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1.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(6)2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35735546

RESUMO

Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is a powerful visualization tool for quantifying blood flow in tissues, providing simplicity of configuration, ease of use, and intuitive results. With recent advancements, smartphone and camera technologies are suitable for the development of smartphone-based LSCI applications for point-of-care (POC) diagnosis. A smartphone-based portable LSCI endoscope system was validated for POC diagnosis of vascular disorders. The endoscope consisted of compact LED and laser illumination, imaging optics, and a flexible fiberscope assembled in a 3D-printed hand-held cartridge for access to body cavities and organs. A smartphone's rear camera was mounted thereto, enabling endoscopy, LSCI image acquisition, and processing. Blood flow imaging was calibrated in a perfused tissue phantom consisting of a microparticle solution pumped at known rates through tissue-mimicking gel and validated in a live rat model of BBN-induced bladder cancer. Raw LSCI images successfully visualized phantom flow: speckle flow index showed linearity with the pump flow rate. In the rat model, healthy and cancerous bladders were distinguishable in structure and vasculature. The smartphone-based low-cost portable mobile endoscope for monitoring blood flow and perfusion shows promise for preclinical applications and may be suitable for primary diagnosis at home or as a cost-effective POC testing assay.


Assuntos
Imagem de Contraste de Manchas a Laser , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia , Smartphone , Doenças Vasculares/diagnóstico , Animais , Endoscópios , Imagens de Fantasmas , Ratos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/irrigação sanguínea , Doenças Vasculares/fisiopatologia
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 436: 129320, 2022 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739808

RESUMO

Serious toxicity for organisms from pesticide glyphosate (Gly) residues to the ecosystem and human health has become a consensus. Rapid and selective detection of glyphosate, especially using a simple and portable instrument, is highly desired. In this work, we develop a novel enzyme-free rapid and visual ratiometric fluorescence sensor for selectively quantitative detecting glyphosate by integrating the designed blue carbon nanodots (CDs) and gold nanoclusters (Au NCs). The fluorescence of CDs can be quickly quenched via aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) within 2 s after introducing glyphosate, resulting from the formation of CDs-Gly-CDs complex aggregation. While the Au NCs serve as the reference signal without any change, therefore leading to obvious and instant ratiometric fluorescence variation from blue to pink to orange. The broad linear range was obtained from 0 to 180 nM with a satisfactory detection limit of 4.19 nM. Furthermore, this approach was successfully applied to detect glyphosate in real samples and a portable smartphone platform integrated paper sensor was developed for in-site visual quantitative glyphosate detection, offering a promising strategy for the construction of enzyme-free trace hazard detection system.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Praguicidas , Pontos Quânticos , Carbono/química , Ecossistema , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Ouro/química , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Pontos Quânticos/química , Smartphone , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10752, 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750770

RESUMO

Real-time digital image processing to optimally enhance low vision is now realizable with recent advances in personal computers. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a wearable smartphone-based low vision aid (LVA) with customizable vision enhancement in patients with visual impairment. We recruited 35 subjects with visual impairment and who were literate and cognitively capable. The subjects completed a training session and were provided a smartphone-based LVA for a 4-week use. Visual functions including binocular best-corrected distance, intermediate, and near visual acuities; reading performance (reading speed and accuracy); and facial recognition performance were measured at baseline and after 4-weeks use. All subjects also completed the Low Vision Quality of Life (LVQOL) Questionnaire. Thirty-four subjects (mean age, 43.82 ± 15.06 years) completed the study. Significant improvements in binocular best-corrected distance, intermediate, and near visual acuities were observed after smartphone-based LVA use (all p < 0.001). Reading accuracy and facial recognition performance also improved significantly (p = 0.009 and p < 0.001, respectively), but reading speed did not. LVQOL scores significantly improved after 4 weeks of use in subjects aged < 40 years (p = 0.024), but not in subjects aged ≥ 40 years (p = 0.653). Ocular and non-ocular adverse events were infrequent and resolved when the device was removed. The smartphone-based LVA with customizable vision enhancement could provide clinically significant improvements in the visual function of patients with visual impairment and was generally well tolerated. This study suggests that the smartphone-based LVA would be beneficial for visual rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Baixa Visão , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Leitura , Smartphone , Inquéritos e Questionários , Visão Binocular , Acuidade Visual
4.
BMC Res Notes ; 15(1): 222, 2022 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35752807

