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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264187, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35245300

RESUMO

Globally, and in Ghana, a lot of people do practice open defecation as well as share toilet facilities with other households. Meanwhile, open defecation in particular, is associated with numerous negative health and economic effects. To this end, a number of empirical studies have been conducted on the determinants of access to sanitation facilities among households in Ghana. Nonetheless, while financial inclusion (sustainable ways of ensuring easier accessibility to cheap and useful financial products and services among individuals/firms) can enhance the ability of households or individuals to afford toilet facilities, hence, could help in curbing open defecation and sharing of toilet facilities among households, the previous studies on Ghana did not pay attention to it. This study therefore uses data from the 7th round of the Ghana Living Standards Survey (GLSS7) to examine the association of financial inclusion with open defecation and sharing of toilet facilities among households in Ghana. The binary logit regression is used as the empirical estimation technique. The results show that, financial inclusion in general is associated with lesser likelihood of open defecation and sharing of toilet facilities among households in Ghana after controlling for welfare quintile, urban or rural residence and other covariates. Moreover, while informal financial inclusion is statistically insignificant, formal financial inclusion is found to be associated with reduced open defecation and sharing of toilet facilities among households. Thus, in the attempt to eliminate open defecation as well as reduce the sharing of toilet facilities among households in Ghana, conscious efforts should be devoted towards enhancing formal financial inclusion.


Assuntos
Defecação , Características da Família , Toaletes , Gana , Humanos , População Rural , Saneamento/economia , Saneamento/métodos , Saneamento/normas , Toaletes/economia , Toaletes/normas
2.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262295, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent girls face several challenges relating to menstruation and its proper management. Lack of adequate sanitary products, inadequate water supply, and privacy for changing sanitary pads continue to leave adolescent girls with limited options for safe and proper menstrual hygiene in many low-income settings, including Ethiopia. These situations are also compounded by societal myths, stigmas surrounding menstruation, and discriminatory social norms. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate the pooled proportion of safe menstrual hygiene management among adolescent girls in Ethiopia using the available studies. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, African Journal Online (AJOL), Hinari, Science Direct, ProQuest, Direct of Open Access Journals, POPLINE, and Cochrane Library database inception to May 31, 2021. Studies reporting the proportion of menstrual hygiene management among adolescent girls in Ethiopia were considered. The Cochrane Q test statistics and I2 tests were used to assess the heterogeneity of the included studies. Since the included studies revealed considerable heterogeneity, a random effect meta-analysis model was used to estimate the pooled proportion of menstrual hygiene management (MHM). RESULTS: Of 1,045 identified articles, 22 studies were eligible for analysis (n = 12,330 participants). The pooled proportion (PP) of safe MHM in Ethiopia was 52.69% (95%CI: 44.16, 61.22). The use of commercial menstrual absorbents was common 64.63% (95%CI: 55.32, 73.93, I2 99.2%) followed by homemade cloth 53.03% (95%CI: 22.29, 83.77, I2 99.2%). Disposal of absorbent material into the latrine was the most common practice in Ethiopia 62.18% (95%CI: 52.87, 71.49, I2 98.7%). One in four girls reported missing one or more school days during menstruation (PP: 32.03%, 95%CI: 22.65%, 41.40%, I2 98.2%). CONCLUSION: This study revealed that only half of the adolescent girls in Ethiopia had safe MHM practices. To ensure that girls in Ethiopia can manage menstruation hygienically and with dignity, strong gender-specific water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) facilities along with strong awareness creation activities at every level are needed.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Higiene/normas , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual/normas , Menstruação , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Saneamento/normas , Adolescente , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , População Rural
3.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262168, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986188

