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1.
Anim. Reprod. ; 18(2): e20200051, 2021. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-31893

RESUMO

Glutamine is often used to treat metabolic changes associated with anorexia-cachexia syndrome in patients with malignant neoplasms. Walker 256 tumor is an excellent model for studying these changes associated with cancer in different organs, including injuries in testicular functions. However, the effects of supplementing glutamine on testicular morphometry in this model have not yet been investigated. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of L-glutamine supplementation on testicular morphometry in rats transplanted with Walker 256 tumor cells. Forty puberty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control without L-glutamine (C); control supplemented with L-glutamine (CG); inoculated with Walker 256 tumor cells (WT) and inoculated with Walker 256 tumor cells and supplemented with L-glutamine (WTG). The testicles were removed, weighed, fixed in Bouin, and included in paraffin for histomorphometric analysis. Walker 256 tumor caused quantitative changes in the tubular and intertubular compartments and tunica albuginea, with reductions in the percentages of lumen and tunica albuginea, number of Sertoli cells per gram of testis; number of Leydig cells; percentage of blood vessels and connective tissue in intertubule. However, glutamine supplementation prevented part of these changes caused by the tumor, presenting mainly a protective effect on the tunica albuginea and percentage of blood and lymph vessels in the intertubule. These results indicate the potential of L-glutamine was able to recover for testicular dysfunction associated with cancer.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Ratos/anatomia & histologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico , Glutamina/análise
2.
Elife ; 92020 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948542

RESUMO

The laboratory rat was the first mammal domesticated for research purposes. It is descended from wild Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, which despite their name likely originated in Asia. Exceptionally adaptable, these rodents now inhabit almost all environments on Earth, especially near human settlements where they are often seen as pests. The laboratory rat thrives in captivity, and its domestication has produced many inbred and outbred lines that are used for different purposes, including medical trials and behavioral studies. Differences between wild Norway rats and their laboratory counterparts were first noted in the early 20th century and led some researchers to later question its value as a model organism. While these views are probably unjustified, the advanced domestication of the laboratory rat does suggest that resuming studies of wild rats could benefit the wider research community.


Assuntos
Animais de Laboratório , Animais Selvagens , Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Ratos , Animais , Feminino , História do Século XX , Masculino , Ratos/anatomia & histologia , Ratos/fisiologia
3.
Ann Anat ; 227: 151410, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394169

RESUMO

Animal models of nerve function have been subject to extensive study in order to understand and investigate methods which may improve axon regeneration and promote functional outcomes following nerve injury and repair. As the facial nerve is a cranial nerve, there is mounting evidence that cranial nerve regeneration differs from peripheral, and outcome models specifically addressing the facial nerve are required. Murine models are the most commonly utilized, with a variety of methods employed to measure the actions of whisking, eye closure, or ear movement as indicators of facial nerve regeneration. Each method of measurement is reviewed in terms of validity, strengths, limitations, and the specific outcome data provided. The authors propose that prior to choosing an outcome model, the goals and objectives of a planned study should be well defined, as various outcome measures may be useful depending on the information which is desired. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to provide the reader with a concise review which may facilitate project design.


