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1.
Nat Microbiol ; 7(1): 97-107, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972825

RESUMO

Global and national surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology is mostly based on targeted schemes focused on testing individuals with symptoms. These tested groups are often unrepresentative of the wider population and exhibit test positivity rates that are biased upwards compared with the true population prevalence. Such data are routinely used to infer infection prevalence and the effective reproduction number, Rt, which affects public health policy. Here, we describe a causal framework that provides debiased fine-scale spatiotemporal estimates by combining targeted test counts with data from a randomized surveillance study in the United Kingdom called REACT. Our probabilistic model includes a bias parameter that captures the increased probability of an infected individual being tested, relative to a non-infected individual, and transforms observed test counts to debiased estimates of the true underlying local prevalence and Rt. We validated our approach on held-out REACT data over a 7-month period. Furthermore, our local estimates of Rt are indicative of 1-week- and 2-week-ahead changes in SARS-CoV-2-positive case numbers. We also observed increases in estimated local prevalence and Rt that reflect the spread of the Alpha and Delta variants. Our results illustrate how randomized surveys can augment targeted testing to improve statistical accuracy in monitoring the spread of emerging and ongoing infectious disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Número Básico de Reprodução , Viés , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/transmissão , Teste para COVID-19/estatística & dados numéricos , Previsões , Humanos , Prevalência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
3.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 38(1): e385-e386, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986591

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the clinical presentation, possible trigger factors and seasonality of acute urticaria (AU) in children referred to the emergency department in a teaching hospital in London, United Kingdom. METHODS: This was a retrospective descriptive study. One hundred and sixty-three consecutive patients younger than 18 years with the diagnosis of AU who attended accident and emergency department from January 2018 until January 2020 at Chelsea and Westminster Hospital in London, United Kingdom, were included in the study. Descriptive statistics were performed using IBM SPSS 25. RESULTS: In total, 163 patients younger than 18 years, 82 (50.3%) boys and 81 (49.7%) girls. The median age of patients with AU was 4 years (interquartile range, 6 years). In 120 of (73.6%) 163 patients, there was no clear trigger of AU, in 17 (10.4%) of 163 patients, upper respiratory infection was considered as a potential trigger of AU, followed by food in 14 (8.6%) cases, medications in 9 (5.5%) cases, hymenoptera sting in 1 (0.6%) case, and contact urticaria 2 (1.2%) cases. Seventeen (10.4%) of the patients were admitted into the hospital as a result of their urticaria. The majority of AU urticaria cases were reported in autumn with 76 (46.6%) cases with most of AU cases occurring in November (34/163, 20.9%). CONCLUSIONS: A total of 163 cases of AU were identified between January 2018 and January 2020. A seasonal trend of AU in autumn was observed. Respiratory infections were found to be the most commonly associated potential trigger of AU cases.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos , Urticária , Animais , Criança , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Londres/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Urticária/epidemiologia , Urticária/etiologia
5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 17, 2022 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34974842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is increased demand for urgent and acute services during the winter months, placing pressure on acute medicine services caring for emergency medical admissions. Hospital services adopt measures aiming to compensate for the effects of this increased pressure. This study aimed to describe the measures adopted by acute medicine services to address service pressures during winter. METHODS: A survey of acute hospitals was conducted during the Society for Acute Medicine Benchmarking Audit, a national day-of-care audit, on 30th January 2020. Survey questions were derived from national guidance. Acute medicine services at 93 hospitals in the United Kingdom completed the survey, evaluating service measures implemented to mitigate increased demand, as well as markers of increased pressure on services. RESULTS: All acute internal medicine services had undertaken measures to prepare for increased demand, however there was marked variation in the combination of measures adopted. 81.7% of hospitals had expanded the number of medical inpatient beds available. 80.4% had added extra clinical staff. The specialty of the physicians assigned to provide care for extra inpatient beds varied. A quarter of units had reduced beds available for providing Same Day Emergency Care on the day of the survey. Patients had been waiting in corridors within the emergency medicine department in 56.3% of units. CONCLUSION: Winter pressure places considerable demand on acute services, and impacts the delivery of care. Although increased pressure on acute hospital services during winter is widely recognised, there is considerable variation in the approach to planning for these periods of increased demand.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Auditoria Médica , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Humanos , Reino Unido
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e053094, 2022 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980617