RESUMO

Tungiasis is caused by the flea tunga penetrans and results in painful skin lesions, skin infections, and permanent disability. However, limited information is available that shows the magnitude of the problem and its risk factors that help for intervention in Ethiopia. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of tungiasis in children aged 5 to 14 in Mettu woreda in 2020. A community based cross sectional study was conducted among randomly selected kebeles of Mettu woreda, in Southwest Ethiopia. To select study participants, multistage sampling was used. The data were collected through physical examination of the children, interview of parents/guardians of the children, and observation of the home environment using checklists and questionnaires. The descriptive analysis was done for socio-demographic characteristics, prevalence of tungiasis, and housing conditions. A logistic regression analysis was performed, and variables in multivariable regression reported odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals once the variables were identified using a p-value of 0.05 as a risk factor of statistical significance. The prevalence of tungiasis among children 5-14 years of age in Mettu rural woreda was 52 percent (n = 821). As a risk factor, large family size (AOR: 2.9, 95% CI: 2.13, 4.40); school attendance (AOR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.18), floor inside the house (AOR: 3.8, 95% CI: 1.76, 8.43); having sleeping bed (AOR: 0.16, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.82); access to protected water sources (AOR: 0.24, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.39); access to improved toilet facilities(AOR: 0.63: 95% CI: 0.44, 0.89); access to electric services (AOR: 0.30, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.62); and lack of own farmland (AOR: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.26, 0.50) were found. Therefore, planning and implementation of interventions focus on those risk factors that are particularly important. Water, sanitation and hygiene interventions, and livelihood improvement interventions are required to solve the problem in the setting.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Higiene/normas , Tungíase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Saneamento/normas , Saneamento/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 82: 1-9, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-31817

RESUMO

Infection caused by geo-helminth parasites are called geohelminthiasis are one of the global health problems. Vegetables eaten raw is the principal source of transmission of geo-helminth parasites. Pakistani people believe that eating raw vegetables are a significant source to get important vitamins and minerals. Based on the high incidence of pathogenic parasites and cultivating different vegetable types in the study areas, we conducted this study to evaluate the geo-helminth contamination of raw vegetables in northwest Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This is a descriptive study comprised, 1942 samples of 25 various types of vegetables. The samples were examined in physiological saline solution using sedimentation and centrifugation methods. The findings were analyzed by Graph-Pad version 5. P value less than 0.05 (95% CI) was considered significant. Results showed that 16.5% (n=322) of all vegetables were contaminated with one or more type of geo-helminth parasites. Garlic was the highest (35%) and cauliflower the lowest (4%) contaminated samples respectively. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most common geo helminth found followed by hook worm species while Trichuris trichura was the least in all the vegetable samples. Leafy vegetables were highly contaminated 25.3% than vegetables with root parts 21.2% and fruity 9.09%. More than half of the contaminated vegetables were contaminated with single species of geo-helminth (P<0.05) while less than half with multiple types of geo-helminth contamination. Ninety two vegetables samples were contaminated with 2 species of parasites (P<0.05) and 45 with 3 (P>0.05) species of geo-helminth parasites. Education level of vendors and means of display were not significantly associated while types of vegetable used were significantly associated with the prevalence of parasites. The findings of this study provide evidence that consumption of raw [...].(AU)


As infecções causadas por parasitas geo-helmínticos são chamados de geohelmintíases e são um dos problemas de saúde globais. Os vegetais comidos crus são a principal fonte de transmissão dos parasitas geo-helmínticos. O povo paquistanês acredita que comer vegetais crus é uma fonte significativa para obter vitaminas e minerais importantes. Com base na alta incidência de parasitas patogênicos e no cultivo de diferentes tipos de vegetais nas áreas de estudo, conduzimos este estudo para avaliar a contaminação por geo-helmintos de vegetais crus no noroeste de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo composto por 1942 amostras de 25 tipos diversos de vegetais. As amostras foram examinadas em solução salina fisiológica utilizando métodos de sedimentação e centrifugação. Os achados foram analisados pelo Graph-Pad versão 5. O valor de P menor que 0,05 (IC 95%) foi considerado significativo. Os resultados mostraram que 16,5% (n = 322) de todas as hortaliças estavam contaminadas com um ou mais tipos de parasitas geo-helmínticos. O alho foi a amostra mais contaminada (35%) e a couve-flor a menos (4%), respectivamente. Ascaris lumbricoides foi o geo-helmíntico mais comum encontrado, seguido por espécies de verme-anzol, enquanto Trichuris trichura foi o menos encontrado em todas as amostras de vegetais. Os vegetais folhosos foram altamente contaminados 25,3% do que os vegetais com partes de raiz 21,2% e frutados 9,09%. Mais da metade dos vegetais contaminados estavam contaminados com uma única espécie de geo-helmintos (P <0,05), enquanto menos da metade com vários tipos de contaminação com geo-helmintos. Noventa e duas amostras de vegetais estavam contaminadas com 2 espécies de parasitas (P <0,05) e 45 com 3 (P> 0,05) espécies de parasitas geo-helmínticos. O nível de escolaridade dos vendedores e os meios de exibição não [...].(AU)


