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1.
Ann Ig ; 34(1): 1-12, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34113953

RESUMO

Introduction: A large amount of recent research has focused on the nature of immunity elicited by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, particularly its robustness and the duration of protection it offers. As a vaccine's efficacy relies on its ability to induce a protective immune response, these questions remain particularly pertinent. An improved understanding of the immunity offered by the antibodies developed against SARS-CoV-2 in recovered patients is critical for the development of diagnostic tests and vaccines. Methods: Our study aimed at the longitudinal analysis of antibody presence, persistence and its trend over eight months in a group of 30 COVID-19 recovered patients who tested positive by real-time quantitative PCR for SARS-CoV-2 in the period 1-30 March 2020. The subjects were divided into two groups based on disease severity: mild (n=17 subjects) and moderately-severe (n=13 subjects). The MAGLUMI 2019-nCoV lgM/lgG chemiluminescent analytical system (CLIA) assay was used to analyze these antibody titres. Results: IgG antibody persistency was demonstrated in 76.7 % of the subjects (23 out of 30) at eight months post-infection. For the moderately-severe group, the titre trends for both IgM and IgG changed in a statistically significant way throughout the time period with IgM below and IgG above the set cut-off. Conclusions: The results of this study highlight an important point in terms of the association between humoral immune response and disease severity. Patients who have experienced a relatively severe infection might develop a stronger immune response that could persist for a longer period.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
2.
J Theor Biol ; 532: 110918, 2022 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592264

RESUMO

Respiratory viral infections pose a serious public health concern, from mild seasonal influenza to pandemics like those of SARS-CoV-2. Spatiotemporal dynamics of viral infection impact nearly all aspects of the progression of a viral infection, like the dependence of viral replication rates on the type of cell and pathogen, the strength of the immune response and localization of infection. Mathematical modeling is often used to describe respiratory viral infections and the immune response to them using ordinary differential equation (ODE) models. However, ODE models neglect spatially-resolved biophysical mechanisms like lesion shape and the details of viral transport, and so cannot model spatial effects of a viral infection and immune response. In this work, we develop a multiscale, multicellular spatiotemporal model of influenza infection and immune response by combining non-spatial ODE modeling and spatial, cell-based modeling. We employ cellularization, a recently developed method for generating spatial, cell-based, stochastic models from non-spatial ODE models, to generate much of our model from a calibrated ODE model that describes infection, death and recovery of susceptible cells and innate and adaptive responses during influenza infection, and develop models of cell migration and other mechanisms not explicitly described by the ODE model. We determine new model parameters to generate agreement between the spatial and original ODE models under certain conditions, where simulation replicas using our model serve as microconfigurations of the ODE model, and compare results between the models to investigate the nature of viral exposure and impact of heterogeneous infection on the time-evolution of the viral infection. We found that using spatially homogeneous initial exposure conditions consistently with those employed during calibration of the ODE model generates far less severe infection, and that local exposure to virus must be multiple orders of magnitude greater than a uniformly applied exposure to all available susceptible cells. This strongly suggests a prominent role of localization of exposure in influenza A infection. We propose that the particularities of the microenvironment to which a virus is introduced plays a dominant role in disease onset and progression, and that spatially resolved models like ours may be important to better understand and more reliably predict future health states based on susceptibility of potential lesion sites using spatially resolved patient data of the state of an infection. We can readily integrate the immune response components of our model into other modeling and simulation frameworks of viral infection dynamics that do detailed modeling of other mechanisms like viral internalization and intracellular viral replication dynamics, which are not explicitly represented in the ODE model. We can also combine our model with available experimental data and modeling of exposure scenarios and spatiotemporal aspects of mechanisms like mucociliary clearance that are only implicitly described by the ODE model, which would significantly improve the ability of our model to present spatially resolved predictions about the progression of influenza infection and immune response.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , Viroses , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Med Gas Res ; 12(2): 33-40, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677149

