deficiency syndrome. Through the analysis of the channel, the metabolite changes mainly affected the steroid hormone biosynthesis, arachidonic acid metabolism, primary bile acid biosynthesis, sheath lipid metabolism and biosynthesis of tyrosine, phenylalanine metabolism, retinol metabolism,taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, lysine degradation and vitamin B6 metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, terpenoid backbone biosynthesis and starch and sucrose metabolism. Therefore, the results suggested that Semen Cuscutae could exert a good therapeutic effect by reversing the levels of some biomarkers.


Assuntos
Metabolômica , Sêmen , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Rim , Espectrometria de Massas , Ratos
12.
Food Chem ; 370: 131376, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662793

RESUMO

Mangiferin (MGF), from Mangifera indica is well reported for its hypoglycemic activity and hypolipidemic activity. However, MGF suffers therapeutic limitation due to poor solubility causing disparaging bioavailability. Herein to address this problem, we have incorporated MGF in alginate grafted N-succinylated chitosan (NSC) nanomatrix. Characterization by molecular docking, FT-IR and 2D-NMR (COSY) has revealed that MGF could reinforce interaction with NSC. The OH and CH2OH groups of MGF may set interactions with pyranosic OH, CH2OH, NH2 (or NH-succinyl and COOH-succinyl) of NSC. The NSC-MGF nanoconjugate revealed a spherical particle geometry of 100 âˆ¼ 200 nm size. The encapsulated MGF showed 100% release in vitro. In vivo, NSC-MGF nanoconjugate revealed blood glucose lowering from 300 mg/dL to âˆ¼ 90 mg/dL as well as âˆ¼ 37% lowering of total plasma cholesterol. This is well comparative to the earlier reports which acknowledged only 1 âˆ¼ 36% lowering of plasma cholesterol with MGF. Furthermore, NSC-MGF lowered serum trigyceride to âˆ¼ 61%, while in earlier studies, only 10 âˆ¼ 40% serum triglycerides reduction was found with solitary MGF.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Quitosana , Diabetes Mellitus , Hiperlipidemias , Nanopartículas , Alginatos , Animais , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Nanoconjugados , Tamanho da Partícula , Ratos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Xantonas
13.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131852, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416594

RESUMO

Two representative DNA adducts from acrylamide exposure, N7-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl) guanine (N7-GA-Gua) and N3-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl) adenine (N3-GA-Ade), are important long-term exposure biomarkers for evaluating genotoxicity of acrylamide. Catechins as natural antioxidants present in tea possess multiple health benefits, and may also have the potential to protect against acrylamide-induced DNA damage. The current study developed an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous analysis of N7-GA-Gua and N3-GA-Ade in tissues and urine. The validated UHPLC-MS/MS method showed high sensitivity, with limit of detection and limit of quantification ranging 0.2-0.8 and 0.5-1.5 ng/mL, respectively, and achieved qualified precision (RSD<14.0%) and spiking recovery (87.2%-110.0%) with elution within 6 min, which was suitable for the analysis of the two DNA adducts in different matrices. The levels of N7-GA-Gua and N3-GA-Ade ranged 0.9-11.9 and 0.6-3.5 µg/g creatinine in human urine samples, respectively. To investigate the interventional effects of catechins on the two DNA adducts from acrylamide exposure, rats were supplemented with three types of catechins (tea polyphenols, epigallocatechin gallate, and epicatechin) 30 min before administration with acrylamide. Our results showed that catechins effectively inhibited the formation of DNA adducts from acrylamide exposure in both urine and tissues of rats. Among three catechins, epicatechin performed the best inhibitory effect. The current study provided evidence for the chemo-preventive effect of catechins, indicating that dietary supplement of catechins may contribute to health protection against exposure to acrylamide.


