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1.
Planta ; 255(2): 34, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35006338

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The SNF5-type protein BUSHY plays a role in the regulation of seed germination via the gibberellin pathway dependent on HUB1 in Arabidopsis thaliana. SWITCH/SUCROSE NONFERMENTING (SWI/SNF) complexes play diverse roles in plant development. Some components have roles in embryo development and seed maturation, however, whether the SNF5-type protein BUSHY (BSH), one of the components, plays a role in Arabidopsis seed related traits is presently unclear. In our study, we show that a loss-of-function mutation in BSH causes increased seed germination in Arabidopsis. BSH transcription was induced by the gibberellin (GA) inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC) in the seed, and BSH regulates the expression of GA pathway genes, such as Gibberellin 3-Oxidase 1 (GA3OX1), Gibberellic Acid-Stimulated Arabidopsis 4 (GASA4), and GASA6 during seed germination. A genetic analysis showed that seed germination was distinctly improved in the bshga3ox1ga3ox2 triple mutant, indicating that BSH acts partially downstream of GA3OX1 and GA3OX2. Moreover, the regulation of seed germination by BSH in response to PAC is dependent on HUB1. These results provide new insights and clues to understand the mechanisms of phytohormones in the regulation of seed germination.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Germinação , Giberelinas , Sementes/metabolismo
2.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 79(1): 69, 2022 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34974624

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N) availability is a critical factor for plant development and crop yield, and it closely correlates to carbon (C) metabolism. Uncoupling protein (UCP) and alternative oxidase (AOX) exhibit a strong correlation with N and C metabolism. Here, we investigated the functions of UCP1 and AOX1a using their mutants and complementation lines in Arabidopsis adaptation to low N. Low N markedly increased AOX1a and UCP1 expression, alternative pathway capacity and UCP activity. Eight-day-old aox1a/ucp1 seedlings were more sensitive to low N than Col-0 and single mutants, exhibiting lower primary root length and higher anthocyanin accumulation. The net photosynthetic rate, electron transport rate, PSII actual photochemical efficiency, stomatal conductance and carboxylation efficiency were markedly decreased in ucp1 and aox1a/ucp1 compared to those in Col-0 and aox1a under low N stress; comparatively, chlorophyll content and non-photochemical quenching coefficient were the lowest and highest in aox1a/ucp1, respectively. Nitrate acquisition rate was accelerated in aox1a/ucp1, but its transport activity was decreased, which resulted in low nitrate content and nitrate reductase activity under low N condition. The C/N ratio in seeds, but not in leaves, is higher in aox1a/ucp1 than that in Col-0, aox1a and ucp1 under low N condition. RNA-seq analysis revealed that many genes involved in photosynthesis and C/N metabolism were markedly down-regulated in aox1a/ucp1 under low N stress. These results highlight the key roles of UCP1 and AOX1a in modulating photosynthetic capacity, C/N assimilation and distribution under low N stress.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Clorofila/análise , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Oxirredutases/genética , Fotossíntese/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , RNA-Seq , Plântula/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Proteína Desacopladora 1/genética
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 15, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cremastra appendiculata is a rare terrestrial orchid with a high market value as an ornamental and medicinal plant. However, the species depends entirely on fungi for seed germination under natural conditions. In a previous study, we have successfully isolated and identified the mycorrhizal fungus Coprinellus disseminatus which was able to induce the germination of C. appendiculata seeds. We then speculated that C. disseminatus may do so by breaking the testa imposed dormancy of the seeds. In this study, biochemical and transcriptomic analyses were used to characterize the germination of C. appendiculata seeds, collected at different stages of germination, as affected by C. disseminatus. RESULTS: The lignocellulose in the seeds coat of C. appendiculata was degraded by the mycorrhizal fungus resulting in facilitated absorption of water. The rate of decline in lignin content was 67 and 73% at 6 and 12 days after sowing, respectively. The water content increased from 13 to 90% during symbiosis. A total of 15,382 genes showing significantly different levels of expression (log2 FPKM≥2.0, Qvalue≤0.05) were successfully identified among all libraries, where the highest number of DEGs was shared between 6 days versus 0 day after symbiotic germination. Gene annotation results suggested that 15 key genes related water-status, such as DHN gene family and Xero 1 were down-regulated. The genes zeaxanthin epoxidase ZEP, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase NCED3 and ß-carotene hydroxylase involved in the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) were significantly down-regulated in 6 days as compared to 0 day after symbiotic germination. CONCLUSIONS: This work demonstrates that mycorrhizal fungus C. disseminatus can stimulate C. appendiculata seeds germination through a mechanism of breaking the testa imposed dormancy and inducing water absorption of the embryo.