Assuntos
Nervo Facial/fisiologia , Camundongos/fisiologia , Modelos Animais , Regeneração Nervosa/fisiologia , Ratos/fisiologia , Animais , Orelha Externa/fisiologia , Eletromiografia , Pálpebras/fisiologia , Camundongos/anatomia & histologia , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Ratos/anatomia & histologia , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho , Vibrissas/fisiologia , Gravação em Vídeo
4.
Folia Morphol (Warsz) ; 79(2): 374-386, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This investigation aims to assess species comparison of foramen magnums in two hystricomorphs and endeavours an inter-species categorisation of individual shape outline. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study utilised 35 skull samples of different ages from the crested porcupine (H. cristata) (17) and the greater cane rat (T. swinderianus) (18) through. Elliptical Fourier Analysis, and the two-block Partial Least Squares analysis. Elliptical Fourier descriptor analyses presented marked amplitude related attenuations according to harmonics factor (1/10 to 2,980) in T. swinderianus though angular orientations in the major axis were not profoundly affected by size-normalisation in this species but up-regulated in H. cristata; (1/10 to1/95). RESULTS: Within and between groups analyses revealed PC1&2 contributed 98.94% and 1.06% but 100% PC1 between groups. The 1st to 4th harmonics gave full topographic description of the foramen magnums in both, 1st-3rd harmonics details compared differently revealing shape variance concentrated in posterolateral and posterior regions of the foramen magnum in the porcupine but antero-lateral and dorsal in cane rats, components of morphological asymmetry were demonstrated from 6th to 12th harmonics. Stepwise discriminant analysis of harmonic increments and Mahalanobis distance exposed increasing disparities between both up to the 5 th harmonic (Bonferroni-corrected p-values [277.2, p < 0.002] group centroids) and a slightly lower value in variance for cane rats 0.421 and 0.378 for porcupines. A (58.3% and 33.3%); (94.1% and 11.1%) proportion before and after size-normalised evaluations of porcupines and cane rats size factor removal yielded 35.8% increase in accuracy among crested porcupines but 22.2% decline in cane rats. Dimorphic variations were less frequently expressed in cane rats corresponding to 33.3% and 44.2%. Size normalisation effect brought a reverse situation with an increased difference (11.1% in T. swinderianus; 5.9% in H. cristata). Individual specimen distribution along discriminant axis pooled by discriminant scores depicted less morphologic variability with greater overlaps. CONCLUSIONS: We observe that complexities in foramen magnum architecture between these indicates parcellation of shape and size variance and contributes as evidence for structural evolution, systematics, fundamental similarities and differences offers an explanation that both are related through evolutionary proces of descent as baseline data and further support the suggestion; hystricidae in phylogenetic tree are better evolved and separate from thryonomidae.


Assuntos
Forame Magno/anatomia & histologia , Porcos-Espinhos/anatomia & histologia , Ratos/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Filogenia
5.
Anim. Reprod. ; 17(1): e20190026, 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-24193

RESUMO

The current upsurge in intensive farming practices of greater cane rat has not only lead to higher growth rate but is accompanied by increased fat deposition especially in the males. This study attempts to characterize one of the most commonly used fat estimation parameter, the body mass index (BMI) as well as evaluates its relationship with testicular and hormonal parameters in seventy-two sexually active male cane rats over a period of one year. Six animals, kidded and raised in a farm, with known ages were used each month. The experimental protocols entail body measurements of weight, height and length; histology; orchidometry; and hormonal immunoassay of testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, LH and FSH using their various kits. The mean values of the body mass (BMI) and Lee (LI) indices of male greater cane rats were 1.18±0.20g/cm2 and 0.30±0.02g/cm respectively with the testicular histology indicating normal spermatogenesis. BMI/LI, both of which followed the same pattern, neither correlate with testicular parameters nor with serum testosterone, progesterone, LH and FSH concentrations but had low correlations with serum estradiol concentration (r2 = 0. 2; p = 0.0023). So, these relationships may provide clue on obesity and its effect on reproductive performance and strengthened the possibility of the characterized BMI/LI as obesity marker for breeding selection in male cane rat.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos/anatomia & histologia , Ratos/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Testículo/fisiologia , Orquiectomia
6.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 31(12): e13709, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rat has served usefully as a model for fecal incontinence and exploration of the mechanism of action of sacral neuromodulation. However, there is a gap in knowledge concerning representation(s) on the primary sensory cortex of this anatomical region. METHODS: Multi-electrode array (32 channels) and intrinsic optical signal (IOS) processing were used to map cortical activation sites following anorectal electrical stimulation in the rat. A simple method for expanding a 32-electrode array to a virtual 2700 array was refined. KEY RESULTS: The IOS method identified activation of parietal cortex following anorectal or first sacral nerve root (S1) stimulation; however, the signal was poorly localized and large spontaneous vasomotion was observed in pial vessels. In contrast, the resulting high-density maps showed two anatomically distinct cortical activation sites to anorectal stimulation. CONCLUSIONS & INFERENCES: There are two distinct sites of activation on the parietal cortex following anorectal stimulation in the rat. The implications for sacral neuromodulation as a therapy for fecal incontinence are discussed.