RESUMO

Atmospheric ozone is produced when nitrogen oxides react with volatile organic compounds. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genome contains a unique N-terminal fragment in the Spike protein, which allows it to bind to air pollutants in the environment. 'Our approach in this review is to study ozone and its effect on the SARS-CoV-2 virus and patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Article data were collected from PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Ozone therapy has antiviral properties, improves blood flow, facilitates the transfer of oxygen in hypoxemic tissues, and reduces blood coagulation phenomena in COVID-19 patients. Ozone has immunomodulatory effects by modulating cytokines (reduction of interleukin-1, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-10), induction of interferon-γ, anti-inflammatory properties by modulating NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing protein 3, inhibition of cytokine storm (blocking nuclear factor-κB and stimulating nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway), stimulates cellular/humoral immunity/phagocytic function and blocks angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. In direct oxygen-ozone injection, oxygen reacts with several biological molecules such as thiol groups in albumin to form ozonoids. Intravenous injection of ozonated saline significantly increases the length of time a person can remain hypoxic. The rectal ozone protocol is rectal ozone insufflation, resulting in clinical improvement in oxygen saturation and biochemical improvement (fibrinogen, D-dimer, urea, ferritin, LDH, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein). In general, many studies have shown the positive effect of ozone therapy as a complementary therapy in the recovery of COVID-19 patients. All the findings indicate that systemic ozone therapy is nontoxic and has no side effects in these patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ozônio , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Humanos , Oxigênio , Ozônio/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Med Gas Res ; 12(2): 41-43, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677150

RESUMO

Cytokine storm in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients leads to acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiorgan dysfunction, shock, and thrombosis thus contributing to significant morbidity and mortality. Several agents like steroids, ascorbic acid, vitamins (C, D, E), glutathione, N-acetylcysteine have been used and several studies are underway to identify its efficacy in addressing undesirable effects due to COVID-19 illness. Among several experimental modalities based on expert opinion and anecdotal data, melatonin is one molecule that appears promising. Owing to its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and immunomodulatory properties, melatonin can be an important agent used as a component of multimodal analgesia in COVID-19 patients, suspected patients, and patients with exposure to positive patients undergoing emergency or urgent surgeries. Further research is required to know the optimal time of initiation, dose, and duration of melatonin as an adjunct.


Assuntos
Analgesia , COVID-19 , Melatonina , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Humanos , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Med Gas Res ; 12(2): 44-50, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677151

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused an urgent need for investigating potential treatments. Traditional medicine offers many potential remedies that have been historically used and have the advantage of bypassing the cultural obstacles in the practice of medicine. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of Zufa syrup in the treatment of suspected patients with mild to moderate symptoms of COVID-19. This triple-blind randomized controlled trial recruited patients with evidence of COVID-19 on chest computed tomography without an indication of hospital admission from March 2020 until April 2020. Participants were assessed by a physician and completed a pre-specified form to assess the duration and severity of symptoms. Patients were randomized to receive Zufa syrup (a combination of herbal medicines: Nepetabracteata, Ziziphus jujube, Glycyrrhizaglabra, Ficuscarica, Cordia myxa, Papaver somniferum, Fennel, Adiantumcapillus-veneris, Viola, Viper's-buglosses, Lavender, Iris, and sugar) or identical-looking placebo syrup at a dose of 7.5 mL (one tablespoon) every 4 hours for 10 days. After applying the eligibility criteria, 116 patients (49.1% male) were randomized to trial arms with a mean age of 44.3. During the follow-up, Cough, dyspnea, headache, myalgia, anorexia, anxiety, and insomnia improved gradually in both groups, and showed no difference between Zufa syrup and placebo. Oxygen saturation and pulse rate had stable trends throughout the follow-up and were similar between study arms. No patient required hospital admission or supplemental oxygen therapy during the study period. To conclude, in patients with mild to moderate symptoms of COVID-19, Zufa syrup did not show any difference in symptomatology over a 10 days' period when compared with placebo. Due to potential effects of medicinal plants in the treatment of respiratory infections, further studies are warranted to clarify their role in COVID-19. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Qom University of Medical Science (Ethics committee reference number IR.MUQ.REC.1398.165) on March 10, 2020 and was registered in Iranian Clinical Trial Center (approval ID: IRCT20200404046934N1) on April 13, 2020.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Oxigênio , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Med Gas Res ; 12(2): 51-54, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677152

