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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249808, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345554

RESUMO

Abstract The sexing of species is an important tool for population management. In tortoises and turtles, sexing is usually done according to secondary characteristics, such as plastron morphology or phallus eversion techniques. In this paper, we present the phallus eversion method and compare its efficiency to other existing techniques. This new method aims at shortening the management time and reducing the physical aftereffects on the animals, fostering the clinical and reproductive management of Geoffroy's side-necked turtle (Phrynops geoffroanus) and related species. A sample of fifty individuals was taken in the central region of Piauí state, Northeastern Brazil. The proposed method consisted of moving the head from its resting position. The methods achieving a success rate higher than 80% were compared to each other as for the stimulation time required for phallus eversion. The method as here proposed achieved 100% efficiency in the sex determination of specimens with a linear carapace length between 10 and 34 cm. Also, when compared to the second most efficient method, it substantially reduced the time needed for managing the specimens (91%), avoiding possible sequelae in the individuals handled.


Resumo A sexagem das espécies é uma ferramenta importante para o manejo populacional. Em tartarugas, cágados e jabutis, a sexagem geralmente é feita de acordo com características secundárias, como morfologia do plastrão ou técnicas de eversão do falo. Neste artigo, apresentamos o método de eversão do falo e comparamos sua eficiência com outras técnicas existentes. Este novo método visa encurtar o tempo de manejo e reduzir os efeitos colaterais físicos nos animais, promovendo o manejo clínico e reprodutivo do cágado-de-barbicha (Phrynops geoffroanus) e espécies relacionadas. Uma amostra de cinquenta indivíduos foi coletada na região central do estado do Piauí, Nordeste do Brasil. O método proposto consiste em remover a cabeça de sua posição de repouso. Os métodos que obtiveram índice de sucesso superior a 80% foram comparados entre si quanto ao tempo de estimulação necessário para a eversão do falo. O método aqui proposto alcançou 100% de eficiência na determinação do sexo de espécimes com comprimento de carapaça linear entre 10 e 34 cm. Além disso, quando comparado ao segundo método mais eficiente, reduziu substancialmente o tempo necessário para o manejo dos espécimes (91%), evitando possíveis sequelas nos indivíduos manuseados.


Assuntos
Animais , Tartarugas , Brasil
2.
Vet Q ; 43(1): 1-10, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36644861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) is a marine reptile belonging to a monophyletic group of chelonians. As these animals are long-lived, they have the ability to accumulate pollutants. AIM: To collect epidemiological data on toxic metals in marine Loggerhead sea turtles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty Loggerhead sea turtles comprising 25 males and 15 females stranded freshly dead between 2013 and 2018 along the coasts of Sicily, Southern Italy, were examined for arsenic, cadmium, and lead accumulation in muscle and adipose tissues by means of a validated ICP-MS method. A modified K index as a growth condition factor, namely Fulton's K index, was used. Samples were tested in duplicate. A Wilcoxon rank sum test was carried out to evaluate metal contents differences between muscle and adipose tissues and between genders. RESULTS: The Fulton's K index suggested a good body condition of the C. caretta recovered with mean values of 5.34 ± 3.40 (n = 40; ±SD). Detectable concentrations of lead were found in 70% of the samples analysed with mean values of 0.65 ± 1.67 mg/kg wet weight and 0.51 ± 1.29 mg/kg wet weight in muscle and adipose tissues, respectively. No significant differences in arsenic, cadmium, and lead were detected between genders. In addition, no significant correlation was found between modified K index and concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, and lead. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Findings on muscle and adipose tissues suggest chronic exposure of Caretta caretta to high concentrations of especially lead which might negatively affect health and welfare of these marine turtles although body condition was good.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Tartarugas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Feminino , Animais , Masculino , Arsênio/análise , Cádmio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Itália
3.
Curr Biol ; 33(1): R14-R15, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36626854

