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1.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(1): 52, 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35024962

RESUMO

Improving the lipid profile in milk of cows with the use of soybean grain (Glycine max L.) can be favored in the grazing systems in the dry tropics of Mexico. The objective was to evaluate the milk production, the chemical composition, and the fatty acids profile (FAs) of the milk of cows in continuous grazing and supplemented with and without ground roasted soybean in the dry tropics of Mexico. Ten cows randomly distributed in two equal groups were used. Daily during confinement for milking, the cows individually received the treatments on dry basis T0: supplement with 4.6 kg commercial concentrate® without soybean, T1: supplement with 3.7 kg commercial concentrate® with 380 g of soybean. During the 78 days of the experiment, milk production was measured in all cows, and samples were collected to determine the chemical composition and FAs profile. Milk production, protein, milk total fat, lactose, and non-fat solids did not vary with treatment (p >0.05). Linoleic acid content (C18: 2, cis, cis-∆9, ∆12) increased by 22% in milk fat of cows of the T1 (p ˂0.05). The sum of the mono- and polyunsaturated FAs 29.1%, the ratio of saturated-unsaturated FAs (1.65), and the atherogenicity index (1.71) also improved in the milk of cows supplemented with T1 (p ˂0.05). It was concluded that ground roasted soybean supplement in the diet of grazing dairy cows did not affect production and did improve the lipid profile in milk fat with favorable index to promote human health.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Leite , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Lactação , México , Soja
2.
Food Chem ; 374: 131725, 2022 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35021579

RESUMO

This study is to reveal the variation of five pivotal substances, including polysaccharides, proteins, isoflavones, fatty acids and volatile components during the soybean fermentation process by Bacillus subtilis natto. After 96 h of soybean fermentation, the polysaccharide contents were significantly decreased, and the glucose and galactose contents showed the greatest decline in all the monosaccharide components. Moreover, isoflavone glycoside levels were decreased, while the isoflavone aglycone levels were increased following the fermentation. In addition, the SCFAs contents were also significantly increased in comparison with the unfermented soybean. Furthermore, 16 amino acids and 36 volatile components were detected in the fermented soybean. Finally, 21 key compounds were identified through PCA and OPLS-DA analysis of total compounds in the fermentation process. These findings demonstrated that Bacillus subtilis natto had a significant influence on the biochemical profiles of soybean fermentation and consequently contributed to its unique quality.


Assuntos
Alimentos de Soja , Soja , Bacillus subtilis , Fermentação , Nutrientes
3.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(1): e20191277, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35018993

RESUMO

The genus Copitarsia Hampson (Lepidoptera. Noctuidae) includes agricultural pests of at least 48 crop plants and they are distributed from Mexico to southern South America. In South America, from Venezuela to Chile and Argentina, Copitarsia incommoda (Walker) is one of the most economic important species of the genus. In this work, we record for the first time for Copitarsia, and specifically for C. incommoda, larvae feeding on soybean leaves and beans. Also, this species is recorded for the first time for Argentina, feeding on lucerne crops. Finally, we provide a larval identification key for most common noctuoids soybean pests of South America, including C. incommoda. This will be helpful for identify this species in soybean crops without the need of larvae rearing.


Assuntos
Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas , Larva , América do Sul , Soja
4.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e255235, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019108

RESUMO

In soybean breeding program, continuous selection pressure on traits response to yield created a genetic bottleneck for improvements of soybean through hybridization breeding technique. Therefore an initiative was taken to developed high yielding soybean variety applying mutation breeding techniques at Plant Breeding Division, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA), Bangladesh. Locally available popular cultivar BARI Soybean-5 was used as a parent material and subjected to five different doses of Gamma ray using Co60. In respect to seed yield and yield attributing characters, twelve true breed mutants were selected from M4 generation. High values of heritability and genetic advance with high genotypic coefficient of variance (GCV) for plant height, branch number and pod number were considered as favorable attributes for soybean improvement that ensure expected yield. The mutant SBM-18 obtained from 250Gy provided stable yield performance at diversified environments. It provided maximum seed yield of 3056 kg ha-1 with highest number of pods plant-1 (56). The National Seed Board of Bangladesh (NSB) eventually approved SBM-18 and registered it as a new soybean variety named 'Binasoybean-5' for large-scale planting because of its superior stability in various agro-ecological zones and consistent yield performance.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Soja , Genótipo , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo , Soja/genética
5.
Food Chem ; 374: 131686, 2022 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906801

