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1.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 24(1): 44, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body size and echolocation call frequencies are related in bats. However, it is unclear if this allometry applies to the entire clade. Differences have been suggested between nasal and oral emitting bats, as well as between some taxonomic families. Additionally, the scaling of other echolocation parameters, such as bandwidth and call duration, needs further testing. Moreover, it would be also interesting to test whether changes in body size have been coupled with changes in these echolocation parameters throughout bat evolution. Here, we test the scaling of peak frequency, bandwidth, and call duration with body mass using phylogenetically informed analyses for 314 bat species. We specifically tested whether all these scaling patterns differ between nasal and oral emitting bats. Then, we applied recently developed Bayesian statistical techniques based on large-scale simulations to test for the existence of correlated evolution between body mass and echolocation. RESULTS: Our results showed that echolocation peak frequencies, bandwidth, and duration follow significant allometric patterns in both nasal and oral emitting bats. Changes in these traits seem to have been coupled across the laryngeal echolocation bats diversification. Scaling and correlated evolution analyses revealed that body mass is more related to peak frequency and call duration than to bandwidth. We exposed two non-exclusive kinds of mechanisms to explain the link between size and each of the echolocation parameters. CONCLUSIONS: The incorporation of Bayesian statistics based on large-scale simulations could be helpful for answering macroevolutionary patterns related to the coevolution of traits in bats and other taxonomic groups.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Ecolocação , Humanos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Tamanho Corporal
2.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2021): 20232868, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38628132

RESUMO

Studies of vertebrate bone biomechanics often focus on skeletal adaptations at upper extremes of body mass, disregarding the importance of skeletal adaptations at lower extremes. Yet mammals are ancestrally small and most modern species have masses under 5 kg, so the evolution of morphology and function at small size should be prioritized for understanding how mammals subsist. We examined allometric scaling of lumbar vertebrae in the small-bodied Philippine endemic rodents known as cloud rats, which vary in mass across two orders of magnitude (15.5 g-2700 g). External vertebral dimensions scale with isometry or positive allometry, likely relating to body size and nuances in quadrupedal posture. In contrast to most mammalian trabecular bone studies, bone volume fraction and trabecular thickness scale with positive allometry and isometry, respectively. It is physiologically impossible for these trends to continue to the upper extremes of mammalian body size, and we demonstrate a fundamental difference in trabecular bone allometry between large- and small-bodied mammals. These findings have important implications for the biomechanical capabilities of mammalian bone at small body size; for the selective pressures that govern skeletal evolution in small mammals; and for the way we define 'small' and 'large' in the context of vertebrate skeletons.


Assuntos
Vértebras Lombares , Mamíferos , Ratos , Animais , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Osso e Ossos , Tamanho Corporal , Vertebrados
3.
Aging Cell ; 23(4): e14157, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558485

RESUMO

A recently proposed principal law of lifespan (PLOSP) proposes to extend the whole human lifespan by elongating different life stages. As the preborn stage of a human being, gestation is the foundation for the healthy development of the human body. The antagonistic pleiotropy (AP) theory of aging states that there is a trade-off between early life fitness and late-life mortality. The question is whether slower development during the gestation period would be associated with a longer lifespan. Among all living creatures, the length of the gestation period is highly positively correlated to the length of the lifespan, although such a correlation is thought to be influenced by the body sizes of different species. While examining the relationship between lifespan length and body size within the same species, dogs exhibit a negative correlation between lifespans and body sizes, while there is no such correlation among domestic cats. For humans, most adverse gestational environments shorten the period of gestation, and their impacts are long-term. While many issues remain unsolved, various developmental features have been linked to the conditions during the gestation period. Given that the length of human pregnancies can vary randomly by as long as 5 weeks, it is worth investigating whether a slow steady healthy gestation over a longer period will be related to a longer and healthier lifespan. This article discusses the potential benefits, negative impacts, and challenges of the relative elongation of the gestation period.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Longevidade , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Animais , Cães , Gatos , Tamanho Corporal
4.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2864, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580657