Assuntos
Plantas/parasitologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluição Ambiental , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Ascaris , Trichuris , Saneamento/normas
5.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 106(2): 479-485, 2021 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34872060

RESUMO

Psychosocial stressors are indicative of challenges associated with the social and environmental conditions an individual is subjected to. In a bid to clearly understand the present gaps in school sanitation, this cross-sectional study aimed to identify the sanitation-related psychosocial stressors experienced by students in a Nigerian peri-urban community and their associated impacts. A three-stage sampling technique was used to select 400 students from 10 schools. The students to toilet ratio were 1,521:0 and 1,510:0 for the public-school boys and girls, respectively, and 74:1 and 70:1 for the private-school boys and girls, respectively. Furthermore, public-school students had a significantly higher average stress level (P < 0.001, η2p = 0.071) and a significantly higher proportion of students experiencing school absenteeism (P < 0.001; odds ratio [OR] = 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.7-8.2), missed classes (P < 0.001; OR = 5.8; CI = 2.8-12.0), long urine/fecal retention time (P < 0.001; OR = 2.9; CI = 1.8-4.7), open defecation practice (P < 0.001; OR = 4.2; CI = 2.5-7.1), and open defecation-related anxiety (P < 0.001; OR = 3.6; CI = 2.0-6.5). Moreover, the inability to practice menstrual hygiene management was significantly associated with student-reported monthly school absence among girls (P < 0.001; OR = 4.5; CI = 2.2-9.4). Overall, over 50% of the respondents had reportedly been subjected to at least 14 of the 17 stressors outlined. The most prevalent stressors identified were concerns about disease contraction, toilet cleanliness, toilet phobia, privacy, and assault/injury during open defecation/urination. In conclusion, results show that the absence of functional sanitation facilities purportedly has a grievous effect on the mental, physical, social, and academic well-being of the students. This was clearly seen among public-school students. Subsequent sanitation interventions need to be targeted at ameliorating identified stressors.


Assuntos
Saneamento , Instituições Acadêmicas/normas , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Aparelho Sanitário/normas , Aparelho Sanitário/provisão & distribuição , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Pais/educação , Saneamento/normas , Instituições Acadêmicas/classificação , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 106(2): 464-478, 2021 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749313

RESUMO

In addition to diarrheal disease risk, lack of access to safe water may have other indirect effects throughout one's life, such as school and workplace absenteeism, leading to less economic productivity. In contexts with scarce resources and unsafe drinking water, household water treatment and safe storage options such as the Biosand filter (BSF) allows households to directly reduce contamination and increase the quality of their drinking water. This study aimed to develop an understanding of perceived community acceptability and feasibility related to pre- and post-implementation of a BSF pilot project in rural Maasai households in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA), Tanzania. The study was guided by the Integrated Behavioral Model for Water Sanitation and Hygiene interventions (IBM-WASH) to understand the various factors influencing end-user perceptions of the BSF. In-depth interviews, group discussions and think tanks were conducted among a cross-section of community members, stakeholders, and other actors from May 2016 to September 2017. The data were analyzed using a thematic content analysis approach. A range of perceived contextual, technological, and psychosocial factors were found to potentially affect the acceptability and feasibility of BSF adoption in the NCA, highlighting the complex layers of influences in the setting. Whilst the BSF is seemingly an accepted option to treat water within the NCA, the community identified key barriers that may lower BSF adoption. The application of the IBM-WASH model served as a useful framework for evaluating the introduction of the BSF, identifying insights into contextual, technological, and psychosocial community factors.


Assuntos
Água Potável/normas , Filtração/métodos , Higiene/normas , Saneamento/normas , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Estudos Transversais , Análise de Dados , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Filtração/instrumentação , Filtração/normas , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , População Rural , Areia , Tanzânia
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 193, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603574