RESUMO

A combination of 16S rDNA and GC-IMS was used to study the changes in the composition of microorganisms and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the storage of northeastern Chinese soybean paste. Firmicutes and Actinobacteriota dominated the microbial communities of the soybean paste at the phylum level, bacterial profiles of different samples were different at genus level. Fifty-one VOCs were identified from soybean paste, most of which existed in the early storage stage. Most esters and alcohols decreased with the extension of the storage time, while acids and pyrazines accumulated in the later period of storage. Esters, alcohols, acids and aldehyde compounds are the key substances in the volatile components of soybean paste, which give the soybean paste the sour, sweet, rose, mushroom and smoky flavor characteristics. The biomarker Bacillus-velezensis in soybean paste is directly related to ester features; Kroppenstedtia, Sporolactobacillus-nakayamae, and Corynebacterium-stationis are positively associated with the biosynthesis of aldehydes.


Assuntos
Soja , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , China , Fermentação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
6.
Food Chem ; 375: 131840, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34954578

RESUMO

Headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS) with electronic nose (E-nose) and electronic tongue (E-tongue) was applied for flavor characterization of traditional Chinese fermented soybean paste. Considering geographical distribution and market representation, twelve kinds of samples were selected to investigate the feasibility. A total of 57 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified, of which 8 volatiles were found in all samples. Linear discrimination analysis (LDA) of fusion data exhibited a high discriminant accuracy of 97.22%. Compared with partial least squares regression (PLSR), support vector machine regression (SVR) analysis exhibited a more satisfying performance on predicting the content of esters, total acids, reducing sugar, salinity and amino acid nitrogen, of which correlation coefficients for prediction (Rp) were about 0.803, 0.949, 0.960, 0.896, 0.923 respectively. This study suggests that intelligent sensing technologies combined with chemometrics can be a promising tool for flavor characterization of fermented soybean paste or other food matrixes.


Assuntos
Nariz Eletrônico , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , China , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Soja , Língua/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 229: 113088, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34923329

RESUMO

Copper-based nanoparticles (NPs) display a strong potential to replace copper salts (e.g., CuSO4) for application in agricultures as antimicrobial agents or nutritional amendments. Yet, their effects on crop quality are still not comprehensively understood. In this study, the Cu contents in soybeans grown in soils amended with Cu NPs and CuSO4 at 100-500 mg Cu/kg and the subsequent effects on the plant physiological markers were determined. The Cu NPs induced 29-89% at the flowering stage (on Day 40) and 100-165% at maturation stage (on Day 100) more Cu accumulation in soybeans than CuSO4. The presence of particle aggregates in the root cells with deformation upon the Cu NP exposure was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The Cu NPs at 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly improved the plant height and biomass, yet significantly inhibited at 500 mg/kg, compared to the control. In leaves chlorophyll-b was more sensitive than chlorophyll-a and carotenoids to the Cu NP effect. The Cu NPs significantly decreased the root nitrogen and phosphorus contents, while they significantly increased the leaf potassium content in comparison with control. Our results imply that cautious use of Cu NPs in agriculture is warranted due to relatively high uptake of Cu and altered nutrient quality in soybeans.


