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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(2): e202310064, abr. 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1537219

RESUMO

Introducción. El sobrepeso y la obesidad infantil constituyen un problema de salud pública. El inicio de la pandemia por COVID-19 pudo haber favorecido esta patología. El puntaje Z del índice de masa corporal (Z-IMC) es un indicador aceptado para su diagnóstico y seguimiento. Objetivo. Evaluar si la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad, y el Z-IMC en niños de 2 a 5 años aumentó durante la pandemia. Población y métodos. Estudio de cohorte retrospectiva. Se incluyeron pacientes asistidos en efectores públicos de salud del Gobierno de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (GCABA), de 2 a 5 años de edad, con registro de peso y talla en dos consultas, antes y después de haber comenzado el aislamiento social preventivo y obligatorio (ASPO). Se registró estado nutricional (Z-IMC) y variación del Z-IMC entre ambas consultas. Resultados. Se evaluaron 3866 sujetos, edad promedio 3,4 ± 0,8 años; el 48,1 % fueron mujeres. El intervalo promedio entre consultas fue 14,3 ± 2,5 meses. La prevalencia de sobrepeso/obesidad aumentó del 12,6 % (IC95% 11,6-13,6) al 20,9 % (IC95% 19,6-22-2); p <0,001, al igual que el Z-IMC (0,4 ± 1,1 vs. 0,8 ± 1,3; p <0,001). Conclusión. La prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad, y el Z-IMC en niños de 2 a 5 años aumentó significativamente durante la pandemia.


Introduction. Childhood overweight and obesity are a public health problem. The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic may have contributed to this condition. The body mass index (BMI) Z-score has been accepted as an indicator for overweight and obesity diagnosis and follow-up. Objective. To assess whether the prevalence of overweight and obesity and the BMI Z-score in children aged 2 to 5 years increased during the pandemic. Population and methods. Retrospective, cohort study. Patients included were those seen at public health care facilities in the City of Buenos Aires (CABA), who were aged 2 to 5 years, had weight and height values recorded at 2 different visits, before and after the establishment of the preventive and mandatory social isolation policy. Patients' nutritional status (BMI Z-score) and the variation in this indicator between both visits were recorded. Results. A total of 3866 subjects were assessed; their average age was 3.4 ± 0.8 years; 48.1% were girls. The average interval between both visits was 14.3 ± 2.5 months. The prevalence of overweight/ obesity increased from 12.6% (95% CI: 11.6­13.6) to 20.9% (95% CI: 19.6­22.2), p < 0.001, and so did the BMI Z-score (0.4 ± 1.1 versus 0.8 ± 1.3, p < 0.001). Conclusion. The prevalence of overweight and obesity and the BMI Z-score in children aged 2 to 5 years increased significantly during the pandemic.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos de Coortes , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Phys Chem B ; 128(14): 3340-3349, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564480

RESUMO

The emergence of the variant of concern Omicron (B.1.1.529) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) exacerbates the COVID-19 pandemic due to its high contagious ability. Studies have shown that the Omicron binds human ACE2 more strongly than the wild type. The prevalence of Omicron in new cases of COVID-19 promotes novel lineages with improved receptor binding affinity and immune evasion. To shed light on this open problem, in this work, we investigated the binding free energy of the receptor binding domain of the Omicron lineages BA.2, BA.2.3.20, BA.3, BA4/BA5, BA.2.75, BA.2.75.2, BA.4.6, XBB.1, XBB.1.5, BJ.1, BN.1, BQ.1.1, and CH.1.1 to human ACE2 using all-atom molecular dynamics simulation and the molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area method. The results show that these lineages have increased binding affinity compared to the BA.1 lineage, and BA.2.75 and BA.2.75.2 subvariants bind ACE2 more strongly than others. However, in general, the binding affinities of the Omicron lineages do not differ significantly from each other. The electrostatic force dominates over the van der Waals force in the interaction between Omicron lineages and human cells. Based on our results, we argue that viral evolution does not further improve the affinity of SARS-CoV-2 for ACE2 but may increase immune evasion.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Pandemias
4.
Comput Biol Med ; 173: 108264, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564853