RESUMO

Climate change is a clear and present threat to species survival. For species with temperature-dependent sex determination, including all sea turtles, it has been hypothesised that climate change may drive the creation of sex-ratio biases leading to population extinctions1. Through a global analysis across multiple species, we present the first direct empirical evidence for a demographic consequence of male scarcity in sea turtle populations, with a lower incidence of multiple paternity being found in populations with more extreme female-biased hatchling sex-ratio skews. For green turtles, when the female bias in hatchling sex ratio was >90%, the incidence of multiple paternity was low compared to other nesting sites, being 24.5% in the eastern Mediterranean (Cyprus), 36.4% on Redang Island (Malaysia) and 15.4% on the southern Great Barrier Reef (Heron Island, Australia) compared to higher values (range 61.1-91.7%) at other sites globally. These results suggest that a low incidence of multiple paternity may serve as a harbinger of future problems with egg fertility if males become even scarcer. Assessments of the incidence of multiple paternity at sites where adult males are expected to become scarce, such as Raine Island on the northern Great Barrier Reef in Australia, may help to identify when a lack of males raises the threat of local extinctions. In such cases, intervention to increase the production of male hatchlings may be needed.


Assuntos
Tartarugas , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Razão de Masculinidade , Temperatura , Mudança Climática , Fertilidade
4.
PeerJ ; 11: e14628, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36655045

RESUMO

Background: Turtle vocalizations play an important role throughout their lives by expressing individual information (position, emotion, or physiological status), reflecting mating preferences, and synchronizing incubation. The Chinese striped-neck turtle (Mauremys sinensis) is one of the most widely distributed freshwater turtles in China, whose wild population is critically endangered. However, its vocalization has not been studied, which can be the basis for behavioral and ecological studies. Methods: Five different sex-age groups of turtles were recorded underwater in a soundproof room. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis for classification of Chinese striped-neck turtle calls were unreasonable. The turtle calls were manually sought using visual and aural inspection of the recordings in Raven Pro 1.5 software and classified according to differences perceived through auditory inspection and the morphological characteristics of the spectrograms. The results of similarity analysis verified the reliability of manual classification. We compared the peak frequency of the calls among different age and sex groups. Results: We identified ten M. sinensis call types, displayed their spectra and waveforms, and described their auditory characteristics. Most calls produced by the turtles were low-frequency. Some high-frequency call types, that are common in other turtle species were also produced. Similar to other turtles, the Chinese striped-neck turtle generates harmonic vocalizations. Courtship behaviors were observed when one of the call types occurred in the mixed-sex group. Adult females produced more high-frequency call types, and subadult males had higher vocalizations than other groups. These results provide a basis for future research on the function of vocalizations, field monitoring, and conservation of this species.


Assuntos
Tartarugas , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , China
6.
Curr Biol ; 33(1): 109-121.e3, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36549298

RESUMO

Past responses to environmental change provide vital baseline data for estimating the potential resilience of extant taxa to future change. Here, we investigate the latitudinal range contraction that terrestrial and freshwater turtles (Testudinata) experienced from the Late Cretaceous to the Paleogene (100.5-23.03 mya) in response to major climatic changes. We apply ecological niche modeling (ENM) to reconstruct turtle niches, using ancient and modern distribution data, paleogeographic reconstructions, and the HadCM3L climate model to quantify their range shifts in the Cretaceous and late Eocene. We then use the insights provided by these models to infer their probable ecological responses to future climate scenarios at different representative concentration pathways (RCPs 4.5 and 8.5 for 2100), which project globally increased temperatures and spreading arid biomes at lower to mid-latitudes. We show that turtle ranges are predicted to expand poleward in the Northern Hemisphere, with decreased habitat suitability at lower latitudes, inverting a trend of latitudinal range contraction that has been prevalent since the Eocene. Trionychids and freshwater turtles can more easily track their niches than Testudinidae and other terrestrial groups. However, habitat destruction and fragmentation at higher latitudes will probably reduce the capability of turtles and tortoises to cope with future climate changes.