Assuntos
Cobre , Nanopartículas , Agricultura , Cobre/análise , Cobre/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Raízes de Plantas/química , Solo , Soja
8.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 170: 287-295, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34933148

RESUMO

Soybean is the main economic crop, and also the main source of oil and protein for human consumption. Drought stress has a great influence on the growth and yield of soybean crops. Therefore, improving the drought resistance of soybean, especially drought resistance in the field, is important to increase soybean yield. AP2/ERF (APETALA2/ethylene responsive factor) transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants. However, there has been little research on the value of applying DREB (dehydration-responsive element-binding)-like genes in improving the drought resistance of soybean. Here, we further study the value of the application of GmDREB1 in soybean. The results of drought resistance identification in the field and greenhouse showed that the overexpression of GmDREB1 could significantly enhance the drought resistance of transgenic soybean, and the yield was clearly higher than that of the wild type. GmDREB1 has transcriptional activity and is located in the nucleus. For mechanism analysis of GmDREB1 in soybean, two ERF-like transcription factors, GmERF008 and GmERF106, were shown to interact with GmDREB1 using yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and bimolecular fluorescence complementary (BiFC) experiments. qRT-PCR (quantitative real-time PCR) results showed that the expression of many stress-related genes in GmDREB1 transgenic soybean were significantly up-regulated compared with the WT under a drought environment. In conclusion, GmDREB1 can regulate the expression of downstream stress-related genes by forming a heterodimer with ERF-like transcription factors, which can improve the drought resistance of transgenic soybean.


Assuntos
Secas , Soja , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
9.
Food Chem ; 366: 130618, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330028

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare the effects of the micronization (MT), steam explosion (SE), and gamma irradiation (GI) treatment on the chemical composition, structure, physicochemical properties, and in vitro digestibility of dietary fiber from soybean hulls. GI (1200 kGy) treatment exerted the optimum effects on improving soluble dietary fiber content, in vitro gross energy digestibility (IVGED), and reducing sugar yield (RS) in the three modification methods, increased by 342.88%, 55.24%, and 117.02%, respectively. Compared with GI treatment, MT-GI combined treatment could further enhance the degradation effect of irradiation and improve the physicochemical properties (p<0.05) in soybean fibers. From the results of correlation analysis, RS was a significant positive correlation (p<0.05) with IVGED, and RS = -112.24 + 4.90 × IVGED (r2 = 0.82, p<0.01). In summary, MT-GI combined treatment could be considered the ideal modification method to improve the quality of soybean fiber.


Assuntos
Soja , Vapor , Ração Animal/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão
10.
Food Chem ; 368: 130837, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419797

RESUMO

Soybean protein extraction was evaluated using conventional (alkaline phosphate buffer) and ultrasonication assisted methods. The impact of the extraction method on protein yield, chemical composition, and structural properties of the protein isolates was assessed. In conventional alkaline extraction, increasing pH values (from 9 to 12) led to an increase in the protein yield, with pH 12 favouring protein extraction, with yields up to 36 % (w/w). Ultrasonication process at the same pH, led to maximum protein extraction yield of 84 % (w/w). Secondary structural changes in ultrasonicated OPI samples were linked to cavitation effects and the duration of the extraction, rather than the intensity of ultrasonication process. Extracted proteins exhibited increased ß-sheet content, improved zeta-potential and smaller particle size of ultrasonicated proteins, rendering them suitable ingredients for tailored food applications.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Soja , Soja , Tamanho da Partícula
11.
Food Chem ; 368: 130857, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425341

RESUMO

In this study, the proteins glycinin (11S) and ß-conglycinin (7S) were mixed with soyasaponin (Ssa) Ab/Bb to form a composite system. We used fluorescence and synchronous fluorescence spectra to demonstrate the changes in the surrounding environment and the structure of the proteins. Dynamic interface behavior analysis showed the possible interface behavior induced by the composite system. The interactions between Ssa and the proteins, along with the mode of action, were analyzed by molecular docking. The interactions between Ssa and soy protein increased with the change in concentration. The interactions between the two proteins were mediated by tryptophan (Trp) and primarily involved hydrogen bonds, which changed the microenvironment and loosened the protein structure. These results helped in understanding the mechanism underlying the interactions between Ssa Ab/Bb and 7S/11S. Furthermore, these results highlighted the theoretical fundamentals for the future applications of composite systems as surfactants in the food industry.


