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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255493, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360217

RESUMO

The demand for products to replace high-cost raw materials, such oil and fish meal, in the manufacture of feed for use in aquaculture, while also guaranteeing the nutritional quality of the diets, is increasing. Silage produced with fish and vegetables residues is a low-cost and efficient protein source. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the physiological and biochemical responses of tambaqui fingerlings fed four different levels of silage included in commercial feed with 28% crude protein, over two periods: 45 and 90 days. Each treatment was carried out over three replications, with 10 tambaqui in each 100 L experimental tank. At the end of each established period, blood samples were collected from five animals from each repetition to determine the hematological and biochemical variables. Body weight and total length, hepatosomatic and liposomal indices and hematocrit of specimens fed with diets supplemented with silage did not exhibit significant changes in both assessment period. After 45 days of feeding, the hemoglobin concentration increased when tambaqui were fed a diet including 20% silage. The red blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin did not change between treatments in either period. The total protein concentrations increased significantly in the plasma of tambaqui fed with diets with the inclusion of 5 and 10% of silage, evaluated after feeding for 45 days. It was found that the groups which had silage included in their diet did not exhibit significant alterations in the evaluated parameters, and the diet was therefore not consider harmful to the health of tambaqui. Therefore, the use of silage as a feed supplement during tambaqui farming is a sustainable alternative for producers, as it leads to a reduction of impacts of fish and vegetables waste disposal.


A procura por insumos que substituam produtos de alto custo, como óleo e farinha de peixe, na fabricação de rações para uso na aquicultura é crescente, sendo necessário garantir a qualidade nutricional das dietas. A silagem produzida a partir de resíduos de pescado e de vegetais apresenta-se como uma alternativa de baixo custo e eficiente fonte proteica. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar as respostas fisiológicas e bioquímicas de alevinos de tambaqui alimentados com quatro níveis de inclusão de silagem em ração comercial com 28% de proteína bruta, em dois períodos: 45 e 90 dias. Cada tratamento foi realizado em três repetições, com 10 tambaquis em cada caixa experimental de 100 L. Ao término de cada período estabelecido, amostras sanguíneas foram coletadas de cinco animais de cada repetição para determinação das variáveis hematológicas e bioquímicas. Peso, comprimento total e índices hepatossomático e lipossomático de espécimes alimentados com silagem não mostraram alterações significativas em ambos os períodos de avaliação, bem como os valores de hematócrito. A concentração de hemoglobina de tambaqui após 45 dias de alimentação aumentou quando foi fornecida dieta com inclusão de 20% de silagem. A contagem de eritrócitos, volume corpuscular médio e hemoglobina corpuscular média não apresentaram alterações entre os tratamentos, em ambos os períodos. As proteínas totais aumentaram significativamente no plasma de tambaquis que receberam dietas com inclusão de 5 e 10% de silagem, avaliados após 45 dias de alimentação. Evidenciou-se que os grupos com inclusão de silagem na dieta não apresentaram alterações significativas nos parâmetros avaliados, assim não sendo prejudiciais à higidez do tambaqui. Portanto, o uso da silagem como suplemento alimentar durante o cultivo do tambaqui é uma alternativa sustentável para produtores, por promover a redução do descarte de resíduos de pescado e da agricultura.


Assuntos
Animais , Aquicultura , Suplementos Nutricionais , Custos e Análise de Custo , Dieta , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250916, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345552

RESUMO

Abstract The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Moringa olifera on the growth and gut health of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The feed having 30% crude protein was prepared as an experimental diet with 4%, 8% and 10% M. olifera leaf supplementation, respectively. The control diet was devoid of M. olifera leaves. The 10 weeks feeding trial was carried out on 60 fish in aquaria. Fish was fed @ 3% of body weight twice a day. Diet with the high level of inclusion of M. olifera leaves significantly increased the growth rate, Survival Rate (SR), Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Feed Conversion Efficiency (FCE) in all treatment groups compared to the control group. Similarly, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) gradually decreased and found highly-significant. To check the gut health of the Tilapia, random samples were selected and dissected. Nutrient agar was used as culture media to check the growth of bacteria. Pour Plate Method was used for viable colonies count by colony counter. Through staining method, the different bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identify abundantly in the intestine of control diet fish but less number present in treatment diets groups. These results showed that M. olifera leaves up to 10% of dietary protein can be used for Nile tilapia for significant growth and healthy gut microbiota of fish.