Assuntos
Tartarugas , Animais , Tartarugas/fisiologia , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Água Doce , Probabilidade
7.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 186: 114489, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36549238

RESUMO

Litter is a serious threat to the marine environment, with detrimental effects on wildlife and marine biodiversity. Limited data as a result of funding and logistical challenges in developing countries hamper our understanding of the problem. Here, we employed commercial unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) as a cost-effective tool to study the exposure of marine turtles to floating marine litter (FML) in waters of Mayo Bay, Philippines. A quadcopter UAV was flown autonomously with on-board camera capturing videos during the flight. Still frames were extracted when either turtle or litter were detected in post-flight processing. The extracted frames were georeferenced and mapped using QGIS software. Results showed that turtles are highly exposed to FML in nearshore waters. Moreover, spatial dependence between FML and turtles was also observed. The study highlights the effectiveness of UAVs in marine litter research and underscores the threat of FML to turtles in nearshore waters.


Assuntos
Tartarugas , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Filipinas , Fluormetolona , Dispositivos Aéreos não Tripulados , Baías , Plásticos/análise
8.
Int J Pharm ; 631: 122479, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36509224

RESUMO

After two decades of research in the field of nanomedicine, nanoscale delivery systems for biologicals are becoming clinically relevant tools. Microfluidic-based fabrication processes are replacing conventional techniques based on precipitation, emulsion, and homogenization. Here, the focus is on solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) for the encapsulation and delivery of lysozyme (LZ) as a model biologic. A thorough analysis was conducted to compare conventional versus microfluidic-based production techniques, using a 3D-printed device. The efficiency of the microfluidic technique in producing LZ-loaded SLNs (LZ SLNs) was demonstrated: LZ SLNs were found to have a lower size (158.05 ± 4.86 nm vs 180.21 ± 7.46 nm) and higher encapsulation efficacy (70.15 ± 1.65 % vs 53.58 ± 1.13 %) as compared to particles obtained with conventional methods. Cryo-EM studies highlighted a peculiar turtle-like structure on the surface of LZ SLNs. In vitro studies demonstrated that LZ SLNs were suitable to achieve a sustained release over time (7 days). Enzymatic activity of LZ entrapped into SLNs was challenged on Micrococcus lysodeikticus cultures, confirming the stability and potency of the biologic. This systematic analysis demonstrates that microfluidic production of SLNs can be efficiently used for encapsulation and delivery of complex biological molecules.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Nanopartículas , Tartarugas , Animais , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Lipídeos/química , Muramidase , Microfluídica , Nanopartículas/química , Tamanho da Partícula
9.
Glob Chang Biol ; 29(1): 215-230, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36330798

RESUMO

Large grazers (megaherbivores) have a profound impact on ecosystem functioning. However, how ecosystem multifunctionality is affected by changes in megaherbivore populations remains poorly understood. Understanding the total impact on ecosystem multifunctionality requires an integrative ecosystem approach, which is especially challenging to obtain in marine systems. We assessed the effects of experimentally simulated grazing intensity scenarios on ecosystem functions and multifunctionality in a tropical Caribbean seagrass ecosystem. As a model, we selected a key marine megaherbivore, the green turtle, whose ecological role is rapidly unfolding in numerous foraging areas where populations are recovering through conservation after centuries of decline, with an increase in recorded overgrazing episodes. To quantify the effects, we employed a novel integrated index of seagrass ecosystem multifunctionality based upon multiple, well-recognized measures of seagrass ecosystem functions that reflect ecosystem services. Experiments revealed that intermediate turtle grazing resulted in the highest rates of nutrient cycling and carbon storage, while sediment stabilization, decomposition rates, epifauna richness, and fish biomass are highest in the absence of turtle grazing. In contrast, intense grazing resulted in disproportionally large effects on ecosystem functions and a collapse of multifunctionality. These results imply that (i) the return of a megaherbivore can exert strong effects on coastal ecosystem functions and multifunctionality, (ii) conservation efforts that are skewed toward megaherbivores, but ignore their key drivers like predators or habitat, will likely result in overgrazing-induced loss of multifunctionality, and (iii) the multifunctionality index shows great potential as a quantitative tool to assess ecosystem performance. Considerable and rapid alterations in megaherbivore abundance (both through extinction and conservation) cause an imbalance in ecosystem functioning and substantially alter or even compromise ecosystem services that help to negate global change effects. An integrative ecosystem approach in environmental management is urgently required to protect and enhance ecosystem multifunctionality.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Tartarugas , Animais , Biomassa , Peixes , Carbono
10.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 307: 103978, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252778