Assuntos
Globulinas , Proteínas de Soja , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes , Soja
12.
Food Chem ; 368: 130799, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425343

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the changes in physical and chemical properties of edamame during bean development and apply a spectroscopy-based machine learning (ML) technique to determine optimal harvest time. The edamame harvested at R5 (beginning seed), R6 (full seed), and R7 (beginning maturity) growth stages were characterized for physical and chemical properties, and pods were measured for spectral reflectance (360-740 nm) using a handheld spectrophotometer. The samples were categorized into 'early', 'ready', and 'late' based on the characterized properties. The results showed that pod/bean weight and pod thickness peaked at R6 and remained stable thereafter. Sugar, starch, alanine, and glycine also peaked at R6 but proceeded to decline. The ML method (random forest classification) using pods' spectral reflectance had a high accuracy of 0.95 for classifying 'early' and 'late' samples and 0.87 for classifying 'early' and 'ready' samples. Therefore, this method can determine the optimal harvest time of edamame.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Soja , Sementes , Análise Espectral , Açúcares
13.
Food Chem ; 369: 130923, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455331

RESUMO

Lactic acid bacteria are one of the most pivotal probiotics. Promoting their viability could be an effective method to modulate the balance of intestinal flora, thereby improving human health. The current solution is to take advantage of carbon-sourced prebiotics, while protein and peptides with potential prebiotic functions have not been investigated. Soy proteins and peptides have been proven to enhance the growth and metabolism of Lactobacillus. However, research on the relationship between strains of lactobacilli and the structure of soybean peptides is still limited. In the present study, soybean protein and peptides effectively increased the growth and organic acid secretion of Limosilactobacillus reuteri LR08. Additionally, soybean peptides and fructooligosaccharides showed synergistic effects in modulating Limosilactobacillus reuteri LR08. Fraction 1 acquired from soy peptides using RP-HPLC exhibited the most effectiveness and several novel peptides were identified. These results could theoretically and practically benefit soybean peptide application as a potential prebiotic.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus reuteri , Probióticos , Humanos , Lactobacillus , Peptídeos , Prebióticos , Soja
14.
Gene ; 808: 145976, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592351

RESUMO

Soybean is a major source of edible protein and oil. Oil content is a quantitative trait that is significantly determined by genetic and environmental factors. Over the past 30 years, a large volume of soybean genetic, genomic, and transcriptomic data have been accumulated. Nevertheless, integrative analyses of such data remain scarce, in spite of their importance for crop improvement. We hypothesized that the co-occurrence of genomic regions for oil-related traits in different studies may reveal more stable regions encompassing important genetic determinants of oil content and quality in soybean. We integrated publicly available data, obtained with distinct techniques, to discover and prioritize candidate genes involved in oil biosynthesis and regulation in soybean. We detected key fatty acid biosynthesis genes (e.g., BCCP2 and ACCase, FADs, KAS family proteins) and several transcription factors, which are likely regulators of oil biosynthesis. In addition, we identified new candidates for seed oil accumulation and quality, such as Glyma.03G213300 and Glyma.19G160700, which encode a translocator protein homolog and a histone acetyltransferase, respectively. Further, oil and protein genomic hotspots are strongly associated with breeding and not with domestication, suggesting that soybean domestication prioritized other traits. The genes identified here are promising targets for breeding programs and for the development of soybean lines with increased oil content and quality.


