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1.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 209: 114520, 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34915321

RESUMO

Several Salvia species, commonly known as sage plants, are an integral part of various culinary and folklore preparations for the perceived wide range of effects from organoleptic to psychological. As a result, many of these species are an integral part of botanical drug applications, highlighting the need for accurate identification and quality control for consumer's safety. Five closely related Salvia species (S. officinalis, S. miltiorrhiza, S. divinorum, S. mellifera, and S. apiana) within a same botanical family were analyzed and differentiated using LC-QToF. Accurate mass measurement (<5 ppm) of protonated and deprotonated molecules together with resulting fragments and product ions allowed unequivocal or tentative identification of more than 180 compounds either by comparison with reference standards or literature data. The leaf part were identified based on various phenolic acids, flavonoids as well as di- and tri-terpenoids. Polyphenolics, viz., salvianolic A/B and rosmarinic acids in S. officinalis, lipophilic diterpenoids, viz., tanshinones in S. miltiorrhiza, abietatriene diterpenes and triterpenoids (ursane-/olean-type) in S. mellifera, and S. apiana were identified as characteristic, significant components. In comparison, salvinorins and divinorins representing a class of neoclerodane diterpenoids were detected only in S. divinorum. The presented methodology can successfully be applied to qualitatively assess sage-based ingredients in various finished products and formulations.


Assuntos
Salvia miltiorrhiza , Salvia , Folhas de Planta , Terpenos
2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246904, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706025

RESUMO

Hyperhydricity is a serious physiological disorder and affects In vitro propagation of many plants and as well of Salvia santolinifolia. The donor material to initiate the in vitro culture was the callus taken from the in vitro shoots produced on Murashig and Skoogs (MS) medium at 4.0 mg/l BA. This callus formed numerous hyperhydric shoots on culturing upon the medium of the same composition. The aim was to systematically evaluate the effect of cytokinins (Benzyladnine (BA) and N6-(-2-isopentenyl) adenine (2iP), culture vessels magnitude, medium solidification, source of nitrogen and calcium chloride for the alleviation of hyperhydricity. In the tissue cultures of S. santolinifolia BA and 2iP induced severe hyperhydricity, when other factors i.e. culture vessels magnitude and a suitable concentration of agar, ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), potassium nitrate (KNO3) & calcium chloride (CaCl2.2H2O) were not optimized. After 30 days' culture, we observed 83.82% hyperhydric shoots at increased level (1.5 mg/l 2iP) and 81.59% at decreased levels (1.0 mg/l 2iP). On the other hand, hyperhydricity percentage at decreased (0.4%) and at increased (0.8%) levels of agar were 72.37% and 39.08%, respectively. MS medium modification with NH4NO3 (412 mg/l), KNO3 (475 mg/l) and CaCl2.2H2O (880 mg/l) was found the best medium to reduced hyperhydricity (23.6%).


Assuntos
Salvia , Meios de Cultura , Brotos de Planta
3.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500751

RESUMO

The potential of essential oils (EO), distilled from two aromatic plants-clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.)-in view of applications as natural therapeutic agents was evaluated in vitro. These two were cultivated on a trace element (TE)-polluted soil, as part of a phytomanagement approach, with the addition of a mycorrhizal inoculant, evaluated for its contribution regarding plant establishment, growth, and biomass production. The evaluation of EO as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, with considerations regarding the potential influence of the TE-pollution and of the mycorrhizal inoculation on the EO chemical compositions, were the key focuses. Besides, to overcome EO bioavailability and target accession issues, the encapsulation of EO in ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) was also assessed. Firstly, clary sage EO was characterized by high proportions of linalyl acetate (51-63%) and linalool (10-17%), coriander seeds EO by a high proportion of linalool (75-83%) and lesser relative amounts of γ-terpinene (6-9%) and α-pinene (3-5%) and coriander aerial parts EO by 2-decenal (38-51%) and linalool (22-39%). EO chemical compositions were unaffected by both soil pollution and mycorrhizal inoculation. Of the three tested EO, the one from aerial parts of coriander displayed the most significant biological effects, especially regarding anti-inflammatory potential. Furthermore, all tested EO exerted promising antioxidant effects (IC50 values ranging from 9 to 38 g L-1). However, EO encapsulation in ß-CD did not show a significant improvement of EO biological properties in these experimental conditions. These findings suggest that marginal lands polluted by TE could be used for the production of EO displaying faithful chemical compositions and valuable biological activities, with a non-food perspective.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Coriandrum/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Salvia/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
4.
Ann Parasitol ; 67(2): 213-222, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592088