Assuntos
Canal Anal/inervação , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Potenciais Somatossensoriais Evocados , Ratos/anatomia & histologia , Reto/inervação , Córtex Somatossensorial/fisiologia , Vias Aferentes/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Estimulação Elétrica , Eletrodos , Feminino , Pia-Máter/irrigação sanguínea , Ratos Wistar , Raízes Nervosas Espinhais/anatomia & histologia , Raízes Nervosas Espinhais/fisiologia , Sistema Vasomotor/anatomia & histologia , Sistema Vasomotor/fisiologia
7.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(8): 1121-1128, 2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270283

RESUMO

Wild animals tend to avoid novel objects that do not elicit clear avoidance behaviors in domesticated animals. We previously found that the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) and dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBNST) were larger in trapped wild rats compared with laboratory rats. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that the BLA and/or dBNST would be differentially activated when wild and laboratory rats showed different avoidance behaviors towards novel objects. In this study, we placed novel objects at one end of the home cage. We measured the time spent in that half of the cage and expressed the data as a percentage of the time spent in that region with no object placement. We found that this percentage was lower in the wild rats compared with the laboratory rats. These behavioral differences were accompanied by increased Fos expression in the BLA, but not in the dBNST, of the wild rats. These results suggest that wild rats show greater BLA activation compared with laboratory rats in response to novel objects. We also found increased Fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, ventral BNST, and ventromedial hypothalamus, but not in the central amygdala of wild rats. Taken together, our data represent new information regarding differences in behavioral and neural responses towards novel objects in wild vs. laboratory rats.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/psicologia , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Complexo Nuclear Basolateral da Amígdala/fisiologia , Ratos/psicologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/anatomia & histologia , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Hipotálamo/fisiologia , Masculino , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Ratos/anatomia & histologia
8.
J Exp Biol ; 222(Pt 12)2019 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097601

RESUMO

Morphological traits are frequently used as proxies for functional outputs such as bite force performance. This allows researchers to infer and interpret the impacts of functional variation, notably in adaptive terms. Despite their mechanical bases, the predictive power of these proxies for performance is not always tested. In particular, their accuracy at the intraspecific level is rarely assessed, and they have sometimes been shown to be unreliable. Here, we compared the performance of several morphological proxies in estimating in vivo bite force, across five species of murine rodents, at the interspecific and intraspecific levels. Proxies used included the size and shape of the mandible, as well as individual and combined muscular mechanical advantage (temporalis, superficial masseter and deep masseter). Maximum voluntary bite force was measured in all individuals included. To test the accuracy of predictions allowed by the proxies, we combined linear regressions with a leave-one-out approach, estimating an individual's bite force based on the rest of the dataset. The correlations between estimated values and the in vivo measurements were tested. At the interspecific and intraspecific levels, size and shape were better estimators than mechanical advantage. Mechanical advantage showed some predictive power at the interspecific level, but generally not within species, except for the deep masseter in Rattus In a few species, size and shape did not allow us to predict bite force. Extrapolations of performance based on mechanical advantage should therefore be used with care, and are mostly unjustified within species. In the latter case, size and shape are preferable.


Assuntos
Força de Mordida , Mandíbula/fisiologia , Camundongos/fisiologia , Ratos/fisiologia , Animais , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Camundongos/anatomia & histologia , Modelos Biológicos , Ratos/anatomia & histologia , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
Acta cir. bras. ; 34(4): e201900401, May 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-23182

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the relations of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expressions with fetal brain injury in rats with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). Methods: Sixty rats pregnant for 15 days were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The ICP model was established in experimental group. On the 21st day, the blood biochemical test, histopathological examination of pregnant rat liver and fetal brain tissues and immunohistochemical analysis of fetal rat brain tissues were performed. Results: On the 21st day, the alanineaminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and total bile acid levels in experimental group were significantly higher than control group (P<0.01). Compared with control group, there was obvious vacuolar degeneration in pregnant rat liver tissue and fetal brain tissue in experimental group. NPY expression in fetal brain tissue was negative in control group and positive in experimental group. HO-1 expression in fetal brain tissue was strongly positive in control group and positive in experimental group. There was significant difference of immunohistochemical staining optical density between two groups (P<0.01). Conclusion: In fetal brain of ICP rats, the NPY expression is increased, and the HO-1 expression is decreased, which may be related to the fetal brain injury.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Ratos , Neuropeptídeo Y , Heme Oxigenase-1 , Colestase Intra-Hepática/veterinária , Lesões Pré-Natais/veterinária , Lesões Encefálicas/veterinária , Ratos/anatomia & histologia , Ratos/sangue
10.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 48(4): 388-393, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968434

