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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e258325, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374684

RESUMO

Ivermectin is a safe and effective drug in humans and has been approved for use in numerous parasitic infections for over 50 years. In addition, many studies have already shown its antiviral activity. Ivermectin is generally well tolerated, with no indication of central nervous system-associated toxicity at doses up to 10 times the highest FDA-approved dose of 200 µg/kg. The in vitro results of ivermectin for reducing SARS-CoV-2 viral load are promising and show that Ivermectin kills SARS-CoV-2 within 48 hours. A hypothesized mechanism of action for this drug is a likely inhibition of IMPα/ß1-mediated nuclear import of viral proteins as demonstrated for other RNA viruses. However, controlled and randomized studies are needed to prove its effectiveness in COVID-19 in humans. In a single in vivo study with published results, patients confirmed to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 received at least one dose of ivermectin at any time during hospitalization. The use of ivermectin was associated with lower mortality during treatment with COVID-19, especially in patients who required increased inspired oxygen or ventilatory support. Additionally, 81 studies with the clinical use of ivermectin in humans are being carried out worldwide according to ClinicalTrials.gov. However, none of these data has been published so far. However, private and public entities in Brazil have been adopting this drug in their protocols as prophylaxis and in the initial phase of the disease. In addition, ivermectin has been used in mass treatment to prevent onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in sub-Saharan Africa for many years. Surprisingly, this region has the lowest proportional mortality rate among the continents, despite the increasing numbers of infected people released by the World Health Organization.


A ivermectina é um fármaco seguro e eficaz em seres humanos e é aprovado para uso em inúmeras infecções parasitárias há mais de 50 anos. Além disso, muitos estudos já evidenciaram sua atividade antiviral. A ivermectina é geralmente bem tolerada, sem indicação de toxicidade associada ao sistema nervoso central para doses até 10 vezes a dose mais alta, aprovada pelo FDA (Food and Drug Administration), de 200 µg/kg. Os resultados in vitro da ivermectina para redução da carga viral do SARS-CoV-2 são promissores e mostram que a Ivermectina mata o SARS-CoV-2 dentro de 48 horas. Uma hipótese de mecanismo de ação para esta droga é uma provável inibição da importação nuclear de proteínas virais mediada por IMPα / ß1 como demonstrado para outros vírus de RNA. No entanto, estudos controlados e randomizados são necessários para comprovar sua eficácia na COVID-19 em humanos. Em um único estudo in vivo com resultados publicados, pacientes confirmadamente infectados por SARS-CoV-2 receberam pelo menos uma dose de ivermectina em qualquer momento durante a hospitalização. A utilização da ivermectina foi associada a menor mortalidade durante o tratamento com COVID-19, especialmente em pacientes que necessitaram de maior oxigênio inspirado ou suporte ventilatório. Adicionalmente, 81 estudos com o uso clínico da ivermectina em humanos estão sendo realizados em todo o mundo segundo o site ClinicalTrials.gov. Porém, nenhum destes teve seus dados publicados até o momento. No entanto, entidades privadas e públicas no Brasil vêm adotando este medicamento em seus protocolos como profilaxia e na fase inicial da doença. Além disto, a ivermectina é utilizada no tratamento em massa na prevenção da oncocercose e filariose linfática na África subsaariana há muitos anos. Surpreendentemente, esta região possui o menor índice de mortalidade proporcional entre os continentes, apesar dos números crescentes de contaminados divulgados pela Organização Mundial da Saúde.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Ivermectina , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250667, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374641

RESUMO

Nigella sativa is known for the safety profile, containing a wealth of useful antiviral compounds. The main protease (Mpro, 3CLpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is being considered as one of the most attractive viral target, processing the polyproteins during viral pathogenesis and replication. In the current investigation we analyzed the potency of active component, thymoquinone (TQ) of Nigella sativa against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. The structures of TQ and Mpro was retrieved from PubChem (CID10281) and Protein Data Bank (PDB ID 6MO3) respectively. The Mpro and TQ were docked and the complex was subjected to molecular dynamic (MD) simulations for a period 50ns. Protein folding effect was analyzed using radius of gyration (Rg) while stability and flexibility was measured, using root means square deviations (RMSD) and root means square fluctuation (RMSF) respectively. The simulation results shows that TQ is exhibiting good binding activity against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, interacting many residues, present in the active site (His41, Cys145) and also the Glu166, facilitating the pocket shape. Further, experimental approaches are needed to validate the role of TQ against virus infection. The TQ is interfering with pocket maintaining residues as well as active site of virus Mpro which may be used as a potential inhibitor against SARS-CoV-2 for better management of COVID-19.