Assuntos
Óleo de Soja/biossíntese , Óleo de Soja/genética , Soja/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Óleos Vegetais , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteômica/métodos , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Sementes/genética
15.
Gene ; 809: 146013, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655718

RESUMO

Plant pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are a large group of proteins, classified in 17 families, that are induced by pathological conditions. Here, we characterized the soybean PR-1 (GmPR-1) gene repertoire at the sequence, structural and expression levels. We found 24 GmPR-1 genes, clustered in two phylogenetic groups. GmPR-1 genes are under strong purifying selection, particularly those that emerged by tandem duplications. GmPR-1 promoter regions are abundant in cis-regulatory elements associated with major stress-related transcription factor families, namely WRKY, ERF, HD-Zip, C2H2, NAC, and GATA. We observed that 23 GmPR-1 genes are induced by stress conditions or exclusively expressed upon stress. We explored 1972 transcriptome samples, including 26 stress conditions, revealing that most GmPR-1 genes are differentially expressed in a plethora of biotic and abiotic stresses. Our findings highlight stress-responsive GmPR-1 genes with potential biotechnological applications, such as the development of transgenic lines with increased resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Soja/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Caveolinas/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Duplicação Gênica , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Seleção Genética , Soja/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
16.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 132082, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523456

RESUMO

Knowledge is insufficient on feasible remediation techniques to agricultural soils contaminated by multiple heavy metal(loid)s with elevated concentrations and extreme acidy from acid mine drainages (AMD). We aimed to elucidate the effect of integrated biochar (BC) and soil replacement on improving the mining soil properties and then alleviating the phytotoxicity of As, Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn on radish (Raphanus sativus L.)-soya bean (Glycine max Merr.) -amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) rotation and the potential risk of crops to human health. Biochar and soil replacement showed outstanding effects on improving soil properties by increasing soil pH values, reducing available metal(loid)s, and enhancing the activity of catalase, urease and acid phosphatase. Also, the integrated technique regulated the physiological disorders of crops caused by metal(loid)s, specifically increasing chlorophyll content and reducing malondialdehyde (MDA) in the three crops, and reducing the content of metal(loid)s in edible parts of plants. The combination of biochar and soil replacement exhibited better remediation effect than the single application of biochar or soil replacement, which played different roles in remediating mining farmland. Biochar exhibited efficacy in soil pH amelioration, metal stabilization and soil enzyme activity enhancement, while soil replacement alleviated metal(loid)s stress through the dilution effect. Among the 8 treatments, only biochar combined with 35% (S35BC) and 50% (S50BC) of replaced soil could achieve the safe production of the three crops under the three-season crop rotation.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Raphanus , Poluentes do Solo , Carvão Vegetal , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Soja
17.
Food Chem ; 370: 130982, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537428

RESUMO

Although the Se concentration and recovery efficiency of soybean seeds treated with selenate were âˆ¼ 1.8 times those of the selenite treatment, the Se was mainly in the organic form of selenomethionine (>90% of total Se) irrespective of the Se source. The Se concentrations of soybean protein isolate (SPI) and glycinin (11S) were 29.1%-38.6% higher than those of soybean protein concentrate (SPC) and ß-conglycinin (7S) in Se-enriched soybeans, with selenomethionine accounting for > 80% of the Se in all proteins. The content of sulfur-containing methionine in SPI and 11S markedly decreased in Se-enriched soybeans compared with the control. No significant effect of Se was observed on protein content, subunit composition, secondary structure, micromorphology, or functionality. Foliar spray of selenate provides an economical and efficient way to produce Se-enriched soybeans without affecting protein structure and functionality, where SPI and 11S display a high ability to enrich Se (mainly selenomethionine).


Assuntos
Selênio , Proteínas de Soja , Ácido Selênico , Ácido Selenioso , Selenometionina , Soja
18.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113818, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597948

