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1.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 7(1): 36, 2022 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524887

RESUMO

From infrared body temperature surveillance to lifeguarding, real-life visual search is usually continuous and comes with rare targets. Previous research has examined realistic search tasks involving separate slides (such as baggage screening and radiography), but search tasks that require continuous monitoring have generally received less attention. In this study, we investigated whether continuous visual search would display a target-rate effect similar to the low-prevalence effect (LPE) in regular visual search. We designed a continuous detection task for a target feature (e.g., a green color) among items of continuously and gradually changing features (e.g., other colors). In four experiments, we demonstrated target-rate effects in terms of slower hit response times (RTs) and higher miss rates when targets were rare. Similar to regular search, target-rate effects were also observed for relative frequencies across two target features. Taken together, these results suggest a target-rate effect in continuous visual search, and its behavioral characteristics are generally similar to those of the LPE in regular visual search.


Assuntos
Atenção , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Atenção/fisiologia , Temperatura Corporal , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
2.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0266524, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511825

RESUMO

The intense nature of pig production has increased the animals' exposure to stressful conditions, which may be detrimental to their welfare and productivity. Some of the most common sources of stress in pigs are extreme thermal conditions (thermal stress), density and mixing during housing (social stress), or exposure to pathogens and other microorganisms that may challenge their immune system (immune-related stress). The stress response can be monitored based on the animals' coping mechanisms, as a result of specific environmental, social, and health conditions. These animal-based indicators may support decision making to maintain animal welfare and productivity. The present study aimed to systematically review animal-based indicators of social, thermal, and immune-related stresses in farmed pigs, and the methods used to monitor them. Peer-reviewed scientific literature related to pig production was collected using three online search engines: ScienceDirect, Scopus, and PubMed. The manuscripts selected were grouped based on the indicators measured during the study. According to our results, body temperature measured with a rectal thermometer was the most commonly utilized method for the evaluation of thermal stress in pigs (87.62%), as described in 144 studies. Of the 197 studies that evaluated social stress, aggressive behavior was the most frequently-used indicator (81.81%). Of the 535 publications examined regarding immune-related stress, cytokine concentration in blood samples was the most widely used indicator (80.1%). Information about the methods used to measure animal-based indicators is discussed in terms of validity, reliability, and feasibility. Additionally, the introduction and wide spreading of alternative, less invasive methods with which to measure animal-based indicators, such as cortisol in saliva, skin temperature and respiratory rate via infrared thermography, and various animal welfare threats via vocalization analysis are highlighted. The information reviewed was used to discuss the feasible and most reliable methods with which to monitor the impact of relevant stressors commonly presented by intense production systems on the welfare of farmed pigs.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Temperatura Corporal , Animais , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estresse Psicológico , Suínos
3.
Biomed Res ; 43(2): 53-57, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35431292

RESUMO

Torpor, a state of lowered body temperature due to active reduction of the metabolic rate, has potential medical benefits. The aim of this study was to establish a novel laboratory animal that enter torpor without imposing complex conditions. When house musk shrews (Suncus murinus) were kept at an ambient temperature of 24°C, most of the animals did not enter daily torpor. However, when the ambient temperature was lowered to below 20°C, all of the shrews showed torpor in the absence of fasting and short-day photoperiod. The shrews that were exposed to a stepwise decrease in ambient temperature from 24°C to 8°C entered torpor even after returning them to a room kept at 24°C. In conclusion, this study indicates that Suncus murinus may be a suitable model animal for elucidating the mechanism of daily torpor. Elucidation of the mechanisms of torpor by using this model may be useful for inducing a state of artificial hibernation in various species including humans.


Assuntos
Hibernação , Torpor , Animais , Temperatura Corporal , Fotoperíodo , Musaranhos
4.
Physiol Biochem Zool ; 95(3): 239-250, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35443149

RESUMO

AbstractHibernation (i.e., seasonal or multiday torpor) has been described in mammals from five continents and represents an important adaptation for energy economy. However, direct quantifications of energy savings by hibernation are challenging because of the complexities of estimating energy expenditure in the field. Here, we applied quantitative magnetic resonance to determine body fat and body composition in hibernating Dromiciops gliroides (monito del monte). During an experimental period of 31 d in winter, fat was significantly reduced by 5.72±0.45 g, and lean mass was significantly reduced by 2.05±0.14 g. This fat and lean mass consumption is equivalent to a daily energy expenditure of hibernation (DEEH) of 8.89±0.6 kJ d-1, representing 13.4% of basal metabolic rate, with a proportional contribution of fat and lean mass consumption to DEEH of 81% and 18%, respectively. During the deep heterothermic bouts of monitos, body temperature remained 0.41°C ± 0.2°C above ambient temperature, typical of hibernators. Animals shut down metabolism and passively cool down to a critical defended temperature of 5.0°C ± 0.1°C, where they begin thermoregulation in torpor. Using temperature data loggers, we obtained an empirical estimation of minimum thermal conductance of 3.37±0.19 J g-1 h-1 °C-1, which is 107% of the expectation by allometric equations. With this, we parameterized body temperature/ambient temperature time series to calculate torpor parameters and metabolic rates in euthermia and torpor. Whereas the acute metabolic fall in each torpor episode is about 96%, the energy saved by hibernation is 88% (compared with the DEE of active animals), which coincides with values from the literature at similar body mass. Thus, estimating body composition provides a simple method to measure the energy saved by hibernation in mammals.