Nigella sativa é conhecida pelo perfil de segurança, contendo uma grande variedade de compostos antivirais úteis. A principal protease (Mpro, 3CLpro) da síndrome respiratória aguda grave 2 (SARS-CoV-2) está sendo considerada como um dos alvos virais mais atraentes, processando as poliproteínas durante a patogênese e replicação viral. Na presente investigação analisamos a potência do componente ativo, timoquinona (TQ) de Nigella sativa contra SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. As estruturas de TQ e Mpro foram recuperadas de PubChem (CID10281) e Protein Data Bank (PDB ID 6MO3), respectivamente. O Mpro e o TQ foram acoplados e o complexo foi submetido a simulações de dinâmica molecular (MD) por um período de 50ns. O efeito de dobramento de proteínas foi analisado usando o raio de giração (Rg) enquanto a estabilidade e a flexibilidade foram medidas usando a raiz quadrada média dos desvios (RMSD) e a raiz média quadrada da flutuação (RMSF), respectivamente. Os resultados da simulação mostram que o TQ está exibindo boa atividade de ligação contra o SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, interagindo em muitos resíduos presentes no sítio ativo (His41, Cys145) e também o Glu166, facilitando o formato da bolsa. Além disso, são necessárias abordagens experimentais para validar o papel do TQ contra a infecção pelo vírus. O TQ está interferindo nos resíduos de manutenção do bolso, bem como no sítio ativo do vírus Mpro, que pode ser usado como um potencial inibidor contra o SARS-CoV-2 para um melhor gerenciamento da Covid-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Nigella sativa , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 220: 114930, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36434843

