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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126691, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315022

RESUMO

While it is well recognized that the frequency and intensity of flood events are increasing worldwide, the environmental, economic, and societal consequences of remobilization and distribution of pollutants during flood events are not widely recognized. Loss of life, damage to infrastructure, and monetary cleanup costs associated with floods are important direct effects. However, there is a lack of attention towards the indirect effects of pollutants that are remobilized and redistributed during such catastrophic flood events, particularly considering the known toxic effects of substances present in flood-prone areas. The global examination of floods caused by a range of extreme events (e.g., heavy rainfall, tsunamis, extra- and tropical storms) and subsequent distribution of sediment-bound pollutants are needed to improve interdisciplinary investigations. Such examinations will aid in the remediation and management action plans necessary to tackle issues of environmental pollution from flooding. River basin-wide and coastal lowland action plans need to balance the opposing goals of flood retention, catchment conservation, and economical use of water.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Inundações , Saúde Ambiental , Humanos , Rios
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126730, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388921

RESUMO

The widespread occurrence of antibiotics in aquatic ecosystems leads to potential ecological risks to organisms, in turn affecting microbially mediated processes. Here, we investigated the response of dominant N-reduction processes to the frequently detected antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) along the Chaobai River with regional environmental heterogeneity, including denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), and nitrous oxide (N2O) release. We found two divergent SMX response patterns for denitrification in contrasting scenarios of geochemical properties. In the context of low nitrate and carbon, SMX weakened denitrification with a slightly stimulation first. Whereas SMX directly inhibited denitrification when nitrate and carbon were sufficient. High SMX concentration suppressed anammox (26-72%) and DNRA activities (48-84%) via restraining the activities of anammox and DNRA bacteria. Notably, SMX increased the contribution of denitrification to N-reduction at the expense of DNRA to N-reduction, leading to a shift in nitrogen conversion towards denitrification. Additionally, SMX stimulated N2O emission (up to 91%) due to superior restraint on process of N2O reduction to N2 and an incline for N-reduction towards denitrification, thereby exacerbating greenhouse effect. Our results advance the understanding of how nitrogen cycling is affected by SMX in aquatic ecosystems with environmental heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Desnitrificação , Rios , Ecossistema , Óxido Nitroso , Sulfametoxazol
3.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126768, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365232

RESUMO

This study provides new knowledge on the mobility, behavior, and partitioning of 17 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the water-sediment-plant system along the Dongzhulong and Xiaoqing Rivers. The fate of PFASs in these rivers is also discussed. The study area is affected by the industrial production of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). The ∑PFASs in water and sediments close to the industrial discharge were 84,000 ± 2000 ng/L and 2300 ± 200 ng/g dw, respectively, with the concentrations decreasing along the river due to dilution. PFOA was the dominant compound (74-97% of the ∑PFASs), although other PFASs were identified close to urban areas. Principal component analysis and solid-liquid distribution coefficients revealed that long-chain PFASs accumulated in the sediment whereas short-chain PFASs remained in the water all along the river. PFASs were taken up by plants and remobilized to different plant compartments according to shoot concentration factors (SCFs), root concentration factors (RCF), and transfer factors (TFs). Among the four plant species studied, floating plants absorbed high levels of PFASs, while rooted species translocated short-chain PFASs from the roots to the shoots. Therefore, floating species, due to their high uptake capacity and large proliferation rate, could eventually be used for phytoremediation.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Rios , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126789, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365235