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive decline is an important and well-documented health problem. The Mini-Cog, a simple cognitive function test, is recommended as a potential early cognitive screening tool. Kanagawa Prefecture, one of the largest prefectures in Japan, developed this self-testing application on a smartphone to enable a large number of residents to assess their cognitive function. This study aimed to verify the validity and reliability of the Mini-Cog. RESULTS: Twenty men and 20 women aged 65-85 years were enrolled. Criterion-related validity of the method tested by professional staff was found to have an acceptable positive association. The test-retest reliability was lower than the clinically expected intraclass correlation coefficient value because of the inclusion of learning and order effects. If the Mini-Cog score of this application is low, the system is equipped with a function that advises the users on preventing cognitive decline, directing them to the appropriate services, and recommending visits to a medical institution. Therefore, the system can be used continuously as a tool for health behaviors and promotions.


Assuntos
Smartphone , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682501

RESUMO

Given that Social Networking Service (SNS) has emerged as the most influential platform, which can lead users to addictive smartphone use, it is necessary to investigate which psychological variables lead smartphone-based SNS users to addictive smartphone use. Still, studies on the relationship between psychological variables and addictive smartphone use among smartphone-based SNS users remain to be explored. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the role of psychological factors on smartphone addiction proneness (SAP). A total of 433 smartphone-based SNS users were collected from 5003 adults in Korea. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation coefficients, and path analysis using SPSS 21.0 and AMOS 23.0. The results of a parallel-mediation path analysis demonstrated that Behavioral Inhibition (BIS), Behavioral activation (BAS) drive, anxiety, and low self-control directly influenced SAP, separately. BIS and BAS _drive also had significant indirect effects on SAP through the effect of anxiety. BIS and BAS_fun had significant indirect effects on SAP through the effect of low self-control. The study variables accounted for 38.4 of the total variances of SAP. Thus, when establishing interventions to reduce the users' addictive smartphone use, these interactive relationships of the variables should be considered.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Autocontrole , Adulto , Ansiedade , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Humanos , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Motivação , Autocontrole/psicologia , Smartphone , Rede Social
6.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 10(6): e31011, 2022 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35731569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dry eye (DE) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the ocular surface of the eye that affects millions of people throughout the world. Smartphone use as an effective health care tool has grown exponentially. The "Dry eye or not?" app was created to evaluate the prevalence of symptomatic DE, screen for its occurrence, and provide feedback to users with symptomatic DE throughout Thailand. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of symptomatic dry eye (DE), blink rate, maximum blink interval (MBI), and best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) between people with and without symptomatic DE and to identify risk factors for symptomatic DE in Thailand. METHODS: This cross-sectional study sourced data from the "Dry eye or not?" smartphone app between November 2019 and July 2020. This app collected demographic data, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score, blink rate, MBI, BSCVA, and visual display terminal (VDT) use data. The criterion for symptomatic DE was OSDI score ≥13. RESULTS: The prevalence of symptomatic DE among individuals using this smartphone app in Thailand was 85.8% (8131/9482), with the Northeastern region of Thailand having the highest prevalence, followed by the Northern region. Worse BSCVA (median 0.20, IQR 0.40; P=.02), increased blink rate (median 18, IQR 16; P<.001), reduced MBI (median 8.90, IQR 10.80; P<.001), female sex (adjusted OR 1.83; 95% CI 1.59-2.09; P<.001), more than 6 hours of VDT use (adjusted OR 1.59; 95% CI 1.15-2.19; P=.004), and lower than bachelor's degree (adjusted OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.03-1.64; P=.02) were significantly associated with symptomatic DE. An age over 50 years (adjusted OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.60-0.99) was significantly less associated with symptomatic DE (P=.04). CONCLUSIONS: This smartphone DE app showed that the prevalence of symptomatic DE in Thailand was 85.8%. Signs and risk factors could be also evaluated with this smartphone DE app. Screening for DE by this app may allow for the development of strategic plans for health care systems in Thailand.