RESUMO

Global climate patterns fundamentally shape the distribution of species and ecosystems. For example, Bergmann's rule predicts that homeothermic animals, including birds and mammals, inhabiting cooler climates are generally larger than close relatives from warmer climates. The modern world, however, lacks the comparative data needed to evaluate such macroecological rules rigorously. Here, we test for Bergmann's rule in Mesozoic dinosaurs and mammaliaforms that radiated within relatively temperate global climate regimes. We develop a phylogenetic model that accounts for biases in the fossil record and allows for variable evolutionary dispersal rates. Our analysis also includes new fossil data from the extreme high-latitude Late Cretaceous Arctic Prince Creek Formation. We find no evidence for Bergmann's rule in Mesozoic dinosaurs or mammaliaforms, the ancestors of extant homeothermic birds and mammals. When our model is applied to thousands of extant dinosaur (bird) and mammal species, we find that body size evolution remains independent of latitude. A modest temperature effect is found in extant, but not in Mesozoic, birds, suggesting that body size evolution in modern birds was influenced by Bergmann's rule during Cenozoic climatic change. Our study provides a general approach for studying macroecological rules, highlighting the fossil record's power to address longstanding ecological principles.


Assuntos
Dinossauros , Animais , Filogenia , Ecossistema , Modelos Biológicos , Tamanho Corporal , Mamíferos , Evolução Biológica
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7687, 2024 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561383

RESUMO

Claws, as nature's multifaceted instruments, play fundamental roles across the animal kingdom, aiding in prey capture and enabling movement across diverse terrains. Claw features often reflect the ecologies of the respective taxa and thus can provide important insights into the different lifestyles. This study explores the claw morphology of monodactylous oribatid mites through geometric morphometrics, analyzing 559 specimens from 49 species across various ecosystems. The research identifies distinct claw characteristics associated with specific habitats, revealing a significant correlation between claw morphology and the mites' environmental adaptations. Littoral mites exhibit notably larger claws compared to terrestrial counterparts, with aquatic and semiaquatic species presenting intermediate traits. The analysis shows an inverse relationship between claw curvature and sharpness, differing from patterns observed in larger animals. A trend of increasing claw bluntness with body size in terrestrial mites echoes biomechanical constraints seen in larger species. The study also observes consistent claw shapes within oribatid superfamilies, suggesting a potential, albeit muted, phylogenetic influence alongside environmental factors. These findings reveal how ecological, evolutionary, and functional aspects influence claw morphology in oribatid mites, enhancing our knowledge of arthropod biology and potentially inspiring biomimetic advances in material science and engineering.


Assuntos
Ácaros , Animais , Filogenia , Ecossistema , Evolução Biológica , Tamanho Corporal
6.
Zool Res ; 45(2): 314-328, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485502

RESUMO

Animal body size variation is of particular interest in evolutionary biology, but the genetic basis remains largely unknown. Previous studies have shown the presence of two parallel evolutionary genetic clusters within the fish genus Epinephelus with evident divergence in body size, providing an excellent opportunity to investigate the genetic basis of body size variation in vertebrates. Herein, we performed phylotranscriptomic analysis and reconstructed the phylogeny of 13 epinephelids originating from the South China Sea. Two genetic clades with an estimated divergence time of approximately 15.4 million years ago were correlated with large and small body size, respectively. A total of 180 rapidly evolving genes and two positively selected genes were identified between the two groups. Functional enrichment analyses of these candidate genes revealed distinct enrichment categories between the two groups. These pathways and genes may play important roles in body size variation in groupers through complex regulatory networks. Based on our results, we speculate that the ancestors of the two divergent groups of groupers may have adapted to different environments through habitat selection, leading to genetic variations in metabolic patterns, organ development, and lifespan, resulting in body size divergence between the two locally adapted populations. These findings provide important insights into the genetic mechanisms underlying body size variation in groupers and species differentiation.