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 is having a disproportionate impact on Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) groups and women. Concern over direct and indirect effects may also impact on sleep. We explore the levels and social determinants of self-reported sleep loss among the UK population during the pandemic, focusing on ethnic and gender disparities. SETTING: This prospective longitudinal study analysed data from seven waves of the Understanding Society: COVID-19 Study collected from April 2020 to January 2021 linked to prepandemic data from the 2019 mainstage interviews, providing baseline information about the respondents prior to the pandemic. PARTICIPANTS: The analytical sample included 8163 respondents aged 16 and above who took part in all seven waves with full information on sleep loss, defined as experiencing 'rather more' or 'much more' than usual sleep loss due to worry, providing 57 141 observations. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported sleep loss. Mixed-effects regression models were fitted to consider within-individual and between-individual differences. RESULTS: Women were more likely to report sleep loss than men (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.9 to 2.4) over the 10-month period. Being female, having young children, perceived financial difficulties and COVID-19 symptoms were all predictive of sleep loss. Once these covariates were controlled for, the bivariate relationship between ethnicity and sleep loss (1.4, 95% CI 1.6 to 2.4) was reversed (0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.8). Moreover, the strength of the association between gender and ethnicity and the risk of sleep loss varied over time, being weaker among women in July (0.6, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.7), September (0.7, 95% CI 0.6 to 0.8), November (0.8, 95% CI 0.7 to 1.0) and January 2021 (0.8, 95% CI 0.7 to 0.9) compared with April 2020, but positively stronger among BAME individuals in May (1.4, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.1), weaker only in September (0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 1.0). CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic has widened sleep deprivation disparities, with women with young children, COVID-19 infection and BAME individuals experiencing sleep loss, which may adversely affect their mental and physical health.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Sono , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
7.
Vet Rec ; 190(1): 18-22, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994443

RESUMO

With Covid-19 and Brexit continuing to change the ways in which veterinary teams work, 2021 was another year of uncertainty. Here, Kathryn Clark sums up the year that was.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Animais , COVID-19/veterinária , União Europeia , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35010792

RESUMO

COVID-19 has caused a global pandemic with considerable impact. Studies have examined the influence of socioeconomic status and air pollution on COVID-19 risk but in low detail. This study seeks to further elucidate the nuances of socioeconomic status, as defined by the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), air pollution, and their relationship. We examined the effect of IMD and air pollution on the likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 among 66,732 UKB participants tested for SARS-CoV-2 from 16 March 2020 through 16 March 2021. Logistic regression was performed controlling for age, sex, ancestry and IMD or air pollution in the respective models. IMD and its sub-scores were significantly associated with increased risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. All particulate matter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels were associated with increased likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Measures of green space and natural environment around participants' homes were associated with reduced likelihood of SARS-CoV-2. Socioeconomic status and air pollution have independent effects on the risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Green space and natural environment space in the proximity of people's homes may mediate the effect of air pollution on the risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
9.
Hum Resour Health ; 20(1): 7, 2022 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012564

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Regulatory processes for Oral health care professionals are considered essential for patient safety and to ensure health workforce quality. The global variation in their registration and regulation is under-reported in the literature. Regulatory systems could become a barrier to their national and international movement, leading to loss of skilled human resources. The General Dental Council is the regulatory authority in the UK, one of the nine regulators of health care overseen by the Professional Standards Authority. AIM: The aim of this paper is to present the professional integration experiences of internationally qualified dentists (IQDs) working in the UK, against the background of regulation and accreditation nationally. METHODS: Registration data were obtained from the General Dental Council to inform the sampling and recruitment of research participants. Semi-structured interviews of 38 internationally qualified dentists working in the United Kingdom were conducted between August 2014 and October 2017. The topic guide which explored professional integration experiences of the dentists was informed by the literature, with new themes added inductively. A phenomenological approach involving an epistemological stance of interpretivism, was used with framework analysis to detect themes. RESULTS: Internationally qualified dentist's professional integration was influenced by factors that could be broadly classified as structural (source country training; registration and employment; variation in practising dentistry) and relational (experiences of discrimination; value of networks and support; and personal attributes). The routes to register for work as a dentist were perceived to favour UK dental graduates and those qualifying from the European Economic Area. Dentists from the rest of the world reported experiencing major hurdles including succeeding in the licensing examinations, English tests, proving immigration status and succeeding in obtaining a National Health Service performer number, all prior to being able to practice within state funded dental care. CONCLUSION: The pathways for dentists to register and work in state funded dental care in UK differ by geographic type of registrant, creating significant inconsistencies in their professional integration. Professional integration is perceived by an individual IQD as a continuum dictated by host countries health care systems, workforce recruitment policies, access to training, together with their professional and personal skills. The reliance of the UK on internationally qualified dentists has increased in the past two decades, however, it is not known how these trends will be affected by UK's exit from the European Union and the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Acreditação , Odontólogos , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido
10.
J Health Organ Manag ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015386