Assuntos
Síndromes do Olho Seco , Aplicativos Móveis , Estudos Transversais , Síndromes do Olho Seco/diagnóstico , Síndromes do Olho Seco/epidemiologia , Síndromes do Olho Seco/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Smartphone
7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(12): e022508, 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35699174

RESUMO

Background Evidence of scaled-up physical activity interventions is scarce. This study evaluates the uptake, engagement, and effectiveness of one such intervention program. Methods and Results The program was open to individuals aged ≥17 years in Singapore. The main intervention components comprised device-based daily physical activity recording paired with step count goals and financial rewards. According to the different reward opportunities, we divided the evaluation period (August 2017 to June 2018) into the baseline monitoring phase, the main challenge phase, and the maintenance phase. Uptake was assessed by the number of individuals registered, and engagement by the step recording duration after registration. The effectiveness was defined as changes in mean daily step count from baseline to the main challenge phase and the maintenance phase. A total of 696 907 participants registered, including more Singapore citizens (versus noncitizens), women, and younger (aged 17-39 years) individuals. The evaluation of engagement and effectiveness included 421 388 (60.5%) participants who provided plausible characteristic information and step count data. The median duration of engagement was 74 (IQR, 14-149) days. Compared with the baseline of 7509 (SD, 3467) steps, mean daily step count increased by 1579 (95% CI, 1564-1594) steps during the main challenge phase and 934 (95% CI, 916-952) steps during the maintenance phase. Greater engagement and activity increase were found in participants who are citizens, women, aged ≥40 years, non-obese, and using separate wearables (versus smartphones). Conclusions Mobile health physical activity interventions can successfully reach a large population and be effective in increasing physical activity, despite declining program engagement over time.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Telemedicina , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recompensa , Singapura/epidemiologia , Smartphone
8.
BMC Nephrol ; 23(1): 219, 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35729490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prediction of graft survival for Kidney Transplantation (KT) is considered a risky task due to the scarcity of donating organs and the use of health care resources. The present study aimed to design and evaluate a smartphone-based application to predict the survival of KT in patients with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). METHOD: Based on the initial review, a researcher-made questionnaire was developed to assess the information needs of the application through urologists and nephrologists. By using information obtained from the questionnaire, a checklist was prepared, and the information of 513 patients with kidney failure was collected from their records at Sina Urological Research Center. Then, three data mining algorithms were applied to them. The smartphone-based application for the prediction of kidney transplant survival was designed, and a standard usability assessment questionnaire was used to evaluate the designed application. RESULTS: Three information elements related to the required data in different sections of demographic information, sixteen information elements related to patient clinical information, and four critical capabilities were determined for the design of the smartphone-based application. C5.0 algorithm with the highest accuracy (87.21%) was modeled as the application inference engine. The application was developed based on the PhoneGap framework. According to the participants' scores (urologists and nephrologists) regarding the usability evaluation of the application, it can be concluded that both groups participating in the study could use the program, and they rated the application at a "good" level. CONCLUSION: Since the overall performance or usability of the smartphone-based app was evaluated at a reasonable level, it can be used with certainty to predict kidney transplant survival.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica , Transplante de Rim , Aplicativos Móveis , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Smartphone , Interface Usuário-Computador
9.
J Hazard Mater ; 436: 129199, 2022 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643002