Assuntos
Catequina , Adutos de DNA , Acrilamida/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores , Catequina/farmacologia , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
14.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1354: 335-343, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807450

RESUMO

Much of biomedical oriented research is conducted with animal models. Over the years, rodents (primarily rats and mice) have emerged as the preferred species for basic biochemistry, cell biology, physiology and nutrition studies. In the past, dogs have been used for the evaluation of dietary protein quality and other aspects of animal nitrogen metabolism and physiology, cardiovascular and endocrine research. At an increasing rate, pigs have also been used as a model species in biomedical research. Pigs are readily available in various mature sizes and genotypic/phenotypic traits, and there are many anatomic, nutritional and physiologic similarities between human beings and pigs. Many notable reviews summarizing the role of pigs in biomedical studies have already been published and these are cited below. The present review focuses on characteristics that make pigs an excellent biomedical animal model in particular in obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular research. To procure an animal model for obesity, irrespective of species used, these animals must be fed a dense caloric diet (high fat) to achieve an experimental working model within a reasonable period. This review also focuses on a putative role of gastrointestinal microbiota in obesity as obese animals exhibit a shift in the distribution of gastrointestinal microbial phyla from lean animals. But to date such results have not pinpointed a treatable cause for obesity. Sometimes, the choice of sampling sites for microbial assessment in many reports can be questioned as the microbial content and phyla distribution in easily collected fecal samples may differ from those obtained directly from the small intestine and upper colon. While pigs are still utilized in many countries for medical surgery practice, this has been discontinued in US medical schools.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Dieta , Cães , Fezes , Camundongos , Ratos , Sus scrofa , Suínos
15.
Food Chem ; 371: 131106, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543925

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia. Intake of dietary fiber is inversely associated with risks of T2D. Here, metabolomics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were employed to investigate the effects of arabinoxylan on gut microbiota and their metabolites in type 2 diabetic rats. T2D increased the abundance of opportunistic pathogens (such as Desulfovibrio and Klebsiella) and the levels of 12α-hydroxylated bile acids and acylcarnitines (C3) in diabetic rats, which eventually contribute to insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Supplementation with arabinoxylan promoted the growth of fiber-degrading bacteria to increase short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), as well as decreased the abundance of opportunistic pathogens. Arabinoxylan treatment also decreased the concentrations of 12α-hydroxylated bile acids, and increased the levels of equol, indolepropionate, and eicosadienoic acid. This study indicated that the beneficial effects of arabinoxylan on T2D may be partially attributed to the modification of gut microbiota and related metabolites.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Ratos , Xilanos
16.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118444, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742820

RESUMO

Numerous studies reported that BPA could cause oxidative damage to different tissues in rats/mice. This study aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of BPA exposure on oxidative damage in rats/mice. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases from their inception date until July 18, 2020. 20 eligible articles were included in this study. The results showed that BPA could significantly increase the level of MDA (SMD, 16.88; 95%CI, 12.06-21.71), but there was a significant reduction in the contents of antioxidants, such as GR (-10.46, -13.91 âˆ¼ -7.02), CAT (-8.48, -11.66 âˆ¼ -5.30), GPx (-9.37, -11.95 âˆ¼ -6.80), GST (-7.59, -14.51 âˆ¼ -0.67), GSH (-10.64, -13.96 ~ -7.33), and SOD (-6.48, -8.37 âˆ¼ -4.58) in rats/mice. Our study provided clear evidence that BPA exposure could significantly induce oxidative damage in rats/mice. And we also found that the degree of oxidative damage was related to BPA dose, target tissue, intervention means, and exposure duration of BPA.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos , Fenóis , Animais , Antioxidantes , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo , Fenóis/toxicidade , Ratos
17.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 132066, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481170

RESUMO

Whether polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure is associated with muscle mass and muscle strength has been scantly investigated. The cross-sectional associations of urinary PAH metabolites with appendicular skeletal muscle mass and hand grip strength in adults were first investigated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Laboratory study was further carried out to examine the effect of PAHs on skeletal muscle mass and strength. 2742 and 2462 US adults were finally analyzed for muscle mass and muscle strength, respectively. In male participants, urinary PAH metabolites were found to show an inverse relationship with muscle mass and grip strength. In female participants, no significant relationship was found between urinary PAH metabolites with muscle mass or grip strength. In male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, administration of B [a]P induced muscle atrophy when compared with the control. However, muscle mass and strength were not significantly altered in female rats. The variations in muscle morphology parameters were accompanied by significant decrease in plasma testosterone levels in the B [a]P-treated male rats. Testosterone co-treatment significantly mitigated B [a]P mediated damages in skeletal muscle in male rats. The results of the present study indicate that there may be a gender-specific causal relationship between the PAHs and muscle atrophy.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Força da Mão , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150368, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543792