Assuntos
Bass , Animais , Bass/genética , Filogenia , Tamanho Corporal/genética , China , Variação Genética
7.
Neotrop Entomol ; 53(2): 277-303, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446382

RESUMO

The taxonomically intricate genus of trilobite cockroaches, Parahormetica Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1865, is revised based on a comparative morphological analysis. The goals of this study are to review the nomenclature, propose hypotheses about specific delimitation, and provide diagnoses to allow identification of the taxonomic units in the genus. Based on the revised status of Parahormetica, we transferred Parahormetica hylaeceps Miranda-Ribeiro, 1936, and Parahormetica punctata Saussure, 1873, to the genus Bionoblatta Rehn, 1940. Therefore, the genus includes now four species of giant cockroaches which are predominantly distributed on the Atlantic Forest: Parahormetica bilobata (Saussure, 1864), Parahormetica cicatricosa Saussure, 1869, Parahormetica monticollis (Burmeister, 1838), and Parahormetica museunacional sp. nov. (holotype male deposited in DZUP: Brazil, Paraná). Diagnoses, key, distribution maps, images of living, non-type, and type specimens are made available. Our results make clear that the status and limits among Brachycolini genera pending a full revision.


Assuntos
Baratas , Periplaneta , Masculino , Animais , Baratas/anatomia & histologia , Florestas , Brasil , Tamanho Corporal , Distribuição Animal
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 922: 171426, 2024 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432363

RESUMO

Climate warming influences the biological activities of aquatic organisms, including feeding, growth, and reproduction, thereby affecting predator-prey interactions. This study explored the variation in thermal sensitivity of anti-predator responses in two cladoceran species with varying body sizes, Daphnia pulex and Ceriodaphnia cornuta. These species were cultured with or without the fish (Rhodeus ocellatus) kairomone at temperatures of 15, 20, 25, and 30 °C for 15 days. Results revealed that cladocerans of different body sizes exhibited varying responses to fish kairomones in aspects such as individual size, first-brood neonate size, total offspring number, average brood size, growth rate, and reproductive effort. Notably, low temperature differently affected defense responses in cladocerans of different body sizes. Both high and low temperatures moderated the intensity of the kairomone-induced response on body size at maturity. Additionally, low temperature reversed the reducing effect of fish kairomone on the total offspring number, average brood size, and reproductive effort in D. pulex. Conversely, it enhanced the increasing effect of fish kairomone on these parameters in C. cornuta. These results suggest that inducible anti-predator responses in cladocerans are modifiable by temperature. The differential effects of fish kairomones on various cladocerans under temperature influence offer crucial insights for predicting changes in predator-prey interactions within freshwater ecosystems under future climate conditions.


Assuntos
Cladóceros , Cipriniformes , Animais , Cladóceros/fisiologia , Daphnia , Ecossistema , Feromônios/farmacologia , Tamanho Corporal , Comportamento Predatório
9.
Microbiol Res ; 282: 127669, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442455

RESUMO

Body size is an important life-history trait that affects organism niche occupancy and ecological interactions. However, it is still unclear to what extent the assembly process of organisms with different body sizes affects soil biogeochemical cycling processes at the aggregate level. Here, we examined the diversity and community assembly of soil microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, and protists) and microfauna (nematodes) with varying body sizes. The microbial functional potential associated with carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur metabolism within three soil aggregate sizes (large macroaggregates, > 2 mm; small macroaggregates, 0.25-2 mm; and microaggregates, < 0.25 mm) were determined by metagenomics. We found that the smallest microbes (bacteria) had higher α-diversity and lower ß-diversity and were mostly structured by stochastic processes, while all larger organisms (fungi, protists, and nematodes) had lower α-diversity and were relatively more influenced by deterministic processes. Structural equation modeling indicated that the microbial functional potential associated with carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur metabolism was mainly influenced by the bacterial and protist diversity in microaggregates. In contrast, the microbial functional potential was primarily mediated by the assembly processes of four organism groups, especially the nematode community in macroaggregates. This study reveals the important roles of soil organisms with different body sizes in the functional potential related to nutrient cycling, and provides new insights into the ecological processes structuring the diversity and community assembly of organisms of different body sizes at the soil aggregate level, with implications for soil nutrient cycling dynamics.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Solo , Animais , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Fungos , Tamanho Corporal , Carbono , Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Enxofre
10.
Zootaxa ; 5405(2): 246-264, 2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480387

RESUMO

This paper contributes further studies Chinese cave crickets and describes seven new species and the female sex of Rhaphidophora longitabula Bian, Zhu & Shi, 2017. All the specimens are deposited in Guangxi Normal University.