RESUMO

In this study, a novel highly sensitive colorimetric platform has been designed for malathion assay based on Fe-N/C SAzyme. The as-synthesized SAzyme can directly oxidize 3,3´,5,5´-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) to generate blue colored oxidized TMB. L-ascorbic acid-2-phosphate (AA2P), a substrate of acid phosphatase (ACP), could be hydrolyzed to AA, thereafter inhibit the oxidization reaction of TMB, leading to a conspicuous blue color fading. With the addition of malathion hindered the ACP activity and limited the AA production, resulting in the recovery of the catalytic activity of single-atom nanozyme. Under optimized operational conditions, a novel colorimetric assay has been designed for malathion detection with LOD of 0.42 nM. Besides, quantification of malathion in environmental and food samples was achieved based on the proposed strategy. In addition, the successfully integrated paper/smartphone sensor provided sensitive, and rapid, reliable detection of malathion with a LOD of 1 nM.


Assuntos
Colorimetria , Praguicidas , Colorimetria/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Malation , Oxirredutases , Smartphone
10.
Comput Biol Med ; 146: 105662, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654623

RESUMO

The development of smartphones technologies has determined the abundant and prevalent computation. An activity recognition system using mobile sensors enables continuous monitoring of human behavior and assisted living. This paper proposes the mobile sensors-based Epidemic Watch System (EWS) leveraging the AI models to recognize a new set of activities for effective social distance monitoring, probability of infection estimation, and COVID-19 spread prevention. The research focuses on user activities recognition and behavior concerning risks and effectiveness in the COVID-19 pandemic. The proposed EWS consists of a smartphone application for COVID-19 related activities sensors data collection, features extraction, classifying the activities, and providing alerts for spread presentation. We collect the novel dataset of COVID-19 associated activities such as hand washing, hand sanitizing, nose-eyes touching, and handshaking using the proposed EWS smartphone application. We evaluate several classifiers such as random forests, decision trees, support vector machine, and Long Short-Term Memory for the collected dataset and attain the highest overall classification accuracy of 97.33%. We provide the Contact Tracing of the COVID-19 infected person using GPS sensor data. The EWS activities monitoring, identification, and classification system examine the infection risk of another person from COVID-19 infected person. It determines some everyday activities between COVID-19 infected person and normal person, such as sitting together, standing together, or walking together to minimize the spread of pandemic diseases.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Atividades Humanas , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Smartphone
11.
Addict Behav ; 132: 107377, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35662050

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Efficacious smoking cessation treatments are needed for heavy-drinking adults who often have difficulty quitting smoking. In a secondary analysis of a parent randomized controlled trial, we explored the efficacy of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)-based smartphone application (iCanQuit) versus a US Clinical Practice Guidelines (USCPG)-based smartphone application (QuitGuide) for smoking cessation among heavy-drinking participants (4 + drinks/day for women; 5 + drinks/day for men). METHODS: Participants were randomized to receive iCanQuit (n = 188) or QuitGuide (n = 160) for 12-months. Smoking cessation outcomes were measured at 3, 6 and 12-months. The primary outcome was self-reported complete-case 30-day point prevalence abstinence (PPA) at 12-months. Secondary outcomes were 7-day PPA at all timepoints; prolonged abstinence; and cessation of all nicotine-containing products at 12-months. Multiple imputation and missing-as-smoking analyses were also conducted. Exploratory outcomes were cessation of both smoking and heavy drinking and change in alcohol use (drinks/day) at 12-months. Treatment engagement and satisfaction and change in ACT-based processes were compared between arms. RESULTS: Retention rate was 85% at 12-months and did not differ by arm. At 12-months, iCanQuit participants had nearly double the odds of smoking cessation compared to QuitGuide (complete-case 30-day PPA = 24% vs. 15%; OR = 1.87 95% CI: 1.03, 3.42). Findings were similar for the multiple imputation and missing-as-smoking outcomes at 12-months. Combined cessation of smoking and heavy drinking, and alcohol use at 12-months did not differ by arm. iCanQuit was significantly more engaging and satisfying than QuitGuide. Increased acceptance of thoughts about smoking mediated the effect of treatment on cessation of heavy drinking at 12-months. CONCLUSIONS: The iCanQuit smartphone application was more efficacious and engaging for smoking cessation among heavy-drinking adults than a USCPG-based smartphone application.