RESUMO

Microbial communities inhabiting soil-water-sediment continuum in coastal areas provide important ecosystem services. Their adaptation in response to environmental stressors, particularly mitigating the impact of pollutants discharged from human activities, has been considered for the development of microbial biomonitoring tools, but their use is still in the infancy. Here, chemical and molecular (16S rRNA gene metabarcoding) approaches were combined in order to determine the impact of pollutants on microbial assemblages inhabiting the aquatic network of a soil-water-sediment continuum around the Ichkeul Lake (Tunisia), an area highly impacted by human activities. Samples were collected within the soil-river-lake continuum at three stations in dry (summer) and wet (winter) seasons. The contaminant pressure index (PI), which integrates Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkanes, Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and metal contents, and the microbial pressure index microgAMBI, based on bacterial community structure, showed significant correlation with contamination level and differences between seasons. The comparison of prokaryotic communities further revealed specific assemblages for soil, river and lake sediments. Correlation analyses identified potential "specialist" genera for the different compartments, whose abundances were correlated with the pollutant type found. Additionally, PICRUSt analysis revealed the metabolic potential for pollutant transformation or degradation of the identified "specialist" species, providing information to estimate the recovery capacity of the ecosystem. Such findings offer the possibility to define a relevant set of microbial indicators for assessing the effects of human activities on aquatic ecosystems. Microbial indicators, including the detection of "specialist" and sensitive taxa, and their functional capacity, might be useful, in combination with integrative microbial indices, to constitute accurate biomonitoring tools for the management and restoration of complex coastal aquatic systems.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Biomarcadores , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Lagos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rios , Solo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113816, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571474

RESUMO

The Mongolian Plateau, home to the world's largest contiguous temperate grasslands, has been known for its vast steppe landscapes and legendary history of the Mongol Empire. However, like temperate grasslands elsewhere around the world, the Mongolian steppe landscapes have been severely degraded by increasing human activities during the past several decades. The main objective of this study was to assess the landscape and ecosystem changes in the Wulagai River Basin (WRB) in Inner Mongolia, where China's last intact steppe ecosystem reportedly resides. Using remote sensing data and landscape metrics, we found that, during 1979-2016, WRB lost about 55 % of wetlands, 76 % of shrublands, and 46 % of sandy-land vegetation, with its most dominant vegetation type shifting from meadow steppe to dry steppe for the first time in history. Human land uses continued to intensify: cropland expanded by about 40 %; impervious surface area increased by almost 34 times; and surface coal mining rampaged through the heartland, tearing up vegetation and sucking up water near and far. The WRB landscape became more diverse compositionally (increasing land cover types), more fragmented ecologically (habitat loss and isolation), and more complex geometrically (anthropogenic and natural landscape elements entangled). Damming, mining, and overgrazing were the major direct drivers for the observed environmental changes. Government-sponsored restoration programs have had positive ecological changes across China, but landscape destruction and fragmentation in the Wulagai River Basin have continued. This dire situation demands urgent government policy intervention and stakeholder-involved governance actions to promote the sustainability of this legendary landscape.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Atividades Humanas , Humanos , Mineração
6.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113839, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592663

RESUMO

The ecological compensation (EC) mechanism is an innovative institutional arrangement which can effectively realize the coordinated development of social-economic growth and ecological protection. The current research on the evaluation of the implementation effect of EC mechanism mainly focuses on its environmental performance, how the EC mechanism guides the economically underdeveloped areas in the upper reaches of the basin to embark on the road of high-quality economic development, especially the mechanism of how EC triggers the optimization and upgrading of industrial structure, it is a topic worthy of in-depth discussion. This study takes China's first cross-provincial horizontal EC mechanism pilot (Xin'an River Basin EC) as the research object and regards it as a quasi-natural experiment. This paper selects the annual panel data of the 11 cities involved from 2009 to 2019 and builds a DID model to study the mechanism of EC affecting industrial structure adjustment systematically. The results show that the EC mechanism mainly promotes the adjustment of the industrial structure in the pilot area through two paths, this is achieved by triggering the transfer of backward or highly polluting industries and promoting the upgrading of the industrial structure. At the same time, technological innovation plays a part intermediary role in the impact of EC to promote the upgrading of industrial structure. Further analysis found that the larger the funds of compensation input, the higher the assessment intensity, the better the effects are. Finally, this study puts forward relevant policy recommendations to further release the potential of the horizontal EC for the reference of decision-makers.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Indústrias , China , Cidades , Invenções , Rios
7.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113861, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601351