Assuntos
Araceae , Ortópteros , Animais , Feminino , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Cavernas , China , Tamanho do Órgão
11.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299796, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483942

RESUMO

Japanese rhinoceros beetle (Trypoxylus dichotomus) males have exaggerated horns that are used to compete for territories. Larger males with larger horns tend to win these competitions, giving them access to females. Agonistic interactions include what appears to be assessment and often end without escalating to physical combat. However, it is unknown what information competitors use to assess each other. In many insect species chemical signals can carry a range of information, including social position, nutritional state, morphology, and sex. Specifically, cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), which are waxes excreted on the surface of insect exoskeletons, can communicate a variety of information. Here, we asked whether CHCs in rhinoceros beetles carry information about sex, body size, and condition that could be used by males during assessment behavior. Multivariate analysis of hydrocarbon composition revealed patterns associated with both sex and body size. We suggest that Rhinoceros beetles could be communicating information through CHCs that would explain behavioral decisions.


Assuntos
Besouros , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Besouros/anatomia & histologia , Tamanho Corporal , Perissodáctilos , Hidrocarbonetos
12.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e281415, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38511782

RESUMO

Diseases in fish due to helminth parasites, especially Philometra species, are the primary worry in aquaculture. Philometra are responsible for health problem in fishes they directly affect fish growth and population parameters. A comprehensive survey was conducted involving the examination of the marine fish species Terapon jarbua, gathered from the coastal waters of Sindh, Pakistan In this research different Philometra species from marine fish Terapon jarbua during 2021 and 2022. Philometra nematodes, belonging to the family Philometridae, are common parasitic organisms inhabiting both marine and freshwater environments. Their prevalence, particularly when existing in high numbers within host organisms, can lead to severe and potentially lethal consequences. Employing light microscopy techniques, diverse species of Philometra were identified, including Philometra teraponi, P. jarbuai, P. arabiai, P. karachii, and P. awarii, localized primarily within the ovaries of the host fish. A total of 140 fish samples were examined and 76 were infected. The intensity of infected fish was 54.28%. The identification process encompassed meticulous analysis of crucial parameters, such as body size, esophagus length, positioning of the nerve ring, dimensions of the ventriculus, and ligament size. Intriguingly, the parasites were found in varying contexts; while some were free within the ovaries, others were embedded within tissues, inducing severe muscular dystrophy. This research presents novel findings of Philometra nematodes in the marine waters of Pakistan, extending their host and geographical distribution records. Future studies are needed to better evaluate and describe the dynamics and the epidemiology of Philometra infection in wild and cultured fish species.


Assuntos
Dracunculoidea , Doenças dos Peixes , Animais , Paquistão , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Dracunculoidea/fisiologia , Tamanho Corporal
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6965, 2024 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521800

RESUMO

Understanding variation in food web structure over large spatial scales is an emerging research agenda in food web ecology. The density of predator-prey links in a food web (i.e., connectance) is a key measure of network complexity that describes the mean proportional dietary breadth of species within a food web. Connectance is a critical component of food web robustness to species loss: food webs with lower connectance have been shown to be more susceptible to secondary extinctions. Identifying geographic variation in food web connectance and its drivers may provide insight into community robustness to species loss. We investigated the food web connectance of ground-dwelling tropical forest mammal communities in multiple biogeographic regions to test for differences among regions in food web connectance and to test three potential drivers: primary productivity, contemporary anthropogenic pressure, and variation in mammal body mass distributions reflective of historical extinctions. Mammal communities from fifteen protected forests throughout the Neo-, Afro-, and Asian tropics were identified from systematic camera trap arrays. Predator-prey interaction data were collected from published literature, and we calculated connectance for each community as the number of observed predator-prey links relative to the number of possible predator-prey links. We used generalized linear models to test for differences among regions and to identify the site level characteristics that best predicted connectance. We found that mammal food web connectance varied significantly among continents and that body size range was the only significant predictor. More possible predator-prey links were observed in communities with smaller ranges in body size and therefore sites with smaller body size ranges had higher mean proportional dietary breadth. Specifically, mammal communities in the Neotropics and in Madagascar had significantly higher connectance than mammal communities in Africa. This geographic variation in contemporary mammalian food web structure may be the product of historical extinctions in the Late Quaternary, which led to greater losses of large-bodied species in the Neotropics and Madagascar thus contributing to higher average proportional dietary breadth among the remaining smaller bodied species in these regions.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Modelos Biológicos , Humanos , Animais , Mamíferos , Tamanho Corporal , Florestas , Comportamento Predatório , Ecossistema
14.
Biosystems ; 238: 105190, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492628

