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1.
Food Chem ; 370: 131007, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507212

RESUMO

Turmeric has faced authenticity issues as instances of economic-adulterations to reduce the cost. We used carbon-14 and HPLC analyses as complementary methods to verify "all-natural" label claims of commercial dietary supplements containing turmeric ingredients. A high percentage of curcumin-to-curcuminoids value was used as an indicator to imply the presence of synthetic curcumin. However, using the HPLC method alone did not provide direct evidence of curcuminoids' natural origin, whereas using only the carbon-14 method cannot test for potency label claims and determine which constituent(s) contain 14C radiocarbon. By analyzing results from both methods, a significant correlation between the percentage of curcumin-to-curcuminoids and % biobased carbon (Pearson's r = -0.875, p < 0.001) indicated that synthetic curcumin was greatly attributed to determined synthetic ingredients. Only four out of the 14 samples analyzed supported authentic label claims. This orthogonal testing strategy showed its potential for the quality control of turmeric products.


Assuntos
Curcuma , Curcumina , Radioisótopos de Carbono , Curcumina/análise , Diarileptanoides , Suplementos Nutricionais , Extratos Vegetais
2.
Food Chem ; 370: 131019, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509152

RESUMO

Pleurotus is an edible mushroom from the well-known genus of Basidiomycetes; it is the second-most commonly consumed mushroom worldwide. This genus is characterized by the presence of steroids, fatty acids, and polysaccharides. Recently, Pleurotus has become popular as a functional food owing to its health benefits, primarily because they are a source of vitamins, fibers, minerals, and lipids. In natural products chemistry, dereplication techniques identify bioactive molecules from natural sources such as plants and fungi without isolating or characterizing molecules. We used dereplication techniques aided by the Global Natural Products Social Molecular Network to analyze the chemical composition of the methanolic extracts of six Pleurotus species (P. sapidus, P. ostreaus, P. ostreaus var. Florida, P. djamor, P. citrinopileatus, and P. pulmonarius), to identify bioactive molecules with nutraceutical properties. Using this technique, we identified several molecular families, including eight fatty acids and seven steroids. Our findings suggest that dereplication is a relatively rapid tool for characterizing fungal species and determining their nutraceutical value.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Pleurotus , Suplementos Nutricionais , Alimento Funcional , Humanos , Polissacarídeos
3.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102484, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688884

RESUMO

In this study, a combination therapy of several natural products was evaluated in vivo in the Giardia duodenalis infection model. G. duodenalis infected mice were treated as follows: distilled water (infected control C+), BIOintestil® (BIO; natural products of Cymbopogon martinii and Zingiber officinale), MicrobiomeX® (MBX; extract of Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi), MBX + BIO, Camellia sinensis tea (CPR; black tea). These natural compounds were administered in a dose of 100 mg/day and were compared to G. duodenalis-infected mice treated with albendazole (ALB; 50 mg/Kg/day) and metronidazole (MET; 500 mg/Kg/day), the conventional therapies used to this day. One group remained un-infected and untreated as our control group (C-). Treatment started 8 days after infection, and after 5 days of treatment (7 days for MET), all animals were followed for 15 days. We continuously checked for the presence of G. duodenalis by Faust method, in association with detection of the parasite by PCR from feces, as well for the presence of trophozoites in the intestinal mucosa after sacrifice. Animals treated with MBX, BIO and MBX + BIO presented an undetectable parasitic load until the 15th day of monitoring, while animals treated with CPR, MET and ALB continued to release cysts. Animals in the MBX, MBX + BIO, ALB groups consumed lower feed, MBX, CPR, MET had greater weight and MBX, MBX + BIO, BIO, CPR, C- consumed more water when compared to infected-group control. MBX and BIO alone or associated eliminated G. duodenalis without apparent adverse effects and animals of these groups showed better clinical performance in relation to those with high parasitic load. MET, ALB and CPR only decreased the number of cysts, indicating limitations and therapeutic failure.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Giardia lamblia/efeitos dos fármacos , Giardíase/tratamento farmacológico , Microbiota , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Albendazol/química , Albendazol/farmacologia , Animais , Antiparasitários/química , Citrus/química , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Masculino , Metronidazol/química , Metronidazol/farmacologia , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Distribuição Aleatória , Chá/química
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1354: 177-206, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807443