RESUMO

Salvia mirzayanii contains anti-hyperglycemic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-leishmanial efficacy of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of S. mirzayanii (both in vitro and in vivo) against Leishmania major. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of S. mirzayanii were prepared and tested on L. major promastigotes and amastigotes. MTT test was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the plant against L. major. Flow cytometry was performed to assay apoptosis induced by 50 and 100 µg/ml of extracts on the promastigotes and macrophages. For the in vivo assay, the therapeutic effects of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of S. mirzayanii were tested in BALB/c mice. After 72 h, the IC50 value of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of S. mirzayanii against L. major promastigotes was 6.04 and 4.47, respectively. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of S. mirzayanii to amastigotes were determined to be 47.78 µg/ml and 33.58 µg/ml, respectively. Flow cytometry revealed that the apoptosis of promastigotes using 100 µg/ml of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of S. mirzayanii was 5.81% and 5.39%, respectively, while apoptosis induced at 200 µg/ml were 5.09% and 70.71%, respectively. Lesion size was significantly decreased in in vivo experiments, and the survival rate of the treated mice improved in contrast to the control group. Given the efficacy of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of S. mirzayanii on promastigotes both in vitro and in vivo condition, the plant could be considered as a candidate source for the treatment of leishmaniosis.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários , Leishmania major , Leishmaniose , Salvia , Animais , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
5.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500582

RESUMO

Salvia corrugata Vahl. is an interesting source of abietane and abeo-abietane compounds that showed antibacterial, antitumor, and cytotoxic activities. The aim of the study was to obtain transformed roots of S. corrugata and to evaluate the production of terpenoids in comparison with in vivo root production. Hairy roots were initiated from leaf explants by infection with ATCC 15834 Agrobacterium rhizogenes onto hormone-free Murashige and Skoog (MS) solid medium. Transformation was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analysis of rolC and virC1 genes. The biomass production was obtained in hormone-free liquid MS medium using Temporary Immersion System bioreactor RITA®. The chromatographic separation of the methanolic extract of the untransformed roots afforded horminone, ferruginol, 7-O-acetylhorminone and 7-O-methylhorminone. Agastol and ferruginol were isolated and quantified from the hairy roots. The amount of these metabolites indicated that the hairy roots of S. corrugata can be considered a source of these compounds.


Assuntos
Abietanos/química , Diterpenos/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Salvia/química , Agrobacterium/química , Agrobacterium/genética , Biomassa , Reatores Biológicos , Meios de Cultura/química , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Salvia/genética , Transformação Genética/genética
6.
Fitoterapia ; 154: 105030, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506871

RESUMO

Bioassay-guided fractionation of a dichloromethane extract of the aerial parts of Salvia urmiensis, an endemic plant species of Iran, led to the isolation of two new cytotoxic ursane triterpenoids, Salvurmin A and Salvurmin B. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR, HR-ESI-MS, IR and UV analysis. Cytotoxicity of the above-mentioned compounds were evaluated against two human cancerous cell lines (SW1116, MCF-7). IC50 values for Salvurmin A and Salvurmin B on colon cancer cell line (SW1116) were 41.6 ± 2.6 and 23.2 ± 0.4 µM respectively, in comparison to cisplatin as control positive. In addition, these two compounds exhibited cytotoxic activity on breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) with an IC50 of 54.2 ± 5.3 and 40.2 ± 3.1 µM for Salvurmin A and Salvurmin B, respectively. The cytotoxic activities of these two compounds present a promising potential for the future investigation on this endemic species of Salvia.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Salvia/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Células MCF-7 , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
7.
Phytochemistry ; 191: 112902, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384921

RESUMO

Thirteen undescribed diterpenoid quinones were isolated from the dried roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Their structures were determined by extensive analysis, including NMR, HRESIMS, and IR. Their absolute configurations were determined by X-ray diffraction, calculated and experimental circular dichroism spectroscopy, and optical rotation. In the evaluation of bioactivities, salviadionether obviously inhibited the proliferation of HCT-116 cells. R-(+)-salmiltiorin E and R-(+)-grandifolia D both showed inhibitory activities on a variety of tumor cells. Salvianone ester A showed strong cytotoxicity to tumor-repopulating cells (TRCs) with an IC50 value of 2.19 µM.