RESUMO

The female genital tract originates from the Müllerian ducts during embryological development. Fusion of the ducts occurs in different segments depending on the animal species, resulting in a variational number of the respective organ. Current literature on genital tract morphology of laboratory rodents is controversial. Therefore, the present study aimed at determining an anatomically correct definition of the uterus in laboratory guinea pigs, mice and rats. In all three rodent species, we found two separate cervical canals that communicate with an individual uterus via discrete ostia uteri interna. The correct anatomical definition should therefore be uterus duplex bicollis, vagina simplex.


Assuntos
Cobaias/anatomia & histologia , Camundongos/anatomia & histologia , Ratos/anatomia & histologia , Útero/anatomia & histologia , Vagina/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Feminino , Radiografia/veterinária , Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Vagina/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
Heart Fail Rev ; 24(5): 759-777, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903356

RESUMO

Rodent surgical animal models of heart failure (HF) are critically important for understanding the proof of principle of the cellular alterations underlying the development of the disease as well as evaluating therapeutics. Robust, reproducible rodent models are a prerequisite to the development of pharmacological and molecular strategies for the treatment of HF in patients. Due to the absence of standardized guidelines regarding surgical technique and clear criteria for HF progression in rats, objectivity is compromised. Scientific publications in rats rarely fully disclose the actual surgical details, and technical and physiological challenges. This lack of reporting is one of the main reasons that the outcomes specified in similar studies are highly variable and associated with unnecessary loss of animals, compromising scientific assessment. This review details rat circulatory and coronary arteries anatomy, the surgical details of rat models that recreate the HF phenotype of myocardial infarction, ischemia/reperfusion, left and right ventricular pressure, and volume overload states, and summarizes the technical and physiological challenges of creating HF. The purpose of this article is to help investigators understand the underlying issues of current HF models in order to reduce variable results and ensure successful, reproducible models of HF.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/normas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Ratos/fisiologia , Ratos/cirurgia , Animais , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Ratos/anatomia & histologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia
12.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 79(2): 257-262, abr.-jun. 2019. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-740923

RESUMO

Increased oxygen consumption and activation of specific metabolic pathways during or after physical exercise lead to the formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. An investigation was made into the effects of pequi oil supplementation in protecting liver cells against injury resulting from oxidative stress. The experiments involved 20 male adult Wistar rats ( Rattus norvegicus). The animals were divided into four experimental groups: Group 1: sedentary control group; Group 2: exercise control group; Group 3: supplemented sedentary group; and Group 4: supplemented exercise group. Supplementation consisted of pequi oil administered by oral gavage (400 mg). The animals of the exercised groups were subjected to 20 swimming sessions for 5 weeks (with progressive increase of 10 minutes until exhaustion). Samples were collected from the right hepatic lobe for histopathological analysis and determination of malondialdehyde levels. The histopathological analyses revealed that the animals of the exercised control group had moderate liver damage, while the animals of the supplemented exercised group had slight tissue damage, and the sedentary control and sedentary supplemented groups showed no tissue damage. The malondialdehyde levels showed higher and statistically significant in exercise control group when compared to the other evaluated groups (p 0.05). In conclusion the supplementation with pequi oil had a protective effect on liver cells against damage caused by oxygen free radicals during strenuous exercise, as demonstrated by the indicator of lipid peroxidation.(AU)