RESUMO

The effects of temperature on breathing pattern and oxygen consumption are being investigated in juvenile tortoises and compared to adults, in order to understand physiological adjustments of the respiratory system as related to body size, especially regarding the energetic expenditure associated with growth. We analyzed the breathing pattern and oxygen consumption of juvenile and adult red-footed tortoises (Chelonoidis carbonarius, Cryptodira: Testudinidae). The animals (N = 9; body mass ranging from 0.03 Kg to 2.5 Kg) were exposed to normoxic-normocarbic conditions using open respirometry in order to determine the breathing pattern and oxygen consumption in three different temperatures (15, 25, 35 °C). The obtained results showed intermittent breathing pattern in all tested temperatures in juveniles and adults. Tidal volume was not affected by changes in temperature, while breathing frequency increased significantly with increasing temperature, leading to a significant increment in minute ventilation between 15 and 35 °C. Mass specific oxygen consumption increased significantly with temperature and juveniles showed greater values when compared to adults. The alterations in the ventilatory response to temperature changes occurred in order to maintain the oxygen supply with increased metabolic activity. The differences between juveniles and adults in breathing frequency lead to juveniles needing a lower ventilation rate to perform gas exchange while extracting more oxygen. While these differences might be attributed to a greater metabolic expenditure during development, scaling effects on respiratory variables might be the main contributors to the found differences.


Assuntos
Tartarugas , Animais , Temperatura , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Respiração , Oxigênio
11.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 801, 2022 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36471254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aquatic animals show diverse body coloration, and the formation of animal body colour is a complicated process. Increasing evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play important regulatory roles in many life processes. The role of miRNAs in pigmentation has been investigated in some species. However, the regulatory patterns of miRNAs in reptile pigmentation remain to be elucidated. In this study, we performed an integrated analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression profiles to explore corresponding regulatory patterns in embryonic body colour formation in the soft-shelled turtle Pelodiscus sinensis. RESULTS: We identified 8 866 novel genes and 9 061 mature miRNAs in the skin of Chinese soft-shelled turtles in three embryonic stages (initial period: IP, middle period: MP, final period: FP). A total of 16 563 target genes of the miRNAs were identified. Furthermore, we identified 2 867, 1 840 and 4 290 different expression genes (DEGs) and 227, 158 and 678 different expression miRNAs (DEMs) in IP vs. MP, MP vs. FP, and IP vs. FP, respectively. Among which 72 genes and 25 miRNAs may be related to turtle pigmentation in embryonic development. Further analysis of the novel miRNA families revealed that some novel miRNAs related to pigmentation belong to the miR-7386, miR-138, miR-19 and miR-129 families. Novel_miR_2622 and novel_miR_2173 belong to the miR-19 family and target Kit and Gpnmb, respectively. The quantification of novel_miR_2622 and Kit revealed negative regulation, indicating that novel_miR_2622 may participate in embryonic pigmentation in P. sinensis by negatively regulating the expression of Kit. CONCLUSIONS: miRNA act as master regulators of biological processes by controlling the expression of mRNAs. Considering their importance, the identified miRNAs and their target genes in Chinese soft-shelled turtle might be useful for investigating the molecular processes involved in pigmentation. All the results of this study may aid in the improvement of P. sinensis breeding traits for aquaculture.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Tartarugas , Animais , Transcriptoma , Tartarugas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Pigmentação da Pele/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , China
12.
J Therm Biol ; 110: 103342, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36462853