Resumo O estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da Moringa olifera no crescimento e saúde intestinal da tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus). A ração com 30% de proteína bruta foi preparada como dieta experimental com 4%, 8% e 10% de suplementação de folhas de M. olifera, respectivamente. A dieta controle foi desprovida de folhas de M. olifera. O ensaio de alimentação de 10 semanas foi realizado em 60 peixes em aquários. O peixe pesava 3% do peso corporal duas vezes ao dia. A dieta com alto nível de inclusão de folhas de M. olifera aumentou significativamente a taxa de crescimento, taxa de sobrevivência (SR), taxa de crescimento de sobrevivência (SGR) e eficiência de conversão alimentar (FCE) em todos os grupos de tratamento em comparação com o grupo de controle. Da mesma forma, a taxa de conversão de alimentação (FCR) diminuiu gradualmente e foi considerada altamente significativa. Para verificar a saúde intestinal da tilápia, amostras aleatórias foram selecionadas e dissecadas. O ágar nutriente foi usado como meio de cultura para verificar o crescimento das bactérias. O método da placa de Verter foi usado para a contagem de colônias viáveis ​​por contador de colônias. Através do método de coloração, diferentes como Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella e Pseudomonas aeruginosa foram identificados abundantemente no intestino de peixes da dieta controle, mas em menor número nos grupos de dieta de tratamento. Esses resultados mostraram que M. olifera deixa até 10% da proteína dietética e pode ser usado para tilápia do Nilo para um crescimento significativo e microbiota intestinal saudável de peixes.


Assuntos
Animais , Ciclídeos , Moringa , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Folhas de Planta , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253555, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355900

RESUMO

Abstract The aim of the present study is to assess the effects of selenium nanoparticles on the growth, hematology and nutrients digestibility of Labeorohita fingerlings. Fingerlings were fed with seven isocaloric sunflower meal-based diet supplemented with different concentrations of nanoparticles naming T1 to T7 (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 mg/kg), with 5% wet body weight while chromic oxide was used as an indigestible marker. After experimentation for 90 days T3 treated group (1mg/kg -1Se-nano level) showed the best result in hematological parameters (WBC's 7.97 ×103mm-3, RBC's 2.98 ×106 mm-3 and Platelet count 67), nutrient digestibility (crude protein: 74%, ether extract: 76%, gross energy: 70%) and growth performance (weight gain 13.24 g, weight gain% 198, feed conversion ratio 1.5, survival rate 100%) as compared to the other treatment groups. Specific growth rates were found significantly higher in T5 than in other groups. The present study indicated positive effect of 1 mg/kg Se-nanoparticles on growth advancement, hematological parameters, and nutrients digestibility of L. rohita fingerlings.


Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo é avaliar os efeitos das nanopartículas de selênio no crescimento, hematologia e digestibilidade dos nutrientes de alevinos de Labeo rohita. Os alevinos foram alimentados com sete dietas isocalóricas à base de farinha de girassol suplementada com diferentes concentrações de nanopartículas, nomeando T1 a T7 (0, 0,5, 1, 1,5, 2, 2,5 e 3 mg / kg), com 5% do peso corporal úmido enquanto o óxido crômico foi usado como um marcador indigesto. Após a experimentação por 90 dias, o grupo tratado com T3 (nível 1mg / kg -1Se-nano) mostrou o melhor resultado em parâmetros hematológicos (WBC's 7,97 × 103mm-3, RBC's 2,98 × 106mm-3 e contagem de plaquetas 67), digestibilidade dos nutrientes (proteína bruta: 74%, extrato de éter: 76%, energia bruta: 70%) e desempenho de crescimento (ganho de peso 13,24 g, ganho de peso % 198, taxa de conversão alimentar 1,5, taxa de sobrevivência 100%) em comparação com os outros grupos de tratamento. As taxas de crescimento específicas foram encontradas significativamente mais altas em T5 do que em outros grupos. O presente estudo indicou efeito positivo de 1 mg / kg de nanopartículas de Se no avanço do crescimento, parâmetros hematológicos e digestibilidade de nutrientes de alevinos de L. rohita.