Aumento do consumo de oxigênio e ativação de vias metabólicas específicas durante ou após a atividade física conduz para formação de espécies reativas de oxigênio e nitrogênio. Uma investigação foi realizada sobre os efeitos da suplementação com óleo de pequi na proteção das células hepáticas contra lesões resultantes do estresse oxidativo. Na realização dos experimentos foram utilizados 20 ratos machos adultos da linhagem Wistar (Rattus novergicus ). Os animais foram divididos em quatro grupos experimentais: grupo 1: grupo sedentário controle; grupo 2: grupo treinado controle; grupo 3: grupo sedentário suplementado e grupo 4: grupo treinado suplementado. Na suplementação foi utilizado o óleo de pequi ministrado por gavagem oral (400 mg). Os animais dos grupos treinados foram submetidos a 20 sessões de natação por um período de 5 semanas (com aumento progressivo de 10 minutos até a exaustão). Foram retiradas amostras do lobo hepático direito para análises histopatológicas, e dosagem de malondialdeído. As análises histopatológicas revelaram que os animais do grupo treinado controle tiveram danos hepáticos moderados; já os animais do grupo treinado suplementado tiveram danos teciduais leves; os grupos sedentário controle e sedentário suplementado não apresentaram injúrias teciduais. Os níveis de malondialdeído mostraram-se maiores e estatisticamente significativos no grupo treinado controle quando comparados aos outros grupos avaliados (p 0,05). Podemos concluir que a suplementação com óleo de pequi teve efeito protetor nas células hepáticas contra os danos causados pelos radicais livres de oxigênio durante os exercícios exaustivos, conforme demonstrado pelo indicador de peroxidação lipídica.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Ratos/anatomia & histologia , Ratos/classificação , Carica/química , Carica/citologia , Antioxidantes/análise
13.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0198361, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29856808

RESUMO

The eggs of the freshwater Pomacea apple snails develop above the water level, exposed to varied physical and biological stressors. Their high hatching success seems to be linked to their proteins or perivitellins, which surround the developing embryo providing nutrients, sunscreens and varied defenses. The defensive mechanism has been unveiled in P. canaliculata and P. maculata eggs, where their major perivitellins are pigmented, non-digestible and provide a warning coloration while another perivitellin acts as a toxin. In P. scalaris, a species sympatric to the former, the defense strategy seems different, since no toxin was found and the major perivitellin, PsSC, while also colored and non-digestible, is a carbohydrate-binding protein. In this study we examine the structure and function of PsSC by sequencing its subunits, characterizing its carbohydrate binding profile and evaluating its effect on gut cells. Whereas cDNA sequencing and database search showed no lectin domain, glycan array carbohydrate binding profile revealed a strong specificity for glycosphingolipids and ABO group antigens. Moreover, PsSC agglutinated bacteria in a dose-dependent manner. Inspired on the defensive properties of seed lectins we evaluated the effects of PsSC on intestinal cells both in vitro (Caco-2 and IEC-6 cells) and in the gastrointestinal tract of rats. PsSC binds to Caco-2 cell membranes without reducing its viability, while a PsSC-containing diet temporarily induces large epithelium alterations and an increased absorptive surface. Based on these results, we propose that PsSC is involved in embryo defenses by altering the gut morphophysiology of potential predators, a convergent role to plant defensive lectins.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Ovo/fisiologia , Ovos , Trato Gastrointestinal , Lectinas/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório , Ratos , Caramujos/química , Aglutinação , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Células Cultivadas , Trato Gastrointestinal/anatomia & histologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/fisiologia , Lectinas/farmacologia , Masculino , Comportamento Predatório/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos/anatomia & histologia , Ratos/fisiologia , Ratos Wistar
14.
Zool Res ; 39(5): 309-320, 2018 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29955026

RESUMO

Apodemus (mice) and Rattus (rats) are the top rodent reservoirs for zoonoses in China, yet little is known about their diversity. We reexamined the alpha diversity of these two genera based on a new collection of specimens from China and their cyt b sequences in GenBank. We also tested whether species could be identified using external and craniodental measurements exclusively. Measurements from 147 specimens of Apodemus and 236 specimens of Rattus were used for morphological comparisons. We analysed 74 cyt b sequences of Apodemus and 100 cyt b sequences of Rattus to facilitate phylogenetic estimations. Results demonstrated that nine species of Apodemus and seven species of Rattus, plus a new subspecies of Rattus nitidus, are distributed in China. Principal component analysis using external and craniodental measurements revealed that measurements alone could not separate the recognized species. The occurrence of Rattus pyctoris in China remains uncertain.