RESUMO

Sea turtles generally lay several clutches of eggs in a single nesting season. While a negative correlation between water temperatures and the time required between constitutive nesting events (termed the internesting interval) has been previously reported in loggerhead Caretta caretta and green turtles Chelonia mydas, it is not understood whether this relationship remains constant across other sea turtle species. Here, we expanded upon these previous studies on loggerhead and green turtles by using larger sample sizes and including data from species with a wider range of body-sizes; specifically: hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricata, leatherback Dermochelys coriacea, and olive ridley turtles Lepidochelys olivacea. In total, we compiled temperature data from biologgers deployed over internesting intervals on 23 loggerhead, 22 green, 7 hawksbill, 26 leatherback and 11 olive ridley turtles from nesting sites in 8 different countries. The relationship between the duration of the internesting interval and water temperatures in green and loggerhead turtles were statistically similar yet it differed between all other turtle species. Specifically, hawksbill turtles had much longer internesting intervals than green or loggerhead turtles even after controlling for temperature. In addition, both olive ridley and leatherback turtles exhibited thermal independence of internesting intervals presumably due to the large body-size of leatherback turtles and the unique capacity of ridley turtles to delay oviposition. The observed interspecific differences in the relationship between the length of the internesting interval and water temperatures indicate the complex and variable responses that each sea turtle species may exhibit due to environmental fluctuations and climate change.


Assuntos
Tartarugas , Feminino , Animais , Temperatura , Água , Mudança Climática , Tamanho Corporal
13.
Parasite ; 29: 56, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36562437

RESUMO

Polystomatids are platyhelminth parasites that infect mainly amphibians and freshwater turtles. For more than seven decades, chelonian polystomes were classified into three genera according to the number of hamuli, i.e. absent for Neopolystoma, one pair for Polystomoidella and two pairs for Polystomoides. Following re-examination of morphological characters, seven new genera were erected the past six years, namely Apaloneotrema, Aussietrema, Fornixtrema, Manotrema, Pleurodirotrema, Uropolystomoides and Uteropolystomoides. However, the polyphyly of Neopolystoma and Polystomoides on the one hand, and the nested position of Uteropolystomoides within a clade encompassing all Neopolystoma and Polystomoides spp. on the other, still raised questions about the validity of these genera. We therefore re-examined several types, paratypes and voucher specimens, and investigated the molecular phylogeny of polystomes sampled from the oral cavity of North American turtles to re-evaluate their systematic status. We show that all Polystomoides Ward, 1917, sensu Du Preez et al., 2022, Neopolystoma Price, 1939, sensu Du Preez et al., 2022 and Uteropolystomoides Tinsley, 2017 species, display vaginae that are peripheral and extend well beyond the intestine. We thus reassign all species of the clade to Polystomoides and propose nine new combinations; however, although Uteropolystomoides is nested within this clade, based on its unique morphological features, we propose to keep it as a valid taxon. Polystomoides as redefined herein groups all polystome species infecting either the oral cavity or the urinary bladder of cryptodires, with peripheral vaginae and with or without two pairs of small hamuli. Uteropolystomoides nelsoni (Du Preez & Van Rooyen 2015), originally described from Pseudemys nelsoni Carr is now regarded as Uteropolystomoides multifalx (Stunkard, 1924) n. comb. infecting three distinct Pseudemys species of North America.