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) triggers important changes in routine blood tests. In this retrospective case-control study, biochemical, hematological and inflammatory biomarkers between March 10, 2020, and November 30, 2020 from 3969 COVID-19 patients (3746 in the non-intensive care unit (non-ICU) group and 223 in the ICU group) were analyzed by dividing into three groups as spring, summer and autumn. In the non-ICU group, lymphocyte to monocyte ratio was lower in autumn than the other two seasons and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was higher in autumn than the other two seasons. Also, monocyte and platelet were higher in spring than autumn; and eosinophil, hematocrit, hemoglobin, lymphocyte, and red blood cells decreased from spring to autumn. In the non-ICU group, alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase gradually increased from spring to autumn, while albumin, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, total bilirubin and total protein gradually decreased. Additionally, C-reactive protein was higher in autumn than the other seasons, erythrocyte sedimentation rate was higher in autumn than summer. The changes in routine blood biomarkers in COVID-19 varied from the emergence of the disease until now. Also, the timely changes of blood biomarkers were mostly more negative, indicating that the disease progresses severely. The study was approved by the Erzincan Binali Yildirim University Non-interventional Clinical Trials Ethic Committee (approval No. 86041) on June 21, 2021.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Idoso , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Med Gas Res ; 12(2): 55-59, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677153

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to provide lung disinfection by nebulizing ozone gas with distilled water and olive oil for patients who have clinical symptoms due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The study attempted to reduce the viral load of COVID-19 in the lungs of patients, to provide a faster response to medical treatment. Between August 2020 and September 2020, 30 patients who met the study criteria were prospectively evaluated. There were 2 groups with 15 patients in each group: patients in control group were not treated with ozone and only received standard COVID-19 treatment; patients in ozone group received lung disinfection technique with ozone and standard COVID-19 treatment. A statistically significant difference was found in the length of stay in hospital, change in C-reactive protein, polymerase chain reaction results after 5 days, and computed tomography scores between two groups. There was no statistically significant difference in D-dimer, urea, lactate dehydrogenase, lymphocyte, leukocyte, and platelet between two groups. According to the data, we think that the lung disinfection technique applied with ozone inhalation reduces the rate of pneumonia in COVID-19 patients and makes the patients respond faster to the treatment and become negative according to the polymerase chain reaction tests. The study was approved by the Ethical Committee of the Istanbul Medipol University Clinical Trials (approval No. 0011) on July 2, 2020.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ozônio , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Med Gas Res ; 12(2): 60-66, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677154