RESUMO

Nanoscale plasmonic hotspots play a critical role in the enhancement of molecular Raman signals, enabling the sensitive and reliable trace analysis of biomedical molecules via surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). However, effective and label-free SERS diagnoses in practical fields remain challenging because of clinical samples' random adsorption and size mismatch with the nanoscale hotspots. Herein, we suggest a novel SERS strategy for interior hotspots templated with protein@Au core-shell nanostructures prepared via electrochemical one-pot Au deposition. The cytochrome c and lysates of SARS-CoV-2 (SLs) embedded in the interior hotspots were successfully functionalized to confine the electric fields and generate their optical fingerprint signals, respectively. Highly linear quantitative sensitivity was observed with the limit-of-detection value of 10-1 PFU/mL. The feasibility of detecting the targets in a bodily fluidic environment was also confirmed using the proposed templates with SLs in human saliva and nasopharyngeal swabs. These interior hotspots templated with the target analytes are highly desirable for early and on-site SERS diagnoses of infectious diseases without any labeling processes.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , COVID-19 , Viroses , Humanos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2 , Análise Espectral Raman
4.
Phytomedicine ; 108: 154514, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A wave of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant rapidly resulted in a steep increase in the infected population and an overloaded healthcare system. Effective medications for Omicron are currently limited. The previous observational study supports the efficacy and safety of Reyanning (RYN) mixture in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of RYN in asymptomatic and mildly infected patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was a prospective, open-label, randomized controlled trial. We consecutively recruited 2830 patients from Shanghai New International Expo Center mobile cabin hospital and randomized them in a 1:1 ratio to receive RYN plus standard care or receive standard care alone. The primary outcomes were the negative conversion of nucleic acid. Secondary outcomes included the hospital duration, new-onset symptoms, proportion of disease progression, and the viral load measured by the cycle threshold (Ct) value. RESULTS: A total of 1393 patients in the intervention group and 1407 patients in the control group completed the study. The negative conversion time of nucleic acid was significantly shortened in the intervention group (median: 6 d vs. 7 d, Hazard ratio: 0.768, 95CI %: 0.713-0.828, p < 0.0001). The negative conversion rate of nucleic acid was significantly higher in the intervention group (Day 3: 32.4% vs. 18.3%; Day7: 65.3% vs. 55.2%, p < 0.001). The hospitalization duration was significantly shortened in the intervention group (median: 8 d vs. 9 d, Hazard ratio: 0.759, 95% CI: 0.704-0.818, p < 0.0001). The proportion of new-onset fever (2.4% vs. 4.1%, p = 0.012), coughing (12.2% vs. 14.8%, p = 0.046), and expectoration (6.0% vs. 8.0%, p = 0.032) in the intervention group was significantly lower. RYN treatment increased Ct values and reduced the viral load. No disease progression and serious adverse events were reported during the study. CONCLUSION: RYN is a safe and effective treatment that can accelerate virus clearance and promote disease recovery in asymptomatic and mild Omicron infections.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ácidos Nucleicos , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos , China , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36396447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Some disease-modifying treatments impair response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines in multiple sclerosis (MS), potentially increasing the risk of breakthrough infections. We aimed to investigate longitudinal SARS-CoV-2 antibody dynamics and memory B cells after 2 and 3 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine doses and their association with the risk of COVID-19 in patients with MS on different treatments over 1 year. METHODS: Prospective observational cohort study in patients with MS undergoing SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccinations. Antispike (anti-S) immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers were measured by chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay. Frequencies of spike-specific memory B cells were measured on polyclonal stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and screening of secreted antibodies by ELISA. RESULTS: We recruited 120 patients with MS (58 on anti-CD20 antibodies, 9 on sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulators, 15 on cladribine, 24 on teriflunomide (TFL), and 14 untreated) and collected 392 samples up to 10.8 months after 2 vaccine doses. When compared with untreated patients, anti-CD20 antibodies (ß = -2.07, p < 0.001) and S1P modulators (ß = -2.02, p < 0.001) were associated with lower anti-S IgG, while TFL and cladribine were not. Anti-S IgG decreased with months since vaccine (ß = -0.14, p < 0.001), independently of treatments. Within anti-CD20 patients, anti-S IgG remained higher in those with greater baseline B-cell counts and were not influenced by postvaccine anti-CD20 infusions. Anti-S IgG increase after a 3rd vaccine was mild on anti-CD20 and S1P modulators. Spike-specific memory B-cell responses were weaker on S1P modulators and anti-CD20 than on TFL and influenced by postvaccine anti-CD20 infusions. The frequency of breakthrough infections was comparable between DMTs, but the risk of COVID-19 was predicted by the last measured anti-S IgG titer before infection (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.37-0.86, p = 0.008). DISCUSSION: Postvaccine anti-S IgG titers decrease over time regardless of MS treatment and are associated with breakthrough COVID-19. Both humoral and specific memory B-cell responses are diminished on S1P modulators. Within anti-CD20-treated patients, B-cell count at first vaccine determines anti-S IgG production, whereas postvaccine anti-CD20 infusions negatively affect spike-specific memory B cells.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Esclerose Múltipla , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Imunoglobulina G , Cladribina , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Estudos Prospectivos , Antígenos CD20 , RNA Mensageiro
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36411077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Acute inflammatory CNS diseases include neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD). Both MOGAD and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) have been reported after vaccination. Consequently, the mass SARS-CoV-2 vaccination program could result in increased rates of these conditions. We described the features of patients presenting with new acute CNS demyelination resembling NMOSDs or MOGAD within 8 weeks of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. METHODS: The study included a prospective case series of patients referred to highly specialized NMOSD services in the UK from the introduction of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination program up to May 2022. Twenty-five patients presented with new optic neuritis (ON) and/or transverse myelitis (TM) ± other CNS inflammation within 8 weeks of vaccination with either AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1S) or Pfizer (BNT162b2) vaccines. Their clinical records and paraclinical investigations including MRI scans were reviewed. Serologic testing for antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and aquaporin 4 (AQP4) was performed using live cell-based assays. Patients' outcomes were graded good, moderate, or poor based on the last clinical assessment. RESULTS: Of 25 patients identified (median age 38 years, 14 female), 12 (48%) had MOG antibodies (MOGIgG+), 2 (8%) had aquaporin 4 antibodies (AQP4IgG+), and 11 (44%) had neither. Twelve of 14 (86%) antibody-positive patients received the ChAdOx1S vaccine. MOGIgG+ patients presented most commonly with TM (10/12, 83%), frequently in combination with ADEM-like brain/brainstem lesions (6/12, 50%). Transverse myelitis was longitudinally extensive in 7 of the 10 patients. A peak in new MOGAD cases in Spring 2021 was attributable to postvaccine cases. Both AQP4IgG+ patients presented with brain lesions and TM. Four of 6 (67%) seronegative ChAdOx1S recipients experienced longitudinally extensive TM (LETM) compared with 1 of 5 (20%) of the BNT162b2 group, and facial nerve inflammation was reported only in ChAdOx1S recipients (2/5, 40%). Guillain-Barre syndrome was confirmed in 1 seronegative ChAdOx1S recipient and suspected in another. DISCUSSION: ChAdOx1S was associated with 12/14 antibody-positive cases, the majority MOGAD. MOGAD patients presented atypically, only 2 with isolated ON (1 after BNT162b2 vaccine) but with frequent ADEM-like brain lesions and LETM. Within the seronegative group, phenotypic differences were observed between ChAdOx1S and BNT162b2 recipients. These observations might support a causative role of the ChAdOx1S vaccine in inflammatory CNS disease and particularly MOGAD. Further study of this cohort could provide insights into vaccine-associated immunopathology.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada , Mielite Transversa , Neuromielite Óptica , Neurite Óptica , Feminino , Humanos , Glicoproteína Mielina-Oligodendrócito , Aquaporina 4 , Mielite Transversa/etiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacina BNT162 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Sistema Nervoso Central , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/etiologia , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Inflamação
7.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 44(1): 103669, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283164