Assuntos
Agaricales/fisiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Orchidaceae/fisiologia , Simbiose , Agaricales/genética , Agaricales/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Germinação , Lignina/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Orchidaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Orchidaceae/microbiologia , RNA-Seq , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/microbiologia , Água/metabolismo
4.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 44, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small RNAs (sRNAs) regulate numerous plant processes directly related to yield, such as disease resistance and plant growth. To exploit this yield-regulating potential of sRNAs, the sRNA profile of one of the world's most important staple crops - rice - was investigated throughout plant development using next-generation sequencing. RESULTS: Root and leaves were investigated at both the vegetative and generative phase, and early-life sRNA expression was characterized in the embryo and endosperm. This led to the identification of 49,505 novel sRNAs and 5581 tRNA-derived sRNAs (tsRNAs). In all tissues, 24 nt small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were highly expressed and associated with euchromatic, but not heterochromatic transposable elements. Twenty-one nt siRNAs deriving from genic regions in the endosperm were exceptionally highly expressed, mimicking previously reported expression levels of 24 nt siRNAs in younger endosperm samples. In rice embryos, sRNA content was highly diverse while tsRNAs were underrepresented, possibly due to snoRNA activity. Publicly available mRNA expression and DNA methylation profiles were used to identify putative siRNA targets in embryo and endosperm. These include multiple genes related to the plant hormones gibberellic acid and ethylene, and to seed phytoalexin and iron content. CONCLUSIONS: This work introduces multiple sRNAs as potential regulators of rice yield and quality, identifying them as possible targets for the continuous search to optimize rice production.


Assuntos
Oryza , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Endosperma , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , RNA de Plantas , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Sementes
5.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 170: 266-274, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34929430

RESUMO

Castor beans accumulate large amounts of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in the seed endosperm. This oil contains hydroxylated ricinoleic levels close to 90%, which is unique among oil seeds. The capacity to accumulate such high levels of such an unusual fatty acids is due to its specific accumulation and channeling. Here, the ability of the castor biosynthetic machinery to accumulate unusual fatty acids in the form of TAGs was investigated, focusing on ricinoleic acid and the structurally analogous lesquerolic and coriolic fatty acids. The metabolism of different radioactive precursors in active membrane fractions from castor bean's were studied, and the rates and accumulation of these fatty acids provided evidence of the different mechanisms involved in the accumulation of hydroxylated fatty acids in this species. In particular, these studies highlighted the potential of castor to accumulate unusual fatty acids other than ricinoleic acid, showing that castor endosperm can efficiently accumulate lesquerolic acid.