Assuntos
Animais , Nanopartículas , Helianthus , Nutrientes , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
4.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678315

RESUMO

Disrupted biological function, manifesting through the hallmarks of aging, poses one of the largest threats to healthspan and risk of disease development, such as metabolic disorders, cardiovascular ailments, and neurodegeneration. In recent years, numerous geroprotectors, senolytics, and other nutraceuticals have emerged as potential disruptors of aging and may be viable interventions in the immediate state of human longevity science. In this review, we focus on the decrease in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) with age and the supplementation of NAD+ precursors, such as nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) or nicotinamide riboside (NR), in combination with other geroprotective compounds, to restore NAD+ levels present in youth. Furthermore, these geroprotectors may enhance the efficacy of NMN supplementation while concurrently providing their own numerous health benefits. By analyzing the prevention of NAD+ degradation through the inhibition of CD38 or supporting protective downstream agents of SIRT1, we provide a potential framework of the CD38/NAD+/SIRT1 axis through which geroprotectors may enhance the efficacy of NAD+ precursor supplementation and reduce the risk of age-related diseases, thereby potentiating healthspan in humans.


Assuntos
NAD , Sirtuína 1 , Humanos , Adolescente , NAD/metabolismo , Senoterapia , Niacinamida/farmacologia , Niacinamida/metabolismo , Mononucleotídeo de Nicotinamida , Nucleotídeos , Suplementos Nutricionais
5.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678320

RESUMO

Essential oils (EO) are promising feed additives for their antibacterial, antioxidant, and immune-enhancing abilities with low toxicity. Carvacrol, thymol, and cinnamaldehyde are commonly used to synthesize EO. However, few studies focus on combining these three EO in early-weaned piglets. In the present study, 24 piglets weaned at 21 d of age were randomly divided into 2 groups (6 replicate pens per group, 2 piglets per pen). The piglets were fed a basal diet (the control group) and a basal diet supplemented with 400 mg/kg EO (a blend consisting of carvacrol, thymol, and cinnamaldehyde, the EO group) for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, one piglet per pen was randomly chosen to be sacrificed. Growth performance, hematology, plasma biochemical indices, antioxidant capacity, intestinal epithelial development and immunity, colonic volatile fatty acids (VFA), and microbiota were determined. The results indicated that the diet supplemented with EO significantly improved average daily feed intake (ADFI, p < 0.01) and average daily gain (ADG, p < 0.05) in the day 0 to 28 period. EO supplementation led to a significant decrease in plasma lysozyme (p < 0.05) and cortisol levels (p < 0.01). Additionally, EO significantly promoted jejunal goblet cells in the villus, jejunal mucosa ZO-1 mRNA expression, ileal villus height, and ileal villus height/crypt depth ratio in piglets (p < 0.05). The ileal mucosal TLR4 and NFκB p-p65/p65 protein expression were significantly inhibited in the EO group (p < 0.05). Colonic digesta microbiota analysis revealed that bacteria involving the Erysipelotrichaceae family, Holdemanella genus, Phascolarctobacterium genus, and Vibrio genus were enriched in the EO group. In conclusion, these findings indicate that the EO blend improves ADG and ADFI in the day 0 to 28 period, as well as intestinal epithelial development and intestinal immunity in early-weaned piglets, which provides a theoretical basis for the combined use of EO in weaned piglets.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Suínos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Timol/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais
6.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678334

RESUMO

The search for novel sources of nutrients is among the basic goals for achievement of sustainable progress. In this context, microalgae are relevant organisms, being rich in high-value compounds and able to grow in open ponds or photobioreactors, thus enabling profitable exploitation of aquatic resources. Microalgae, a huge taxon containing photosynthetic microorganisms living in freshwater, as well as in brackish and marine waters, typically unicellular and eukaryotic, include green algae (Chlorophyceae), red algae (Rhodophyceae), brown algae (Phaeophyceae) and diatoms (Bacillariophyceae). In recent decades, diatoms have been considered the most sustainable sources of nutrients for humans with respect to other microalgae. This review focuses on studies exploring their bio-pharmacological activities when relevant for human disease prevention and/or treatment. In addition, we considered diatoms and their extracts (or purified compounds) when relevant for specific nutraceutical applications.


Assuntos
Clorófitas , Diatomáceas , Microalgas , Feófitas , Humanos , Suplementos Nutricionais
7.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678333