RESUMO

L-Arginine (Arg) plays a central role in the nitrogen metabolism (e.g., syntheses of protein, nitric oxide, polyamines, and creatine), blood flow, nutrient utilization, and health of ruminants. This amino acid is produced by ruminal bacteria and is also synthesized from L-glutamine, L-glutamate, and L-proline via the formation of L-citrulline (Cit) in the enterocytes of young and adult ruminants. In pre-weaning ruminants, most of the Cit formed de novo by the enterocytes is used locally for Arg production. In post-weaning ruminants, the small intestine-derived Cit is converted into Arg primarily in the kidneys and, to a lesser extent, in endothelial cells, macrophages, and other cell types. Under normal feeding conditions, Arg synthesis contributes 65% and 68% of total Arg requirements for nonpregnant and late pregnany ewes fed a diet with ~12% crude protein, respectively, whereas creatine production requires 40% and 36% of Arg utilized by nonpregnant and late pregnant ewes, respectively. Arg has not traditionally been considered a limiting nutrient in diets for post-weaning, gestating, or lactating ruminants because it has been assumed that these animals can synthesize sufficient Arg to meet their nutritional and physiological needs. This lack of a full understanding of Arg nutrition and metabolism has contributed to suboptimal efficiencies for milk production, reproductive performance, and growth in ruminants. There is now considerable evidence that dietary supplementation with rumen-protected Arg (e.g., 0.25-0.5% of dietary dry matter) can improve all these production indices without adverse effects on metabolism or health. Because extracellular Cit is not degraded by microbes in the rumen due to the lack of uptake, Cit can be used without any encapsulation as an effective dietary source for the synthesis of Arg in ruminants, including dairy and beef cows, as well as sheep and goats. Thus, an adequate amount of supplemental rumen-protected Arg or unencapsulated Cit is necessary to support maximum survival, growth, lactation, reproductive performance, and feed efficiency, as well as optimum health and well-being in all ruminants.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais , Lactação , Animais , Arginina , Bovinos , Citrulina , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Leite , Gravidez , Ruminantes , Ovinos
5.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 364-374, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569732

RESUMO

This study was aimed to investigate the synergistic effects of selenium (Se-NP) and zinc oxide (ZnO-NP) nanoparticles on growth performance, hemato-biochemical profile, immune and oxidative stress responses, and intestinal morphometry of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Monosex Nile tilapia (12.50 ± 1.03 g, N= 180) were randomly allocated into 4 groups in triplicates. Fish were fed diet supplemented with 0 Se-NP and Zn-NP (control group, CG), while fish in the other experimental groups were fed diet supplemented with 1 mg/kg diet Se-NP (Se-NP group), 10 mg/kg diet ZnO-NP (Zn-NP group), and a mixture of 1 and 10 mg/kg diet Se-NP and Zn-NP, respectively (Se/Zn-NP group) for 60 days. Fish fed diet containing Se-NP, Zn-NP, and Se/Zn-NP showed higher final body weight, weight gain, weight gain rate, specific growth rate, and lower feed conversion ratio with respect to CG (P<0.05) with the highest being in fish fed with Se/Zn-NP. Fish fed with Se/Zn-NP showed higher hemoglobin, red blood cells, and globulin (P<0.05). The highest phagocytic activity, phagocytic index, lysozyme activity, and immunoglobulin M was recorded in fish that received Se/Zn-NP followed by Se-NP, Zn-NP, and the lowest in CG (P<0.05). Fish that received diet supplemented with Se-NP, Zn-NP, and Se/Zn-NP significantly (P<0.05) increased superoxide dismutase and catalase while reduced malonaldehyde activity compared to CG. Intestinal morphometry revealed significantly (P<0.05) increased villi length and goblet cells number in fish fed with Se-NP and/or Zn-NP. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of Nile tilapia with Se-NP and Zn-NP induces synergistic effects that improve growth performance, blood health, and intestinal histomorphology.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Nanopartículas , Selênio , Óxido de Zinco , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Estresse Oxidativo , Selênio/farmacologia , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia
6.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 348-353, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580353