RESUMO

Air pollution is commonly disregarded as a source of nutrient loading to impaired surface waters managed under the Clean Water Act per states' 303(d) list programs. The contribution of air pollution to 2017-2018 South Platte River nitrogen (N) loads was estimated from the headwaters to the gage at Weldona, Colorado, USA (100 km downstream of Denver), using data from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) and the SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model. The NADP offers wet-deposition raster created by spatial interpolation of data collected from regionally representative monitoring sites, excluding the influences from urban site data. For this study, NADP wet-deposition data obtained from sites within the Denver-Boulder, Colorado, urban corridor were included and excluded in new spatial interpolations of wet-deposition raster, which were used as input for SPARROW to model the influence of urban air pollution sources on South Platte River loads. Because urban air pollution is already incorporated into the NADP Total Deposition modeling methodology, dry N deposition was held constant for each SPARROW modeling scenario when dry deposition was included. By including the urban wet-deposition data in the model, estimated N loading to the South Platte River at Denver increased by 9-11 percent. Factoring in dry deposition at a 1:1.8 dry:wet ratio obtained from the results, urban air pollution was estimated to contribute as much as 20 percent of the nitrate Total Maximum Daily Load for Segment 14 of the South Platte River.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitratos/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Rios
8.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113900, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638041

RESUMO

This paper introduces a new framework to evaluate the resilience of lakes under climatic and anthropogenic droughts. The proposed hierarchical structure of criteria for assessing lake's resilience has four levels. The first level includes several indices such as long-term resilience, reliability, and implementation cost. In the second to fourth levels, four main resilience-based criteria (i.e. robustness, resourcefulness, redundancy, and rapidity) and some qualitative and quantitative sub-criteria are defined considering the factors affecting the ecological condition of lakes. To quantify the time series of the sub-criteria, a coupled SWAT-MODSIM-based simulation model has been applied. Also, the values of criteria and sub-criteria have been aggregated using the Evidential Reasoning (ER) approach. After estimating the annual resilience time series, three resilience indices, namely the recovery time (Tr), loss of resilience (LOR), and final resilience (Resf), have been calculated. The normalized values of these indices and reliability criteria have been aggregated to evaluate the overall performance of lake restoration scenarios. To show the applicability of the proposed methodology, the Zarrinehrud river basin and Lake Urmia have been selected as the case study. As one of the largest hypersaline lakes globally, Lake Urmia suffers from drastic changes in its water body and a high level of salinization. Also, the Zarrinehrud river basin, located in the southeastern of Urmia Lake, is the most significant sub-basin of the lake and is responsible for supplying 41% of the total annual inflow of the lake. The restoration scenarios of Lake Urmia have been assessed from 2019 to 2049. Eventually, the most effective scenario, which has an average overall performance of 0.72, the implementation cost of 17.1 million dollars, and the uncertainty band of 0.05, has been selected.


Assuntos
Secas , Lagos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Rios , Incerteza
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149868, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481163

RESUMO

To investigate the mechanisms and potential risks of river eco-remediation, river water, sediment, and biofilms in remediation facilities were sampled from a 2-year full scale eco-remediation site in an urban river in southeastern China. The samples from both remediated and adjacent control areas were analyzed for chemical properties and functional microbial community structures. The eco-remediation significantly changed the community structures in the river and introduced much more diverse functional microorganisms in facility biofilms. Corresponding to effective reduction of organics and ammonium in river water, some labile-organics-degrading and ammonia-oxidizing gene families showed higher abundances in river water of remediated area than control area, and were obviously more abundant in facility biofilms than in river water and sediment. The eco-remediation facilities showed obvious absorption of N, P, and heavy metals (Mn, CrVI, Fe, Al, As, Co), contributing to nutrients and metals removal from river water. The eco-remediation also increased transparency and sedimentation of some heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn), which probably associated with colloids breakdown. Various metal-resistance microorganisms showed different abundances between facility biofilms and sediment, in accordance with relative metals. Most detected pathogens were not significantly affected by eco-remediation. However, our measurements in sediment and facilities showed heavy metals accumulation and development of some pathogens and several antibiotic-resistance pathogens, alerting us to investigate and control these potential risks to ecosystem and human health.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Microbiota , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149972, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482142