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic went down in history as a pandemic caused by corona-viruses that emerged in 2019 and spread rapidly around the world. The different symptoms of COVID-19 made it difficult to understand which variables were more influential on the diagnosis, course and mortality of the disease. Machine learning models can accurately assess hidden patterns among risk factors by analyzing large-datasets to quickly predict diagnosis, prognosis and mortality of diseases. Because of this advantage, the use of machine learning models as decision support systems in health services is increasing. The aim of this study is to determine the diagnosis and prognosis of COVID-19 disease with blood-gas data using the Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID) decision-tree-model, one of the machine learning methods, which is a subfield of artificial intelligence. This study was carried out on a total of 686 patients with COVID-19 (n = 343) and non-COVID-19 (n = 343) treated at Erzincan-Mengücek-Gazi-Training and Research-Hospital between April 1, 2020 and March 1, 2021. Arterial blood gas values of all patients were obtained from the hospital registry system. While the total-accuracyratio of the decision-tree-model was 65.0% in predicting the prognosis of the disease, it was 68.2% in the diagnosis of the disease. According to the results obtained, the low ionized-calcium value (< 1.10 mM) significantly predicted the need for intensive care of COVID-19 patients. At admission, low-carboxyhemoglobin (< 1.00%), high-pH (> 7.43), low-sodium (< 135.0 mM), hematocrit (< 40.0%), and methemoglobin (< 1.30%) values are important biomarkers in the diagnosis of COVID-19 and the results were promising. The findings in the study may aid in the early-diagnosis of the disease and the intensive-care treatment of patients who are severe. The study was approved by the Ministry of Health and Erzincan University Faculty of Medicine Clinical Research Ethics Committee.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , COVID-19 , Árvores de Decisões , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Prognóstico , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Med Gas Res ; 12(2): 67-68, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677155

RESUMO

A 76-year-old female received a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine (CoronaVac, Sinovac®, Beijing, China) and subsequently experienced chest discomfort. A computed tomography performed 1 day after vaccination showed multiple infiltrations in both lungs and ground-glass shadows in both lung fields. Her fingertip oxygen saturation was 81% and there was widespread wheezing on physical examination. Based on these findings, the patient was hospitalized with a preliminary diagnosis of drug-induced pneumonitis and acute asthma exacerbation due to a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. During her hospitalization, 40 mg/d systemic steroid, 4 times a day salbutamol nebulized, 2 L/min inhaled oxygen therapy and 400 mg/d moxifloxacin intravenous were administered for 5 days. One month later, the thorax computed tomography scan revealed that the previous findings were almost completely regressed.


Assuntos
Asma , COVID-19 , Vacinas , Idoso , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Int Braz J Urol ; 48(1): 101-109, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735086

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It has been more than a year since the first case of Covid-19 was diagnosed in Brazil, and its most problematic feature is the oversaturation of the healthcare system capacity. Urolithiasis is a disease that requires timely and appropriate management. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of the pandemic in hospital admissions for urolithiasis in the Brazilian public healthcare system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, hospital admissions were obtained from the Brazilian Public Health Information system. All hospital admissions associated with urolithiasis diagnosis (ICD-10 N20) between March 2017 and February 2021 were analyzed. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 outbreak, there was a significant decrease in hospital admissions (p<0.0001). More than 20.000 patients probably did not have the opportunity to undergo their surgeries. The impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on women's admissions was significantly more intense than for men, reducing from 48.91% to 48.36% of the total (p=0.0281). The extremes of age seemed to be more affected, with patients younger than 20 years and older than 60 years having a significant reduction in access to hospital services (p=0.033). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we have noticed a considerable reduction in overall admissions for the treatment of urolithiasis in the Brazilian public healthcare system during the first year of the Covid-19 pandemic. Women and individuals older than 60 years were especially affected. In contrast, we noted a rise in urgent procedures, comparing with the average of the corresponding period of the three previous years. Recovery plans will be needed while returning to activities to handle the impounded surgical volume.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Urolitíase , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Urolitíase/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Talanta ; 237: 122916, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736654