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The present study assessed the prevalence of audio-vestibular symptoms following SARS-COV-2 infection or COVID-19 vaccination among children, comparing the two groups. A further aim was to evaluate whether children with pre-existing unilateral hearing loss were more prone to adverse events. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included children aged 5-11 years with normal hearing or a proven history of unilateral hearing loss who contracted SARS-CoV-2 or received two doses of COVID-19 vaccine. Tinnitus, hyperacusis, aural fullness, otalgia, otorrhea, new-onset hearing loss, vertigo and dizziness were investigated as possible complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection or the COVID-19 vaccine. RESULTS: This study included 272 children (143 boys, 129 girls), with a mean age of 7.8 ± 2.3 years. Among these, 120 were affected by pre-existing unilateral hearing loss. The most common audio-vestibular symptoms reported by children following SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 vaccination were aural fullness (33/132, 25 %) and dizziness (5/140, 3.6 %), respectively. All symptoms following COVID-19 vaccination resolved within 24 h. Compared to children who received the COVID-19 vaccine, those infected with SARS-CoV-2 had a higher prevalence of tinnitus (p = 0.009), hyperacusis (p = 0.003), aural fullness (p < 0.001), otalgia (p < 0.001), otorrhea (p < 0.001), and vertigo (p = 0.006). Two girls also experienced new-onset unilateral sensorineural hearing loss following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Children with a known history of unilateral hearing loss did not have a higher prevalence of audio-vestibular symptoms than children with normal hearing. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the COVID-19 vaccine is safe and can be recommended for children with unilateral hearing loss without fear of possible audio-vestibular sequelae.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Perda Auditiva Unilateral , Zumbido , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Tontura/epidemiologia , Tontura/etiologia , Hiperacusia , Dor de Orelha , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vertigem
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 858(Pt 2): 159797, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334678

RESUMO

Waste management is a key feature to ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns, and to combat the impacts of climate change. In this scenario, the production of biochar from different biomasses results in environmental and economic advantages. In this study, biochar was produced from sugarcane bagasse pyrolysis, to immobilize biomolecules, in order to assemble an electrochemical immunosensor to detect antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. For this, screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCE) were modified with a dispersion of biochar and used to immobilize the receptor-binding-domain (RBD) against virus S-protein, through EDC/NHS crosslinking reaction. Under the best set of experimental conditions, negative and positive serum samples responses distinguished based on a cutoff value of 82.3 %, at a 95 % confidence level. The immunosensor showed selective behavior to antibodies against yellow fever and its performance was stable up to 7 days of storage. Therefore, biochar yielded from sugarcane bagasse is an ecofriendly material that can be used as a platform to immobilize biomolecules for construction of electrochemical biosensors.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , COVID-19 , Saccharum , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , SARS-CoV-2 , Celulose , Imunoensaio/métodos , Eletrodos , Anticorpos
9.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 3): 114655, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36341800