RESUMO

A primary objective of biology is the development of universal laws that define how organic form develops and how it evolves as a function of size, both ontogenetically and across evolutionary time. Scaling theory has been essential in reaching this goal by giving a complete perspective point, particularly in illuminating the fundamental biological features produced within scaling exponents defining families of equations. Nonetheless, the theoretical basis of the allometric equation within scaling theory are inadequately explained, particularly when it comes to establishing links between micro-level processes at the cellular level and macro-level phenomena. We proposed an unlimited cell bipartition, resulting in an exponential growth in cell numbers during an individual's lifespan, to bridge this conceptual gap between cellular processes and allometric scaling. The power-law scaling between body mass and organ weight was produced by the synchronous exponential increments and the allometric exponent is rate of logarithmic cell proliferation rate. Substituting organ weight for erythrocyte weight aided in the development of a power-law scaling relationship between body mass and metabolic rate. Furthermore, it is critical to understand how cell size affects the exponent in power-law scaling. We find that a bigger exponent will result from an increase in the average weight of organ cells or a decrease in the average weight of all cells. Furthermore, cell proliferation dynamics showed a complex exponential scaling between body mass and longevity, defying the previously reported power-law scaling. We discovered a quadratic link between longevity and logarithmic body mass. Notably, all of the parameters included in these relationships are explained by indices linked to cell division and embryonic development. This research adds to our understanding of the complex interaction between cellular processes and overarching scaling phenomena in biology.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Modelos Biológicos , Tamanho Corporal , Divisão Celular , Tamanho Celular
15.
Nature ; 628(8007): 342-348, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38538790

RESUMO

Climate change could pose an urgent threat to pollinators, with critical ecological and economic consequences. However, for most insect pollinator species, we lack the long-term data and mechanistic evidence that are necessary to identify climate-driven declines and predict future trends. Here we document 16 years of abundance patterns for a hyper-diverse bee assemblage1 in a warming and drying region2, link bee declines with experimentally determined heat and desiccation tolerances, and use climate sensitivity models to project bee communities into the future. Aridity strongly predicted bee abundance for 71% of 665 bee populations (species × ecosystem combinations). Bee taxa that best tolerated heat and desiccation increased the most over time. Models forecasted declines for 46% of species and predicted more homogeneous communities dominated by drought-tolerant taxa, even while total bee abundance may remain unchanged. Such community reordering could reduce pollination services, because diverse bee assemblages typically maximize pollination for plant communities3. Larger-bodied bees also dominated under intermediate to high aridity, identifying body size as a valuable trait for understanding how climate-driven shifts in bee communities influence pollination4. We provide evidence that climate change directly threatens bee diversity, indicating that bee conservation efforts should account for the stress of aridity on bee physiology.


Assuntos
Abelhas , Mudança Climática , Dessecação , Ecossistema , Temperatura Alta , Animais , Abelhas/anatomia & histologia , Abelhas/classificação , Abelhas/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Aquecimento Global , Modelos Biológicos , Plantas , Polinização/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino
16.
Trends Ecol Evol ; 39(4): 318-319, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38461120

RESUMO

Previous studies demonstrated decreasing body size of birds in response to rising temperatures. Recently, Neate-Clegg et al. documented that birds have been becoming larger in an Afromontane forest over four decades. This highlights the complexity of morphological responses to climate, the importance of context, and the need to study phenomena in a diversity of regions.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Florestas , Animais , Aves , Tamanho Corporal , Temperatura
17.
J Anim Ecol ; 93(4): 460-474, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462717