RESUMO

The present study assesses the spatial distribution and temporal trends of the water dissolved phase (WDP), suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediment partitioning of atrazine (ATR) and its metabolites in the Volturno River estuary. The load contribution of ATR and its metabolites in this river to the Central Mediterranean Sea was estimated. Samples were collected in 10 sampling sites during the four seasons. The total concentrations of ATR and DPs detected ranged from 18.1 to 105.5 ng L-1 in WDP, from 4.5 to 63.2 ng L-1 in SPM, and from 4.6 to 18.6 ng g-1 in sediment samples, indicating high levels of these pollutants. Structural equation model and the ratio study indicated that the relationship between sediment and WDP pollutants occurred through the SPM. The pollutants load at the Volturno River in its mouth was evaluated in about 30.4 kg year-1, showing that this river is an important source of these analytes through discharge into Central Mediterranean Sea. Principal component analysis indicated that ATR and its metabolites pollution moves from Volturno River mouth southward and increased in the rainy season. The desethylatrazine-to-atrazine ratio was higher than 0.5 for all samples analyzed, indicating an historical discharge and a long residence time of ATR in sediment about two decades after its ban, and classifying ATR as a nonpoint source contaminant. This study makes up the first record of ATR and its metabolites in superficial water of Southern Italy and provides helpful data as starting point for future studies.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Atrazina/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários , Sedimentos Geológicos , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149993, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482145

RESUMO

The ecological conservation and high-quality development of China's Yellow River Basin is a national strategy proposed in 2019. Under China's goal of achieving a carbon peak by 2030 and carbon neutrality by 2060, clarifying the carbon footprint of each province and the transfer paths of embodied carbon emissions is crucial to the carbon reduction strategy for this region. This paper uses input-output model and multi-regional input-output model to account for the carbon footprint of nine provinces in the Yellow River Basin, and to estimate the amount of embodied carbon transfer between provinces and industrial sectors. Social network analysis is applied to identify the critical industries in the inter-provincial embodied carbon emission transfers from the three major industries. We found that the per capita carbon footprint of the Yellow River Basin decreased by 23.4% in 2017 compared to 2012. Among the sectoral composition of the carbon footprint of each province, "Processing and manufacturing of petroleum, coking, nuclear fuel, and chemical products", "Construction", "Other services", and "Metal processing and metal, non-metallic products" are the four sectors with a higher proportion of emissions. The embodied carbon emission transfer between the provinces in middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River Basin is much higher than that between the upstream provinces. Among carbon emission transfer network of three major industries in nine provinces,the secondary industry in Shaanxi has the highest centrality and is the most critical industry. This study provides a theoretical basis and data support for formulating carbon emission reduction plans in the Yellow River Basin.


Assuntos
Carbono , Rios , Carbono/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Pegada de Carbono , China , Indústrias
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149982, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487908

RESUMO

Over recent decades, increasing chemical contamination has greatly affected aquatic life and human health, even though most contaminants are present at low concentrations. The large-scale chemical industrial parks (CIPs) concentrated in the Yangtze River Delta account for over half of the total in China, and Jiangsu Province occupies one fifth of the Yangtze River Delta. Inevitably, the ecosystems could be affected by these CIPs. In this study, we collected 35 water and 12 sediment samples from the Yangtze River (Taizhou section) surrounding waters adjacent to concentrated CIPs and determined their cumulative chemical levels to be 0.2 to 28.4 µg/L and cumulative detections to be 11 to 39 contaminants with a median of 20 contaminants. 61 out of 153 screened chemicals were detected from at least one sampling site, and 6 contaminants, mostly semi-volatile organic compounds, appeared at all sites. Among these detected chemicals, di-n-octyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate were at the highest levels. Ecological assessment revealed that 4-chloroaniline, phenol and dibutyl phthalate possibly would induce adverse effects on Yangtze River (Taizhou) ecosystems. Further aided with an evaluation of integrated biomarker response (IBR) index, it was found that site W06 (downstream of Binjiang CIP wastewater inlet) was the location in greatest need of urgent action. As a result, the microbial diversity of sediments in the Yangtze River mainstream was significantly higher than that of tributaries, where CIPs wastewater entered.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Ecossistema , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149805, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492494