RESUMO

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of zinc in the diet in the form of nano zinc oxide (nano ZnO) on the performance of broilers. A total of 240 day-old commercial broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomized design into 6 treatments with 8 replicates of 5 chicks each. Treatments comprised of T1- basal diet (BD) without ZnO supplementation, T2- 2.5 ppm ZnO, T3- 5 ppm ZnO, T4- 10 ppm ZnO, T5- 20 ppm ZnO, and T6- 40 ppm inorganic ZnO. The results revealed that supplementation of nano ZnO at 2.5 ppm recorded significantly (P < 0.05) higher body weight gain, feed intake, and better feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to control and other treatment groups at 42 days of age. All dietary treatments failed to exert any significant (P > 0.05) effect on various carcass parameters (dressing percentage, abdominal fat, giblet yields), serum protein and cholesterol concentrations, and meat quality parameters (water holding capacity and pH) of broiler chicken at 42 days of age. Finally, it could be concluded that supplementation of nano ZnO at 2.5 ppm improved the performance of broilers.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Óxido de Zinco , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Carne/análise , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia
7.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 156-163, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590455

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary high doses of chromium-methionine (CrMet) supplementation on blood hemato-biochemical parameters and growth performance of finishing lambs reared under warm condition with average temperature-humidity index (THI) of 85.8 unit. Fifteen male lambs (31.9 ± 1.2 kg) fed with either un-supplemented diet (CON) or supplemented with 1.5 (Cr1.5) and 3 (Cr3) mg of Cr/kg dry matter (DM) for 8 weeks. The results showed that high levels of supplemental Cr had no negative impacts on red (RBC) and white blood cells (WBC). Blood total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) tended to be higher in CrMet-fed lambs than those of CON (P < 0.1). Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), as a lipid peroxidation marker, was, respectively, 20.24 and 22.1%, lower in lambs given 1.5 and 3 mg of chromium comparing those of CON (P < 0.05). Moreover, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX, U/dL) displayed higher activity in Cr3 (421.2) group than those of CON (334.6) and Cr1.5 (351.2) groups (P < 0.05). Accordingly, GSH-PX activity per gram hemoglobin (U/gHb) was 45.9% greater in lambs of Cr3 than the CON (P < 0.05). Furthermore, feeding 3 mg of Cr led to increased erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (P < 0.05): as such, SOD was 1193.1, 1281.5, and 1433.0 U/gHb in CON, Cr1.5, and Cr3, respectively. Chromium supplementation linearly decreased serum iron concentration (P < 0.05), but neither blood calcium, phosphorous, copper, zinc, and glucose concentrations nor aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities were affected by supplemental CrMet. In comparison with CON (1250), lambs in Cr1.5 (1199) and Cr3 (1192) groups had lower daily feed intake (g/d, P < 0.01). In addition, feed to gain ratio was 21.5% lower in the Cr3 group than the control (P < 0.05). Collectively, these findings suggest that feeding summer-exposed finishing lambs with 3 mg of Cr/kg DM improves blood antioxidant status and feed to gain efficiency without adverse effects on lambs' health and metabolism.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Metionina , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Células Sanguíneas , Cromo/farmacologia , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Masculino , Minerais , Ovinos
8.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 339-347, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598892