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: in the recent past, cities in sub-Saharan Africa have reported serious cholera outbreaks that last for several months. Uganda is one of the African countries where cities are prone to cholera outbreaks. Studies on cholera in Bangladesh show increased risk of cholera for the immediate household members (contacts) yet the control interventions mainly target cases with little or no focus on contacts. This study aimed to describe the rapid control of cholera outbreaks in Kampala and Mbale cities, Uganda, using, "Cases and Contacts Centered Strategy (3CS)" that consisted of identification and treatment of cases, promotion of safe water, sanitation, hygiene (WaSH) and selective chemoprophylaxis for the contacts. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015-2016 in the Kampala and Mbale cities during cholera outbreaks. Cholera cases were treated and 816 contacts from 188 households were listed and given cholera preventive packages. Data were collected, cleaned, analysed and stored in spreadsheet. Comparison of categories was done using Chi-Square test. RESULTS: a total of 58 and 41 confirmed cholera cases out of 318 and 153 suspected cases were recorded in Kampala and Mbale cities respectively. The outbreaks lasted for 41 days in both cities. Case fatality rates were high; 12.1% (5/41) for Mbale city and 1.7% (1/58) for Kampala city. Fifty-five percent (210/379) of stool samples were tested by culture to confirm V. choleraeO1. No contacts listed and given cholera preventive package developed cholera. Both sexes and all age groups were affected. In Kampala city, the males were more affected than the females in the age groups less than 14 years, p-value of 0.0097. CONCLUSION: this study showed that by implementing 3CS, it was possible to rapidly control cholera outbreaks in Kampala and Mbale cities and no cholera cases were reported amongst the listed household contacts. The findings on 3CS and specifically, selective antibiotic chemoprophylaxis for cholera prevention, could be used in similar manner to oral cholera vaccines to complement the core cholera control interventions (disease surveillance, treatment of cases and WaSH). However, studies are needed to guide such rollout and to understand the age-sex differences in Kampala city.


Assuntos
Cólera/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Higiene/normas , Saneamento/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cólera/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Cólera/administração & dosagem , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Água Potável/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição por Sexo , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 100, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610785

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is increasingly becoming a threat to global public health, not least in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where it is contributing to longer treatment for illnesses, use of higher generation drugs, more expenditure on antimicrobials, and increased deaths attributed to what should be treatable diseases. Some of the known causes of AMR include misuse and overuse of antimicrobials in both humans and animals, unnecessary use of antimicrobials in animals as growth promoters, and lack of awareness among the public on how to protect antimicrobials. As a result, resistant organisms are circulating in the wider environment, and there is a need to consider the One Health approach to minimise the continuing development of AMR. Environmental Health, specifically water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), waste management, and food hygiene and safety, are key components of One Health needed to prevent the spread of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms particularly in LMICs and reduce the AMR threat to global public health. The key Environmental Health practices in the prevention of AMR include: (1) adequate WASH through access and consumption of safe water; suitable containment, treatment and disposal of human excreta and other wastewater including from health facilities; good personal hygiene practices such as washing hands with soap at critical times to prevent the spread of resistant microorganisms, and contraction of illnesses which may require antimicrobial treatment; (2) proper disposal of solid waste, including the disposal of unused and expired antimicrobials to prevent their unnecessary exposure to microorganisms in the environment; and (3) ensuring proper food hygiene and safety practices, such as sale and consumption of animal products in which adequate antimicrobial withdrawal periods have been observed, and growing vegetables on unpolluted soil. Environmental Health is therefore crucial in the prevention of infectious diseases that would require antimicrobials, reducing the spread of resistant organisms, and exposure to antimicrobial residues in LMICs. Working with other professionals in One Health, Environmental Health Practitioners have a key role in reducing the spread of AMR including health education and promotion, surveillance, enforcement of legislation, and research.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Saúde Ambiental/normas , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Higiene/normas , Papel (figurativo) , Saneamento/normas , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/normas
9.
J Environ Public Health ; 2021: 5569582, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527056

RESUMO

Background: The majority of people practicing open defecation and utilizing unhealthy sanitation facilities are in the developing world. The utilization of unimproved sanitation facilities remains the primary risk factor for many diseases, including nutritional diseases, diarrheal diseases, typhoid, cholera, and dysentery, particularly among children. Objectives: This study was carried out to assess the availability of improved sanitation facilities and factors associated with it in the 12th district of Kandahar city, Kandahar Province, Afghanistan. Methods: The study is a cross-sectional survey, conducted between September and October 2019. A structured questionnaire was used to gather self-reported information of the respondents, including sociodemographic information, household characteristics, and behavioral and environmental characteristics of the available sanitation facilities. Factors associated with the availability of the improved sanitation facility were determined using a multivariable logistic regression model. Results: In this study, the availability of improved sanitation facilities was 85.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 77.6%-92.1%). It was significantly influenced by living in a private house (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.99 (95% CI; 1.43-6.26)); inside location of latrine (AOR = 14.31 (95% CI; 3.59-56.99)); individual household latrine (AOR = 2.03 (1.04-3.95)); and the number of latrines in the household (AOR = 5.04 (2.45-10.35)). Conclusion: The availability of improved sanitation facilities was higher compared to the national level in the study area. This study provides significant evidence on approaches in line with the World Health Organization's (WHO) Joint Monitoring Program and Sustainable Developmental Goals (SDGs) for enhancing the availability of improved sanitation facilities in Kandahar city.