Assuntos
Citocromos b/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Murinae/genética , Ratos/genética , Animais , China , Murinae/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia , Ratos/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Dente/anatomia & histologia
15.
Anat Sci Int ; 93(4): 514-532, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29948977

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to characterise the tongue in wild-type rats using several microscopic techniques. Warsaw Wild Captive Pisula Stryjek (WWCPS) rats belong to a lineage of wild-caught rats. The study was carried out on tongues of 15 male and 15 female WWCPS rats. Histological, histochemical and ultrastructural studies were carried out. There were no significant differences between the male and female WWCPS rat tongues. There was a median groove approximately 1 cm long in the apex of the tongue that faded caudally. The intermolar prominence was clearly marked in the distal part of the lingual body. Lingual mechanical papillae located on the surface of the tongue formed four subtypes based on their shape: small filiform papillae, giant filiform papillae, thin elongated filiform papillae and wide filiform papillae. Gustatory papillae formed the second group of papillae and were divided into bud-shaped fungiform papillae, a single vallate papilla surrounded by an incomplete papillary groove and foliate papillae, which were a well-formed and composed of several pairs of folds divided by longitudinal grooves. In the posterior lingual glands (mucoserous and serous), acidic sulphated mucin-secreting cells gave a strong AB pH 2.5 positive reaction, and a positive reaction with the AB pH 1.0 stain for acidic carboxylated mucin. Double AB/PAS staining showed the presence of the majority of mucous cells with predominant of acidic mucins. Positive PAS staining showed the presence of neutral mucin. HDI staining demonstrated a weak positive reaction within Weber's glands of the WWCPS rat tongue.


Assuntos
Ratos/anatomia & histologia , Língua/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Mucinas/metabolismo , Língua/metabolismo
16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(3): 857-872, Maio-Jun. 2018. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-735077

RESUMO

Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da condroitinase associada às células-tronco mesenquimais na lesão aguda da medula espinhal, utilizaram-se 50 ratos Lewis, distribuídos igualmente nos grupos: controle negativo (CN), tratamento com placebo (PLA), condroitinase (CDN), células-tronco mesenquimais (CTM) e condroitinase mais células-tronco mesenquimais (CDN+CTM). Todos os animais tiveram a medula espinhal exposta por laminectomia, e os grupos PLA, CDT, CTM e CDT+CTM sofreram também trauma medular compressivo. Após sete dias, procedeu-se à reexposição da medula espinhal, quando os grupos PLA e CTM receberam 4µL de líquido cefalorraquidiano artificial via intralesional, e os grupos CDT e CDT+CTM receberam o mesmo líquido contendo 2,2U de condroitinase. Após 14 dias da cirurgia inicial, todos os animais receberam 0,2mL de PBS via endovenosa, contudo, nos grupos CTM e CDT+CTM, esse líquido continha 1x106 CTM. Avaliou-se a capacidade motora até o 28o dia pós-trauma e, posteriormente, as medulas espinhais foram analisadas por RT-PCR, para quantificação da expressão gênica para BDNF, NT-3, VEGF, KDR e PECAM-1, e por imunoistoquímica, para detecção das células-tronco GFP injetadas (anti-GFP), quantificação dos neurônios (anti-NeuN) e da GFAP e vimentina, para avaliação da cicatriz glial. As análises estatísticas foram realizadas com o auxílio do Prism 5 for Windows, com o nível de significância de 5%. Não houve diferença entre os grupos quanto à capacidade motora. O grupo CDT+CTM apresentou maior imunoexpressão de neurônios viáveis do que o placebo. No CTM, houve maior expressão dos fatores neurotróficos BDNF e VEGF. E no CDT, houve menor imunoexpressão de vimentina. Concluiu-se que a associação CDT+CTM favorece a viabilidade neuronal após o trauma, que o tratamento com CTM promove aumento na expressão dos fatores tróficos BDNF e VEGF e que o tratamento com condroitinase é efetivo na redução da cicatriz glial.(AU)