RESUMO

The aim of present study was to investigate the beneficial effect of chromium (III) picolinate (CrPic) and chromium (III) picolinate nanoparticles (NCrPic) addition on growth performance, stress-related hormonal changes, and serum levels of various immunity biomarkers, as well as the gene expression of IFN-γ in broilers exposed to heat stress conditions. Treatments included T1 which received the basal diet with no feed additive; T2 exposed to heat stress; T3, T4, and T5 containing 500, 1000, and 1500 ppb CrPic; as well as T6, T7, and T8 containing 500, 1000, and 1500 ppb NCrPic, respectively. After 2 weeks from CrPic and NCrPic supplementation, IFN-γ mRNA expression was assayed using the RT-PCR technique. The results showed that the lower body weight, daily weight gain, daily feed intake by heat stress, and the feed conversion ratio were recovered remarkably by CrPic and NCrPic supplements. The stress-elevated levels of cortisol and immunoglobulin were reduced significantly using CrPic and NCrPic supplementation (P ≤ 0.05). The gene expression profile showed that the upregulated expression of IFN-γ was regulated by the addition of CrPic and NCrPic, in particular, to the diet; however, a full downregulation of IFN-γ expression was observed after week 2 of NCrPic supplementation. In conclusion, the results indicated that nanoparticle supplementation could be effective in reducing heat stress-induced detrimental alterations, thereby attributing to substantial changes to the immune system, including IFN-γ expression.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Nanopartículas , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Cromo/farmacologia , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Ácidos Picolínicos/farmacologia
9.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 281-297, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624220

RESUMO

Given environmental contamination with toxic metals, diets that promote the elimination of these metals from the body of individuals, including those suffering from obesity, are urgently needed. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of supplementation with resveratrol (Res), L-carnitine (L-Car), tyrosine (Tyr), and tryptophan (Trp) on the content of trace elements in the organs of mice. DBA/2J mice and DBCB tetrahybrid mice received diets high in carbohydrate and fat supplemented with Res, L-Car, Tyr, or Trp for 65 days. In the liver, kidneys, and brain, the contents of 18 elements, including Al, As, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Se, and Zn, were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Res, L-Car, Tyr, and Trp had minimal or no effect on the essential elements (Fe, Mg, Cu, Zn, Se) in all organs studied. The Mn content notably increased in the organs of mice consuming L-Car and Trp. Mn accumulation was stimulated by Res in organs exclusively in DBCB mice and by Tyr exclusively in livers and brains of DBA/2J mice. Al levels were significantly reduced by L-Car and Trp in all organs of the mice, by Res in only DBCB mice, and by Tyr in only kidneys and livers of DBA/2J mice. In addition, L-Car and Trp decreased Pb accumulation in most organs of mice. Res and Tyr also inhibited Pb accumulation in some cases. Thus, the studied supplements affected the metabolism of trace elements, which may contribute to dietary treatments for obese individuals.


Assuntos
Oligoelementos , Aminoácidos Aromáticos , Animais , Carnitina/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Resveratrol/farmacologia
10.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 27-30, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630276

RESUMO

Recently, a discussion has begun on the global management strategy against COVID-19 based on the hypothesis that individuals' macro- and micronutrient status combined with antiviral drugs and herbs can be an ally against the infection. The hypothesis is that people's nutritional and oxidative scavenging capacity may provide fundamental data to predict severe and acute pulmonary distress following SARS-Cov2 infection. Consequently, the scientific community has addressed the role of balanced diets, nutritional supplements, and micronutrients, including folk herbal formulations, in reducing hospitalization and the severity of pulmonary impact in COVID-19 by preventing the most serious forms of the infection. This led to an animated debate on the potential effectiveness of some vitamins, micronutrients, and traditional Chinese medicine in preventing COVID-19, with some authors convinced that plant extracts could act oppositely, exacerbating the effect of the infection. While current research is still far to assess the suggestions and issues raised in this short communication, it is undoubtedly true that determining an individual's current metabolic status, including macro- and micronutrients, is an essential factor in defining any individuals' deficiencies, which will need to be addressed urgently through a proper diet, specific personalized nutritional supplementation, and lifestyle changes.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , COVID-19 , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 76-83, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655432