Assuntos
Diterpenos , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Salvia , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Raízes de Plantas , Quinonas/farmacologia , Rizoma
8.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 167: 174-184, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365288

RESUMO

Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation as an environmental potential elicitor induces the synthesis of plant secondary metabolites. The effects of UV-B radiation on photosynthetic pigments and dry weight, biochemical and molecular features of old and young leaves of Salvia verticillata were investigated. Plants were exposed to 10.97 kJ m-2 day-1 of biologically effective UV-B radiation for up to 10 days. The sampling process was performed in four steps: 1, 5, 10, and 13 days (recovery time) after the start of irradiation. As a result of plant investment in primary and secondary metabolism, the production of phenolic compounds increased, while chlorophyll levels and leaf dry weight (%) declined. Under long-term UV-B exposure, young leaves exhibited the most significant reduction in chlorophyll a and b content and leaf dry weight. The highest level of total phenol (1.34-fold) and flavonoid concentration (2-fold) relative to the control was observed on the 5th day and recovery time, respectively. Young leaves demonstrated the highest amount of phenolic acids in recovery time. Young leaves on the 5th day of the experiment exerted the highest level of antioxidant activity when compared to the control. A positive correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and the amount of phenolic compounds. Regarding the expression of phenylpropanoid pathway genes, UV-B enhanced the expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, tyrosine aminotransferase, and rosmarinic acid synthase with the highest level in young leaves on the 10th day. Overall, young leaves of S. verticillata indicated higher sensitivity to UV-B radiation and developed more tangible reactions to such radiation.


Assuntos
Salvia , Antioxidantes , Clorofila A , Fenóis , Folhas de Planta , Raios Ultravioleta
9.
Phytochemistry ; 191: 112900, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399302

RESUMO

Salvia pomifera subsp. calycina (Sm.) Hayek (Lamiaceae), is an Eastern Mediterranean element, which is used in traditional medicine and cuisine in the same manner as S. fruticosa Mill. and S. officinalis L.. The essential oil (EO) and the extracts of S. pomifera possess bioactive compounds with anti-proliferative, anticholinesterase, antioxidant, antiviral and antifungal properties. In this study, the chemical (EO), genetic (DNA microsatellites, SSRs) and morphological diversity of forty-nine individuals of Salvia pomifera subsp. calycina, originating from five natural populations of the Peloponnese (Greece) were determined, in order to explore the potential for successful breeding and to reveal tools and biomarkers for identification and authentication. Chemical and genetic analyses revealed high levels of variation both within and among populations, while morphological analysis mainly within populations. Essential oil yield ranged from 1.79 to 5.79 ml 100 g-1 dry wt, among individuals while ß-thujone ranged from 6.04 to 64.75%. Consistency was found in the EO yield and composition of specific individuals, when sampled during the same period, for three consecutive years, while the analysis during spring and summer months showed differentiation that still retained individual's discrimination. Genetic analysis using SSRs showed that the observed population heterozygosity (Ho) ranged from 0.48 to 0.67, while high number of private alleles were revealed in all populations. Considerable genetic differentiation was observed among the three Salvia taxa (S. pomifera subsp. calycina, S. fruticosa, S. officinalis) (Fst values ranged from 0.27 to 0.48) and lower among S. pomifera subsp. calycina populations (Fst values ranged from 0.06 to 0.13). The great variation that was revealed in all measured traits, in combination with the demonstrated, genetically based, consistency of their EO yield and composition, advocates to a successful breeding, whereas SSR genotyping presents a strong identification and authentication tool.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis , Salvia officinalis , Salvia , Antifúngicos , Antioxidantes , Melhoramento Vegetal
10.
Phytochemistry ; 191: 112926, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425461

RESUMO

Two seco-norabietane diterpenes with unique structures, namely abrotafuran and abrotacid, were isolated from the roots of Salvia abrotanoides (Kar.) Sytsma. The compounds were characterized by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques, ECD, and HR-ESIMS experiments. Plausible biosynthetic pathways of abrotafuran and abrotacid were proposed. These compounds did not exhibit antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, the rearranged seco-norabietane abrotafuran showed antiproliferative activity on HeLa (cervical carcinoma) and Jurkat (T-cell leukemia) cell lines.