RESUMO

Accurate, high spatial and temporal resolution water quality monitoring in inland waters is vital for environmental management. However, water quality monitoring in inland waters by satellite remote sensing remains challenging due to low signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and instrumental resolution limitations. We propose the concept of proximal remote sensing for monitoring water quality. The proximal hyperspectral imager, developed by Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and Hikvision Digital Technology, Ltd., is a high spatial, temporal and spectral resolution (1 nm) sensor for continuous observation, allowing for effective and practical long-term monitoring of inland water quality. In this study, machine learning and empirical algorithms were developed and validated using in situ total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations and spectral reflectance from Lake Taihu (N = 171), the Liangxi River (N = 94) and the Fuchunjiang Reservoir (N = 109) covering different water quality. Our dataset includes a large range for three key water quality parameters of TN from 0.93 to 6.46 mg/L, TP from 0.04 to 0.62 mg/L, and COD from 1.32 to 15.41 mg/L. Overall, the back-propagation (BP) neural network model had an accuracy of over 80% for TN (R2 = 0.84, RMSE = 0.33 mg/L, and MRE = 11.4%) and over 90% for TP (R2 = 0.93, RMSE = 0.02 mg/L, and MRE = 12.4%) and COD (R2 = 0.91, RMSE = 0.66 mg/L, and MRE = 9.3%). Our results show that proximal remote sensing combined with machine learning algorithms has great potential for monitoring water quality in inland waters.


Assuntos
Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Qualidade da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Lagos , Rios
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149828, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500272

RESUMO

Transboundary river basins across developing countries, such as the Lower Mekong River Basin (LMB), are challenging to manage given frequent divergences on development and conservation priorities. Driven by needs to sustain economic performance and reduce poverty, the LMB countries are embarking on significant land use changes in the form of more hydropower dams, to satisfy growing energy demands. This pathway could lead to irreversible changes to the ecosystem of the Mekong River, if not properly managed. Given the uncertain environmental externalities and trade-offs associated with further hydropower development and operation in the LMB, this research develops four plausible scenarios of future hydropower operation, and assesses their likely impact on streamflow and instream total suspended solids and nitrate loads of the Mekong River. The findings suggest that further hydropower operations on either tributary or mainstream could result in annual and wet season flow reduction between 11 and 25% while increase dry season flows by 1 to 15%, when compared to a business-as-usual scenario. Conversely, hydropower operation on both tributary and mainstream could result in dry season flow reduction between 10 and 15%. Both instream TSS and nitrate loads are forecasted to reduce under all three scenarios by as much as 78 and 20%, respectively, compared to the business-as-usual one. These effects are predicted to magnify under extreme climate conditions with dry season flow, TSS, and nitrate levels reduced by as much as 44, 81 and 35%, respectively, during a projected extreme dry climate condition, but less severe under improved operational alternatives. With further hydropower development in the LMB being highly unavoidable, these findings can inform effective transboundary management pathways for balancing electricity generation and protection of riverine ecology, water and food security, and people livelihoods.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , Clima , Mudança Climática , Humanos , Nitratos
15.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113814, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601349