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the association between zinc (Zn) supplementation and serum levels of copeptin, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), glycemic control, anthropometric parameters and renal function in Zn -deficient diabetic hemodialysis patients (DHPs). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (RCT) was conducted on 46 DHPs with Zn-deficiency. The Zn supplement group (n = 21) received a 220-mg/day Zn sulfate capsule (containing 50 mg Zn), and the control group (n = 25) received a placebo capsule (220 mg corn starch), for 8 weeks. Fasting, predialysis blood samples were taken at baseline and after 8 weeks to assess fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum insulin, copeptin, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) concentrations, and homoeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) and quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index (QUICKI). Compared to controls, serum copeptin (P < 0.001), hs-CRP (P < 0.001), BUN (P < 0.001), Cr (P < 0.001), Zn (P < 0.001), FBG (P < 0.001) levels, BMI (P < 0.001), and body weight (P < 0.001) were significantly affected following ZnSO4 supplementation for 8 weeks. In contrast, QUICKI (P = 0.57), HOMA-IR (P = 0.60), and serum insulin (P = 0.55) were not affected following Zn supplementation in comparison with patients receiving placebo. Zn sulfate supplementation appears to have favorable effects on serum copeptin and hs-CRP, FBG, and renal function in Zn-deficient DHPs. Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials Identifier: IRCT20190806044461N1.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Resistência à Insulina , Glicemia , Proteína C-Reativa , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Glicopeptídeos , Humanos , Insulina , Irã (Geográfico) , Diálise Renal , Zinco , Sulfato de Zinco
12.
Theriogenology ; 177: 116-126, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695665

RESUMO

We evaluated the effects of a constant low (5-5%) and modulated (5-20%) oxygen environments on the in vitro development of bovine oocyte-cumulus-granulosa cell complexes (OCGCs) cultured in the presence or absence of an antioxidant (astaxanthin: Ax). OCGCs were cultured in a gas permeable culture device for 8 days in 5-5% O2 (±Ax) and 5-20% O2 (±Ax) culture conditions. In the oxygen modulated culture conditions, the oxygen concentration was switched from 5% to 20% on day 4 of culture. Ax promoted the viability of OCGCs (P < 0.05), but both oxygen and Ax had a significant effect on ROS production levels by OCGCs (P < 0.05). Specifically, ROS levels were significantly lower and higher under 5-5% O2 (+Ax) and 5-20% O2 (-Ax) conditions, respectively (P < 0.05), with intermediate levels observed in the 5-5% O2 (-Ax) and the 5-20% O2 (+Ax) culture conditions. The steroidogenic pattern was characterized by increasing estradiol-17ß but with constant progesterone production levels regardless of culture conditions, suggesting the inhibition of luteinization-like changes in granulosa cells. OCGCs cultured in the 5-20% O2 (+Ax) had higher nuclear maturation rates (P < 0.05) that were similar to the oocytes grown in vivo. However, there was no clear difference in the subsequent cleavage rates among the 5-5% O2 (±Ax) and the 5-20% O2 (+Ax) culture conditions (P > 0.05). A constant low oxygen environment significantly promoted the blastocyst rates (P < 0.05); however, the presence of Ax in the 5-20% O2 (+Ax) condition also promoted development similar to the OCGCs cultured in the 5-5% O2 (-Ax) condition (P > 0.05). In conclusion, exposure of OCGCs to constant low oxygen or oxygen modulation in the presence of Ax promotes the healthy development of OCGCs during the 8-day IVG culture using the gas permeable culture device.


Assuntos
Oócitos , Oxigênio , Animais , Bovinos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos/veterinária , Folículo Ovariano , Xantofilas
13.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 3): 132221, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560492

RESUMO

Fruit and vegetables are one of the most consumed commodities globally, accounting for more than 42% of total food wastage. These vegetal foods can be consumed raw, processed, or taken as an addition to other food items. The continuous rise in population, in addition to technological advancements, has led to an imbalance in demand supply, resulting in increased food wastage globally. Although source reduction and recycling have shown promising results, more evaluations concerning economics and environmental impacts need to be given importance. The need of the hour lies in finding a possible method towards effective utilization for fruit and vegetable waste to generate value-added products which are more eco-friendly, cheaper, and sustainable. Thus, this article attempts to focus on the conventional and emerging opportunities of fruit and vegetable waste to generate value-added products. Conventional utilization, namely briquetting, waste to energy conversion, enzymatic degradation, and adsorption, as well as emerging opportunities in the areas of nutraceuticals, packaging, flavoring agents, and waste induced nanoparticles, have been emphasized. Additionally, recommendations and future perspectives towards better utilization of vegetal waste have been given importance. This review aims to narrow down the path towards evaluating the most techno-economic and efficient waste management technique for fruits and vegetable valorization, which can be promoted in the long term.