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Hospital mergers are common in the United Kingdom and internationally. However, mergers rarely achieve their intended benefits and are often damaging. This study builds on existing literature by presenting a case study evaluating a merger of two hospitals in Oxford, United Kingdom with three distinct characteristics: merger between two university hospitals, merger between a generalist and specialist hospital and merger between two hospitals of differing size. In doing so, the study draws practical lessons for other healthcare organisations. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Mixed-methods single-case evaluation. Qualitative data from 19 individual interviews and three focus groups were analysed thematically, using constant comparison to synthesise and interpret findings. Qualitative data were triangulated with quantitative clinical and financial data. To maximise research value, the study was co-created with practitioners. FINDINGS: The merger was a relative success with mixed improvement in clinical performance and strong improvement in financial and organisational performance. The merged organisation received an improved inspection rating, became debt-free and achieved Foundation Trust status. The study draws six lessons relating to the contingencies that can make mergers a success: (1) Develop a strong clinical rationale, (2) Communicate the change strategy widely and early, (3) Increase engagement and collaboration at all levels, (4) Be transparent and realistic about the costs and benefits, (5) Be sensitive to the feelings of the other organisation and (6) Integrate different organizational cultures effectively. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This case study provides empirical evidence on the outcome of merger in a university hospital setting. Despite the relatively positive outcome, there is no strong evidence that the benefits could not have been achieved without merger. Given that mergers remain prevalent worldwide, the practical lessons might be useful for other healthcare organisations considering merger.


Assuntos
Instituições Associadas de Saúde , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Cultura Organizacional , Reino Unido
11.
PLoS Med ; 19(1): e1003870, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excess mortality captures the total effect of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on mortality and is not affected by misspecification of cause of death. We aimed to describe how health and demographic factors were associated with excess mortality during, compared to before, the pandemic. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analysed a time series dataset including 9,635,613 adults (≥40 years old) registered at United Kingdom general practices contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We extracted weekly numbers of deaths and numbers at risk between March 2015 and July 2020, stratified by individual-level factors. Excess mortality during Wave 1 of the UK pandemic (5 March to 27 May 2020) compared to the prepandemic period was estimated using seasonally adjusted negative binomial regression models. Relative rates (RRs) of death for a range of factors were estimated before and during Wave 1 by including interaction terms. We found that all-cause mortality increased by 43% (95% CI 40% to 47%) during Wave 1 compared with prepandemic. Changes to the RR of death associated with most sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were small during Wave 1 compared with prepandemic. However, the mortality RR associated with dementia markedly increased (RR for dementia versus no dementia prepandemic: 3.5, 95% CI 3.4 to 3.5; RR during Wave 1: 5.1, 4.9 to 5.3); a similar pattern was seen for learning disabilities (RR prepandemic: 3.6, 3.4 to 3.5; during Wave 1: 4.8, 4.4 to 5.3), for black or South Asian ethnicity compared to white, and for London compared to other regions. Relative risks for morbidities were stable in multiple sensitivity analyses. However, a limitation of the study is that we cannot assume that the risks observed during Wave 1 would apply to other waves due to changes in population behaviour, virus transmission, and risk perception. CONCLUSIONS: The first wave of the UK COVID-19 pandemic appeared to amplify baseline mortality risk to approximately the same relative degree for most population subgroups. However, disproportionate increases in mortality were seen for those with dementia, learning disabilities, non-white ethnicity, or living in London.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Mortalidade/tendências , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
12.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 13: 21501319211066667, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986693