Assuntos
Diterpenos , Salvia , Abietanos/farmacologia , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Raízes de Plantas , Esqueleto
11.
Planta Med ; 87(14): 1128-1151, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416766

RESUMO

As the sixth-largest Angiosperm family, Lamiaceae contains more than 245 genera and 7886 species that are distributed worldwide. It is also the third-largest family based on the number of taxa in Turkey where it is represented by 46 genera and 782 taxa with a high endemism ratio (44%). Besides, Lamiaceae are rich in plants with economic and medicinal value containing volatile and nonvolatile compounds. Many aromatic plants of Lamiaceae such as Salvia, Sideritis, Stachys, Phlomis, and Teucrium species are used in traditional herbal medicine throughout Turkey as well as in other Mediterranean countries. Salvia (Sage tea "Adaçayi"), Sideritis (Mountain tea "Dagçayi"), Stachys (Hairy Tea "Tüylü Çay"), and Phlomis (Turkish sage "Çalba or Salba") are the largest genera that are used as herbal teas. This review focuses on the volatile and nonvolatile compounds of Lamiaceae from the genera Phlomis and Eremostachys of the subfamily Lamioideae with emphasis on iridoids, phenylethanoid glycosides, and essential oils.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis , Phlomis , Salvia , Glicosídeos , Iridoides
12.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0248954, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288908

RESUMO

A road-map of the genetic and phenotypic diversities in both crops and their wild related species can help identifying valuable genetic resources for further crop breeding. The clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.), a perfume, medicinal and aromatic plant, is used for sclareol production and ornamental purposes. Despite its wide use in the field of cosmetics, the phenotypic and genetic diversity of wild and cultivated clary sages remains to be explored. We characterized the genetic and phenotypic variation of a collection of six wild S. sclarea populations from Croatia, sampled along an altitudinal gradient, and, of populations of three S. sclarea cultivars. We showed low level of genetic diversity for the two S. sclarea traditional cultivars used for essential oil production and for ornamental purposes, respectively. In contrast, a recent cultivar resulting from new breeding methods, which involve hybridizations among several genotypes rather than traditional recurrent selection and self-crosses over time, showed high genetic diversity. We also observed a marked phenotypic differentiation for the ornamental clary sage compared with other cultivated and wild clary sages. Instead, the two cultivars used for essential oil production, a traditional and a recent one, respectively, were not phenotypically differentiated from the wild Croatian populations. Our results also featured some wild populations with high sclareol content and early-flowering phenotypes as good candidates for future breeding programs. This study opens up perspectives for basic research aiming at understanding the impact of breeding methods on clary sage evolution, and highlights interesting avenues for clary breeding programs.


Assuntos
Variação Biológica da População , Variação Genética , Perfumes , Melhoramento Vegetal , Salvia/genética , Óleos Voláteis
13.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(9): e2100517, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292661

RESUMO

A new neo-clerodane diterpenoid, salvihispin H (1), and six known ones (2-7) were identified from the aerial parts of Salvia hispanica L. The structure and absolute configuration of 1 were elucidated by extensive analysis of spectroscopic (1 H, 13 C, and 2D NMR, and HR-ESI-MS) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The anti-diabetic effects of salvihispin H (1) and salvifaricin (2) were evaluated in diabetic db/db mice. The data showed that 1 and 2 could significantly reduce fasting blood glucose level and improve insulin resistance, and compound 1 exerted glucose-lowering effect more quickly than metformin. In addition, 1 and 2 could also reduce serum TG level in db/db mice. These results demonstrated that compounds 1 and 2 could be considered as potent candidates for the therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diterpenos Clerodânicos/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Salvia/química , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cristalografia por Raios X , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Diterpenos Clerodânicos/química , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular
14.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5545331, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235218

RESUMO

World Health Organization (WHO) has approved only one treatment for schistosomiasis, praziquantel (PZQ), but some poor efficacy was noticed in patients during the early stage of infection. Therefore, researchers have intensified their efforts to research new alternative medicines to treat schistosomiasis. In the present study, in vitro as well as in vivo studies have been accomplished to evaluate the effect of Origanum majorana, Ziziphus spina-christi, and Salvia fruticosa extracts in a different concentration 500, 250, 125, 62.5, and 31.25 µg/ml on golden hamster infected by Egyptian strains of schistosome (Schistosoma haematobium). In vitro, the adult worms and schistosomula of S. haematobium were investigated in RPMI-1640 medium for 48 hrs. The results showed that the concentration 500, 250, and 125 µg/ml of Origanum majorana, and Ziziphus spina-christi caused dead of 100% of Egyptian Schistosoma strains of adult worm and schistosomula of S. haematobium within 6 to 12 hrs of incubation. On the other hand, the extract of Salvia fruticosa at concentrations 500, 250, and 125 µg/ml showed death 100% parasites after 12 to 24 hrs of incubation. Inclusion, Origanum majorana, and Ziziphus spina-christi showed effectiveness against Egyptian Schistosoma strains (S. haematobium), a slight decrease in Salvia fruticosa was observed. Therefore, these medical plant extracts may be used as a safe and effective treatment for schistosomiasis.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Origanum , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Praziquantel/farmacologia , Salvia , Schistosoma haematobium/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquistossomose Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Ziziphus , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Resultado do Tratamento , Células Vero
15.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200814