Assuntos
Terapia de Aceitação e Compromisso , Aplicativos Móveis , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Smartphone , Fumar
12.
Subst Abus ; 43(1): 1231-1244, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35670777

RESUMO

Background: Smartphone-based interventions are increasingly being used to facilitate positive behavior change, including reducing alcohol consumption. However, less is known about the effects of notifications to support this change, including intervention engagement and adherence. The aim of this review was to assess the role of notifications in smartphone-based interventions designed to support, manage, or reduce alcohol consumption. Methods: Five electronic databases were searched to identify studies meeting inclusion criteria: (1) studies using a smartphone-based alcohol intervention, (2) the intervention used notifications, and (3) published between 1st January 2007 and 30th April 2021 in English. PROSPERO was searched to identify any completed, ongoing, or planned systematic reviews and meta-analyses of relevance. The reference lists of all included studies were searched. Results: Overall, 14 papers were identified, reporting on 10 different interventions. The strength of the evidence regarding the role and utility of notifications in changing behavior toward alcohol of the reviewed interventions was inconclusive. Only one study drew distinct conclusions about the relationships between notifications and app engagement, and notifications and behavior change. Conclusions: Although there are many smartphone-based interventions to support alcohol reduction, this review highlights a lack of evidence to support the use of notifications (such as push notifications, alerts, prompts, and nudges) used within smartphone interventions for alcohol management aiming to promote positive behavior change. Included studies were limited due to small sample sizes and insufficient follow-up. Evidence for the benefits of smartphone-based alcohol interventions remains promising, but the efficacy of using notifications, especially personalized notifications, within these interventions remain unproven.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Smartphone , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Humanos
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(11)2022 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684589

RESUMO

Smartphone-based gait recognition has been considered a unique and promising technique for biometric-based identification. It is integrated with multiple sensors to collect inertial data while a person walks. However, captured data may be affected by several covariate factors due to variations of gait sequences such as holding loads, wearing types, shoe types, etc. Recent gait recognition approaches either work on global or local features, causing failure to handle these covariate-based features. To address these issues, a novel weighted multi-scale CNN (WMsCNN) architecture is designed to extract local to global features for boosting recognition accuracy. Specifically, a weight update sub-network (Ws) is proposed to increase or reduce the weights of features concerning their contribution to the final classification task. Thus, the sensitivity of these features toward the covariate factors decreases using the weight updated technique. Later, these features are fed to a fusion module used to produce global features for the overall classification. Extensive experiments have been conducted on four different benchmark datasets, and the demonstrated results of the proposed model are superior to other state-of-the-art deep learning approaches.


Assuntos
Identificação Biométrica , Smartphone , Benchmarking , Identificação Biométrica/métodos , Marcha , Humanos , Reconhecimento Psicológico
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(11)2022 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684591

RESUMO

The Android platform accounts for 85% of the global smartphone operating-system market share, and recently, it has also been installed on Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices such as wearable devices and vehicles. These Android-based devices store various personal information such as user IDs, addresses, and payment information and device usage data when providing convenient functions to users. Insufficient security for the management and deletion of data stored in the device can lead to various cyber security threats such as personal information leakage and identity theft. Therefore, research on the protection of personal information stored in the device is very important. However, there is a limitation that the current research for protection of personal information on the existing Android platform was only conducted on Android platform 6 or lower. In this paper, we analyze the deleted data remaining on the device and the possibility of recovery to improve user privacy for smartphones using Android platforms 9 and 10. The deleted data analysis is performed based on three data deletion scenarios: data deletion using the app's own function, data deletion using the system app's data and cache deletion function, and uninstallation of installed apps. It demonstrates the potential user privacy problems that can occur when using Android platforms 9 and 10 due to the leakage of recovered data. It also highlights the need for improving the security of personal user information by erasing the traces of deleted data that remain in the journal area and directory entry area of the filesystem used in Android platforms 9 and 10.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Segurança Computacional , Privacidade , Smartphone
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(11)2022 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684760