Assuntos
Semente de Rícino , Ixodes , Animais , Ácidos Graxos , Microssomos , Ricinus , Sementes
6.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 62-72, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dehulling and splitting are important elements of the milling process to produce dhal from pulses. However, grain that is difficult-to-mill because of tightly adhered seed coats or cotyledons that resist separation makes it difficult to achieve high quality dhal. Milling yields are reduced, energy inputs into the milling process are increased, and the resulting dhal can be of poorer quality, chipped or abraded. RESULTS: Eight enzyme pre-treatments were chosen based on the hypothesised mechanisms of seed coat and cotyledon adhesion established previously. Using a difficult-to-mill chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotype, we examined the effects of these pre-treatments, over time, on laboratory-scale milling performance and dhal quality. We pioneered a texture analyser method to measure the flex of the cotyledons and the force required to cleave the cotyledons. The enzyme-induced changes ranged from negative (tough seed coat, weight loss, deleterious colour and texture, increased visual damage to cotyledons and increased kibble loss, concave cotyledons, increased flex, and changes in taste) to positive (brittle seed coat, increased seed volume, improved dehulling efficiency and splitting yield, reduced cotyledon cleavage force, and acceptable dhal quality and taste). CONCLUSION: All pre-treatments improved milling performance compared to milling the raw seed, although there was considerable variation between them. Two pre-treatments showed no improvement in milling yields compared to the water control, and several pre-treatments resulted in unacceptable qualities. Three pre-treatments, endo-polygalacturonanase, α-galactosidase and cellulase, show potential for commercial milling applications and could assist pulse millers globally to achieve high quality dhal at the same time as minimising milling effort. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Cicer/química , Cotilédone/química , Enzimas/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Sementes/química , Biocatálise , Cicer/genética , Cotilédone/genética , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Genótipo , Sementes/genética
7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 299-311, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stevia rebaudiana is a high value crop due to the strong commercial demand for its metabolites (steviol glycosides) but has limited geographical cultivation range. In non-native environments with different daylength and light quality, Stevia has low germination rates and early flowering resulting in lower biomass and poor yield of the desired metabolites. In this study, artificial lighting with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was used to determine if different light quality within and outside of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) range can be used to improve germination rates and yields for production of steviol glycosides for the herbal supplement and food industry. RESULTS: Plants treated with red and blue light at an intensity of 130 µmol m-2  s-1 supplemented with 5% of UV-A light under a 16-h photoperiod produced the most desirable overall results with a high rate of germination, low percentage of early flowering, and high yields of dry leaf, stevioside and rebaudioside A, 175 days after planting. CONCLUSION: While red and blue light combinations are effective for plant growth, the use of supplemental non-PAR irradiation of UV-A wavelength significantly and desirably delayed flowering, enhanced germination, biomass, rebaudioside A and stevioside yields, while supplemental green light improved yield of biomass and rebaudioside A, but not stevioside. Overall, the combination of red, blue and UV-A light resulted in the best overall productivity for Stevia rebaudiana. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Sementes/efeitos da radiação , Stevia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano/metabolismo , Flores/química , Flores/efeitos dos fármacos , Flores/metabolismo , Germinação , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Luz , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Stevia/química , Stevia/metabolismo , Stevia/efeitos da radiação
8.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 268-279, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Foxtail millet grain has higher folate content than other cereal crops. However, the folate metabolite content and the expression patterns of folate metabolite-related genes are unknown. RESULTS: Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to investigate 12 folate metabolites in a foxtail millet panicle. The content of total folate and derivatives gradually decreased during panicle development. Polyglutamate 5-formyl-tetrahydrofolate was the major form. Twenty-eight genes involved in the folate metabolic pathway were identified through bioinformatic analysis. These genes in Setaria italica, S. viridis and Zea mays showed genomic collinearity. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the folate-related genes were closely related among the C4 plants compared to C3 plants. The gene expressions were then studied at three panicle development stages. The gene expression patterns were classified into two groups, namely SiADCL1 and SiGGH as two key enzymes, which are responsible for folate synthesis and degradation; their expression levels were highest at the early panicle development stage, up to 179.11- and 163.88-fold, respectively. Their expression levels had a similar downward trend during panicle development and were significantly positively correlated with the concentration of total folate and folate derivatives. However, SiSHMT3 expression levels were significantly negatively correlated with total folate concentration. CONCLUSION: Besides being the major determinants of folate and folate derivatives accumulation, SiADCL1 and SiGGH expression levels are key limiting factors in the foxtail millet panicle. Therefore, SiADCL1 and SiGGH expression levels can be targeted in genetic modification studies to improve folate content in foxtail millet seeds in the future. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Setaria (Planta)/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Setaria (Planta)/genética , Setaria (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 370-382, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rice yield and grain quality are highly sensitive to soil salinity. Distinct rice genotypes respond to salinity stress differently. To explore the variation in grain yield and grain trait adaptation to moderate, reproductive-stage salinity stress (4 dS/m electrical conductivity), four rice cultivars differing in degrees of vegetative salt tolerance, including Pokkali (salt-tolerant), RD15 (moderately salt-tolerant), KDML105 (moderately salt-susceptible) and IR29 (salt-susceptible), were examined. RESULTS: Grain fertility and 100-grain weight of RD15, KDML105 and IR29, as well as grain morphology of KDML105 and IR29, were significantly disturbed. Interestingly, grain starch accumulation in RD15 and KDML105 was enhanced under stress. However, only RD15 showed changes in starch physicochemical properties, including increased granule diameter, decreased gelatinization peak temperature (Tp ) and decreased retrogradation onset temperature (To ). Notably, Pokkali maintained productivity, grain quality, and starch properties, while the grain quality of IR29 remained unchanged under salinity stress. Multivariate analysis displayed clear separation of productivity, grain morphology, and starch variables of RD15 in the salt-treated group relative to the control group, suggesting that it was the cultivar most impacted by salt stress despite its moderate salt-tolerance at vegetative stage. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate specific salinity responses among the rice genotypes, and suggest discrepancies between degrees of salt tolerance at vegetative stage versus the ability to maintain both grain quality and starch properties in response to salinity stress imposed at reproductive stage. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/química , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Amido/química , Genótipo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Salinidade , Estresse Salino , Tolerância ao Sal , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Amido/metabolismo
10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 360-369, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sowing date, seeding rate, and nitrogen (N) topdressing ratio have strong effects on grain yield (GY) and bread-making quality (BQ) in bread wheat. Simultaneous improvement in GY and BQ in bread wheat has long been a challenge due to the inverse relationship between GY and grain protein concentration (GPC). In this study, we investigated whether the GY and BQ of bread wheat sown on different dates could be improved simultaneously by optimizing the seeding rate and the N topdressing ratio. RESULTS: Delaying sowing beyond a certain period led to decreases in both GY and BQ. Optimizing the seeding rate and N topdressing ratio enhanced the N uptake during pre- and post-anthesis, as well as N remobilization during grain filling for all wheat plants sown on different dates, thereby increasing the GPC and the total N per grain (Ntot ). Consequently, grain protein composition was improved, resulting in an increased glutenin/gliadin ratio, sodium dodecyl sulfate-insoluble glutenin/total glutenin (i.e., glutenin polymerization index), and high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit/ low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS/LMW-GS) ratio. Increased GPC and improved grain protein composition enhanced BQ. CONCLUSION: The mechanism underlying simultaneous improvement in GY and GPC as well as Ntot was the greater increase in N accumulation in grains per unit area relative to increases in GY, or total grain number per unit area. The GY and BQ can be improved simultaneously regardless of sowing date by optimizing the seeding rate and N topdressing ratio via enhanced N uptake and N remobilization into grains. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Tempo , Triticum/química , Triticum/metabolismo
11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 407-416, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hydric stress affects the production of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide, making some tools necessary to cope with the decrease in rainfall. A sustainable alternative is the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) as biofertilisers. Here, we analysed the effects of AMF strains adapted or non-adapted to hyper-arid conditions on the phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of wheat grains from two cultivars with contrasting tolerance to osmotic stress (Ilustre, moderately tolerant; and Maxi, tolerant) grown with and without hydric stress. RESULTS: Eight phenolic compounds were detected, apigenin-C-pentoside-C-hexoside I being the most abundant and showing an increase of 80.5% when inoculated with the fungus Funneliformis mosseae (FM) obtained from Atacama Desert under normal irrigation with respect to non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants. NM treatments were associated with higher grain yields. FM showed a noticeable effect on most phenolic compounds, with an increase up to 30.2% in apigenin-C-pentoside-C-hexoside III concentration under hydric stress with respect to normal irrigation, being also responsible for high antioxidant activities such as ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) activities. CONCLUSION: Inoculation with FM adapted to hydric stress produced improvements in phenolics composition and antioxidant activities in grains from wheat plants growing under hydric stress conditions, improving their food quality and supporting the development of further studies to determine whether the use of adapted AMF could be a realistic tool to improve grain quality in a scenario of increasing hydric stress conditions. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Inoculantes Agrícolas/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/química , Fungos/fisiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Fenóis/química , Sementes/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/microbiologia , Triticum/química , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia
12.
Food Chem ; 366: 130645, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325243