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is an enveloped RNA virus that causes severe respiratory illness in humans and animals. It infects cells by binding the Spike protein to the host's angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The bat is considered the natural host of the virus, and zoonotic transmission is a significant risk and can happen when humans come into close contact with infected animals. Therefore, understanding the interconnection between human, animal, and environmental health is important to prevent and control future coronavirus outbreaks. This work aimed to systematically review the literature to identify characteristics that make mammals suitable virus transmitters and raise the main computational methods used to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 in mammals. Based on this review, it was possible to identify the main factors related to transmissions mentioned in the literature, such as the expression of ACE2 and proximity to humans, in addition to identifying the computational methods used for its study, such as Machine Learning, Molecular Modeling, Computational Simulation, between others. The findings of the work contribute to the prevention and control of future outbreaks, provide information on transmission factors, and highlight the importance of advanced computational methods in the study of infectious diseases that allow a deeper understanding of transmission patterns and can help in the development of more effective control and intervention strategies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Receptores Virais/química , Ligação Proteica , Mamíferos/metabolismo
5.
Tunis Med ; 102(2): 78-82, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567472

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The overcrowding of intensive care units during the corona virus pandemic increased the number of patients managed in the emergency department (ED). The detection timely of the predictive factors of mortality and bad outcomes improve the triage of those patients. AIM: To define the predictive factors of mortality at 30 days among patients admitted on ED for covid-19 pneumonia. METHODS: This was a prospective, monocentric, observational study for 6 months. Patients over the age of 16 years admitted on the ED for hypoxemic pneumonia due to confirmed SARS-COV 2 infection by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) were included. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to investigate the predictive factors of mortality at 30 days. RESULTS: 463 patients were included. Mean age was 65±14 years, Sex-ratio=1.1. Main comorbidities were hypertension (49%) and diabetes (38%). Mortality rate was 33%. Patients who died were older (70±13 vs. 61±14;p<0.001), and had more comorbidities: hypertension (57% vs. 43%, p=0.018), chronic heart failure (8% vs. 3%, p=0.017), and coronary artery disease (12% vs. 6%, p=0.030). By multivariable analysis, factors independently associated with 30-day mortality were age ≥65 years aOR: 6.9, 95%CI 1.09-44.01;p=0.04) SpO2<80% (aOR: 26.6, 95%CI 3.5-197.53;p=0.001) and percentage of lung changes on CT scan>70% (aOR: 5.6% 95%CI .01-31.29;p=0.04). CONCLUSION: Mortality rate was high among patients admitted in the ED for covid-19 pneumonia. The identification of predictive factors of mortality would allow better patient management.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hipertensão , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(4): e244386, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573638