Title: Révision de la systématique des Polystomoidinae (Plathelminthes, Monogenea, Polystomatidae) avec redéfinition des genres Polystomoides Ward, 1917 et Uteropolystomoides Tinsley, 2017. Abstract: Les Polystomatidés sont des plathelminthes parasites qui infestent principalement les amphibiens et les tortues d'eau douce. Pendant plus de sept décennies, les polystomes de chéloniens ont été classés en trois genres selon le nombre d'hamuli, absents pour Neopolystoma, une paire pour Polystomoidella et deux paires pour Polystomoides. Suite au réexamen des caractères morphologiques, sept nouveaux genres ont été érigés ces six dernières années, à savoir Apaloneotrema, Aussietrema, Fornixtrema, Manotrema, Pleurodirotrema, Uropolystomoides et Uteropolystomoides. Cependant, la polyphylie de Neopolystoma et Polystomoides d'une part, et la position imbriquée d'Uteropolystomoides au sein d'un clade englobant toutes les espèces de Neopolystoma et Polystomoides d'autre part, soulèvent encore des questions sur la validité de ces trois genres. Nous avons donc réexaminé plusieurs types, paratypes et vouchers et étudié la phylogénie moléculaire de polystomes prélevés dans la cavité buccale de tortues d'Amérique du Nord pour réévaluer leur statut systématique. Nous montrons que toutes les espèces de Polystomoides Ward, 1917, sensu Du Preez et al., 2022, Neopolystoma Price, 1939, sensu Du Preez et al., 2022 et Uteropolystomoides Tinsley, 2017, présentent des vagins périphériques qui s'étendent bien au-delà de l'intestin. Nous réattribuons ainsi toutes les espèces du clade à Polystomoides et proposons neuf nouvelles combinaisons; cependant, nous proposons de conserver Uteropolystomoides sur la base de ses caractéristiques morphologiques exceptionnelles, bien que son espèce soit imbriquée au sein de ce clade. Polystomoides tel que redéfini ici regroupe toutes les espèces de polystomes infectant soit la cavité buccale, soit la vessie des cryptodires, avec des vagins périphériques, et deux paires de petits hamuli ou sans hamuli. Uteropolystomoides nelsoni (Du Preez & Van Rooyen 2015), l'unique espèce décrite à l'origine à partir de Pseudemys nelsoni Carr est maintenant considérée comme Uteropolystomoides multifalx (Stunkard, 1924) n. comb., qui infecte trois espèces distinctes de Pseudemys d'Amérique du Nord.


Assuntos
Parasitos , Platelmintos , Trematódeos , Tartarugas , Animais , Platelmintos/genética , Filogenia , Bexiga Urinária/parasitologia , Tartarugas/parasitologia
14.
BMC Microbiol ; 22(1): 305, 2022 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36522631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ticks are arthropods that can host and transmit pathogens to wild animals, domestic animals, and even humans. The microbiome in ticks is an endosymbiotic, pathogenic and is yet to be fully understood. RESULTS: Adult male Amblyomma scalpturatum (A. scalpturatum) and Amblyomma ovale (A. ovale) ticks were collected from Tapirus terrestris (T. terrestris) captured in the rural area of San Lorenzo Village, and males Amblyomma sabanerae were collected from Chelonoidis denticulate (C. denticulate) of the Gamita Farm in the Amazon region of Madre de Dios, Peru. The Chao1 and Shannon-Weaver analyses indicated a greater bacterial richness and diversity in male A. sabanerae (Amblyomma sabanerae; 613.65-2.03) compared to male A. scalpturatum and A. ovale (A. scalpturatum and A. ovale; 102.17-0.40). Taxonomic analyses identified 478 operational taxonomic units representing 220 bacterial genera in A. sabanerae and 86 operational taxonomic units representing 28 bacterial genera in A. scalpturatum and A. ovale. Of the most prevalent genera was Francisella (73.2%) in A. sabanerae, and Acinetobacter (96.8%) in A. scalpturatum and A. ovale to be considered as the core microbiome of A. sabanerae and A. scalpturatum/A. ovale respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We found a high bacterial diversity in male of A. sabanerae collected from C. denticulata showed prevalence of Francisella and prevalence of Acinetobacter in male A. scalpturatum and A. ovale collected from T. terrestris. The greatest bacterial diversity and richness was found in males A. sabanerae. This is the first bacterial metagenomic study performed in A. scalpturatum/A. ovale and A. sabanerae collected from T. terrestris and C. denticulata in the Peruvian jungle.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Carrapatos , Tartarugas , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Amblyomma , Peru , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens , Brasil
15.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36516842