RESUMO

Glyphosate (GLY), a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, can result in gut microbiota dysbiosis intimately involving various diseases. The latest research has shown an association between gut microbiota alteration and defective spermatogenesis. Here, we aimed to investigate whether GLY-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis contributed to male reproductive toxicity. Data showed that GLY-exposed rats exhibited male reproductive dysfunction, evidenced by impaired testis architectural structure, reduced sperm motility, together with increased sperm malformation ratio. 16S rDNA sequencing analysis indicated that GLY exposure altered the composition of gut commensal microbiota, of which the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla was significantly changed. Unexpectedly, the increased abundance of Prevotella_1 and Bacteroides genera was negatively correlated with sperm quality. Mechanistically, the pathological changes in GLY-exposed testis were accompanied by the increased interleukin (IL)-17A production, probably due to gut microbes-derived Th17 cell migration. Furthermore, activation of IL-17A signaling triggered testicular oxidative damage. Taken together, these findings uncover an underlying mechanistic scenario that gut microbiota dysbiosis-driven local IL-17A production is one reason responsible for male reproductive toxicity induced by GLY, which provides new insights into the male reproductive toxicity of GLY in mammals.


Assuntos
Disbiose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Disbiose/induzido quimicamente , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/toxicidade , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Ratos , Motilidade Espermática
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 53-61, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Corn silk is a very important by-product of corn production with medicinal value. Corn silk polysaccharide (CSP) is the main active ingredient. In the present study, ultrasound and spheroidization by anti-solvent were applied to improve the biological activity of CSP. RESULTS: The results showed that ultrasonic degradation improved the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of CSP by changing its physicochemical characteristics. As the anti-solvent ratio increased, the particle size of the nanoparticles (NPs) from the spheroidization of ultrasonic-degraded corn silk polysaccharide (UCSP) gradually increased, and NP-1 exhibited the highest inhibitory effect of α-glucosidase. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) results indicated that the enhanced activity might be due to more α-glucosidase binding sites with NP-1 compared with no spheroidization. Western blotting results showed that NP-1 could improve the 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl) amino]-2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-NBDG) uptake in the L6 cells by regulating the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signal pathway and the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). NP-1 also exhibited excellent stability in different environments. CONCLUSION: The study revealed that ultrasonic treatment and spheroidization processing showed potential applications for improving the biological activity of polysaccharides. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Zea mays/química , Animais , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Glucose/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/genética , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ultrassom , alfa-Glucosidases/química
20.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 298-307, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594527

RESUMO

The incidence of type 2 diabetic osteoporosis (T2DOP), which seriously threatens elderly people's health, is rapidly increasing in recent years. However, the specific mechanism of the T2DOP is still unclear. Studies have shown the relationship between iron overload and T2DOP. Mitochondrial ferritin (FtMt) is a protein that stores iron ions and intercepts toxic ferrous ions in cells mitochondria. Ferroptosis, an iron-dependent cell injured way, may be related to the pathogenesis of T2DOP. In this study, we intend to elucidate the effect of FtMt on ferroptosis in osteoblasts and explain the possible mechanism. We first detected the occurrence of ferroptosis in bone tissue and the expression of FtMt after inducing T2DOP rat model. Then we used hFOB1.19 cells to study the influence of high glucose on FtMt, ferroptosis, and osteogenic function of osteoblasts. Then we observed the effect of FtMt on ferroptosis and osteoblast function by lentiviral silencing and overexpression of FtMt. We found ferroptosis in T2DOP rats bone. Overexpression of FtMt reduced osteoblastic ferroptosis under high glucose condition while silent FtMt induced mitophagy through ROS / PINK1/Parkin pathway. Then we found increased ferroptosis in osteoblasts after activating mitophagy by carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenyl-hydrazine (CCCP, a mitophagy agonist). Our study demonstrated that FtMt inhibited the occurrence of ferroptosis in osteoblasts by reducing oxidative stress caused by excess ferrous ions, and FtMt deficiency induced mitophagy in the pathogenesis of T2DOP. This study suggested that FtMt might serve as a potential target for T2DOP therapy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Ferritinas/metabolismo , Ferroptose , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Osteoporose , Animais , Ferritinas/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Mitofagia , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases
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