RESUMO

Herein, we show differences in blood serum of asymptomatic and symptomatic pregnant women infected with COVID-19 and correlate them with laboratory indexes, ATR FTIR and multivariate machine learning methods. We collected the sera of COVID-19 diagnosed pregnant women, in the second trimester (n = 12), third-trimester (n = 7), and second-trimester with severe symptoms (n = 7) compared to the healthy pregnant (n = 11) women, which makes a total of 37 participants. To assign the accuracy of FTIR spectra regions where peak shifts occurred, the Random Forest algorithm, traditional C5.0 single decision tree algorithm and deep neural network approach were used. We verified the correspondence between the FTIR results and the laboratory indexes such as: the count of peripheral blood cells, biochemical parameters, and coagulation indicators of pregnant women. CH2 scissoring, amide II, amide I vibrations could be used to differentiate the groups. The accuracy calculated by machine learning methods was higher than 90%. We also developed a method based on the dynamics of the absorbance spectra allowing to determine the differences between the spectra of healthy and COVID-19 patients. Laboratory indexes of biochemical parameters associated with COVID-19 validate changes in the total amount of proteins, albumin and lipase.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Laboratórios , Aprendizado de Máquina , Gravidez , Gestantes , SARS-CoV-2 , Soro , Análise Espectral , Vibração
15.
Gene ; 808: 145963, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530086

RESUMO

As of July 2021, the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, has led to more than 200 million infections and more than 4.2 million deaths globally. Complications of severe COVID-19 include acute kidney injury, liver dysfunction, cardiomyopathy, and coagulation dysfunction. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify proteins and genetic factors associated with COVID-19 susceptibility and outcome. We comprehensively reviewed recent findings of host-SARS-CoV-2 interactome analyses. To identify genetic variants associated with COVID-19, we focused on the findings from genome and transcriptome wide association studies (GWAS and TWAS) and bioinformatics analysis. We described established human proteins including ACE2, TMPRSS2, 40S ribosomal subunit, ApoA1, TOM70, HLA-A, and PALS1 interacting with SARS-CoV-2 based on cryo-electron microscopy results. Furthermore, we described approximately 1000 human proteins showing evidence of interaction with SARS-CoV-2 and highlighted host cellular processes such as innate immune pathways affected by infection. We summarized the evidence on more than 20 identified candidate genes in COVID-19 severity. Predicted deleterious and disruptive genetic variants with possible effects on COVID-19 infectivity have been also summarized. These findings provide novel insights into SARS-CoV-2 biology and infection as well as potential strategies for development of novel COVID therapeutic targets and drug repurposing.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Cristalografia por Raios X/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Proteínas/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade
16.
Clin Imaging ; 81: 107-113, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34700172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous case reports and case series have described brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) findings in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with concurrent posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). PURPOSE: We aim to compile and analyze brain MRI findings in patients with COVID-19 disease and PRES. METHODS: PubMed and Embase were searched on April 5th, 2021 using the terms "COVID-19", "PRES", "SARS-CoV-2" for peer-reviewed publications describing brain MRI findings in patients 21 years of age or older with evidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and PRES. RESULTS: Twenty manuscripts were included in the analysis, which included descriptions of 30 patients. The average age was 57 years old. Twenty-four patients (80%) required mechanical ventilation. On brain MRI examinations, 15 (50%) and 7 (23%) of patients exhibited superimposed foci of hemorrhage and restricted diffusion respectively. CONCLUSIONS: PRES is a potential neurological complication of COVID-19 related disease. COVID-19 patients with PRES may exhibit similar to mildly greater rates of superimposed hemorrhage compared to non-COVID-19 PRES patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Síndrome da Leucoencefalopatia Posterior , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 82-87, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524688

RESUMO

The rapid spread of the Delta variant suggests that SARS-CoV-2 will likely be rampant for months or years and could claim millions of more lives. All the known vaccines cannot well defeat SARS-CoV-2 due to their limited efficacy and production efficiency, except for the neglected live-attenuated vaccines (LAVs), which could have a much higher efficacy and much higher production efficiency than other vaccines. LAVs, like messiahs, have defeated far more pathogenic viruses than other vaccines in history, and most current human vaccines for viral diseases are safe LAVs. LAVs can block completely infection and transmission of relevant viruses and their variants. They can hence inhibit the emergence of vaccine-escape and virulence-enhancing variants and protect immunologically abnormal individuals better in general. The safety of COVID-19 LAVs, which could save millions of more lives, can be solidly guaranteed through animal experiments and clinical trials. The safety of COVID-19 LAVs could be greatly enhanced with intramuscular or oral administration, or administration along with humanized neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. Together, extensive global collaboration, which can greatly accelerate the development of safe COVID-19 LAVs, is imminently needed.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Vacinação em Massa
18.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 327-334, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524690