RESUMO

The evolution of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is a long-standing topic in evolutionary biology, but there is little agreement on the extent to which SSD is driven by the different selective forces. While sexual selection and fecundity selection have traditionally been proposed as the two leading hypotheses, SSD may also result from natural selection through mechanisms such as sexual niche divergence, which might have reduced resource competition between sexes. Here, we revisited the niche divergence hypothesis by testing the relationship between the sexual overlap in diet and SSD of 56 bird species using phylogenetic comparative analyses. We then assessed how SSD variation relates to the three main hypotheses: sexual selection, fecundity selection, and sexual niche divergence using phylogenetic generalized least squares (PGLS). Then, we compared sexual selection, fecundity selection and niche divergence selection as SSD drivers through phylogenetic confirmatory path analyses to disentangle the possible causal evolutionary relationships between SSD and the three hypotheses. Phylogenetic generalized least squares showed that SSD was negatively correlated with diet overlap, that is, the greater the difference in body size between males and females, the less diet overlap. As predicted by sexual selection theory, the difference in body size between sexes was higher in polygynous species. Confirmatory phylogenetic path analyses suggested that the most likely evolutionary path might include the mating system as a main driver in SSD and niche divergence as a result of SSD. We found no evidence of a role of fecundity selection in the evolution of female-biased SSD. Our study provides evidence that sexual selection has likely been the main cause of SSD and that dietary divergence is likely an indirect effect of SSD.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , Caracteres Sexuais , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Filogenia , Tamanho Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Aves/genética
18.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(3): e17187, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38456203

RESUMO

Body size is a key component of individual fitness and an important factor in the structure and functioning of populations and ecosystems. Disentangling the effects of environmental change, harvest and intra- and inter-specific trophic effects on body size remains challenging for populations in the wild. Herring in the Northwest Atlantic provide a strong basis for evaluating hypotheses related to these drivers given that they have experienced significant warming and harvest over the past century, while also having been exposed to a wide range of other selective constraints across their range. Using data on mean length-at-age 4 for the sixteen principal populations over a period of 53 cohorts (1962-2014), we fitted a series of empirical models for temporal and between-population variation in the response to changes in sea surface temperature. We find evidence for a unified cross-population response in the form of a parabolic function according to which populations in naturally warmer environments have responded more negatively to increasing temperature compared with those in colder locations. Temporal variation in residuals from this function was highly coherent among populations, further suggesting a common response to a large-scale environmental driver. The synchrony observed in this study system, despite strong differences in harvest and ecological histories among populations and over time, clearly indicates a dominant role of environmental change on size-at-age in wild populations, in contrast to commonly reported effects of fishing. This finding has important implications for the management of fisheries as it indicates that a key trait associated with population productivity may be under considerably less short-term management control than currently assumed. Our study, overall, illustrates the need for a comparative approach within species for inferences concerning the many possible effects on body size of natural and anthropogenic drivers in the wild.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Peixes , Animais , Pesqueiros , Temperatura , Tamanho Corporal
19.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(3): e17191, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38433338

RESUMO

The response to climate change in highly dimorphic species can be hindered by differences between sexes in habitat preferences and movement patterns. The Antarctic fur seal, Arctocephalus gazella, is the most abundant pinniped in the Southern Hemisphere, and one of the main consumers of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, in the Southern Ocean. However, the populations breeding in the Atlantic Southern Ocean are decreasing, partly due to global warming. Male and female Antarctic fur seals differ greatly in body size and foraging ecology, and little is known about their sex-specific responses to climate change. We used satellite tracking data and Earth System Models to predict changes in habitat suitability for male and female Antarctic fur seals from the Western Antarctic Peninsula under different climate change scenarios. Under the most extreme scenario (SSP5-8.5; global average temperature +4.4°C projected by 2100), suitable habitat patches will shift southward during the non-breeding season, leading to a minor overall habitat loss. The impact will be more pronounced for females than for males. The reduction of winter foraging grounds might decrease the survival of post-weaned females, reducing recruitment and jeopardizing population viability. During the breeding season, when males fast on land, suitable foraging grounds for females off the South Shetland Islands will remain largely unmodified, and new ones will emerge in the Bellingshausen Sea. As Antarctic fur seals are income breeders, the foraging grounds of females should be reasonably close to the breeding colony. As a result, the new suitable foraging grounds will be useful for females only if nearby beaches currently covered by sea ice emerge by the end of the century. Furthermore, the colonization of these new, ice-free breeding locations might be limited by strong female philopatry. These results should be considered when managing the fisheries of Antarctic krill in the Southern Ocean.