RESUMO

Pre-obesity is a condition that predisposes to the risk of developing obesity, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and diabetes. Our previous study demonstrated that a Cynara cardunculus (L.) based nutraceutical named Altilix® (Bionap, Italy), containing chlorogenic acid and luteolin extracts, was able to improve several hepatic and cardio-metabolic parameters. Given this background, we conducted a post-hoc analysis of the Altilix® study in order to analyze the supplement's effects in the subgroup of pre-obesity subjects on anthropometry (weight and waist circumference), glucose metabolism (HbA1C, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-ß), lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol), hepatic functionality (FLI, AST, ALT and AST/ALT), carotid-media thickness (CIMT) and endothelial function (FMD). Fifty subjects from the original study cohort (which consisted of 100 subjects) were chosen with BMI ≥ 25 and < 30 kg/m2. All subjects received the Altilix® supplement (150 mg/day) or placebo using a computer-based random allocation system. After six months of treatment Altilix® significantly reduced body weight, glycemic, and lipid parameters (total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol) and improved hepatic functionality, CIMT, and FMD. In conclusion, these results confirm that Altilix® supplementation has a significant effect on cardiometabolic parameters not only in obese subjects but also in pre-obesity subjects.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Ácido Clorogênico , Humanos , Luteolina , Obesidade , Suplementos Nutricionais , Triglicerídeos , Colesterol , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Método Duplo-Cego
8.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678345

RESUMO

The food supplement market is growing as many consumers wish to complement their nutrient intake. Despite all the regulations in place to ensure food supplements safety, there are still many cases of irregularities reported especially connected to internet sales. Twenty resveratrol food supplement products sold on the Slovenian market were evaluated on their compliance of declared vs. determined resveratrol content, as well as the compliance of labels with the European Union (EU) and Slovenian regulatory requirements. Both the ingredient contents and food information are important parts of food safety. Analyses of 20 food supplements performed using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) coupled with densitometry showed that 95% of products had contents different from what was declared and 55% of products contained higher contents than declared. In 25% of the products the determined content per unit exceeded the maximum level (150 mg/day) specified in EU novel food conditions for food supplement with trans-resveratrol. Evaluation of the 20 food supplement labels included mandatory and voluntary food information, food supplement information, novel food information, health claims and nutrition claims. Most labels contained the necessary information, but multiple errors were observed ranging from typos to misleading practices. From a food safety perspective there is still a lot of improvement needed in the field of food supplements.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Resveratrol , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , União Europeia
9.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678347

RESUMO

Regulation has long been a counterpart of innovation in the health care industry, and recent cases have demonstrated that appropriately designed regulations can both coexist with and promote innovation. This study is the first study to explore how the regulatory environment affected the innovation process during the transition of the regulations for functional foods in Japan by examining quantitatively the impact of the foods with function claims (FFC) system on industry, companies, and products. Based on a dataset of Japanese dietary supplement manufacturing companies (n = 169) and their products (n = 731) in 2019, we found that companies that have newly entered the FFC system are smaller in scale than existing companies (p < 0.01, Wilcoxon rank sum test). We also found that companies with FFC products have larger revenue growth (p = 0.01). A multiple regression analysis revealed that FFC product sales increased with in-house clinical testing (coefficient: 26.8, p < 0.0001), diverse active ingredients (coefficient: 7.6, p < 0.001), and the claim of new functions (coefficient: 10.2, p < 0.05). These results suggested that the FFC system facilitated the market entry of small and mid-size enterprises and promoted the creation of high-value products through innovative company efforts.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Alimento Funcional , Japão , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Comércio
10.
BMC Nephrol ; 24(1): 20, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36698076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepcidin is considered to play a central role in the pathophysiology of renal anemia. Recent studies in healthy individuals have demonstrated a suppressive effect of vitamin D (VD) on the expression of hepcidin. In this post-hoc analysis based on a randomized controlled study, we evaluated the effect of supplementing chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients (stage G3-G4) with a high daily dose of native VD on serum levels of hepcidin-25, the hepcidin/ferritin ratio, as well as on markers of erythropoiesis. METHODS: Patients with CKD stage G3-G4 included in a double blind, randomized, placebo (PBO) controlled study with available hepcidin measurements were analyzed. Study subjects received either 8000 international units (IU) of cholecalciferol daily or PBO for 12 weeks. We evaluated the change in markers of hepcidin expression, erythropoiesis, and iron status from baseline to week 12 and compared the change between the groups. RESULTS: Eighty five patients completed the study. Calcitriol, but not 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D), was inversely correlated with serum levels of hepcidin-25 (rho = -0,38; p = < 0, 01 and rho = -0,02; p = 0, 89, respectively) at baseline. Supplementation with VD significantly raised the serum concentration of serum 25(OH)D in the treatment group (from 54 (39-71) to 156 (120-190) nmol/L; p = < 0, 01)) but had no effect on any of the markers of hepcidin, erythropoiesis, or iron status in the entire cohort. However, we did observe an increase in hemoglobin (HB) levels and transferrin saturation (TSAT) as compared to the PBO group in a subgroup of patients with low baseline 25(OH)D levels (< 56 nmol/L). In contrast, in patients with high baseline 25(OH)D values (≥ 56 nmol/L), VD supplementation associated with a decrease in HB levels and TSAT (p = 0,056) within the VD group in addition to a decrease in hepcidin levels as compared to the PBO group. CONCLUSION: High-dose VD supplementation had no discernible effect on markers of hepcidin or erythropoiesis in the entire study cohort. However, in patients with low baseline 25(OH)D levels, high-dose VD supplementation associated with beneficial effects on erythropoiesis and iron availability. In contrast, in patients with elevated baseline 25(OH)D levels, high-dose VD supplementation resulted in a decrease in hepcidin levels, most likely due to a deterioration in iron status.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Humanos , Hepcidinas , Eritropoese , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Ferro , Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais
11.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 23(1): 63, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36698082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, infant anemia, stunting and low birth weight remains major public health problems. It is unclear whether prenatal iron supplementation and/or deworming can reduce the risk of infant stunting, anemia and low birth weight. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between iron supplementation and/or deworming and stunting, anemia, and low birth weight in infants under two years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Our studies examined pooled data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in twenty-three African countries collected between 2014 and 2020. childhood anemia and stunting in infants under the age of two were the primary outcomes. Iron supplementation and deworming during prenatal visits were the main exposure variables. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to investigate these relationships. RESULTS: The prevalence of stunting was 29.9%, severe stunting was 10.6%, childhood anemia was 74.3%, childhood severe anemia was 3.2%, and low birth weight was 16.4%, respectively. The use of prenatal iron supplementation alone was associated with a significant reduction of childhood anemia [aOR (95% CI) = 0.9 (0.8-1.0)]. Prenatal deworming alone was associated with a significantly reduced risk of stunting [aOR (95% CI) = 0.7 (0.8-1.0)], childhood anemia [aOR (95% CI) = 0.7 (0.8-0.9)], and low birth weight [aOR (95% CI) = 0.7 (0.8-1.0)]. Prenatal iron supplementation plus deworming or iron supplementation (with or without deworming) were not associated with childhood anemia, infant stunting and low birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: In Sub-Saharan Africa, prenatal deworming alone has the potential to improve infants' outcomes. Childhood anemia was improved with prenatal iron supplementation alone. Our recent findings indicate the necessity for prospective studies on the association between prenatal iron supplementation plus deworming and childhood anemia, stunting and low birth weight.