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the safety, utilization, ability to reduce length of hospitalization and overall outcomes of a COVID-19 virtual ward providing ongoing treatment at home. METHOD: A retrospective single-center study of patients discharged to the COVID-19 virtual "step down" ward between January 27th 2021 and March 2nd 2021. The referral process, length of hospitalization, length of stay on the virtual ward, readmissions, and ongoing treatment requirements including supplemental oxygen, antibiotics, and/or steroids were all noted. RESULTS: A total of 50 patients were referred to the virtual ward. 43 referrals were accepted, 39 of which were from the respiratory ward. Four patients were readmitted, all due to hypoxia. All readmissions occurred within 5 days of discharge. 72% (n = 31) were discharged home with an ongoing oxygen requirement. 14.3% of patients were discharged with antibiotics only, 9.5% with steroids only and 23.8% with both antibiotics and steroids. The mean length of hospital stay for patients discharged to the virtual ward was 10.3 ± 9.7 days and 11.9 ± 11.6 days for all covid positive patients during this time. On average, patients spent 13.7 ± 7.3 days on the virtual ward. The average number of days spent on oxygen on the virtual ward was 11.6 ± 6.0 days. CONCLUSION: The virtual ward model exemplifies the potential benefits of collaborative working between primary and secondary care services, relieving pressure on hospitals whilst providing ongoing treatments at home such as supplemental oxygen. It also facilitates an early supported discharge of clinically stable patients with an improving clinical trajectory by managing them in the community.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hospitais Gerais , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido
13.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 34, 2022 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the UK government implemented a series of guidelines, rules, and restrictions to change citizens' behaviour to tackle the spread of the virus, such as the promotion of face masks and the imposition of lockdown stay-at-home orders. The success of such measures requires active co-operation on the part of citizens, but compliance was not complete. Detailed research is required on the factors that aided or hindered compliance with these measures. METHODS: To understand the facilitators and barriers to compliance with COVID-19 guidelines, we used structural topic modelling, a text mining technique, to extract themes from over 26,000 free-text survey responses from 17,500 UK adults, collected between 17 November and 23 December 2020. RESULTS: The main factors facilitating compliance were desires to reduce risk to oneself and one's family and friends and to, a lesser extent, the general public. Also of importance were a desire to return to normality, the availability of activities and technological means to contact family and friends, and the ability to work from home. Identified barriers were difficulties maintaining social distancing in public (due to the actions of other people or environmental constraints), the need to provide or receive support from family and friends, social isolation, missing loved ones, and mental health impacts, perceiving the risks as low, social pressure to not comply, and difficulties understanding and keep abreast of changing rules. Several of the barriers and facilitators raised were related to participant characteristics. Notably, women were more likely to discuss needing to provide or receive mental health support from friends and family. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated an array of factors contributed to compliance with guidelines. Of particular policy importance, the results suggest that government communication that emphasizes the potential risks of the virus and provides simple, consistent guidance on how to reduce the spread of the virus would improve compliance with preventive behaviours as COVID-19 continues and for future pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido
14.
Euro Surveill ; 27(1)2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991777

RESUMO

Serum samples were collected pre- and post-booster vaccination with Comirnaty in 626 participants (aged ≥ 50 years) who had received two Comirnaty doses < 30 days apart, two Comirnaty doses ≥ 30 days apart or two Vaxzevria doses ≥ 30 days apart. Irrespective of primary vaccine type or schedule, spike antibody GMTs peaked 2-4 weeks after second dose, fell significantly ≤ 38 weeks later and rose above primary immunisation GMTs 2-4 weeks post-booster. Higher post-booster responses were observed with a longer interval between primary immunisation and boosting.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Humanos , Londres , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido
15.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e047748, 2022 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35017230