RESUMO

The diagnosis of kidney diseases in tortoises is only possible to a very limited extent on the basis of the general examination due to the development of unspecific disease symptoms. Extensive additional examinations are required to confirm the diagnosis. In addition to blood and urine tests, imaging techniques such as X-ray, computed tomography and MRI are suitable for visualizing the skeletal and organ systems, while additional samples can be taken during an endoscopic examination. There are clear species-specific differences with regard to the reference values of the laboratory parameters, which are in part significantly influenced by environmental influences, the seasons or even gender. It can also be seen that kidney diseases in tortoises kept in captivity are usually very advanced at the time of diagnosis, since these animals, like reptiles in general, show a pronounced lack of symptoms. Annual checks by a veterinarian specialized in reptiles can help to detect diseases at an early stage.


Assuntos
Nefropatias , Tartarugas , Animais , Nefropatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Nefropatias/veterinária , Valores de Referência , Estações do Ano
16.
Nutrients ; 14(24)2022 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36558363

RESUMO

In traditional Chinese medicine, soft-shelled turtle protein and peptides serve as a nutraceutical for prolonging the lifespan. However, their effects on anti-aging have not been clarified scientifically in vivo. This study aimed to determine whether soft-shelled turtle peptides (STP) could promote the lifespan and healthspan in Drosophila melanogaster and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Herein, STP supplementation prolonged the mean lifespan by 20.23% and 9.04% in males and females, respectively, delaying the aging accompanied by climbing ability decline, enhanced gut barrier integrity, and improved anti-oxidation, starvation, and heat stress abilities, while it did not change the daily food intake. Mechanistically, STP enhanced autophagy and decreased oxidative stress by downregulating the target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway. In addition, 95.18% of peptides from the identified sequences in STP could exert potential inhibitory effects on TOR through hydrogen bonds, van der Walls, hydrophobic interactions, and electrostatic interactions. The current study could provide a theoretical basis for the full exploitation of soft-shelled turtle aging prevention.


Assuntos
Longevidade , Tartarugas , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Drosophila , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptídeos/química
17.
Cells ; 11(24)2022 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36552787

RESUMO

Testudines, also known as living fossils, have evolved diversely and comprise many species that occupy a variety of ecological niches. However, the immune adaptation of testudines to the different ecological niches remains poorly understood. This study compared the composition, function, and differentiation trajectories of peripheral immune cells in testudines (Chelonia mydas, Trachemys scripta elegans, Chelonoidis carbonaria, and Pelodiscus sinensis) from different habitats using the single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) technique. The results showed that T. scripta elegans, which inhabits freshwater and brackish environments, had the most complex composition of peripheral immune cells, with 11 distinct immune cell subsets identified in total. The sea turtle C. mydas, had the simplest composition of peripheral immune cells, with only 5 distinct immune cell clusters. Surprisingly, neither basophils were found in C. mydas nor T cells in C. carbonaria. Basophil subsets in peripheral blood were identified for the first time; two basophil subtypes (GATA2-high-basophils and GATA2-low-basophils) were observed in the peripheral blood of T. scripta elegans. In addition, ACKR4 cells, CD4 T cells, CD7 T cells, serotriflin cells, and ficolin cells were specifically identified in the peripheral blood of T. scripta elegans. Furthermore, LY6G6C cells, SPC24 cells, and NKT cells were specifically observed in C. carbonaria. Moreover, there were differences in the functional status and developmental trajectory of peripheral immune cells among the testudine species. The identification of specific features of peripheral immune cells in testudines from different habitats may enable elucidation of the adaptation mechanism of testudines to various ecological niches.