The aim of this work was to study the effect of chondroitinase associated with mesenchymal stem cells in acute spinal cord injury. Therefore, 50 Lewis rats were distributed in the following groups: negative control (NC), treatment with placebo (PLA), chondroitinase (CDT), mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), and chondroitinase associated with mesenchymal stem cells (CDT + MSC). All animals had their spinal cord exposed by laminectomy, and the groups named PLA, CDT, MSC and CDT + MSC also suffered compressive spinal cord trauma. After seven days, the spinal cord was re-exposed, when the PLA and MSCs groups received 4uL of artificial cerebrospinal fluid through the lesion, and the CDT group and CDT + MSC received the same fluid containing 2,2U of chondroitinase. 14 days after the first surgery, all animals received 0.2ml of PBS intravenously; however, the MSC and CDT + MSC groups received the same liquid also containing 1x106 MSCs. The motor skills were evaluated up to 28 days post-injury and, subsequently, the spinal cords were analyzed by RT-PCR for BDNF, NT-3, VEGF, PECAM-1 and KDR gene expression quantification, immunohistochemistry to detect injected stem cells GFP (anti-GFP), to quantify neurons (anti-NeuN), GFAP and detect vimentin in order to evaluate the glial scar. Statistical analyzes were performed by Prism 5 for Windows using a 5% level of significance. There was no difference between groups with regarding motor capacity. The CDT + MSC group showed increased immunoreactivity of viable neurons than placebo. In MSC, there was a greater expression of neurotrophic factors BDNF and VEGF. Also, there was less vimentin immunostaining in group CDT. It was concluded that CDT + MSC association promotes neuronal viability after trauma, in which treatment with MSC promotes increased expression of BDNF and VEGF trophic factors, and also that treatment with chondroitinase is effective in reducing the glial scar.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Condroitina ABC Liase , Ratos/anatomia & histologia , Ratos/lesões , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/enzimologia
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1074: 157-166, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29721940

RESUMO

Purpose This study demonstrates a standardized approach to measuring retinal thickness (RT) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in commonly used animal models of disease and reports a normative data set for future use. Materials and Methods Twenty normal eyes of 4 adult animal models (5 rats, 5 rabbits, 5 canines, and 5 mini-pigs) were used. Manual measurements were made on the commercially available Heidelberg Spectralis™ SD-OCT to determine the total, inner, and outer retinal thickness (RT) at fixed distances from the optic nerve head (ONH) (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 mm away) in order to control for normal variation in retinal thickness. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with P value <0.05 indicated statistical significance. Results Total RT significantly decreased with increasing distance from the ONH for the canine, mini-pig, and rabbit vascular models. Inner RT significantly decreased for the canine, mini-pig, rabbit vascular, and rabbit avascular models; and outer RT significantly decreased for only the canine model. Among the animal models, RT at similar distances from the ONH were significantly different for total, inner, and outer RT. Conclusion There are significant differences in the total, inner, and outer RT of normal canine, mini-pig, rabbit, and rat retinas with SD-OCT using a standardized approach. These measurements provide a normative reference for future studies and illustrate a standardized method of assessing RT.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães/anatomia & histologia , Oftalmopatias/patologia , Coelhos/anatomia & histologia , Ratos/anatomia & histologia , Retina/ultraestrutura , Porco Miniatura/anatomia & histologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Animais , Luz , Valores de Referência , Espalhamento de Radiação , Especificidade da Espécie , Suínos
18.
J Vet Med Sci ; 80(3): 395-404, 2018 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29311494

RESUMO

The distributions of ß-defensin 1 and 2 in secretory host defense system throughout respiratory tract of healthy rats were immunohistochemically investigated. In the nasal epithelium, a large number of non-ciliated and non-microvillous cells (NCs) were immunopositive for both ß-defensin 1 and 2, whereas a small number of goblet cells (GCs) were immunopositive only for ß-defensin 1. Beta-defensin 2-immunopositive GCs were few. In the nasal glands, a small number of acinar cells and a large number of ductal epithelial cells were immunopositive for both ß-defensins. In the laryngeal and tracheal epithelia, a very few NCs and GCs were immunopositive for both ß-defensins. In laryngeal and tracheal glands, a very few acinar cells and a large number of ductal epithelial cells were immunopositive for both ß-defensins. In the extra-pulmonary bronchus, a small number of NCs were immunopositive for both ß-defensins. A small number of GCs were immunopositive for ß-defensin 1, whereas few GCs were immunopositive for ß-defensin 2. From the intra-pulmonary bronchus to alveoli, a very few or no epithelial cells were immunopositive for both ß-defensins. In the mucus and periciliary layers, ß-defensin 1 was detected from the nose to the extra-pulmonary bronchus, whereas ß-defensin 2 was weakly detected only in the nose and the larynx. These findings suggest that the secretory sources of ß-defensin 1 and 2 are mainly distributed in the nasal mucosa and gradually decrease toward the caudal airway in healthy rats.