RESUMO

The chemical and thermal characteristics of goldenberry pomace oil (GPO) and goldenberry seed oil (GSO) were investigated. GPO and GSO contained high levels of unsaturated fatty acids (90.1% and 85.1%, respectively), and the major fatty acid was linoleic (62.0% and 72.8%, respectively). Additionally, GPO contained eleven triacylglycerol (TAG) species, three of which represented 82.7%, namely C54:6, C54:4 and C52:4, and trilinolein was the dominant one (35.5%). GSO contained nine TAG species, two of which represented 80.3%, namely C54:6 and C52:4, and trilinolein was dominant (53.3%). The DSC analysis of GPO and GSO revealed that three exothermal peaks were detected during cooling. Three endothermal peaks (one of which is exothermal for GSO) were detected during melting, and the most significant peaks occurred at low temperatures. FTIR spectra indicated that GPO and GSO did not contain peroxides or trans fatty acids, but they did contain low concentrations of free fatty acids.


Assuntos
Physalis , Cristalização , Ácidos Graxos , Sementes , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
13.
Food Chem ; 367: 130647, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343806

RESUMO

To increase the reuse of food residues, multifrequency countercurrent ultrasonic treatment was used to enhance the extraction yield of defatted mulberry seed protein (DMSP), and sweet-flavored peptides from DMSP hydrolysates (DMSPHs) were obtained for the first time. Here, the DMSP yield was increased by 16.2% (p < 0.05) while the power density was halved compared with single-frequency ultrasonic treatment. According to Fick's second law, a molecular diffusion dynamics model was developed to be suitable for predicting the pretreatment conditions (R2 = 0.9785). After that, the sweet-flavored peptides were purified and the main amino acid sequences were identified, i.e., FEGGSIE, KDFPEAHSQAT, and GSQPAEGAK. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of DMSPHs prepared with tri-frequency treatment was higher than 60%. The DMSPHs retarded the growth of HepG2 cells in vitro, increased the necrotic quadrant (Q1-UL), and extended the S phase. Therefore, the sweet-flavored peptides prepared from DMSPHs using the multifrequency-ultrasonic treatment have significant biological activities.


Assuntos
Morus , Antioxidantes , Peptídeos , Sementes , Tecnologia , Ultrassom
14.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131819, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371354

RESUMO

Seed dressing with fungicide or insecticide is a standard procedure for growing major crops, but very little is known about the leaching risk and the general fate of pesticides from coated seeds. Triazole fungicides are commonly used seed dressing fungicides and recently, there has been increasing concern that 1,2,4-triazole, a major degradation product of several triazole fungicides, may leach to groundwater in concentrations exceeding the 0.1 µg/L threshold limit of the European Union. We therefore carried out a laboratory column experiment with commercial barley seeds coated with the triazole fungicides tebuconazole and prothioconazole to study the fate of the fungicides and their degradation products, especially 1,2,4-triazole. Our experiment showed that the fungicides themselves were relatively immobile in the soil columns, but also that leaching of 1,2,4-triazole will occur no matter if tebuconazole or prothioconazole is used as seed dressing. Relatively high 1,2,4-triazole concentrations (up to 0.8 µg/L) were measured in the column leachates, but when the experiment was terminated after 63 days, a total of only 1 % of the fungicides was recovered as 1,2,4-triazole in the leachate. Our results suggest that seed dressing pesticides should be considered together with spray applications when estimating the total 1,2,4-triazole load from agriculture and that seed dressing pesticides and their degradation products should be included when evaluating leaching risks from pesticide applications in agriculture.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Hordeum , Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Sementes/química , Triazóis
15.
Food Chem ; 367: 130722, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375893

RESUMO

Lupin is slated as a potential contributor towards future food security. Lupin possesses several nutritional and nutraceutical attributes, many linked to seed proteins. For in-depth characterisation of the lupin proteome, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to evaluate four protein extraction procedures. The proteomes of three narrow-leafed lupin were qualitatively evaluated using protein/peptide identifications and further quantitatively assessed by data-independent proteome measurement. Each extraction buffer led to unique protein identifications; altogether yielding 2,760 protein identifications from lupin varieties. The analysis of protein abundance data highlighted distinct differences between Tris-HCl and urea extracted proteomes, while also revealing variation amongst the cultivar proteomes with the wild accession (P27255) distinctly different from the domesticated cultivars (Tanjil, Unicrop). The extraction buffer used influenced the proteome coverage, downstream functional annotation results and consequently the biological interpretation demonstrating the need to optimise and understand the impact of protein extraction conditions.


Assuntos
Lupinus , Lupinus/genética , Espectrometria de Massas , Folhas de Planta , Proteoma , Sementes
16.
Food Chem ; 367: 130760, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390911

RESUMO

Rapid volatile detection methods for seed vigour rely heavily on artificial ageing (AA), however the comparability of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to natural ageing (NA) and practicability of the detection models were not well known. In this study, VOCs between AA and NA sweet corn seeds were compared and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS-R) modelswere constructed based on AA to predict the seed vigour of NA. A total of 33 VOCs were identified, among which aldehydes showed the highest consistency between NA and AA. Furthermore, a AS-PLS-R model with variable importance in projection (VIP > 1) and Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r > 0.9) algorithms, which was built on 3 volatile markers: benzaldehyde monomer, n-nonanal, 1-butanol monomer, achieved the best performance (R2p of 0.901 and RMSEP of 0.050). Therefore, coupling Gas Chromatography- Ion Mobility Spectrometry (GC-IMS) with chemometrics can be an effective way to monitor and predict stored seeds vigour.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Espectrometria de Mobilidade Iônica , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Sementes/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
17.
Food Chem ; 368: 130777, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392118