Assuntos
Saneamento , Toaletes , Afeganistão , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Saneamento/normas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Toaletes/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256086, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quality water, sanitation, and hygiene facilities act as barricades to the transmission of COVID-19 in health care facilities. These facilities ought to also be available, accessible, and functional in temporary treatment centers. Despite numerous studies on health care facilities, however, there is limited information on the status of WASH facilities in such centers. METHODS: The assessment of health care facilities for the COVID-19 response checklist and key informant interviews, were used for data collection. 35 treatment centers in Southern Ethiopia were surveyed. Eightkey informants were interviewed to gain an understanding of the WASH conditions in the treatment centers. The Quantitative data was entered using EPI-INFO 7 and exported to SPSS 20 for analysis. Results are presented using descriptive statistics. Open Code 4.02 was used for the thematic analysis of the qualitative data. RESULTS: Daily water supply interruptions occurred at 27 (77.1%) of the surveyed sites. Only 30 (85.72%) had bathrooms that were segregated for personnel and patients, and only 3 (3.57%) had toilets that were handicapped accessible. 20(57.2%) of the treatment centers did not have a hand hygiene protocol that satisfied WHO guidelines. In terms of infection prevention and control, 16 (45.71%) of the facilities lacked adequate personal protective equipment stocks. Between urban and rural areas, there was also a significant difference in latrine maintenance, hand hygiene protocol design and implementation, and incineration capacity. CONCLUSION: The results reveal crucial deficiencies in the provision of WASH in the temporary COVID-19 treatment centers. Efforts to improve WASH should offer priority to hygiene service interventions to minimize the risk of healthcare-acquired infections. The sustainable provision of hygiene services, such as hand washing soap, should also be given priority.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Higiene , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Saneamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Água , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Etiópia , Instalações de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Quarentena/normas , Saneamento/normas
12.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0249006, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unhygienic disposal of children's stools affects children's health in terms of their susceptibility to many diseases. However, there are no existing studies into the impact of unhygienic stool disposal in Cambodia. Therefore, this study aimed to identify factors associated with the unhygienic disposal of children's stools among children under the age of five in Cambodia. METHODS: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey (CDHS) 2014. A multivariable binary logistic regression was conducted using Stata to analyze factors associated with the unhygienic disposal of children's stools. RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence of practicing unhygienic disposal of children's stools was 29.27% (95%CI: 27.51%- 31.09%). Factors statistically associated with this practice were: living in the Central Plain, Plateau and Mountains, Coastal and Sea regions (AOR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.33-2.04), (AOR = 2.53; 95% CI: 1.98-3.24) and (AOR = 4.16; 95% CI: 3.15-5.48) respectively, poor household wealth (AOR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.31-1.91), the mother having no education (AOR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.14-1.85), a high number of children aged under five (AOR = 1.11; 95% CI: 1.03-1.20), being in the "other" religious category (AOR = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.25-2.51), living in a household with unimproved toilet facilities (AOR = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.11-1.34), living in a household with inadequate hygiene (AOR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.12-1.59), and the household not being visited by a family planning worker in the last year (AOR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.19-1.77). However, an increase in the child's age by even a month had significant negative associations with unhygienic practice (AOR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.60-0.70), even when controlling for other covariates. CONCLUSION: Almost one third of the mothers do not practice hygienic disposal of children's stools in Cambodia. Unhygienic practices were more prevalent in certain regions, and were also associated with low wealth, lack of education, an increase in the number of children under five in the household, religion, lack of sanitation and access to healthcare professionals. Conversely, the child's age was found to be positively associated with the hygienic disposal of children's stools.