Assuntos
Hibernação , Marsupiais , Torpor , Animais , Composição Corporal , Temperatura Corporal , Metabolismo Energético , Mamíferos , Marsupiais/metabolismo , América do Sul
5.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(3): 164, 2022 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35435494

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of tryptophan (Trp) supplementation on rectal temperature, hormone, and cytokine levels in broilers subjected to acute heat stress. A total of 300 18-day-old female Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allocated to five dietary treatment groups with six replicates per treatment group and ten birds per replicate. Broilers were fed a basal diet and in the thermoneutral conditions (TN, 23 ± 1 °C) was considered as the TN group. Broilers were fed a basal diet and exposed to acute heat stress (HS, 34 ± 1 °C) was regarded as the HS group, and other broilers exposed to acute heat stress (34 ± 1°C) were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0.09%, 0.18%, and 0.27% Trp. Results indicated that acute heat stress increased the rectal temperature (P < 0.05), enhanced the concentrations of corticosterone (CORT), dopamine (DA), adrenaline (Adr), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in serum (P < 0.05), and elevated the levels of serum tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH)1, tryptophan 2, 3-dioxygenase (TDO), indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO), and kynurenic acid (P < 0.05), compared with the TN group. Meanwhile, acute heat stress increased the levels of serum Trp, hypothalamic Trp, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HT), and interleukin-22 (P < 0.05) relative to the TN group. However, compared with the heat stress group, Trp supplementation decreased the rectal temperature of heat-stressed broilers and dietary 0.09% Trp supplementation decreased the levels of serum CRH and TDO (P < 0.05), increased the levels of serum Trp and IL-22 (P < 0.05) in heat-stressed broilers. In addition, dietary supplemented with 0.18% Trp reduced the levels of serum DA, Adr, noradrenaline (NA), CRH, TDO, IDO, kynurenic acid, IL-1ß, and hypothalamic 5-HIAA/5-HT (P < 0.05), increased the levels of serum Trp, 5-HT, and IL-22, and upregulated the concentrations of hypothalamic Trp and 5-HT in heat-stressed broilers (P < 0.05). Moreover, dietary 0.27% Trp supplementation decreased the levels of serum DA, CRH, TDO, and hypothalamic 5-HIAA/5-HT (P < 0.05), and upregulated the levels of serum Trp, 5-HT, IL-22, hypothalamic Trp and 5-HT in heat-stressed broilers (P < 0.05). Taken together, dietary 0.18% Trp supplementation may be the optimal level for broilers reared under acute heat stress.


Assuntos
Dioxigenases , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Temperatura Corporal , Galinhas , Citocinas , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Hormônios , Temperatura Alta , Ácido Hidroxi-Indolacético , Ácido Cinurênico , Serotonina , Triptofano
6.
Physiol Biochem Zool ; 95(3): 212-228, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35437120

RESUMO

AbstractWe show here that evaporative water loss (EWL) is constant over a wide range of ambient relative humidity for two species of small, mesic habitat dasyurid marsupials (Antechinus agilis and Antechinus swainsonii) below thermoneutrality (20°C) and within thermoneutrality (30°C). This independence of EWL from the water vapor pressure deficit between the animal and its environment indicates that EWL is physiologically controlled by both species. The magnitude of this control of EWL was similar to that of two other small marsupials from more arid habitats, which combined with the observation that there were no effects of relative humidity on body temperature or metabolic rate, suggests that control of EWL is a consequence of precise thermoregulation to maintain heat balance rather than a water-conserving strategy at low relative humidities. The antechinus appear to manipulate cutaneous EWL rather than respiratory EWL to control their total EWL by modifying their cutaneous resistance and/or skin temperature. We propose that there is a continuum between enhanced thermoregulatory EWL at high ambient temperature and so-called insensible EWL at and below thermoneutrality.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos , Marsupiais , Animais , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Marsupiais/fisiologia , Perda Insensível de Água/fisiologia
7.
In Vivo ; 36(3): 1477-1484, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35478114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ascites commonly complicates cirrhosis and is refractory to the vasopressin-2 antagonist tolvaptan and fluid restriction in approximately 60% of patients. We aimed to identify risk factors associated with adverse events following cell-free and concentrated ascites reinfusion therapy (CART) in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated the efficacy and tolerability to the CART system in 18 patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis and ascites. We determined serum endotoxin activity using endotoxin activity (EA) assays and serum and ascitic fluid concentrations of interleukin 6 (IL6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) before and after the CART procedures. RESULTS: Body weight and waist circumference significantly decreased after CART (both p<0.001). Body temperature (BT) increased significantly at an average rate of 1.1°C during CART (p<0.001). The change in BT was correlated with EA and not interleukin IL6 or TNFα. The rise in BT was positively correlated with serum EA levels at baseline. The increase in BT was significantly higher in the group with high EA (≥0.37) than in the low EAA group (<0.37) (p=0.02). TNFα and serum IL6 levels in ascites were significantly increased during CART (both p<0.001). However, no significant differences in the EA, serum TNFα or IL6 levels were found in ascitic fluid before and after the CART procedures. CONCLUSION: Although this discovery warrants further study, EA assay can indicate an increase in BT during effective CART in patients with cirrhosis and ascites.