La resposta al canvi climàtic en espècies amb dimorfisme sexual pot veure's dificultada per les diferències entre sexes respecte a les seves preferències d'ús de l'hàbitat i els seus patrons de moviment. L'os marí antàrtic (Arctocephalus gazella), és el pinnípede més abundant a l'Hemisferi Sud i un dels principals consumidors de krill antàrtic, (Euphausia superba), a l'Oceà Antàrtic. No obstant això, les poblacions que es reprodueixen al sector Atlàntic de l'Oceà Antàrtic estan disminuint, en part a causa de l'escalfament global. Els mascles i les femelles de l'os marí antàrtic difereixen considerablement en la seva mida corporal i ecologia tròfica, i es té poc coneixement sobre les seves respostes específiques al canvi climàtic. En aquest estudi hem utilitzat dades de seguiment per satèl·lit i models del Sistema Terrestre per predir els canvis en la idoneïtat de l'hàbitat per als mascles i les femelles d'os marí antàrtic de la Península Antàrtica Occidental sota diferents escenaris de canvi climàtic. Sota l'escenari més extrem (SSP5-8.5; temperatura mitjana mundial +4.4°C prevista per a 2100), les zones d'hàbitat idoni es desplaçaran cap al sud durant l'època d'hivernada (no reproducció), provocant una lleugera pèrdua d'hàbitat idoni. Tot i això, l'impacte serà més pronunciat per a les femelles que per als mascles. Aquesta reducció dels territoris d'alimentació durant l'hivern podria disminuir la supervivència de les femelles postdeslletades, reduint-ne el reclutament i posant en perill la viabilitat de la població. Durant l'època de cria, quan els mascles es troben majoritàriament en dejú a terra, els territoris d'alimentació idonis per a les femelles al voltant de les Illes Shetland del Sud romandran en gran part sense modificar-se, i n'emergiran de nous al mar de Bellingshausen. Com que les femelles d'os marí antàrtic es continuen alimentant durant la cria, els territoris d'alimentació de les femelles han d'estar raonablement a prop de la colònia de cria. Com a resultat, aquestes noves zones d'alimentació seran útils només si les platges properes, actualment cobertes de gel marí, emergeixen al llarg del segle. A més, la colonització d'aquests nous llocs de reproducció lliures de gel podria veure's limitada per la forta filopatria de les femelles. Aquests resultats haurien de tenir-se en compte en la gestió de les pesqueries de krill a l'Oceà Antàrtic.


Assuntos
Otárias , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Oceano Atlântico , Tamanho Corporal , Mudança Climática
20.
J Exp Biol ; 227(5)2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38426549

RESUMO

The effects of climate change are often body size dependent. One contributing factor could be size-dependent thermal tolerance (SDTT), the propensity for heat and cold tolerance to vary with body size among species and among individuals within species. SDTT is hypothesized to be caused by size differences in the temperature dependence of underlying physiological processes that operate at the cellular and organ/system level (physiological SDTT). However, temperature-dependent physiology need not change with body size for SDTT to be observed. SDTT can also arise because of physical differences that affect the relative body temperature dynamics of large and small organisms (physical SDTT). In this Commentary, I outline how physical SDTT occurs, its mechanistic differences from physiological SDTT, and how physical and physiological SDTT make different predictions about organismal responses to thermal variation. I then describe how physical SDTT can influence the outcome of thermal tolerance experiments, present an experimental framework for disentangling physical and physiological SDTT, and provide examples of tests for physiological SDTT that control for physical effects using data from Anolis lizards. Finally, I discuss how physical SDTT can affect organisms in natural environments and influence their vulnerability to anthropogenic warming. Differentiating between physiological and physical SDTT is important because it has implications for how we design and interpret thermal tolerance experiments and our fundamental understanding of thermal ecology and thermal adaptation.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Lagartos , Humanos , Animais , Temperatura , Temperatura Baixa , Temperatura Alta , Mudança Climática , Tamanho Corporal , Lagartos/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica
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