Assuntos
Fezes , Eliminação de Resíduos/normas , Saneamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Camboja , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Razão de Chances , Pobreza , Saneamento/normas , Toaletes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252946, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161351

RESUMO

Access to safe, clean water and sanitation is globally recognized as essential for public health. Public toilets should be accessible to all members of a society, without social or physical barriers preventing usage. A public toilet facility's design and upkeep should offer privacy and safety, ensure cleanliness, provide required sanitation-related resources, and be gender equitable, including enabling comfortable and safe management of menstruation. Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) refers to the need to ensure that girls, women and all people who menstruate have access to clean menstrual products, privacy to change the materials as often as needed, soap and water for washing the body as required, and access to facilities to dispose of used materials. Challenges around menstruation faced by people experiencing homelessness, which tend to be greater than those facing the general population, include inadequate toilet and bathing facilities, affordability issues around menstrual products, and menstrual stigma. Public toilets are a vital resource for managing menstruation, particularly for vulnerable populations without reliable access to private, safe, and clean spaces and menstrual products. This mixed-methods study sought to: 1) understand the lived experiences of MHM among people experiencing homelessness in New York City with respect to public toilets; 2) describe general and MHM-related characteristics of public toilets in high need areas of Manhattan and analyze their interrelationships; and 3) examine the associations among neighborhood-level demographics and the public toilet characteristics in those areas. Qualitative methods included key informant interviews (n = 15) and in-depth interviews (n = 22) with people with experience living on the street or in shelters, which were analyzed using Malterud's 'systematic text condensation' for thematic cross-case analysis. Quantitative methods included audits and analyses of public toilet facilities (n = 25) using traditional statistics (e.g., Spearman's correlations) and spatial analyses (e.g., proximity buffers). Qualitative findings suggest cleanliness, access to restrooms, and availability of resources are critical issues for the participants or prospective users. Quantitative analyses revealed insufficiently provided, maintained, and resourced public toilets for managing menstruation in high-needs areas. Findings also suggest that toilets with more MHM-related resource availability, such as menstrual products and toilet stall disposal bins, were more difficult to access. Neighborhood-level characteristics showed a potential environmental injustice, as areas characterized by higher socioeconomic status are associated with more access to MHM-specific resources in public restrooms, as well as better overall quality.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Menstruação , Logradouros Públicos/normas , Saneamento/normas , Toaletes/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 235: 113756, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schools, depending on their access to and quality of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and the implementation of healthy behaviours, can be critical for the control and spread of many infectious diseases, including COVID-19. Schools provide opportunities for pupils to learn about the importance of hygiene and WASH-related practice, and build healthy habits and skills, with beneficial medium- and long-term consequences particularly in low- and middle-income countries: reducing pupils' absenteeism due to diseases, promoting physical, mental and social health, and improving learning outcomes. WASH services alone are often not sufficient and need to be combined with educational programmes. As pupils disseminate their acquired health-promoting knowledge to their (extended) families, improved WASH provisions and education in schools have beneficial effects also on the community. International organisations frequently roll out interventions in schools to improve WASH services and, in some cases, train pupils and teachers on safe WASH behaviours. How such interventions relate to local school education on WASH, health promotion and disease prevention knowledge, whether and how such knowledge and school books are integrated into WASH education interventions in schools, are knowledge gaps we fill. METHODS: We analyzed how Kenyan primary school science text book content supports WASH and health education by a book review including books used from class 1 through class 8, covering the age range from 6 to 13 years. We then conducted a rapid literature review of combined WASH interventions that included a behaviour change or educational component, and a rapid review of international policy guidance documents to contextualise the results and understand the relevance of books and school education for WASH interventions implemented by international organisations. We conducted a content analysis based on five identified thematic categories, including drinking water, sanitation, hygiene, environmental hygiene & health promotion and disease risks, and mapped over time the knowledge about WASH and disease prevention. RESULTS: The books comprehensively address drinking water issues, including sources, quality, treatment, safe storage and water conservation; risks and transmission pathways of various waterborne (Cholera, Typhoid fever), water-based (Bilharzia), vector-related (Malaria) and other communicable diseases (Tuberculosis); and the importance of environmental hygiene and health promotion. The content is broadly in line with internationally recommended WASH topics and learning objectives. Gaps remain on personal hygiene and handwashing, including menstrual hygiene, sanitation education, and related health risks and disease exposures. The depth of content varies greatly over time and across the different classes. Such locally available education materials already used in schools were considered by none of the WASH education interventions in the considered intervention studies. CONCLUSIONS: The thematic gaps/under-representations in books that we identified, namely sanitation, hygiene and menstrual hygiene education, are all high on the international WASH agenda, and need to be filled especially now, in the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Disconnects exist between school book knowledge and WASH education interventions, between policy and implementation, and between theory and practice, revealing missed opportunities for effective and sustainable behaviour change, and underlining the need for better integration. Considering existing local educational materials and knowledge may facilitate the buy-in and involvement of teachers and school managers in strengthening education and implementing improvements. We suggest opportunities for future research, behaviour change interventions and decision-making to improve WASH in schools.