RESUMO

Importance: Many patients with post-COVID condition (PCC) experience persistent fatigue, muscle pain, and cognitive problems that worsen after exertion (referred to as postexertional malaise). Recommendations currently advise against exercise in this population to prevent symptom worsening; however, prolonged inactivity is associated with risk of long-term health deterioration. Objective: To assess postexertional symptoms in patients with PCC after exercise compared with control participants and to comprehensively investigate the physiologic mechanisms underlying PCC. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this randomized crossover clinical trial, nonhospitalized patients without concomitant diseases and with persistent (≥3 months) symptoms, including postexertional malaise, after SARS-CoV-2 infection were recruited in Sweden from September 2022 to July 2023. Age- and sex-matched control participants were also recruited. Interventions: After comprehensive physiologic characterization, participants completed 3 exercise trials (high-intensity interval training [HIIT], moderate-intensity continuous training [MICT], and strength training [ST]) in a randomized order. Symptoms were reported at baseline, immediately after exercise, and 48 hours after exercise. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was between-group differences in changes in fatigue symptoms from baseline to 48 hours after exercise, assessed via the visual analog scale (VAS). Questionnaires, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, inflammatory markers, and physiologic characterization provided information on the physiologic function of patients with PCC. Results: Thirty-one patients with PCC (mean [SD] age, 46.6 [10.0] years; 24 [77%] women) and 31 healthy control participants (mean [SD] age, 47.3 [8.9] years; 23 [74%] women) were included. Patients with PCC reported more symptoms than controls at all time points. However, there was no difference between the groups in the worsening of fatigue in response to the different exercises (mean [SD] VAS ranks for HIIT: PCC, 29.3 [19.5]; controls, 28.7 [11.4]; P = .08; MICT: PCC, 31.2 [17.0]; controls, 24.6 [11.7]; P = .09; ST: PCC, 31.0 [19.7]; controls, 28.1 [12.2]; P = .49). Patients with PCC had greater exacerbation of muscle pain after HIIT (mean [SD] VAS ranks, 33.4 [17.7] vs 25.0 [11.3]; P = .04) and reported more concentration difficulties after MICT (mean [SD] VAS ranks, 33.0 [17.1] vs 23.3 [10.6]; P = .03) compared with controls. At baseline, patients with PCC showed preserved lung and heart function but had a 21% lower peak volume of oxygen consumption (mean difference: -6.8 mL/kg/min; 95% CI, -10.7 to -2.9 mL/kg/min; P < .001) and less isometric knee extension muscle strength (mean difference: -37 Nm; 95% CI, -67 to -7 Nm; P = .02) compared with controls. Patients with PCC spent 43% less time on moderate to vigorous physical activity (mean difference, -26.5 minutes/d; 95% CI, -42.0 to -11.1 minutes/d; P = .001). Of note, 4 patients with PCC (13%) had postural orthostatic tachycardia, and 18 of 29 (62%) showed signs of myopathy as determined by neurophysiologic testing. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, nonhospitalized patients with PCC generally tolerated exercise with preserved cardiovascular function but showed lower aerobic capacity and less muscle strength than the control group. They also showed signs of postural orthostatic tachycardia and myopathy. The findings suggest cautious exercise adoption could be recommended to prevent further skeletal muscle deconditioning and health impairment in patients with PCC. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT05445830.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fadiga/etiologia , Mialgia/etiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Taquicardia , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over
7.
Comput Biol Med ; 173: 108344, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574531

RESUMO

Mobile Health (mHealth) services typically make use of customized software architectures, leading to development-dependent fragmentation. Nevertheless, irrespective of their specific purpose, most mHealth services share common functionalities, where standard pieces could be reused or adapted to expedite service deployment and even extend the follow-up of appearing conditions under the same service. To harness compatibility and reuse, this article presents a data fusion architecture proposing a common design framework for mHealth services. An exhaustive mapping of mHealth functionalities identified in the literature serves as starting point. The architecture is then conceptualized making use of the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) data fusion model. The aim of the architecture is to exploit the multi-source data acquisition capabilities supported by smartphones and Internet of Things devices, and artificial intelligence-enabled feature fusion. A series of interconnected fusion layers ensure streamlined data management; each layer is composed of microservices which may be implemented or omitted depending on the specific goals of the healthcare service. Moreover, the architecture considers essential features related to authentication mechanisms, data sharing protocols, practitioner-patient communication, context-based notifications and tailored visualization interfaces. The effectiveness of the architecture is underscored by its instantiation for four real cases, encompassing risk assessment for youth with mental health issues, remote monitoring for SARS-CoV-2 patients, liquid intake control for kidney disease patients, and peritoneal dialysis treatment support. This breadth of applications exemplifies how the architecture can effectively serve as a guidance framework to accelerate the design of mHealth services.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Telemedicina , Adolescente , Humanos , Inteligência Artificial , Telemedicina/métodos , Serviços de Saúde , Smartphone , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Support Care Cancer ; 32(4): 271, 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581472