Assuntos
Defensinas/metabolismo , Sistema Respiratório/anatomia & histologia , beta-Defensinas/metabolismo , Animais , Brônquios/anatomia & histologia , Brônquios/metabolismo , Células Caliciformes/metabolismo , Laringe/anatomia & histologia , Laringe/metabolismo , Masculino , Mucosa Nasal/anatomia & histologia , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Alvéolos Pulmonares/anatomia & histologia , Alvéolos Pulmonares/metabolismo , Ratos/anatomia & histologia , Ratos Wistar/anatomia & histologia , Ratos Wistar/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Sistema Respiratório/imunologia , Sistema Respiratório/metabolismo , Traqueia/anatomia & histologia , Traqueia/metabolismo
19.
J Anat ; 232(1): 134-145, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29023691

RESUMO

The gallbladder is the hepatobiliary organ for storing and secreting bile fluid, and is a synapomorphy of extant vertebrates. However, this organ has been frequently lost in several lineages of birds and mammals, including rodents. Although it is known as the traditional problem, the differences in development between animals with and without gallbladders are not well understood. To address this research gap, we compared the anatomy and development of the hepatobiliary systems in mice (gallbladder is present) and rats (gallbladder is absent). Anatomically, almost all parts of the hepatobiliary system of rats are topographically the same as those of mice, but rats have lost the gallbladder and cystic duct completely. During morphogenesis, the gallbladder-cystic duct domain (Gb-Cd domain) and its primordium, the biliary bud, do not develop in the rat. In the early stages, SOX17, a master regulator of gallbladder formation, is positive in the murine biliary bud epithelium, as seen in other vertebrates with a gallbladder, but there is no SOX17-positive domain in the rat hepatobiliary primordia. These findings suggest that the evolutionary loss of the Gb-Cd domain should be translated simply as the absence of a biliary bud at an early stage, which may correlate with alterations in regulatory genes, such as Sox17, in the rat. A SOX17-positive biliary bud is clearly definable as a developmental module that may be involved in the frequent loss of gallbladder in mammals.


Assuntos
Ductos Biliares Extra-Hepáticos/anatomia & histologia , Vesícula Biliar/anatomia & histologia , Camundongos/anatomia & histologia , Ratos/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Morfogênese , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
20.
J Infect Public Health ; 11(3): 412-417, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28967498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In mammals and across rat species, the variation in conformation is markedly observed in the head and the variation in the shape of the head is mostly determined by the shape of the skull. Hence comparative topographic analysis and morphometry is a veritable tool in precise categorization of peri-domestic rats and species identification. METHODS: Killed rodents around residential dwellings of students on campus were collected and measurements taken of external morphology. Thirty-one external head and corporal parameters; and 40 cranial measurements respectively were obtained. Topographic features and specific anatomical landmarks measured were matched using congruent anatomical landmarks and compared to referenced standard measurements. RESULTS: External morphometry suggests that all retrieved samples were more closely related to the species Rattus rattus. However, craniodental analysis of captured rats reveals variations from the mean of typical R. rattus. In comparison with Mastomys natalensis, the mean averages of the rat species were perceptibly different for only two of the parameters viz palatine fissure length (PL) (p=0.039) and distance between interparietal bone (DP) (p=0.06). In contrast, the mean of whole length of skull (WL), length of diastema (PI), length of nasal bone (NL), length of frontal bone (LF) and occipital width (OH) were significantly different from that of R. rattus with p values of 0.047, 0.036, 0.048, 0.032 and 0.034 respectively. CONCLUSION: This study focuses on peridomestic rat's identification within the University campus based on morphometry, providing unique landmarks for differentiation between Mastomys, Mus, Rattus and other rat species with emphasis on the need for more comprehensive investigation, categorization and morphometric profiling of rat population in Nigeria. Metric data generated for rat profiling in Nigeria is pivotal for a more comprehensive strategy for prevention of Lassa fever.


Assuntos
Habitação , Murinae/anatomia & histologia , Ratos/anatomia & histologia , Universidades , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Febre Lassa/epidemiologia , Febre Lassa/prevenção & controle , Febre Lassa/transmissão , Masculino , Camundongos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia
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