RESUMO

Static balance tests are conducted in various clinics for diagnosis and treatment adjustment. As a result of population aging, the accessibility of these tests should be increased, in the clinic, and for remote patient examination. A number of publications have already conducted static balance evaluations using the sensors embedded in a smartphone. This study focuses on the applicability of using smartphone-based balance assessment on a large scale while considering ease of use, safety, and reliability. The Mon4t® app was used to acquire the postural motion using different smartphone devices, different smartphone locations, and various standing postures. The signals derived from the app were compared to the center of pressure displacement derived from a force plate. The results showed moderate to high agreement between the two methods, particularly at the tandem stance (0.69 ≤ r ≤ 0.91). Preliminary data collection was conducted on three healthy participants, followed by 50 additional healthy volunteers, aged 65+. The results demonstrated that the Mon4t app can serve as an accessible and inexpensive static balance assessment tool, both in clinical settings and for remote patient monitoring, which is key for enabling telehealth.


Assuntos
Equilíbrio Postural , Smartphone , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Postura , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(11)2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684848

RESUMO

Driving event detection and driver behavior recognition have been widely explored for many purposes, including detecting distractions, classifying driver actions, detecting kidnappings, pricing vehicle insurance, evaluating eco-driving, and managing shared and leased vehicles. Some systems can recognize the main driving events (e.g., accelerating, braking, and turning) by using in-vehicle devices, such as inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors. In general, feature extraction is a commonly used technique to obtain robust and meaningful information from the sensor signals to guarantee the effectiveness of the subsequent classification algorithm. However, a general assessment of deep neural networks merits further investigation, particularly regarding end-to-end models based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), which combine two components, namely feature extraction and the classification parts. This paper primarily explores supervised deep-learning models based on 1D and 2D CNNs to classify driving events from the signals of linear acceleration and angular velocity obtained with the IMU sensors of a smartphone placed in the instrument panel of the vehicle. Aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors can be recognized by monitoring driving events, such as accelerating, braking, lane changing, and turning. The experimental results obtained are promising since the best classification model achieved accuracy values of up to 82.40%, and macro- and micro-average F1 scores, respectively, equal to 75.36% and 82.40%, thus, demonstrating high performance in the classification of driving events.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Redes Neurais de Computação , Algoritmos , Smartphone
17.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1158, 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interpersonal violence has devastating implications for individuals, families, and communities across the globe, placing a significant burden on health, justice, and social welfare systems. Smartphone technology may provide a platform for violence prevention interventions. However, evidence on the availability and user experience of smartphone applications aimed to prevent violence is underexplored. METHODS: Systematic searches of available smartphone applications marketed for personal safety and violence prevention on the Apple Store (IOS) and Google Play (Android) in the United Kingdom were run in May 2021. Relevant applications were downloaded, with data on user reviews and ratings extracted. Included applications were categorised according to their features and functions. Online user reviews were rated according to their sentiment (positive, negative, neutral) and thematically analysed. RESULTS: Of 503 applications, 86 apps met review criteria. Only 52 (61%) apps offered full functionality free of charge. Over half (52%) of apps were targeted towards the general population, with 16% targeting women and 13% targeting families. App functionality varied with 22% providing an alarm, 71% sending alerts to pre-designated contacts, 34% providing evidence capture and 26% offering educational information. Overall, 71% of applications had a user rating of four or above. For 61 apps a total of 3,820 user reviews were extracted. Over half (52.4%) of reviews were rated as having a positive sentiment, with 8.8% neutral and 38.8% negative. Key themes across user reviews included positive consequences of app use, technical and usage issues including app reliability, dissatisfaction with the financial cost of some app features and personal data and ethical issues. CONCLUSIONS: Reviews suggest that users find apps for personal safety and violence prevention useful. However, individuals also report them being unreliable, not working as described and having features that others may exploit. Findings have implications for the development of policy on apps to improve personal safety, especially given recent national policy (e.g. UK) discussions about their utility. Without the regulation or accreditation of such technology for quality assurance and reliability, emphasis needs to be placed on ensuring user safety; otherwise vulnerable individuals may continue to place reliance on untested technology in potentially dangerous circumstances.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Aplicativos Móveis , Feminino , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Smartphone , Violência
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682205