Assuntos
Anemia , Ferro , Feminino , Gravidez , Lactente , Humanos , Ferro/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia/prevenção & controle , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais
12.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 70(3): e30188, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36600459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer may be related to maternal health in pregnancy. Maternal anemia is a common condition in pregnancy, especially in low-income countries, but the association between maternal anemia and childhood cancer has not been widely studied. OBJECTIVE: To examine the potential relation between maternal anemia during pregnancy and childhood cancers in a population-based cohort study in Taiwan. METHODS: We examined the relationship between maternal anemia and childhood cancer in Taiwan (N = 2160 cancer cases, 2,076,877 noncases). Cases were taken from the National Cancer Registry, and noncases were selected from birth records. Using national health registries, we obtained maternal anemia diagnoses. We estimated the risks for childhood cancers using Cox proportional hazard analysis. RESULTS: There was an increased risk of cancers in children born to mothers with nutritional anemia (hazard ratio (HR): 1.32, 95% CI 0.99, 1.76). Iron deficiency anemia (HR: 1.30, 95% CI 0.97-1.75) carried an increased risk, while non-nutritional anemias were not associated with childhood cancer risk. CONCLUSION: Our results provide additional support for screening for anemia during pregnancy. Adequate nutrition and vitamin supplementation may help to prevent some childhood cancer.


Assuntos
Anemia , Neoplasias , Gravidez , Feminino , Criança , Humanos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia/etiologia
13.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678206