RESUMO

Multi-drug resistant pathogens are a rising danger for the future of mankind. Iodine (I2) is a centuries-old microbicide, but leads to skin discoloration, irritation, and uncontrolled iodine release. Plants rich in phytochemicals have a long history in basic health care. Aloe Vera Barbadensis Miller (AV) and Salvia officinalis L. (Sage) are effectively utilized against different ailments. Previously, we investigated the antimicrobial activities of smart triiodides and iodinated AV hybrids. In this work, we combined iodine with Sage extracts and pure AV gel with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as an encapsulating and stabilizing agent. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS), microstructural analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-Ray-Diffraction (XRD) analysis verified the composition of AV-PVP-Sage-I2. Antimicrobial properties were investigated by disc diffusion method against 10 reference microbial strains in comparison to gentamicin and nystatin. We impregnated surgical sutures with our biohybrid and tested their inhibitory effects. AV-PVP-Sage-I2 showed excellent to intermediate antimicrobial activity in discs and sutures. The iodine within the polymeric biomaterial AV-PVP-Sage-I2 and the synergistic action of the two plant extracts enhanced the microbial inhibition. Our compound has potential for use as an antifungal agent, disinfectant and coating material on sutures to prevent surgical site infections.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Aloe/química , Antifúngicos/química , Gentamicinas/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/métodos , Nistatina/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Povidona/química , Salvia/química , Salvia officinalis/química , Espectrometria por Raios X/métodos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Difração de Raios X/métodos
16.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065175

RESUMO

The utilization of therapeutic plants is expanding around the globe, coupled with the tremendous expansion of alternative medicine and growing demand in health treatment. Plants are applied in pharmaceuticals to preserve and expand health-physically, mentally and as well as to treat particular health conditions and afflictions. There are more than 600 families of plants identified so far. Among the plants that are often studied for their health benefit include the genus of Salvia in the mint family, Lamiaceae. This review aims to determine the bioactive components of Salvia and their potential as antidiabetic agents. The search was conducted using three databases (PubMed, EMBASE and Scopus), and all relevant articles that are freely available in the English language were extracted within 10 years (2011-2021). Salvia spp. comprises many biologically active components that can be divided into monoterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes, and phenolic components, but only a few of these have been studied in-depth for their health benefit claims. The most commonly studied bioactive component was salvianolic acids. Interestingly, S. miltiorrhiza is undoubtedly the most widely studied Salvia species in terms of its effectiveness as an antidiabetic agent. In conclusion, we hope that this review stimulates more studies on bioactive components from medicinal plants, not only on their potential as antidiabetic agents but also for other possible health benefits.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Salvia/química , Animais , Plantas Medicinais
17.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068756

RESUMO

Spontaneous emissions of S. dentata Aiton and S. scabra Thunb., as well as the essential oil (EO) composition of the cited species, together with S. aurea L., were investigated. The chemical profile of the first two species is reported here for the first time. Moreover, in vitro tests were performed to evaluate the antifungal activity of these EOs on Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium solani. Secondly, the EO antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus pseudointermedius was examined, and their antiviral efficacy against the H1N1 influenza virus was assessed. Leaf volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as well as the EOs obtained from the arial part of Salvia scabra, were characterized by a high percentage of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (97.8% and 76.6%, respectively), mostly represented by an equal amount of germacrene D (32.8% and 32.7%, respectively). Both leaf and flower spontaneous emissions of S. dentata, as well as the EO composition, showed a prevalence of monoterpenes divided into a more or less equal amount of hydrocarbon and oxygenated compounds. Interestingly, its EO had a non-negligible percentage of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (29.5%). S. aurea EO, on the contrary, was rich in sesquiterpenes, both hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds (41.5% and 33.5%, respectively). S. dentata EO showed good efficacy (Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC): 0.5%) against M. canis. The tested EOs were not active against E. coli and S. aureus, whereas a low inhibition of S. dentata EO was observed on S. pseudointermedius (MIC = 10%). Once again, S. dentata EO showed a very good H1N1 inhibition; contrariwise, S. aurea EO was completely inactive against this virus. The low quantity of S. scabra EO made it impossible to test its biological activity. S. dentata EO exhibited interesting new perspectives for medicinal and industrial uses.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Salvia/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Flores/química , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Odorantes , Folhas de Planta/química
18.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063252