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In this work, we aimed to describe the strategy of the weekly SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR surveillance program that was implemented in our bone marrow transplantation (BMT) unit. METHODS: Our unit performed SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR before admission and then weekly during hospitalization even if the patient was asymptomatic. From May 2021 to May 2022, we collected data from all patients that were admitted in the BMT unit to perform transplantation. The total of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR performed and the positive rate were described. RESULTS: During the study period, 65 patients were admitted for HSCT. A total of 414 SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR were performed. Two cases were detected (positivity rate, 0.48%). After the positive test, both patients were isolated outside the BMT unit. CONCLUSION: We postulate that diagnosing these patients and isolating them outside the transplantation unit may have prevented secondary symptomatic cases.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Brasil/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Hospitais de Ensino
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(15): e37714, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38608113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a dramatic impact on global health, with orthopedics among the most affected specialties. An increasing number of COVID-19-related orthopedic studies have been published. The purpose of this study was to analyze the orthopedic literature published during the COVID-19 pandemic to guide future research. METHODS: The Scopus database was searched for relevant literature published between 2020 and 2022. The keywords used in the retrieval process were ("COVID-19" OR "Coronavirus" OR "2019-nCoV" OR "SARS-CoV-2" OR "Betacoronavirus" OR "novel coronavirus 2019" OR "novel coronavirus" OR "coronavirus-19" OR "COVID 19" OR "nCOV" OR "COVID-2019" OR "COVID 2019") and ("orthopedic" OR "orthopedics" OR "orthopedic" OR "orthopedical" OR "orthopedical" OR "orthopedics"). Spreadsheet software (Excel, Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) was used to analyze the top 10 cited authors, countries, journals, and articles. The top 5 publication types were also analyzed. VOSviewer (Center for Science and Technology Studies, Leiden, Netherlands) was used to network and visualize the literature. RESULTS: A total of 1619 publications relevant to COVID-19 and orthopedics were reviewed. Among these publications, the most active country, author, and publication type included the United States, Vaishya R, and original articles, respectively. The most frequently used keywords were human, coronavirus disease-2019, pandemic, and orthopedics. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery American Volume was the most cited journal, whereas the greatest number of articles was published in the Journal of Clinical Orthopedics and Trauma. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a perspective on the development of orthopedic publications during the COVID-19 pandemic and evidence for researchers worldwide to strengthen global cooperation in fighting the epidemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Ortopedia , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Bibliometria
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8620, 2024 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616188

RESUMO

Scientists and researchers have been searching for drugs targeting the main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2, which is crucial for virus replication. This study employed a virtual screening based on molecular docking to identify benzoylguanidines from an in-house chemical library that can inhibit Mpro on the active site and three allosteric sites. Molecular docking was performed on the LaSMMed Chemical Library using 88 benzoylguanidine compounds. Based on their RMSD values and conserved pose, three potential inhibitors (BZG1, BZG2, and BZG3) were selected. These results indicate that BZG1 and BZG3 may bind to the active site, while BZG2 may bind to allosteric sites. Molecular dynamics data suggest that BZG2 selectively targets allosteric site 3. In vitro tests were performed to measure the proteolytic activity of rMpro. The tests showed that BZG2 has uncompetitive inhibitory activity, with an IC50 value of 77 µM. These findings suggest that benzoylguanidines possess potential as Mpro inhibitors and pave the way towards combating SARS-Cov-2 effectively.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Guanidina , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Guanidinas/farmacologia , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas
11.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 22(1): 32, 2024 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term information on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and mental health of non-hospitalized individuals with "post COVID-19 syndrome" (PCS) is scarce. Thus, the objectives of the present study were to compare HRQOL and mental health of individuals with and without PCS in a German sample of non-hospitalized persons after SARS-CoV-2 infection, to characterize the long-term course up to 2 years and to identify predictors for post COVID-19 impairments. METHODS: Individuals with past SARS-CoV-2 infection were examined at the University Hospital of Augsburg from November 2020 to May 2021 and completed a postal questionnaire between June and November 2022. Participants who self-reported the presence of fatigue, dyspnea on exertion, memory problems or concentration problems were classified as having PCS. HRQOL was assessed using the Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey, mental health was measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Fatigue Asessment Scale was used to assess fatigue severity. Multivariable linear regression models with inverse probability weighting were used to determine the association between PCS and health outcomes. RESULTS: From the 304 participants (58.2% women, median age 52 years), 210 (69.1%) were classified as having PCS in median 26 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Persons with PCS showed significantly more often depressive and anxiety disorders. PCS was independently and significantly associated with higher levels of depression, post-traumatic stress and fatigue, as well as poorer physical and mental HRQOL in median 9 months as well as 26 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection. A large number of acute symptoms and a prior diagnosis of depression were independently associated with poor mental health and HRQOL. While post-traumatic stress and mental HRQOL improved from 9 months to 26 months post infection onset, depressiveness, fatigue and physical HRQOL remained stable in both, persons with and without PCS. CONCLUSIONS: PCS in non-hospitalized persons after SARS-CoV-2 infection is often associated with long-term impairments of mental health and HRQOL outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Mental , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Síndrome Pós-COVID-19 Aguda , Qualidade de Vida , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Fadiga/etiologia
12.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 149(9): e48-e57, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621680