RESUMO

Ecosystem service flows are a research topic of significant interest, and exploring this topic may mitigate the shortcomings related to the spatial mismatches between supply and demand in the current ecosystem services studies. The Pearl River Delta (PRD) experiences a serious spatial mismatch in ecosystem services in particular the food supply, between the supply areas (hilly areas) and demand areas (central areas). Therefore, this study focused on the PRD as a case study to analyze change trends of food supply-demand ratio (FSDR) at city level, and depict the spatial flow path within and between cities from the perspective of ecosystem service flow with different threshold distance, using an enhanced two-step floating catchment area accessibility method. The results showed that the food demand significantly exceeded the supply, the budget was 3.58 million tons and FSDR was 0.49 in 2015. There were large discrepancies in the FSDR at the city level before and after when considering the ecosystem service flows. The FSDR of cities in the central areas increased 0.1%-30%, due to the ecosystem service flow from the low hilly areas. As delivery distances increased, the size of food flow decreased within cities and increased among cities. This led to a significant decline in the population living in severe undersupplied areas (FSDR<0.1) and oversupplied areas (FSDR>1), and an increase in undersupplied areas (0.1<FSDR<0.9). Our findings indicate that local governments would benefit from enhancing connections between supply and demand areas to meet the food demand of big cities. This study offers a comprehensive and realistic understanding of the physical situation of ecosystem service consumption by human beings, and provides decision-making information for optimize land use allocation.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Abastecimento de Alimentos , China , Cidades , Rios
16.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113884, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607140

RESUMO

Allocation of water over its six dimensions of quantity, quality, timing, location, price, and cost remains an ongoing challenge facing water resource planning worldwide. This challenge is magnified with growing evidence of climate change and related water supply stressors. This stress will challenge food, energy, and water systems as climate adaptation policy measures see continued debate. Despite numerous achievements made many by previous works, few attempts have scanned the literature on economic optimization analysis for water resources planning to discover affordable climate adaptation measures. This paper aims to fill that gap by reviewing the literature on water resource optimization analysis at the basin scale to guide discovery of affordable climate adaptation measures. It does so by posing the question "What principles, practices, and recent developments are available to guide discovery of policy measures to improve water resource system adaptions to growing evidence of climate water stress?" It describes past achievements and identifies improvements needed for optimization analysis to inform policy debates for crafting plans to improve climate resilience. It describes an economic conceptual framework as well as identifying data needs for conducting economic optimization exercises to support river basin planning faced by the challenge of managing the six water dimensions described above. It presents an example from an ongoing issue facing water planners in the Middle East. Conclusions find considerable utility in the use of economic optimization exercises to guide climate water stressadaptation. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Recursos Hídricos , Abastecimento de Água , Rios
17.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113776, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619587

RESUMO

Agricultural landscapes are the leading edge in the advancement of sustainability and climate change adaptation. The purpose of this study is to endogenize culture as shaped by natural-cultural feedback into individuals' decision-making processes on sustainability policy support. We present an agent-based model in which an adaptive cultural decision-rule quantifies the probability of an agent deciding to support a wildlife area policy for the Smoky Hill River Watershed (SHRW) in Kansas, USA. By using an ABM to examine the watershed as a coupled natural and human system, we learned that agents would adopt a new behavior, voting for the policy, if the cultural conditions were right, with high levels of beliefs and norms for freshwater and its biota. Our results indicate that individuals in the SHRW are not engaged in caring for fish, plants, and bird richness in their rivers and playas with few individuals supporting the policy in the naïve cultural setting (8.9 % of simulated population). However, enough agents would support the policy under a lower cultural threshold (40.7 % of simulated population). Our results show that sustainability policies need to account for the local culture to gain support, and if a policy is culturally meaningful, it does not need to be cheap. For an agricultural landscape, such as those commonly found in the Central Great Plains, this study presents new levers for policymakers on the conditions needed to help assemble popular support for sustainability policies.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Animais , Água Doce , Humanos , Políticas , Rios
18.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131624, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315070