RESUMO

The largest burden of COVID-19 is carried by the elderly, and persons living in nursing homes are particularly vulnerable. However, 94% of the global population is younger than 70 years and 86% is younger than 60 years. The objective of this study was to accurately estimate the infection fatality rate (IFR) of COVID-19 among non-elderly people in the absence of vaccination or prior infection. In systematic searches in SeroTracker and PubMed (protocol: https://osf.io/xvupr), we identified 40 eligible national seroprevalence studies covering 38 countries with pre-vaccination seroprevalence data. For 29 countries (24 high-income, 5 others), publicly available age-stratified COVID-19 death data and age-stratified seroprevalence information were available and were included in the primary analysis. The IFRs had a median of 0.034% (interquartile range (IQR) 0.013-0.056%) for the 0-59 years old population, and 0.095% (IQR 0.036-0.119%) for the 0-69 years old. The median IFR was 0.0003% at 0-19 years, 0.002% at 20-29 years, 0.011% at 30-39 years, 0.035% at 40-49 years, 0.123% at 50-59 years, and 0.506% at 60-69 years. IFR increases approximately 4 times every 10 years. Including data from another 9 countries with imputed age distribution of COVID-19 deaths yielded median IFR of 0.025-0.032% for 0-59 years and 0.063-0.082% for 0-69 years. Meta-regression analyses also suggested global IFR of 0.03% and 0.07%, respectively in these age groups. The current analysis suggests a much lower pre-vaccination IFR in non-elderly populations than previously suggested. Large differences did exist between countries and may reflect differences in comorbidities and other factors. These estimates provide a baseline from which to fathom further IFR declines with the widespread use of vaccination, prior infections, and evolution of new variants.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Comorbidade , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Vacinação
10.
Semin Nucl Med ; 53(1): 125-134, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36150910

RESUMO

Immune system is emerging as a crucial protagonist in a huge variety of oncologic and non-oncologic conditions including response to vaccines and viral infections (such as SARS-CoV-2). The increasing knowledge of molecular biology underlying these diseases allowed the identification of specific targets and the possibility to use tailored therapies against them. Immunotherapies and vaccines are, indeed, more and more used nowadays for treating infections, cancer and autoimmune diseases and, therefore, there is the need to identify, quantify and monitor immune cell trafficking before and after treatment. This approach will provide crucial information for therapy decision-making. Imaging of B and T-lymphocytes trafficking by using tailored radiopharmaceuticals proved to be a successful nuclear medicine tool. In this review, we will provide an overview of the state of art and future trends for "in vivo" imaging of lymphocyte trafficking and homing by mean of specific receptor-tailored radiopharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfócitos , Imagem Molecular
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 858(Pt 2): 159161, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191696