RESUMO

Innate immunity plays a determinant role in high fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance. This study compares the effects of immunonutritional bioactives from Chenopodium quinoa (WQ) or Salvia hispanica L. (Ch) when used to partially replace wheat flour (WB) into bread formulations. These flours were chosen to condition starch and lipid content in the products as well as because their immunonutritional activity. To be administered with different bread formulations, HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice were distributed in different groups: (i) wild type, (ii) displaying inherited disturbances in glucose homeostasis, and (iii) displaying dietary iron-mediated impairment of the innate immune TLR4/TRAM/TRIF pathway. We analyze the effects of the products on glycaemia and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), plasmatic triglycerides, intestinal and hepatic gene expression and variations of myeloid (MY), and lymphoid (LY) cells population in peripheral blood. Our results show that feeding animals with WQ and Ch formulations influenced the expression of lipogenic and coronary risk markers, thus attaining a better control of hepatic lipid accumulation. WQ and Ch products also improved glucose homeostasis compared to WB, normalizing the HOMA-IR in animals with an altered glucose and lipid metabolism. These positive effects were associated with positive variations in the peripheral myeloid cells population.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa , Farinha , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Células Mieloides/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Salvia , Animais , Glicemia/imunologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/imunologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue
19.
J Food Sci ; 86(7): 2861-2871, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076264

RESUMO

Salvia hispanica demonstrated to be a source of protein fractions with anticancer activity. The effect of the protein fractions <1, 1-3, and 3-5 kDa, obtained by ultrafiltration of the S. hispanica hydrolysate, was evaluated on the cellular viability of four cancer cell lines (MCF-7, Caco2, PC-3, and HepG2) and on human fibroblasts (hFB) at different concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 mg/ml). The protein fractions did not show cytotoxic effects on hFB. The protein fraction <1 kDa at 1 mg/ml showed the highest statistical effect on the cellular viability of all evaluated cancer lines; thus, its amino acid sequence was analyzed. From the multicriteria decision analysis of the peptide sequences obtained by mass spectrometry, the peptide KLKKNL with potential anticancer activity was selected. In conclusion, protein fractions could represent a therapeutic option for cancer treatment. However, further investigations are necessary to establish conclusive arguments. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The work of this article is based on the background of the increasing potential of peptides for the treatment of chronic diseases. The results of this study present peptides of low molecular weight, obtained from chia seeds, as a potential adjuvant option for cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Hidrolisados de Proteína/farmacologia , Salvia/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Peso Molecular , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
20.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 35(11): e5182, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137050

RESUMO

Phenolic acids are the main active components in Salvia yunnanensis Radix, which have significant effects such as cardiovascular protection, anti-thrombosis, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammation. In this study, pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography (pH-ZRCCC) was successfully applied to the preparative separation of phenolic acids from S. yunnanensis Radix. First, a two-phase solvent system composed of Pet-EtOAc-ACN-H2 O (1.5:2.5:1:5, v/v) [TFA (10 mM) was added in the upper phase and NH3 ·H2 O (30 mM) was added in the lower phase] was used for the separation of 4.0 g of the crude sample to obtain 55.6 mg of rosmarinic acid (1), 69.0 mg of caffeic acid (2), 18.9 mg of protocatechualdehyde (3), 14.6 mg of 8-epiblechnic acid 9-methyl ester (4), and a mixture containing two compounds. After the recovery, 1.3 g of the mixture was obtained and separated using the MtBE-H2 O (1:1, v/v) solvent system containing TFA (5 mM) and NH3 ·H2 O (60 mM) to obtain 259.9 mg of salvianolic acid B (5) and 28.75 mg of lithospermic acid (6). Moreover, a systematic separation pattern for separating the relatively low-polarity phenolic acids from natural products by pH-ZRCCC was summarized for the first time. This study provided technical support for the pharmacological activity and quality control research of S. yunnanensis Radix.


Assuntos
Cinamatos , Distribuição Contracorrente/métodos , Fenóis , Salvia/química , Cinamatos/análise , Cinamatos/química , Cinamatos/isolamento & purificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação
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