Assuntos
Verduras , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Frutas , Reciclagem , Resíduos
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 283: 114738, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653521

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Medicinal importance and potential activity of Siddha herbal formulations have proved over several centuries against a wide range of causative agents as Influenza, Dengue, Chikungunya, and Tuberculosis. The traditional medicine system of Siddha is a valuable therapeutic approach for treating viral respiratory infections like Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and can be effectively employed to target the host response and preventive care to boost the immune system. Kaba Sura Kudineer (KSK), an official polyherbal formulation has been used in Siddha traditional medicine for centuries. However, the role of KSK in regulating inflammation and the underlying molecular mechanisms has remained elusive. AIM OF THE STUDY: The goal of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of KSK using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Raw 264.7 murine macrophage cells were used for this study. The Inflammatory mediators and cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The NF-κB nulcear translocation and protein expression of iNOS, COX-2 was analyzed with westernblot. RESULTS: KSK supplementation decreased LPS mediated TLR-4 production and secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines including IL-6, TNF-α, COX-2 and PGE-2. Moreover, it inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and thereby inhibited the expression of iNOS in the cell. The Western blot analysis further confirmed that KSK strongly prevented the LPS-induced degradation of IκB which is normally required for the activation of NF-κB and hereby suppressed nuclear translocation of NF-κB. The protein expression of iNOS, COX-2 was significantly decreased with the presence of KSK treatment. Results suggested that KSK manipulates its anti-inflammatory effects mainly through blocking the TLR mediated NF-κB signal transduction pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Together, this study has proven that KSK could be a potential therapeutic drug for alleviating excessive inflammation in many inflammation-associated diseases like COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina Ayurvédica , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Camundongos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Fitoterapia , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7 , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149835, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461468

RESUMO

Soil carbon supplementation is known to stimulate plant growth by improving soil fertility and plant nutrient uptake. However, the underlying process and chemical mechanism that could explain the interrelationship between soil carbon supplementation, soil micro-ecology, and the growth and quality of plant remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the influence and mechanism of soil carbon supplementation on the bacterial community, chemical cycling, mineral nutrition absorption, growth and properties of tobacco leaves. The soil carbon supplementation increased amino acid, carbohydrates, chemical energy metabolism, and bacterial richness in the soil. This led to increased content of sugar (23.75%), starch (13.25%), and chlorophyll (10.56%) in tobacco leaves. Linear discriminant analysis revealed 49 key phylotypes and significant increment of some of the Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) genera (Bacillus, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas) in the rhizosphere, which can influence the tobacco growth. Partial Least Squares Path Modeling (PLS-PM) showed that soil carbon supplementation positively affected the sugar and starch contents in tobacco leaves by possibly altering the photosynthesis pathway towards increasing the aroma of the leaves, thus contributing to enhanced tobacco flavor. These findings are useful for understanding the influence of soil carbon supplementation on bacterial community for improving the yields and quality of tobacco in industrial plantation.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Raízes de Plantas , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Amido , Açúcares , Tabaco
16.
Food Chem ; 368: 130866, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438178

RESUMO

The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of fermentation conditions on c9,t11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) synthesized by Lactobacillus casei and the variation of physicochemical characteristics, including pH, viable cell number, syneresis and texture profile, of fermented soy milk (FSM) during storage at 4 °C for 28 days. Fermentation in 7°Brix of soy milk (SM) supplemented with 0.1% linoleic acid and incubated at 37 °C for 72 h was found to be the optimal conditions for c9,t11-CLA biosynthesis. Within the storage of 14 days, viable cell number, total flavonoid content, water-holding capacity, spontaneous syneresis and texture profile in FSM remained stable. During the storage of 28 days, the viable cell number and c9,t11-CLA level were higher than 6.58 log CFU/mL and 816.33 µg/g, respectively.