RESUMO

Aim: To determine if supplementation of infants born <33 weeks' gestation with higher dose docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) affects growth, body composition, and blood pressure at 7 y corrected age (CA) and if treatment effects differed by infant sex at birth and birth weight strata (<1250 and ≥1250 g). Methods: Seven-year follow-up of an Australian multicenter randomized controlled trial in which 657 infants were fed high-DHA (≈1% total fatty acids) enteral feeds or standard-DHA (≈0.3% total fatty acids) from age 2-4 d until term CA. Seven-year CA outcomes were growth (weight, height), body composition (lean body mass, fat mass, waist, and hip circumference), and blood pressure. Results: There was no effect of high-DHA enteral feeds compared with standard-DHA on growth, body composition, and blood pressure at 7-year CA either overall or in subgroup analysis by sex. There was a significant interaction between high-DHA and birthweight strata on height at 7-y CA (p = 0.03). However, the post-hoc analyses by birthweight strata did not reach significance (p > 0.1). High-DHA group infants were more likely to be classified as obese (relative risk 1.6 (95% CI 1.0, 2.6); p = 0.05). Conclusions: DHA supplementation of premature infants did not affect growth, body composition, or blood pressure at 7-year CA overall by sex and birthweight strata. The finding of a higher risk of obesity in children who receive high-DHA needs to be interpreted with caution due to the small number of children classified as obese.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Obesidade Pediátrica , Lactente , Criança , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pré-Escolar , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/uso terapêutico , Peso ao Nascer , Seguimentos , Pressão Sanguínea , Obesidade Pediátrica/tratamento farmacológico , Austrália , Ácidos Graxos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Composição Corporal
14.
Int J Clin Pract ; 2023: 1907222, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36713951

RESUMO

Background: Prevention and timely treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are important to the prognosis of pregnant women and neonates. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to evaluate the effects and safety of vitamin D supplementation on GDM patients and neonates, to provide insights into clinical GDM treatment. Methods: Two authors searched the Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Embase, CNKI, and Wanfang databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects and safety of vitamin D supplementation in GDM patients. The quality of the included RCTs was evaluated according to Cochrane handbook. RevMan 5.3 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 20 RCTs involving 1682 GDM patients were finally included, of whom 837 received vitamin D supplementation. Vitamin D supplementation in GDM patients increased the serum 25(OH)D level (SMD = 4.07, 95% CI: (2.73, 5.41)) and HDL level (SMD = 0.41, 95% CI: (0.23, 0.58)) and reduced serum LDL (SMD = -0.49, 95% CI: (-0.68, -0.29)), TG (SMD = -0.59, 95% CI: (-1.01, -0.17)), and TC (SMD = -0.67, 95% CI: (-1.19, -0.14)) levels in GDM patients (all P < 0.05). Besides, vitamin D supplementation reduced the risk of premature birth (OR = 0.37, 95% CI: (0.22, 0.62)), hyperbilirubinemia (OR = 0.38, 95% CI: (0.25, 0.58)), and neonatal hospitalization (OR = 0.38, 95% CI: (0.25, 0.58)) of neonates (all P < 0.05). No significant publication bias in synthesized results was found (all P > 0.05). Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation improves the blood lipid level in GDM patients and reduces adverse neonatal outcomes. The dose and duration of vitamin D supplementation for safety need to be further investigated in future high-quality studies.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Complicações na Gravidez , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Humanos , Diabetes Gestacional/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Gestacional/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle
15.
J Prev Alzheimers Dis ; 10(1): 137-143, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36641619

RESUMO

The A. G. Leventis Foundation International Conference, "Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease and Cognitive Decline with Diet and Lifestyle", was held on May 11-12th, 2022 in Nicosia, Cyprus. This conference examined the role of diet and lifestyle for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's Disease and other forms of cognitive decline. Speakers from leading academic institutions presented evidence on healthy dietary patterns, with a particular focus on the traditional Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), in association with cognitive outcomes, mainly cognitive decline, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease, from both observational and interventional studies. Moreover, future directions for the potential use of olive oil, rich in polyphenols, for its therapeutic use as a nutraceutical, as well as nutritional interventions with high-quality dietary patterns (i.e. MedDiet) that support existing primarily observational evidence for the prevention of cognitive decline, as well as challenges in designing rigorous clinical trials are summarized and discussed within the conference proceedings.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Dieta Mediterrânea , Humanos , Doença de Alzheimer/prevenção & controle , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida , Suplementos Nutricionais
16.
Water Res ; 230: 119493, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36634530