RESUMO

After acute infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, up to 10 % of affected individuals suffer from long-term health impairments, also referred to as "Post-COVID". In Germany, specialized outpatient clinics have been established to care for patients with Post-COVID. A structured survey of the care situation is not yet available, but essential for a demand-oriented care. The present study aimed to systematically assess and describe structural and process-related aspects of care, and to perform an inventory and needs analysis of Post-COVID outpatient clinics in Germany.An online survey was developed assessing the structure and organization of the outpatient clinics, service offerings and networking of care from the perspective of the outpatient clinic directors. A total of 95 outpatient clinics were identified, and an invitation to participate in the online survey was sent via e-mail to the directors of the outpatient clinics. Data were collected between February and May 2022. Descriptive data analysis was performed.A total of 28 outpatient clinic managers (29 %) took part in the survey. Participants were between 32 and 66 years old, and 61 % (n = 17) were male. The outpatient clinics were most frequently affiliated with the specialties of pneumology (n = 10; 36 %), internal medicine, psychiatric and psychosomatic medicine, and neurology (n = 8; 29 %, respectively). Among the outpatient clinic directors, 64 % (n = 18) stated that the time spent waiting for an appointment was more than one month. Utilization (n = 25; 89 %), appointment demand (n = 26; 93 %), and the need for more Post-COVID outpatient clinics (n = 20; 71 %) were rated as high by the outpatient clinic directors. Nearly all directors reported networking with in-clinic facilities (n = 27; 96 %), with primary care physicians and with specialists in private practice (n = 21; 75 %, respectively).The main focus of care is pneumology. Internal medicine, psychiatry/psychosomatics and neurology are also equally represented. Our data further suggest a high demand for Post-COVID outpatient clinics and the need to expand this care offer.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , SARS-CoV-2 , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Medicina Interna
13.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 254, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection is described as asymptomatic, mild, or moderate disease in most children. SARS-CoV-2 infection related death in children and adolescents is rare according to the current reports. COVID-19 cases increased significantly in China during the omicron surge, clinical data regarding pediatric critical patients infected with the omicron variant is limited. In this study, we aim to provide an overview of the clinical characteristics and outcomes of critically ill children admitted to a national children's medical center in Guangdong Province, China, during the outbreak of the omicron variant infection. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study from November 25, 2022, to February 8, 2023, which included 63 critically ill children, under the age of 18, diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The patients were referred from medical institutions of Guangdong province. The medical records of these patients were analyzed and summarized. RESULTS: The median age of patients was 2 years (Interquartile Range, IQR: 1.0-8.0), sex-ratio (male/female) was 1.52. 12 (19%) patients (age ≥ 3 years) were vaccinated. The median length of hospital stay was 14 days (IQR: 6.5-23) in 63 cases, and duration of fever was 5 days (IQR: 3-8.5), pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) stay was 8 days (IQR 4.0-14.0) in 57 cases. 30 (48%) cases had clear contact history with family members who were infected with SARS-CoV-2. Three children who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection did not show any abnormalities on chest imaging examination. Out of the total patients, 33 (52%) had a bacterial co-infection, with Staphylococcus aureus being the most commonly detected bacterial pathogen. Our cohort exhibited respiratory and nervous system involvement as the primary features. Furthermore, fifty (79%) patients required mechanical ventilation, with a median duration of 7 days (IQR 3.75-13.0). Among these patients, 35 (56%) developed respiratory failure, 16 (25%) patients experienced a deteriorating progression of symptoms and ultimately succumbed to the illness, septic shock was the most common condition among these patients (15 cases), followed by multiple organ failure in 12 cases, and encephalopathy identified in 7 cases. CONCLUSION: We present a case series of critically ill children infected with the SARS-CoV-2 omicron variant. While there is evidence suggesting that Omicron may cause less severe symptoms, it is important to continue striving for measures that can minimize the pathogenic impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Estado Terminal , Estudos Retrospectivos , China/epidemiologia
14.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 20(1): 2337984, 2024 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622888