RESUMO

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, China adopted a home isolation policy, which caused lifestyle changes for university students, including increased smartphone use. Several studies indicate that problematic smartphone use is associated with anxiety. However, this association has not been examined in the context of epidemics. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the duration of smartphone use was associated with anxiety in Chinese university students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Participants included 9716 university students (5458 men and 4258 women) from Liaoning, China. We assessed the duration of smartphone use with a self-reported questionnaire. Anxiety was assessed using the generalized anxiety disorder seven-item scale. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the adjusted association between smartphone use and anxiety. Results: After adjusting for confounding factors, we observed a positive association between smartphone use duration and the prevalence of anxiety in all participating students. Compared with short periods of smartphone usage, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for moderate and long smartphone usage duration were 1.17 (1.00, 1.36) and 1.58 (1.36, 1.83), respectively. This significant positive association did not change in the sex-stratified analysis (for both men and women). Conclusions: Our examination of the association between duration of smartphone uses and university students' anxiety levels revealed that long smartphone use was associated with a high prevalence of anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/etiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Smartphone , Estudantes , Universidades
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682276

RESUMO

The main objective of this investigation is to study the relationship between compulsive smartphone use and burnout, and the potential mediating effect of negative work-family interaction and loneliness in this relationship. An online questionnaire was applied to a sample of 228 Portuguese workers, from various sectors, aged between 19 and 60 years (mean = 32.32); (standard deviation = 9.25), mostly female (64.5%; n = 154). The data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. The main results show that the compulsive use of the smartphone is positively and expressively related (ß = 0.258; p < 0.001) to burnout, with compulsive users reporting more symptoms of burnout. In addition, this study shows the mediating power of negative work-family interaction and loneliness, in the relationship between compulsive smartphone use and burnout, with this effect being positive and significant (B = 0.072; 95% CI [0.026; 0.145]; B = 0.068; 95% CI [0.008; 0.141]). These results highlight the need for individuals and organizations to use smartphones with caution, as well as reinforce that companies must develop a way to prevent and treat possible risk factors associated with this phenomenon.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Solidão , Adulto , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Psicológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Smartphone , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Analyst ; 147(13): 2980-2987, 2022 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648102

RESUMO

The potential of bacterial contamination is commonly seen in biological and clinical laboratory surfaces, creating a need to detect the presence of bacteria on a surface. Various bacterial species have been found to naturally exist on surfaces, including Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus that were investigated in this study. Bacterial presence was identified from laboratory surfaces using a smartphone and low-cost components without culturing or staining. Autofluorescence from bacteria was quantified using a 405 nm LED as an excitation light source. A low-cost acrylic film could isolate the autofluorescence emission. ImageJ was used to process and analyze the images and quantify the emitted autofluorescence signal. This imaging platform successfully detected the presence of all three bacterial species from the heavily used laboratory surfaces. A trend of decreasing fluorescence signal was observed with decreasing bacterial concentration, and the limit of detection was 104 CFU cm-2. It could also distinguish from tap water, protein (bovine serum albumin), and NaCl solutions. This preliminary work emphasizes the ability to detect autofluorescence signals of bacteria and non-microbial surface contaminants using a cost-effective and straightforward imaging platform.


Assuntos
Smartphone , Staphylococcus aureus , Bactérias , Escherichia coli , Imagem Óptica , Salmonella typhimurium
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