RESUMO

The anaerobic/aerobic/anoxic (A/O/A) process is a promising biotechnology to intensify denitrification in low carbon/nitrogen (C/N) wastewater treatment, but the neglected typical rate-limiting step-nitrification-would hinder its wider application. Heterotrophic nitrification driven by intracellular carbon (PHAs) could enhance nitrification and achieve endogenous simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (ESND) in the A/O/A process, but its feasibility remains unexamined. Here we established four A/O/A-SBRs at different C/N ratios (3, 7.5, 12, and 16.5) to address the above-mentioned knowledge gaps. The results showed that organic supplementation promoted both nitrification and denitrification (performance and relevant enzymatic activities) until organic overdose (C/N = 16.5) exacerbated niche competitions from other non-functional heterotrophs. qPCR and batch tests indicated that high C/N ratios inhibited autotrophic nitrifiers, and heterotrophic nitrifiers (HNB) dominated in the enhanced nitrification. Given the high HNB contribution (43.7%) and low COD variation (< 10 mg L-1) in the SND (76.4%) of CN12, we proposed a potential SND pathway based on heterotrophic nitrification and denitrification driven by PHAs and verified it with batch tests. Microbial and functional analyses suggested that CN12 favored the intracellular carbon transformation and harbored the minimum autotrophic nitrifiers, supporting the dominance of ESND in the enhanced SND. Our findings expand the understanding of the relationships between intracellular carbon transformation and SND and provide a novel nitrogen removal pathway for the practical application of the A/O/A process.


Assuntos
Desnitrificação , Nitrificação , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36613172

RESUMO

Food supplements contain a variety of combinations of vitamins, minerals, plant extracts, and other substances. Any physical effort requires energy from balanced and healthy nutrition. This research aimed to identify the categories of dietary supplements used by active and very active participants who attend the sports and leisure centers from Targu Mures city. The survey was developed in paper and online forms using the Internet and supported multimedia and self-administration. The sample consists of 517 subjects chosen randomly from the research population and divided into the active and highly active PAI subgroups based on age, education, and gender. IBM SPSS Statistics Version 20.0 was used to process the collected data. All data were analysed descriptively. Differences between independent groups were assessed using an Independent sample t-test and a Chi-square test. Statistical significance was accepted when p < 0.05. Additionally, a Pearson correlation was done. The most representative age category was between 18 and 22 years old (42.7%), the ones using dietary supplements most frequently. There were significant differences by group of age regarding the consumption of food supplements (p < 0.05) and also by gender (p < 0.05).


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Vitaminas , Adolescente , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Minerais , Romênia , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 120(1): e20220209, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diet's inorganic nitrate (NO3-) may provide a physiological substrate for reducing nitrate (NO2-) to NO independent of the endothelium. Studies suggest that inorganic NO3- has beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the acute effects of 500 mL nitrate-rich beetroot juice (BRJ; containing 11.5mmol NO3-) on blood pressure and endothelial function in treated hypertensive patients. METHODS: A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study was conducted in treated hypertensive patients (n=37; women=62%) who underwent clinical and nutritional evaluation and assessment of central hemodynamic parameters and microvascular reactivity. The significance level was p<0.05. RESULTS: The mean age was 59±7 years, and mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 142±10/83±9mmHg. There was a significant increase in the subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR; 149±25 vs. 165±30%, p<0.001) and reduction in ejection duration (ED; 37±4 vs. 34±4%, p<0.001) in the beetroot phase but no significant SEVR difference in the control phase. The % increase in perfusion (155 vs. 159 %, p=0.042) was significantly increased in the beetroot phase, which was not observed in the control phase. In the beetroot phase, the change in SEVR showed a significant correlation with the change in the area under the curve of post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (AUC-PORH) (r=0.45, p=0.012). The change in ED showed a significant correlation with the post-intervention perfusion peak (r=-0.37, p=0.031) and AUC-PORH (r=-0.36, p=0.046). CONCLUSIONS: The acute ingestion of BRJ by hypertensive patients resulted in an improvement of endothelial function, which was associated with higher subendocardial viability and performance in myocardial contraction.