RESUMO

Infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence has been studied worldwide. At Juntendo University Hospital (JUH) in Tokyo, Japan, we have consistently conducted serological studies using the blood residue of healthcare workers (HCWs) at annual health examinations since 2020. In this 2023 study (n = 3,594), N-specific seroprevalence (infection-induced) was examined while univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to compute ORs of seroprevalence with respect to basic characteristics of participants. We found that the N-specific seroprevalence in 2023 was 54.1%-a jump from 17.7% in 2022, and 1.6% in 2021-with 37.9% as non-PCR-confirmed asymptomatic infection cases. Those younger than 50 (adjusted OR = 1.62; p < .001) and recipients with 4 doses or less of vaccine had a higher risk to be N-positive, ranging from 1.45 times higher for the participants with 4 doses (p < .001) to 4.31 times higher for the participants with 1 dose (p < .001), compared to those with 5 or more doses. Our findings indicate that robust vaccination programs may have helped alleviate symptoms but consequently caused asymptomatic spread in this hospital, especially among younger HCWs. Although having four doses or less was found to be associated with higher risk of infection, the optimal constitution and intervals for effective booster vaccines warrant further investigations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Hospitais Universitários , Pessoal de Saúde , Anticorpos Antivirais
15.
J Korean Med Sci ; 39(14): e128, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The advent of the omicron variant and the formulation of diverse therapeutic strategies marked a new epoch in the realm of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Studies have compared the clinical outcomes between COVID-19 and seasonal influenza, but such studies were conducted during the early stages of the pandemic when effective treatment strategies had not yet been developed, which limits the generalizability of the findings. Therefore, an updated evaluation of the comparative analysis of clinical outcomes between COVID-19 and seasonal influenza is requisite. METHODS: This study used data from the severe acute respiratory infection surveillance system of South Korea. We extracted data for influenza patients who were infected between 2018 and 2019 and COVID-19 patients who were infected in 2021 (pre-omicron period) and 2022 (omicron period). Comparisons of outcomes were conducted among the pre-omicron, omicron, and influenza cohorts utilizing propensity score matching. The adjusted covariates in the propensity score matching included age, sex, smoking, and comorbidities. RESULTS: The study incorporated 1,227 patients in the pre-omicron cohort, 1,948 patients in the omicron cohort, and 920 patients in the influenza cohort. Following propensity score matching, 491 patients were included in each respective group. Clinical presentations exhibited similarities between the pre-omicron and omicron cohorts; however, COVID-19 patients demonstrated a higher prevalence of dyspnea and pulmonary infiltrates compared to their influenza counterparts. Both COVID-19 groups exhibited higher in-hospital mortality and longer hospital length of stay than the influenza group. The omicron group showed no significant improvement in clinical outcomes compared to the pre-omicron group. CONCLUSION: The omicron group did not demonstrate better clinical outcomes than the pre-omicron group, and exhibited significant disease severity compared to the influenza group. Considering the likely persistence of COVID-19 infections, it is imperative to sustain comprehensive studies and ongoing policy support for the virus to enhance the prognosis for individuals affected by COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Estações do Ano , SARS-CoV-2 , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
16.
J Korean Med Sci ; 39(14): e134, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622939