RESUMO

In this study, oils extracted from nigella seeds (NS) subjected to microwave roasting at 180, 360, 540 and 720 W for 5 and 10 min were evaluated for quality and stability characteristics. The impact of microwave powers on oil yield, pigment content, Maillard reaction products (MRPs), radical scavenging activity (RSA), color, viscosity, total phenolic content (TPC), oxidative stability index (OSI) and fatty acid composition (FAC) of oil was studied. TPC, RSA, OSI, MRPs, viscosity, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were higher in oil of NS heated at 720 W for 10 min while maximum oil yield and low acid value was observed for NS heated at 540 W for 10 min. FAC was slightly influenced by microwave roasting and FTIR spectra exhibited a minor difference in intensities of peaks at 3009, 2925, 2854, 1745 and 1161 cm-1. The results of the study indicated that microwave roasting improves NS oil quality characteristics.


Assuntos
Nigella sativa , Nigella , Antioxidantes , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada , Micro-Ondas , Estresse Oxidativo , Óleos Vegetais , Sementes
18.
Food Chem ; 368: 130842, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419794

RESUMO

This study proposes a preliminary assessment of the homogeneity and stability through digital image acquisition of a candidate for mechanically processed pumpkin seed meal reference material, exploring the concepts of homogeneity curve and the analysis of texture characteristics by Continuous-Level Moving Block through Robust Principal Component Analysis. This innovative methodology allowed us to examine the percentage of homogeneity in a set of samples, revealing an average of 41% with only one outlier in relation to the entire sample, indicating low homogeneity. In the stability study carried out after storing samples for 12 months at different temperatures, 83% of the samples were considered regular and 17% were outlier, which means that most of them were considered stable. Therefore, this methodology is useful for screening samples for homogeneity, by textural analysis, and detected non-homogeneity can be corrected in advance for quantification by standard protocols.


Assuntos
Cucurbita , Farinha , Computadores , Farinha/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Padrões de Referência , Sementes
19.
Food Chem ; 368: 130799, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425343

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the changes in physical and chemical properties of edamame during bean development and apply a spectroscopy-based machine learning (ML) technique to determine optimal harvest time. The edamame harvested at R5 (beginning seed), R6 (full seed), and R7 (beginning maturity) growth stages were characterized for physical and chemical properties, and pods were measured for spectral reflectance (360-740 nm) using a handheld spectrophotometer. The samples were categorized into 'early', 'ready', and 'late' based on the characterized properties. The results showed that pod/bean weight and pod thickness peaked at R6 and remained stable thereafter. Sugar, starch, alanine, and glycine also peaked at R6 but proceeded to decline. The ML method (random forest classification) using pods' spectral reflectance had a high accuracy of 0.95 for classifying 'early' and 'late' samples and 0.87 for classifying 'early' and 'ready' samples. Therefore, this method can determine the optimal harvest time of edamame.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Soja , Sementes , Análise Espectral , Açúcares
20.
Food Chem ; 369: 130875, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438342

RESUMO

Cardoon seeds collected in Greece at four different maturity stages (samples S1 to S4) were analysed in terms of chemical composition and in vitro bioactivities. The content of phenolic compounds (six compounds in total) increased with increasing maturity, and 3,5-O-dicaffeyolquinic (14.8-33.8 mg/g extract) acid was the compound detected in higher abundance. Mature seeds (sample S4) also revealed the highest content in lipids (23 g/100 g extract) and tocopherols (29.62 mg/100 g dw) and demonstrated the highest cytotoxic (GI50 of 97-216 µg/mL) and anti-inflammatory (IC50 = 148 µg/mL) activities, and capacity to inhibit the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (IC50 = 5 µg/mL). Cardoon seed hydroethanolic extracts also revealed high antibacterial and antifungal potential, particularly samples S3 and S1, respectively. This study proved the multifaceted potential associated with valorisation of cardoon seeds, while their biological and chemical composition can be influenced by the maturity stage.


Assuntos
Cynara , Anti-Inflamatórios , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/química
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