Assuntos
Água Potável/normas , Educação em Saúde , Higiene/normas , Saneamento/normas , Adolescente , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Doenças Transmissíveis/transmissão , Currículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Quênia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Livros de Texto como Assunto
16.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250814, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unsafe disposal of children's stool makes children susceptible to fecal-oral diseases and children remain vulnerable till the stools of all children are disposed of safely. There is a paucity of data on spatial distribution and factors associated with unsafe child stool disposal in Ethiopia. Previous estimates, however, do not include information regarding individual and community-level factors associated with unsafe child stool disposal. Hence, the current study aimed (i) to explore the spatial distribution and (ii) to identify factors associated with unsafe child stool disposal in Ethiopia. METHODS: A secondary data analysis was conducted using the recent 2016 Ethiopian demographic and health survey data. A total of 4145 children aged 0-23 months with their mother were included in this analysis. The Getis-Ord spatial statistical tool was used to identify high and low hotspots areas of unsafe child stool disposal. The Bernoulli model was applied using Kilduff SaTScan version 9.6 software to identify significant spatial clusters. A multilevel multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with unsafe child stool disposal. RESULTS: Unsafe child stool disposal was spatially clustered in Ethiopia (Moran's Index = 0.211, p-value< 0.0001), and significant spatial SaTScan clusters of areas with a high rate of unsafe child stool disposal were detected. The most likely primary SaTScan cluster was detected in Tigray, Amhara, Afar (north), and Benishangul-Gumuz (north) regions (LLR: 41.62, p<0.0001). Unsafe child stool disposal is more prevalent among households that had unimproved toilet facility (AOR = 1.54, 95%CI: 1.17-2.02) and those with high community poorer level (AOR: 1.74, 95%CI: 1.23-2.46). Higher prevalence of unsafe child stool disposal was also found in households with poor wealth quintiles. Children belong to agrarian regions (AOR: 0.62, 95%CI 0.42-0.91), children 6-11 months of age (AOR: 0.65, 95%CI: 0.52-0.83), 12-17 months of age (AOR: 0.68, 95%CI: 0.54-0.86), and 18-23 months of age (AOR: 0.58, 95%CI: 0.45-0.75) had lower odds of unsafe child stool disposal. CONCLUSIONS: Unsafe child stool disposal was spatially clustered. Higher odds of unsafe child stool disposal were found in households with high community poverty level, poor, unimproved toilet facility, and with the youngest children. Hence, the health authorities could tailor effective child stool management programs to mitigate the inequalities identified in this study. It is also better to consider child stool management intervention in existing sanitation activities considering the identified factors.


Assuntos
Fezes , Saneamento/normas , Toaletes/normas , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multinível , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Software , Análise Espacial
17.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250696, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While lactation is a physiological process requiring high energy demand to fulfill the nutrient requirements of the mother and the breastfeeding child, many factors affecting maternal nutrient intake can lead to nutritional deficits. Previous studies in Ethiopia have reported the prevalence of maternal and child undernutrition and related complications. However, qualitative studies exploring potential barriers to utilizing available nutrition interventions are limited. This study, therefore, sought to qualitatively explore barriers hindering the uptake of nutrition services among lactating mothers from rural communities in Tigray, northern Ethiopia. METHODS: We conducted 6 in-depth interviews, 70 key informant interviews, and 13 focus group discussions among purposively selected community groups, experts, and lactating mothers between November- 2017 and January- 2018. Audio records of all interviews and focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim (word-to-word) and translated into English. Then, translated data were analyzed thematically using qualitative data analysis software Atlas ti-version 7.4. RESULTS: The participants in this study perceived that lactating mothers in their study area are not properly utilizing available and recommended nutrition interventions, and as a result, their nutrient intake was reported as inadequate. Participants identified inadequate accessibility and availability of foods, feeding practices, cultural and religious influences, focus on agricultural production and productivity, barriers related to health services and poor access to water, sanitation and hygiene as major barriers hindering the uptake of nutrition interventions by lactating women in Tigray, northern Ethiopia. CONCLUSION: The uptake of nutrition intervention services was low among lactating mothers and was hindered by multiple socio-cultural and health service related factors requiring problem-specific interventions at community, health facility, and administrative levels to improve the nutritional status of lactating mothers in the study area.