RESUMO

Quantitative characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in various aquatic ecosystems has become of increasing importance as its transformation plays a key role in inland water carbon, yet few studies have quantified water DOM inputs to storage lakes for water quality control and safety assurance. This study assessed the quantity and quality of DOM in 21 inflow rivers of Nansi Lake as the important storage lake of large-scale water transfer projects by using excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The results showed that DOM contents varied significantly with an average value of 5.8 mg L-1 in different inflow rivers, and three fluorescence substances (including UVC humic-like, UVA humic-like and tyrosine-like components) were identified by EEM-PARAFAC. The distribution of the DOM components was distinctively different among sampling sites, and UVA humic-like component mainly dominated in Nansi Lake. Meanwhile, DOM components with higher aromaticity and molecular weight were found in the west side of lake. Fluorescence spectral indexes manifested that the source of DOM was mainly from allochthonous or terrestrial input. Moreover, significant correlations between water quality and DOM characteristics were observed in Nansi Lake. These findings would be beneficial to understand the biogeochemical role and impact of DOM in inflowing rivers in the water-quality monitoring and control of storage lakes.


Assuntos
Lagos , Qualidade da Água , Ecossistema , Análise Fatorial , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Lagos/análise , Controle de Qualidade , Rios , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
19.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131667, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325256

RESUMO

Excessive application of pesticides to control pests and weeds leads to contaminating bodies of water and health problems for consumers. The present study was designed to investigate the concentration of pesticides in raw water originated from the Marun River as well as the treated water of the drinking water treatment plant in Behbahan City. The efficiency of each treatment process was evaluated. Moreover, the health risks caused by detectable pesticides for consumers of treated water were assessed. The target pollutants were extracted using droplet liquid-liquid microextraction and detected by a gas chromatograph-mass spectrophotometer. The results showed relatively high mean concentrations of organophosphate pesticides ranging from 0.87 to 3.229 µg/L in the river water and low concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, except for 1,3-dichloropropene with the concentration of 3.58 µg/L. Alachlor had a rather high concentration (2.44 µg/L) in the river water. The concentration of pesticides in the drinking water had been reduced to an acceptable amount. The major part of pesticides removal occurred in coagulation-flocculation and rapid sand filtration units (87 %) due to the hydrophobic nature of pesticides and the use of GAC in the filtration unit. Based on the risk assessment estimates, the total hazard quotient (THQ) for all the pesticides was much less than one. The value of THQ was higher in younger individuals and children for all the given pesticides. The highest value of THQ in children was 0.2 which was attributed to aldrin. Similarly, the carcinogenic risk (CR) of aldrin for children and teenagers was in the unsafe range (more than 10-4) while the CR for other target compounds in all the age groups was negligible (10-4-10-6 or less). The high concentration of pesticides in the river water might be concerning and therefore selling and using pesticides, especially the banned ones, should be more regulated.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adolescente , Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Método de Monte Carlo , Praguicidas/análise , Medição de Risco , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
20.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131668, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346346

RESUMO

Bacterial degradation is unequivocally considered as an important way for the cleanup of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) in the aquatic environment. However, the diversity and distribution of PAH-degrading bacterial communities and PAH degradation-related genes (PAHDGs) in ambient environment need to be investigated. In this study, bacteria in the water of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) were initially separated as the particle-attached bacteria (PAB) and free-living bacteria (FLB), and were further characterized using metagenomic approaches. Proteobacteria (80.1 %) was identified as the most abundant PAH-degrading phylum in the PRE water, followed by Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. A substantial difference in the community structure was observed between PAH-degrading PAB and FLB. Both of PAH-degrading bacteria and PAHDGs were enriched on the suspended particulate matters (SPMs), with the range of enrichment factor (EF) from 7.84 × 104 to 6.64 × 106 (PAH-degrading bacteria) and from 1.14 × 103 to 1.76 × 105 (PAHDGs). The levels of PAH-degrading bacteria 16 S rRNA genes and PAHDGs on the SPMs were both significantly correlated with those in the aqueous phase (AP) in the PRE water (p < 0.05), indicating a dynamic distribution of PAH-degrading bacteria between these two phases. The total PAH concentrations on the SPMs of the PRE water were also significantly correlated with the total PAHDG levels in the PAB (p < 0.05). Our results suggested that the SPMs could be the important compartment for the elimination of PAHs from the aquatic environment.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Bactérias/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Estuários , Sedimentos Geológicos , Material Particulado , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Rios
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