RESUMO

Genomic surveillance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) plays an important role in COVID-19 pandemic control and elimination efforts, especially by elucidating its global transmission network and illustrating its viral evolution. The deployment of multiplex PCR assays that target SARS-CoV-2 followed by either massively parallel or nanopore sequencing is a widely-used strategy to obtain genome sequences from primary samples. However, multiplex PCR-based sequencing carries an inherent bias of sequencing depth among different amplicons, which may cause uneven coverage. Here we developed a two-pool, long-amplicon 36-plex PCR primer panel with ~1000-bp amplicon lengths for full-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2. We validated the panel by assessing nasopharyngeal swab samples with a <30 quantitative reverse transcription PCR cycle threshold value and found that ≥90% of viral genomes could be covered with high sequencing depths (≥20% mean depth). In comparison, the widely-used ARTIC panel yielded 79%-88% high-depth genome regions. We estimated that ~5 Mbp nanopore sequencing data may ensure a >95% viral genome coverage with a ≥10-fold depth and may generate reliable genomes at consensus sequence levels. Nanopore sequencing yielded false-positive variations with frequencies of supporting reads <0.8, and the sequencing errors mostly occurred on the 5' or 3' ends of reads. Thus, nanopore sequencing could not elucidate intra-host viral diversity.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Sequenciamento por Nanoporos/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , COVID-19 , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Nasofaringe/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos
19.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 335-341, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524695

RESUMO

Fully automated immunoassays for detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies that are strongly correlated with neutralization antibodies (nAbs) are clinically important because they enable the assessment of humoral immunity after infection and vaccination. Access SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) II antibody tests are semi-quantitative, fully automated immunoassays that detect anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibodies and might reflect nAb levels in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, no studies have investigated the clinical utility of these tests in association with nAbs to date. To evaluate the clinical utility of Access SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG II antibody tests and their correlation with the SARS-CoV-2 surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) that measures nAbs in patients with COVID-19, we analyzed 54 convalescent serum samples from COVID-19 patients and 89 serum samples from non-COVID-19 patients. The presence of anti-RBD antibodies was detected using Access SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG II antibody tests, while nAbs were measured by sVNT. The sensitivity and specificity of sVNT were 94.4% and 98.9%, respectively. There were strong positive correlations between the inhibition values of sVNT and the results of the Access SARS-CoV-2 IgM (R = 0.95, R2 = 0.90, p < 0.001) and IgG II antibody tests (R = 0.96, R2 = 0.92, p < 0.001). In terms of the presence of nAbs, the sensitivity and specificity were 98.1% and 98.9% in the IgM assay and 100.0% and 100.0% in the IgG II assay, respectively. The Access SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG II antibody tests showed high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of nAbs in COVID-19 patients and might be alternatives for measuring nAbs.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Imunoensaio/métodos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Neutralização/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 88-98, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524697

RESUMO

The outbreak of the current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) occurred in late 2019 and quickly spread all over the world. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) belongs to a genetically diverse group that mutates continuously leading to the emergence of multiple variants. Although a few antiviral agents and anti-inflammatory medicines are available, thousands of individuals have passed away due to emergence of new viral variants. Thus, proper surveillance of the SARS-CoV-2 genome is needed for the rapid identification of developing mutations over time, which are of the major concern if they occur specifically in the surface spike proteins of the virus (neutralizing analyte). This article reviews the potential mutations acquired by the SARS-CoV2 since the pandemic began and their significant impact on the neutralizing efficiency of vaccines and validity of the diagnostic assays.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Deriva Genética , Genoma Viral/genética , RNA Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Frequência do Gene/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
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