RESUMO

The presence of SARS-CoV-2 in untreated sewage has been confirmed in many countries but its incidence and infection risk in contaminated waters is poorly understood. The River Thames in the UK receives untreated sewage from 57 Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs), with many discharging dozens of times per year. This study investigated if such discharges provide a pathway for environmental transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Samples of wastewater, surface water, and sediment collected close to six CSOs on the River Thames were assayed over eight months for SARS-CoV-2 RNA and infectious virus. Bivalves were also sampled as an indicator species of viral bioaccumulation. Sediment and water samples from the Danube and Sava rivers in Serbia, where raw sewage is also discharged in high volumes, were assayed as a positive control. No evidence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA or infectious virus was found in UK samples, in contrast to RNA positive samples from Serbia. Furthermore, this study shows that infectious SARS-CoV-2 inoculum is stable in Thames water and sediment for <3 days, while SARS-CoV-2 RNA is detectable for at least seven days. This indicates that dilution of wastewater likely limits environmental transmission, and that detection of viral RNA alone is not an indication of pathogen spillover.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Esgotos , Humanos , Águas Residuárias , SARS-CoV-2 , RNA Viral , Monitoramento Ambiental , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Água
12.
Eur J Haematol ; 110(1): 67-76, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36193973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The SARS-COV-2 (Covid-19) pandemic has impacted the management of patients with hematologic disorders. In some entities, an increased risk for Covid-19 infections was reported, whereas others including chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) had a lower mortality. We have analyzed the prevalence of Covid-19 infections in patients with mastocytosis during the Covid-19 pandemic in comparison to data from CML patients and the general Austrian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The prevalence of infections and PCR-proven Covid-19 infections was analyzed in 92 patients with mastocytosis. As controls, we used 113 patients with CML and the expected prevalence of Covid-19 in the general Austrian population. RESULTS: In 25% of the patients with mastocytosis (23/92) signs and symptoms of infection, including fever (n = 11), dry cough (n = 10), sore throat (n = 12), pneumonia (n = 1), and dyspnea (n = 3) were recorded. Two (8.7%) of these symptomatic patients had a PCR-proven Covid-19 infection. Thus, the prevalence of Covid-19 infections in mastocytosis was 2.2%. The number of comorbidities, subtype of mastocytosis, regular exercise, smoking habits, age, or duration of disease at the time of interview did not differ significantly between patients with and without Covid-19 infections. In the CML cohort, 23.9% (27/113) of patients reported signs and symptoms of infection (fever, n = 8; dry cough, n = 17; sore throat, n = 11; dyspnea, n = 5). Six (22.2%) of the symptomatic patients had a PCR-proven Covid-19 infection. The prevalence of Covid-19 in all CML patients was 5.3%. The observed number of Covid-19 infections neither in mastocytosis nor in CML patients differed significantly from the expected number of Covid-19 infections in the Austrian population. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show no significant difference in the prevalence of Covid-19 infections among patients with mastocytosis, CML, and the general Austrian population and thus, in mastocytosis, the risk of a Covid-19 infection was not increased compared to the general population.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva , Leucemia Mieloide , Mastocitose , Faringite , Humanos , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Incidência , Tosse , Áustria/epidemiologia , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/complicações , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/epidemiologia , Febre , Dispneia
13.
Eur J Haematol ; 110(1): 99-108, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36208015

RESUMO

We assessed the humoral and cellular response to the fourth BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine dose in patients with CLL. A total of 67 patients with CLL and 85 age matched controls tested for serologic response and pseudo-neutralization assay. We also tested the functional T-cell response by interferon gamma (IFNγ) to spike protein in 26 patients. Two weeks after the fourth vaccine antibody serologic response was evident in 37 (55.2%) patients with CLL, 20 /22 (91%) of treatment naïve, and 9/32 (28%) patients with ongoing therapy, compared with 100% serologic response in age matched controls. The antibody titer increased by 10-fold in patients with CLL, however, still 88-folds lower than age matched controls. Predictors of better chances of post fourth vaccination serologic response were previous positive serologies after second, third, and pre-fourth vaccination, neutralizing assay, and treatment naïve patients. T-cell response improved from 42.3% before the fourth vaccine to 84.6% 2 weeks afterwards. During the time period of 3 months after the fourth vaccination, 14 patients (21%) developed COVID-19 infection, all recovered uneventfully. Our data demonstrate that fourth SARS-CoV-2 vaccination improves serologic response in patients with CLL to a lesser extent than healthy controls and induces functional T-cell response.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B , Humanos , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , RNA Mensageiro , Vacina BNT162 , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/terapia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Antivirais
14.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) ; 62(1): 8-16, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35801262

RESUMO

We aimed to study the disparity in the clinical profile and outcomes of hospitalized Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) patients at our center. The second goal was to examine the temporal association with preceding SARS-CoV-2 infection by race/ethnicity in our community in Mississippi. We found the racial disparity in the prevalence of MIS-C exceeded its temporal association with SARS-CoV-2 infections. We included 51 consecutive MIS-C patients hospitalized, whose median age was 9 (interquartile range [IQR] 5-12) years, 58% were male, 71% were black, 25% were white, and 4% belonged to other groups. We found a delay between onset of symptoms and hospitalization in black patients compared with white patients with a median of 2 (IQR 0-7) vs median of 0 (0-5) urgent care visits (P = .022), respectively. Black patients were hospitalized longer (median 8, IQR 2-39 days) than whites (median 5, IQR 3-14 days), P = .047. A total of 38.9% of blacks and 23.1% of whites were admitted to intensive care unit (P = .498); 36.1% of blacks had severe cardiac involvement vs 23.1% of white patients, P = .531. Future studies of MIS-C are required to improve health equity for children.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Etnicidade , Mississippi/epidemiologia
15.
Cell Signal ; 101: 110495, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252792