Assuntos
Mães/psicologia , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Carência Cultural , Atenção à Saúde , Etiópia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Higiene/normas , Entrevistas como Assunto , Conhecimento , Lactação , População Rural , Saneamento/normas
18.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 502, 2021 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of research investigating the confluence of risk factors in urban slums that may make them accelerators for respiratory, droplet infections like COVID-19. Our working hypothesis was that, even within slums, an inverse relationship existed between living density and access to shared or private WASH facilities. METHODS: In an exploratory, secondary analysis of World Bank, cross-sectional microdata from slums in Bangladesh we investigated the relationship between intra-household population density (crowding) and access to private or shared water sources and toilet facilities. RESULTS: The analysis showed that most households were single-room dwellings (80.4%). Median crowding ranged from 0.55 m2 per person up to 67.7 m2 per person. The majority of the dwellings (83.3%), shared both toilet facilities and the source of water, and there was a significant positive relationship between crowding and the use of shared facilities. CONCLUSION: The findings highlight the practical constraints on implementing, in slums, the conventional COVID19 management approaches of social distancing, regular hand washing, and not sharing spaces. It has implications for the management of future respiratory epidemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Aglomeração , Características da Família/etnologia , Áreas de Pobreza , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Higiene/normas , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Saneamento/normas , Toaletes/normas , População Urbana
19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(4): 1535-1539, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646976

RESUMO

Safe water supply, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) are among key components to prevent and control waterborne diseases such as cholera, schistosomiasis, and other gastrointestinal morbidities in the community. In 2018, there was cholera outbreak in Ngorongoro district that was fueled by inadequate and unsafe water as well as poor sanitation and hygiene. We used an analytical cross-sectional study first to determine the proportion of households with access to WaSH and second to assess factors associated with coverage of household's access to WaSH. Methods included interviewing heads of the household to assess the availability of safe drinking water, use of unshared toilet/latrine by household members only, and the availability of functional handwashing facility. Eight percent of households had access to WaSH. Access to household's WaSH was positively associated with household's monthly income, education of heads of the household, and water use per person per week. To control water-related morbidities, there is a need to improve access to reliable safe drinking water, expand alternatives of households to earn more incomes, and enhance proper sanitation and hygiene services to rural areas and marginalized groups like the Maasai of Ngorongoro in Tanzania.


Assuntos
Água Potável/normas , Características da Família , Higiene/normas , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Saneamento/normas , Abastecimento de Água , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Tanzânia , Toaletes/normas
20.
J Agromedicine ; 26(2): 256-265, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632083

RESUMO

Objectives This paper examines health profiles and work environments of hired U.S. farmworkers to understand the risk to essential workers and their employers, to the food supply, and to rural health systems such as what is possible with the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods Large-sample statistical methods and proprietary data from the National Agricultural Workers Survey from 2000 to 2018 were used to assess factors associated with exposure to COVID-19 and vulnerabilities associated with medical complications. Results An aging workforce and increased access to health care within the crop worker population has been associated with a higher reported incidence of diabetes, asthma, and heart disease among workers over time. These trends confirm a vulnerable, but essential, workforce with higher risks for COVID-19 complications than would have been true of U.S. farmworkers as a group in earlier years. Conclusions Increasing age and disease burden in the U.S. agricultural labor force puts workers at increased risk for developing COVID-19 complications. Limits to field sanitation and housing quality inflate the probability of the development of COVID-19 hotbeds in rural communities that could further compromise the physical health of workers, the economic health of farm establishments, the agricultural supply-chain, and rural health capacities. Additional and more targeted worker protections may minimize public health and economic costs in the long run.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Asma/epidemiologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/transmissão , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Habitação/normas , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Saneamento/normas , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Local de Trabalho
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