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore clinically important increases in depression/anxiety from before to during the first UK COVID-19 lockdown and factors related to this change, with a particular focus on ethnic differences. DESIGN: Pre-COVID-19 and lockdown surveys nested within two longitudinal Born in Bradford cohort studies. PARTICIPANTS: 1860 mothers with a child aged 0-5 or 9-13, 48% Pakistani heritage. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ORs for a clinically important increase (5 points or more) in depression (eight item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8)) and anxiety (Generalised Anxiety Disorder Assessment (GAD-7)) in unadjusted regression analyses, repeated with exposures of interest separated by ethnicity to look for differences in magnitude of associations, and lived experience of mothers captured in open text questions. RESULTS: The number of women reporting clinically important depression/anxiety increased from 11% to 20% (95% CI 10%-13%; 18%-22%) and from 10% to 16% (95% CI 8%-11%; 15%-18%), respectively. Increases in depression/anxiety were associated with loneliness (OR=8.37, 95% CI 5.70 to 12.27; 8.50, 95% CI 5.71 to 12.65, respectively); financial (6.23, 95% CI 3.96 to 9.80; 6.03, 95% CI 3.82 to 9.51), food (3.33, 95% CI 2.09 to 5.28; 3.46, 95% CI 2.15 to 5.58) and housing insecurity (3.29, 95% CI 2.36 to 4.58; 3.0, 95% CI 2.11 to 4.25); a lack of physical activity (3.13, 95% CI 2.15 to 4.56; 2.55, 95% CI 1.72 to 3.78); and a poor partner relationship (3.6, 95% CI 2.44 to 5.43; 5.1, 95% CI 3.37 to 7.62). The magnitude of associations between key exposures and worsening mental health varied between ethnic groups.Responses to open text questions illustrated a complex interplay of challenges contributing to mental ill health including: acute health anxieties; the mental load of managing multiple responsibilities; loss of social support and coping strategies; pressures of financial and employment insecurity; and being unable to switch off from the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Mental ill health has worsened for many during the COVID-19 lockdown, particularly in those who are lonely and economically insecure. The magnitude of associations between key exposures and worsening mental health varied between ethnic groups. Mental health problems may have longer term consequences for public health and interventions that address the potential causes are needed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Mental , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Mães , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido
16.
Br J Nurs ; 31(1): 57, 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019742

RESUMO

Sam Foster, Chief Nurse, Oxford University Hospitals, considers the lessons from research into the trainee nurse associate role and the implications for workforce planning.


Assuntos
Medicina Estatal , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Reino Unido , Recursos Humanos
17.
Br J Nurs ; 31(1): 52-53, 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019743

RESUMO

John Tingle, Lecturer in Law, Birmingham Law School, University of Birmingham, looks forward to government deliberations and a report in 2022 on the reform of the clinical negligence compensation system.


Assuntos
Imperícia , Medicina Estatal , Governo , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente , Instituições Acadêmicas , Reino Unido
18.
Br J Nurs ; 31(1): 54-55, 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019746

RESUMO

Richard Griffith, Head of Health Law and Ethics in the School of Health and Social Care at Swansea University, looks at the law around negligence for disabilities in a child caused by a failure to warn of preconception risks.


Assuntos
Responsabilidade pela Informação , Imperícia , Criança , Família , Humanos , Reino Unido
19.
Soc Sci Med ; 292: 114637, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34902809

RESUMO

The economic impact of COVID-19 has exacerbated inequalities in society, but disability has been neglected. This paper contributes to this knowledge gap by providing a comprehensive analysis of the differential labour market impact of COVID-19 by disability in the UK. Using data from the Labour Force Survey before and during the pandemic it estimates disability gaps in pre-pandemic risk factors, as well as changes in labour market inequality nearly one year on. Disabled workers are found to face higher COVID-19-related economic and health risks, including being more likely to work in 'shutdown' industries, and in occupations with greater proximity to others and exposure to disease. However, established measures of inequality, including the disability employment and pay gap suggest limited impact of COVID-19 in 2020. Nevertheless, the increase in the probability of being temporarily away from work, even among otherwise comparable workers, is 40% higher for disabled workers and consistent with disproportionate use of the government's job retention scheme. While the reasons for this are likely to be complex, there is a risk that it will contribute to future disability-related labour market inequality.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pessoas com Deficiência , Humanos , Ocupações , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
20.
J Affect Disord ; 298(Pt A): 1-8, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744027

RESUMO

The negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the economy has raised concerns about negative coping behaviours to offset financial losses. We used a subset of a longitudinal study of UK adults (N = 19,963) to examine a range of predictors of (i) gambling during the first strict lockdown, (ii) gambling more frequently during this strict lockdown compared to before lockdown, and (iii) continued increased frequency of gambling during the relaxation of restrictions. Results from logistic regressions indicated that amongst other factors, those with progressively lower levels of education, were stressed due to boredom, frequently drank alcohol, and had high risk-taking tendencies were more likely to gamble during strict lockdown. Individuals who were more likely to have increased their frequency of gambling during strict lockdown compared to before the lockdown were stressed by boredom, employed, frequently drank alcohol, and had depression and anxiety, whilst men and current smokers were less likely. As lockdown restrictions eased, individuals of ethnic minority backgrounds, who were current smokers, and with lower educational attainment were more likely to continue gambling more than usual. Findings contribute to knowledge of who is most at risk for increasing their gambling during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Jogo de Azar , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Jogo de Azar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
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