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has been the focus of research the past two years. The major breakthrough was made by discovering pathways related to SARS-CoV-2 infection through cellular interaction by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2) and cytokine storm. The presence of ACE2 in lungs, intestines, cardiovascular tissues, brain, kidneys, liver, and eyes shows that SARS-CoV-2 may have targeted these organs to further activate intracellular signalling pathways that lead to cytokine release syndrome. It has also been reported that SARS-CoV-2 can hijack coatomer protein-I (COPI) for S protein retrograde trafficking to the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC), which, in turn, acts as the assembly site for viral progeny. In infected cells, the newly synthesized S protein in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is transported first to the Golgi body, and then from the Golgi body to the ERGIC compartment resulting in the formation of specific a motif at the C-terminal end. This review summarizes major events of SARS-CoV-2 infection route, immune response following host-cell infection as an important factor for disease outcome, as well as comorbidity issues of various tissues and organs arising due to COVID-19. Investigations on alterations of host-cell machinery and viral interactions with multiple intracellular signaling pathways could represent a major factor in more effective disease management.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Comorbidade
16.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 220: 114861, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347077

RESUMO

We propose a label-free biosensor based on a porous silicon resonant microcavity and localized surface plasmon resonance. The biosensor detects SARS-CoV-2 antigen based on engineered trimeric angiotensin converting enzyme-2 binding protein, which is conserved across different variants. Robotic arms run the detection process including sample loading, incubation, sensor surface rinsing, and optical measurements using a portable spectrometer. Both the biosensor and the optical measurement system are readily scalable to accommodate testing a wide range of sample numbers. The limit of detection is 100 TCID50/ml. The detection time is 5 min, and the throughput of one single robotic site is up to 384 specimens in 30 min. The measurement interface requires little training, has standard operation, and therefore is suitable for widespread use in rapid and onsite COVID-19 screening or surveillance.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , COVID-19 , Dispositivos Ópticos , Humanos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2 , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície
17.
J Intern Med ; 293(1): 63-81, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35996938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The durability of SARS-CoV-2 antibody response and the resulting immunity to COVID-19 is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To investigate long-term humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: In this nationwide, longitudinal study, we determined antibody response in 411 patients aged 0-93 years from two waves of infections (March to December 2020) contributing 1063 blood samples. Each individual had blood drawn on 4-5 occasions 1-15 months after disease onset. We measured total anti-SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibody using a qualitative RBD sandwich ELISA, IgM, IgG and IgA levels using an quantitative in-house ELISA-based assay  and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) using an in-house ELISA-based pseudoneutralizing assay. IgG subclasses were analyzed in a subset of samples by ELISA-based assay. We used nonlinear models to study the durability of SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses and its influence over time. RESULTS: After 15 months, 94% still had detectable circulating antibodies, mainly the IgG isotype, and 92% had detectable NAbs. The distribution of IgG antibodies varied significantly over time, characterized by a biphasic pattern with an initial decline followed by a plateau after approximately 7 months. However, the NAbs remained relatively stable throughout the period. The strength of the antibody response was influenced by smoking and hospitalization, with lower IgG levels in smokers and higher levels in hospitalized individuals. Antibody stability over time was mainly associated with male sex and older age with higher initial levels but more marked decrease. CONCLUSIONS: The humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection varies depending on behavioral factors and disease severity, and antibody stability over 15 months was associated with sex and age.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Longitudinais , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Imunoglobulina G , Dinamarca , Imunidade
18.
J Intern Med ; 293(1): 82-90, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36000469