RESUMO

Best management practices that reduce potential phosphorus (P) loss and provide flexibility in P fertilizer management are needed to help producers protect water quality while maintaining crop yield. This study examined the impacts of P fertilizer management (no P, fall broadcast P, and spring injected P) and cover crop use on annual concentrations and loads of sediment, total P, and dissolved reactive P (DRP) in edge-of-field runoff from a no-till corn (Zea mays)-soybean (Glycine max) rotation in the Central Great Plains, USA, from September 2015 through September 2019. The spring injected P fertilizer treatment generally had 19% less total P and 33% less DRP loss compared to the fall broadcast treatment, confirming the importance of P fertilizer management as a practice for reducing P loss. The addition of a cover crop had an inconsistent effect on total P loss, with no effect in 2016 and 2017, increasing loss in 2018 by 56%, and decreasing it in 2019 by 40%. The inconsistent impact of cover crops on total P loss was related to cover crop effects on sediment loss. Although cover crop impacts on total P losses were inconsistent, the addition of a cover crop increased DRP loss in three of four years. Cover crop use consistently reduced sediment loss, with greater sediment reduction when P fertilizer was applied. Results from this study highlight the benefit of cover crops for reducing sediment loss and the continued need for proper fertilizer management to reduce P loss from agricultural fields.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Fósforo , Agricultura , Fertilizantes/análise , Fósforo/análise , Soja , Movimentos da Água , Qualidade da Água , Zea mays
19.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 196: 113705, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715535

RESUMO

A visualization method for the qualitative evaluation of soybean isoflavones secreted from soybean roots by transferring them onto a sheet with immobilized bovine serum albumin (BSA) was developed. BSA was chemically bonded onto a glass microfiber filter. The fluorescence quenching resulting from the interaction of BSA with soybean isoflavones such as daidzein and daidzin was utilized. Fluorescence images before and after soybean roots were placed in contact with the sheets with immobilized BSA were taken with an electron-multiplying charge-coupled device camera. The fluorescence quenching in the images was visualized and analyzed. Soybean isoflavones were extracted from the sheets for quantitative analysis, and the correlation coefficient between the quenched fluorescence intensity per sheet and the total amount of soybean isoflavones was 0.78 (p < 0.01), indicating a high correlation. The quenched fluorescence intensity was lower in pumpkin roots, which do not secrete soybean isoflavone. It was found from analyzed images that soybean isoflavone is secreted in larger amounts from the basal region of the taproot and the tips of the lateral roots of soybean.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Isoflavonas , Raízes de Plantas , Soroalbumina Bovina , Soja
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(1): 289-300, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34965722

RESUMO

Hexanal and (E)-2-hexenal in soymilk mainly form during the soaking and grinding of soybeans. In this study, freshly dehulled soybeans were soaked or ground in the presence or absence of different enzyme inhibitors. The results showed that (1) 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-3-phosphatidylcholine, 1-stearoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-3-phosphatidylcholine, 1-palmitoyl-2-linolenoyl-sn-3-phosphatidylcholine, and 1-stearoyl-2-linolenoyl-sn-3-phosphatidylcholine were preferentially acted upon by lipoxygenases (LOXs) and made predominant contributions to hexanal/(E)-2-hexenal formation. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is one of the key enzymes for hexanal/(E)-2-hexenal formation. (2) The ratio of net increase in hexanal/(E)-2-hexenal and net decrease in linoleic acid/linolenic acid was close to 100% during soaking, but it was only 60% during grinding. Only 13-hydroperoxy octadecad(tr)ienoic acid (13-HPOD/T) was formed for the membrane LOX, but both 13- and 9-hydroperoxy octadecad(tr)ienoic acid (9-HPOD/T) were produced for the cytoplasm LOX. Thus, only the membrane LOX was involved during soaking, while both membrane- and cytoplasm-bound LOXs worked during grinding. (3) Hydroperoxides and hexanal/(E)-2-hexenal during soybean grinding were studied. PC hydroperoxides formed almost instantly and reached a maximum in 10 s, while fatty acid hydroperoxides and hexanal/(E)-2-hexenal formed relatively slowly and reached a maximum in 50 s. The experimental data were fitted to the integrated form of the Michaelis-Menten equation, and Km, Vmax, and kcat for the LOX, PLA2, and hydroperoxide lyase were obtained, respectively.


Assuntos
Lipoxigenase , Soja , Aldeídos
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