Assuntos
Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados , Leite de Soja , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácido Linoleico , Leite
17.
Food Chem ; 366: 130531, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284182

RESUMO

Phytochemical electrophiles are drawing significant attention due to their properties to modulate signaling pathways related to cellular homeostasis. The aim of this study was to develop new tools to examine the electrophilic activity in food and predict their beneficial effects on health. We developed a spectrophotometric assay based on the nitrobenzenethiol (NBT) reactivity, as a thiol-reactive nucleophile, to screen electrophiles in tomato fruits. The method is robust, simple, inexpensive, and could be applied to other types of food. We quantified the electrophile activity in a tomato collection and associated this activity with the pigment composition. Thus, we identified lycopene, ß- and γ-carotenes, 16 by-products of carotenoid oxidation and 18 unknown compounds as NBT-reactive by HPLC-MS/MS. The potential benefits of NBT-reactive compounds on health were evaluated in the in vivo model of C. elegans where they activated the SKN-1/Nrf2 pathway, evidencing the ability of electrophilic compounds to induce a biological response.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans , Lycopersicon esculentum , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fatores de Transcrição
18.
Food Chem ; 366: 130636, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314929

RESUMO

The study aimed to determine the efficiency of advanced chelate compounds-based trace minerals (OTM) in laying hens. Laying hens (240, 32 weeks old) were assigned to one of the following five groups: NOTM (no added trace minerals), CONTM (standard mineral salts), and three experimental groups in which chelates were used to replace 33, 66, and 100% of mineral salts (OTM33, OTM66, and OTM100, respectively). Each treatment had six replicates with eight hens per replicate. After 18 weeks, performance and physicochemical properties of eggs in all experimental groups was better than those in the NOTM group. Among the treatments, OTM66 and OTM100 produced the best results in terms of laying performance, yolk PUFA/SFA ratio, Zn and Se contents, and malondialdehyde concentration in both serum and yolk. In conclusion, up to 66% OTM supplementation was beneficial for performance, lipid and mineral composition of yolk, and oxidative status.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Ácidos Graxos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Minerais/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo
19.
Food Chem ; 367: 130781, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391997

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate effects of dietary grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) supplementation on meat quality, muscle fiber characteristics and antioxidant capacity of finishing pigs. The data showed GSPE increased pH24 h, redness, crude protein content and decreased shear force, drip loss48 h, lactate content and glycolytic potential in longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle, accompanied by increased contents of total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), n-3 PUFA, and the ratio of PUFA to saturated fatty acid. GSPE promoted MyHC I mRNA and slow MyHC protein expression, and increased slow-twitch fiber percentage. The activities of total antioxidant capacity, total superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in LD muscle were increased by GSPE while malondialdehyde content was decreased. Together, this study demonstrated that dietary GSPE supplementation can effectively improve the color, water-holding capacity, tenderness and nutritional value of pork, and increase slow-twitch fiber percentage and antioxidant capacity of finishing pigs.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Extrato de Sementes de Uva , Ração Animal/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais , Carne/análise , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas , Proantocianidinas , Suínos
20.
Food Chem ; 369: 130911, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455325

RESUMO

Postmortem alteration by apoptosis has significant effects on flesh quality. Currently, the information necessary to understand the apoptotic behavior and the molecular mechanisms during postmortem alteration in fish muscle is still lacking. Activation of apoptosis and the cytokines involved in regulating apoptosis in fish muscle were evaluated during postmortem condition at 4 °C for 5 days in terms of apoptotic morphology changes, nucleus DNA fragmentation, caspases activation and related gene expressions. The triggering apoptotic mechanisms associated with multiple cytokines transcriptional levels showed that the up-regulated pro-apoptotic mediators [IFN-γ2, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, IL-17D, IL-12p35 and IL-10 (except IL-15)] and the down-regulated anti-apoptotic mediators of [IL-8 and IL-11 (except TGF-ß and IL-4)] both regulated apoptosis at early stage, which were regulated by NF-κB and TOR, respectively. Results suggested that transcriptional regulation of multiple cytokines produce a positive outcome on triggering apoptosis.


Assuntos
Carpas , Doenças dos Peixes , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Aeromonas hydrophila , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Apoptose , Carpas/genética , Citocinas/genética , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Imunidade Inata , Músculos , NF-kappa B/genética
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