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and recovery of olfactory dysfunction (OD) in COVID-19 patients 24 months after the infection. METHODS: From 22 March 2020 to 5 June 2022, 251 COVID-19 patients were followed in three European medical centres. Olfactory function was assessed with subjective patient-reported outcome questionnaires and odour identification tests at baseline, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months postinfection. The predictive values of epidemiological and clinical data were investigated with multivariate analysis. RESULTS: One hundred and seventy-one patients completed the evaluations. The odour identification test revealed that 123 patients (50.8%) had OD at baseline. The prevalence of persistent psychophysical abnormalities at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months post-COVID-19 was 24.2%, 17.9%, 5.8% and 2.9%, respectively (p = 0.001). Parosmia occurred in 40 patients (23.4%) and lasted 60 ± 119 days. At 2 years, 51 patients (29.8%) self reported that their olfaction was unnormalised. Older patients had better odour identification evaluations at baseline (p < 0.001) but those with OD reported lower odour identification test scores at the end of the follow-up. Parosmia occurred more frequently in young patients. The olfactory training was significantly associated with higher values of Sniffin' Sticks tests at 18 months postinfection (rs = 0.678; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Two years post-COVID-19, 29.8% of patients reported persistent OD, but only 2.9% had abnormal identification psychophysical evaluations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos do Olfato , Humanos , Olfato , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Prevalência , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia
19.
J Cardiol ; 81(1): 105-110, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of obesity on the development of thrombosis and severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear. METHOD: The CLOT-COVID study was a retrospective multicenter cohort study enrolling 2894 consecutive hospitalized patients with COVID-19 between April 2021 and September 2021 among 16 centers in Japan. The present study consisted of 2690 patients aged over 18 years with available body mass index (BMI), who were divided into an obesity group (BMI ≥30) (N = 457) and a non-obesity group (BMI <30) (N = 2233). RESULTS: The obesity group showed more severe status of COVID-19 at admission compared with the non-obesity group. The incidence of thrombosis was not significantly different between the groups (obesity group: 2.6 % versus non-obesity group: 1.9 %, p = 0.39), while the incidence of a composite outcome of all-cause death, or requirement of mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation during hospitalization was significantly higher in the obesity group (20.1 % versus 15.0 %, p < 0.01). After adjusting confounders in the multivariable logistic regression model, the risk of obesity relative to non-obesity for thrombosis was not significant (adjusted OR, 1.39; 95 % CI, 0.68-2.84, p = 0.37), while the adjusted risk of obesity relative to non-obesity for the composite outcome was significant (adjusted OR, 1.85; 95 % CI, 1.39-2.47, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In the present large-scale observational study, obesity was not significantly associated with the development of thrombosis during hospitalization; however, it was associated with severity of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Trombose , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , COVID-19/complicações , SARS-CoV-2 , Incidência , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Trombose/epidemiologia , Trombose/etiologia
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158967, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162580

RESUMO

Public health surveillance systems for COVID-19 are multifaceted and include multiple indicators reflective of different aspects of the burden and spread of the disease in a community. With the emergence of wastewater disease surveillance as a powerful tool to track infection dynamics of SARS-CoV-2, there is a need to integrate and validate wastewater information with existing disease surveillance systems and demonstrate how it can be used as a routine surveillance tool. A first step toward integration is showing how it relates to other disease surveillance indicators and outcomes, such as case positivity rates, syndromic surveillance data, and hospital bed use rates. Here, we present an 86-week long surveillance study that covers three major COVID-19 surges. City-wide SARS-CoV-2 RNA viral loads in wastewater were measured across 39 wastewater treatment plants and compared to other disease metrics for the city of Houston, TX. We show that wastewater levels are strongly correlated with positivity rate, syndromic surveillance rates of COVID-19 visits, and COVID-19-related general bed use rates at hospitals. We show that the relative timing of wastewater relative to each indicator shifted across the pandemic, likely due to a multitude of factors including testing availability, health-seeking behavior, and changes in viral variants. Next, we show that individual WWTPs led city-wide changes in SARS-CoV-2 viral loads, indicating a distributed monitoring system could be used to enhance the early-warning capability of a wastewater monitoring system. Finally, we describe how the results were used in real-time to inform public health response and resource allocation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Águas Residuárias , RNA Viral , Pandemias
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