Assuntos
Tartarugas , Animais , Tartarugas/genética , Basófilos , Ecossistema , Aclimatação
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 22187, 2022 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36564467

RESUMO

A consequence of over 400 years of human exploitation of Galápagos tortoises (Chelonoidis niger ssp.) is the extinction of several subspecies and the decimation of others. As humans captured, killed, and/or removed tortoises for food, oil, museums, and zoos, they also colonized the archipelago resulting in the introduction of invasive plants, animals, and manipulated landscapes for farming, ranching, and infrastructure. Given current conservation and revitalization efforts for tortoises and their habitats, here we investigate nineteenth and twentieth century Galápagos tortoise dietary ecology using museum and archaeological specimens coupled with analysis of carbon (δ13Ccollagen and δ13Capatite), nitrogen (δ15N), hydrogen (δD) and oxygen (δ18Oapatite) stable isotopes and radiocarbon dating. We identify that Galápagos tortoise diets vary between and within islands over time, and that long-term anthropogenic impacts influenced change in tortoise stable isotope ecology by using 57 individual tortoises from 10 different subspecies collected between 1833 and 1967-a 134-year period. On lower elevation islands, which are often hotter and drier, tortoises tend to consume more C4 vegetation (cacti and grasses). Our research suggests human exploitation of tortoises and anthropogenic impacts on vegetation contributed to the extinction of the Floreana Island tortoise (C. n. niger) in the 1850s.


Assuntos
Tartarugas , Animais , Humanos , Níger , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Agricultura
19.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0278443, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36542556

RESUMO

In the United States (U.S.), pet turtles have been associated with outbreaks of salmonellosis, a serious and sometimes-fatal intestinal illness caused by Salmonella bacteria, with nearly 300,000 people being infected in some years. Children are particularly susceptible because of their propensity to put items, including small turtles, in their mouths. In 1975, a U.S. federal regulation prohibited the sale of turtles <4 inches (101.6 mm) in size, except for the purposes of export, scientific, or educational purposes. This regulation was established to reduce the incidence of salmonellosis, particularly in small children. Previous research has not evaluated the availability of turtles <4 inches in size on websites selling wildlife. We monitored 16 websites in 2021 and quantified listings of small turtles. We determined whether information on Salmonella, the 1975 federal regulation, or related state regulations were provided on the websites and determined legality of sales of small turtles by state regulations. We found that all 16 websites openly advertised and sold turtles <4 inches in size, but only half of these websites provided information about Salmonella and/or the federal regulation. These websites required buyers to confirm that they were not purchasing a turtle as a pet, thereby putting the onus on the consumer to adhere to the regulation. We documented 515 listings of turtles <4 inches in size, including 47 species and one hybrid. Our study has demonstrated that internet sales of small turtles currently represent part of the thriving online pet trade in the U.S. Enforcement of the federal regulation faces jurisdictional challenges in most states. Therefore, we recommend continued public education campaigns by public health agencies in the U.S. to help reduce the risk that pet turtle ownership presents.


Assuntos
Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella , Infecções por Salmonella , Tartarugas , Animais , Estados Unidos , Saúde Pública , Tartarugas/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/prevenção & controle , Salmonella , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/epidemiologia
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 22655, 2022 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587051

RESUMO

The transition from terrestrial to marine environments by secondarily aquatic tetrapods necessitates a suite of adaptive changes associated with life in the sea, e.g., the scaleless skin in adult individuals of the extant leatherback turtle. A partial, yet exceptionally preserved hard-shelled (Pan-Cheloniidae) sea turtle with extensive soft-tissue remains, including epidermal scutes and a virtually complete flipper outline, was recently recovered from the Eocene Fur Formation of Denmark. Examination of the fossilized limb tissue revealed an originally soft, wrinkly skin devoid of scales, together with organic residues that contain remnant eumelanin pigment and inferred epidermal transformation products. Notably, this stem cheloniid-unlike its scaly living descendants-combined scaleless limbs with a bony carapace covered in scutes. Our findings show that the adaptive transition to neritic waters by the ancestral pan-chelonioids was more complex than hitherto appreciated, and included at least one evolutionary lineage with a mosaic of integumental features not seen in any living turtle.


Assuntos
Tartarugas , Animais , Pele , Répteis , Evolução Biológica , Epiderme
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