FUNDAMENTO: O nitrato inorgânico (NO3­) da dieta pode fornecer substrato fisiológico para reduzir o nitrito (NO2­) a óxido nítrico (NO) independente do endotélio. Estudos sugerem que o NO3­ inorgânico tem efeitos benéficos na saúde cardiovascular. OBJETIVOS: Este estudo avaliou os efeitos agudos de 500 mL de suco de beterraba rico em nitrato (SB; contendo 11,5mmol NO3­) na pressão arterial e na função endotelial em pacientes hipertensos tratados. MÉTODOS: Estudo cruzado, randomizado, controlado por placebo foi realizado em pacientes hipertensos tratados (n=37; mulheres=62%) que foram submetidos à avaliação clínica e nutricional, avaliação dos parâmetros hemodinâmicos centrais e reatividade microvascular. O nível de significância foi p<0,05. RESULTADOS: A média de idade foi 59±7 anos e das pressões sistólica e diastólica foi de 142±10/83±9 mmHg. Houve aumento significativo na taxa de viabilidade subendocárdica (RVSE; 149±25 vs. 165±30%, p<0,001) e redução na duração da ejeção (DE; 37±4 vs. 34±4%, p<0,001) na fase beterraba, mas nenhuma diferença significativa de RVSE na fase controle. O % de aumento na perfusão (155 vs. 159%, p=0,042) cresceu significativamente na fase beterraba, o que não foi observado na fase controle. Na fase beterraba, a alteração da RVSE apresentou correlação significativa com a alteração da área sob a curva de hiperemia reativa pós-oclusiva (ASC-HRPO) (r=0,45, p=0,012). A mudança na DE mostrou uma correlação significativa com pico de perfusão pós-intervenção (r=-0,37, p=0,031) e ASC-HRPO (r=-0,36, p=0,046). CONCLUSÃO: A ingestão aguda de SB por pacientes hipertensos resultou em melhora da função endotelial, que foi associada à maior viabilidade subendocárdica e desempenho na contração miocárdica.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Nitratos , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Nitratos/farmacologia , Nitratos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Cross-Over , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Pressão Sanguínea , Endotélio , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego
19.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 568, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631508

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive review with meta-analysis to determine the effects of the dose-response relationship between monensin supplementation and dairy cow performance and milk composition. Results from 566 full-text articles and 48 articles with 52 studies were meta-analyzed for pooled estimates. Monensin supplementation up to 23 ppm increased milk production, with the optimal dose being 12.6 ppm. Monensin supplementation at doses ranging from 16 to 96 ppm increased milk production in the prepartum phase (- 28 to 0 day relative to calving). From 60 to 150 DIM, monensin supplementation up to 21 ppm had a significant positive effect on this outcome, while supplementation in the 37 to 96 ppm range caused a decrease in this variable. At 0 to 60 and > 150 DIM, monensin supplementation had no effect on milk yield. At dosages of 22 to 96 ppm, 12 to 36 ppm, and below 58 ppm and 35 ppm, respectively, monensin supplementation resulted in significant decreases in dry matter intake (DMI), milk protein percentage, milk fat percentage, and milk fat yield. Overall, based on the results of this meta-analysis and considering all variables, the recommended optimal dose of monensin could be about 16 ppm.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Lactação , Leite , Monensin , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Dieta/veterinária , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Monensin/administração & dosagem , Monensin/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Gorduras/análise
20.
BMC Vet Res ; 19(1): 7, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary supplementation of full-fat black soldier fly larvae (BSFL full-fat meal; alone or in combination with multi-probiotics) was tested as an alternative to dietary antibiotics in weaning piglets. We also tested the effects of these diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility coefficients, immune status, oxidative stress, intestinal histomorphology, and rectal microbial modulations in weaned pigs. A total of 80 piglets [(Landrace × Large White) × Duroc] of both sexes (a ratio of gilts and barrows; 1:1), were randomly allotted to four diet groups: positive control (PC) diet supplemented with 0.02% amoxicillin; negative control (NC) diet without supplement addition; BSFL12 diet (NC + 12% BSFL full-fat meal); and BSFL + Pro diet (BSFL full-fat meal + 0.1% multi-probiotics, including Bacillus subtilis, B. licheniformis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae). All groups had five replicates, with four piglets per replicate. RESULTS: Dietary BSFL + Pro improved the overall average daily gain (P = 0.013), and gain-to-feed ratio (P = 0.032). The BSFL12 and BSFL + Pro diets improved nutrient digestibility and increased the serum levels of immunoglobulin A and glutathione peroxidase, while reducing the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The spleen weight was higher and caecal pH was lower in pigs fed the BSFL + Pro diet than in those fed the NC diet (P = 0.011 and P = 0.021, respectively). Pigs fed the BSFL diets had longer duodenal villi, a higher villus height-to-crypt depth ratio (P = 0.004), and shorter crypt depth (P = 0.017) than those fed NC. The BSFL + Pro diet also increased faecal Lactobacillus spp. count (P = 0.008) and reduced Escherichia coli (P = 0.021) counts compared with that seen with PC and NC diets, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary supplementation with BSFL or BSFL + multi-probiotics can improve the growth performance and intestinal health of pigs and may be an effective strategy to replace antibiotics for weaned pigs.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Probióticos , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Ração Animal/análise , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Larva , Probióticos/farmacologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Suínos , Desmame
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