RESUMO

The global research and pharmaceutical community rapidly mobilized to develop treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Existing treatments have been repurposed and new drugs have emerged. Here we summarize mechanisms and clinical trials of COVID-19 therapeutics approved or in development. Two reviewers, working independently, reviewed published data for approved COVID-19 vaccines and drugs, as well as developmental pipelines, using databases from the following organizations: United States Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA), European Medicines Agency (EMA), Japanese Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA), and ClinicalTrials.gov. In all, 387 drugs were found for initial review. After removing unrelated trials and drugs, 66 drugs were selected, including 17 approved drugs and 49 drugs under development. These drugs were classified into six categories: 1) drugs targeting the viral life cycle 2) Anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Monoclonal Antibodies, 3) immunomodulators, 4) anti-coagulants, 5) COVID-19-induced neuropathy drugs, and 6) other therapeutics. Among the 49 drugs under development are the following: 6 drugs targeting the viral life cycle, 12 immunosuppression drugs, 2 immunostimulants, 2 HIF-PHD targeting drugs, 3 GM-CSF targeting drugs, 5 anti-coagulants, 2 COVID-19-induced neuropathy drugs, and 17 others. This review provides insight into mechanisms of action, properties, and indications for COVID-19 medications.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estados Unidos , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Antivirais , Preparações Farmacêuticas
17.
J Korean Med Sci ; 39(14): e137, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622941

RESUMO

Our study analyzed 95 solid organ transplant (SOT) and 78 hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients with prior coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Patients who underwent transplantation within 30 days of COVID-19 infection comprised the early group, and those who underwent transplantation post-30 days of COVID-19 infection comprised the delayed group. In the early transplantation group, no patient, whether undergoing SOT and HSCT, experienced COVID-19-associated complications. In the delayed transplantation group, one patient each from SOT and HSCT experienced COVID-19-associated complications. Additionally, among early SOT and HSCT recipients, two and six patients underwent transplantation within seven days of COVID-19 diagnosis, respectively. However, no significant differences were observed in the clinical outcomes of these patients compared to those in other patients. Early transplantation following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection can be performed without increased risk of COVID-19-associated complications. Therefore, transplantation needs not be delayed by COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transplante de Órgãos , Humanos , Teste para COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplantados
19.
Clin Lab ; 70(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38623658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying clinical characteristics and risk factors, comorbid conditions, and complications arising from SARS-CoV-2 infection is important to predict the progression to more severe forms of the disease among hospitalized individuals to enable timely intervention and to prevent fatal outcomes. The aim of the study is to assess the possible role of the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as a biomarker of the risk of death in patients with comorbidities hospitalized with COVID-19 in a tertiary hospital in southern Brazil. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study on patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to a hospital in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre from September 2020 to March 2022. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 185 patients with associated comorbidities, namely, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and renal diseases, hospitalized with COVID-19. Of these, 78 died and 107 were discharged alive. The mean age was 66.5 years for the group that died and 60.1 years for the group discharged. Statistical analysis revealed that a difference greater than or equal to 1.55 in the NLR, from hospitalization to the 5th day, was associated with a relative risk of death greater than 2. CONCLUSIONS: Measuring a simple inflammatory marker such as NLR may improve the risk stratification of comorbid patients with COVID-19 and can be considered a useful biomarker.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Neutrófilos , Estudos Prospectivos , Linfócitos , Biomarcadores , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Clin Lab ; 70(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38623676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Upon the emergence of the Eris variant in our country, we aimed to develop an RT-qPCR kit to detect the SARS-CoV-2 Eris variant. METHODS: By studying the genome sequences uploaded to GISAID, target regions were designed by focusing on the mutation regions of EG.5 and EG.5.1, which are the main lineage of the Eris variant. When developing the kit, the hydrolysis probe-based detection (e.g., TaqMan®) method was chosen. Target sequences specific to the SARS-CoV-2 EG.5 variant were then specifically amplified, with amplification monitored in real time using fluorescent labeled probes. In the study, 470 samples were used, 109 of which were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, from various Hospitals. RESULTS: Of the 109 samples that were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, 67 (61%) were also detected positive for Eris variant RNA. CONCLUSIONS: It was determined that the developed kit detected the Eris variant and the rate was 61%.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Patologia Molecular , RNA Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Corantes Fluorescentes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Teste para COVID-19
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