Assuntos
Ascite , Temperatura Corporal , Ascite/etiologia , Ascite/patologia , Ascite/terapia , Endotoxinas , Humanos , Interleucina-6 , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
8.
Animal ; 16(5): 100523, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35468510

RESUMO

The SLICK1 mutation in bovine PRLR (c.1382del; rs517047387) is a deletion mutation resulting in a protein with a truncated intracellular domain. Cattle carrying at least one allele have a phenotype characterized by a short hair coat (slick phenotype) and increased resistance to heat stress. Given the pleiotropic nature of prolactin, the mutation may affect other physiological characteristics. The liver is one organ that could potentially be affected because of the expression of PRLR. The mutation is a dominant allele, and heterozygous animals have a similar hair coat to that of animals homozygous for the mutation. Present objectives were to determine whether inheritance of the SLICK1 mutation affects liver gene expression and if animals homozygous for the SLICK1 allele differ from heterozygotes in liver gene expression and regulation of body temperature during heat stress. In one experiment, rectal and ruminal temperatures were less for Holstein heifers that were heterozygous for the SLICK1 allele compared with wildtype heifers. There were 71 differentially expressed genes in liver, with 13 upregulated and 58 downregulated in SLICK1 heterozygotes. Among the ontologies characteristic of differentially expressed genes were those related to immune function and fatty acid and amino acid metabolism. In a prospective cohort study conducted with adult Senepol cattle, body temperature and hepatic gene expression were compared between animals heterozygous or homozygous for the SLICK1 mutation. There were no differences in ruminal temperatures between genotypes, rectal temperature was higher in animals homozygous for the SLICK1 mutation, and there was only one gene in liver that was differentially expressed. It was concluded that inheritance of the SLICK1 allele can exert functional changes beyond those related to hair growth although changes in liver gene expression were not extensive. Results are also consistent with the SLICK1 allele being dominant because there were few differences in phenotype between animals inheriting one or two copies of the allele.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Animais , Temperatura Corporal , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/genética , Bovinos/genética , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Fígado , Mutação , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6186, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35418577

RESUMO

We investigated the association of extracorporeal circuit-based devices with temperature management and neurological outcome in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors who underwent targeted temperature management. Patients with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and/or continuous renal replacement therapy were classified as the extracorporeal group. We calculated the cooling rate during the induction period and time-weighted core temperatures (TWCT) during the maintenance period. We defined the sum of TWCT above or below 33 °C as positive and negative TWCT, respectively, and the sum of TWCT above 33.5 °C or below 32.5 °C as undercooling or overcooling, respectively. The primary outcome was the negative TWCT. The secondary outcomes were positive TWCT, cooling rate, undercooling, overcooling, and poor neurological outcomes, defined as Cerebral Performance Category 3-5. Among 235 patients, 150 (63.8%) had poor neurological outcomes and 52 (22.1%) were assigned to the extracorporeal group. The extracorporeal group (ß, 0.307; p < 0.001) had increased negative TWCT, rapid cooling rate (1.77 °C/h [1.22-4.20] vs. 1.24 °C/h [0.77-1.79]; p = 0.005), lower positive TWCT (33.4 °C∙min [24.9-46.2] vs. 54.6 °C∙min [29.9-87.0]), and higher overcooling (5.01 °C min [0.00-10.08] vs. 0.33 °C min [0.00-3.78]). However, the neurological outcome was not associated with the use of extracorporeal devices (odds ratio, 1.675; 95% confidence interval, 0.685-4.094).


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Hipotermia Induzida , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Temperatura Corporal , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Circulação Extracorpórea , Humanos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Sobreviventes
10.
J Therm Biol ; 105: 103146, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35393040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Athletes with spinal cord injury (SCI) have difficulties in maintaining thermal homeostasis during exercise due to their lower sweat capacity and skin vasodilation. Skin temperature (Tsk) assessment, as opposed to core temperature, has become more widely accepted due to its non-invasive nature. The aims of this systematic review was to collate research studies that measured Tsk of individuals with SCI during or after exercise, study their Tsk response, taking into account the method employed, the environmental and exercise conditions, and to identify the different cooling strategies and their effect during exercise. METHODS: Pubmed, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched to identify the articles published since year 2000. Two reviewers working independently extracted data and assessed the quality of the articles included. If they disagreed, a third reviewer was consulted. ROBINS-I scale was used to assess the quality of the articles, and the review has been conducted in agreement with PRISMA guidelines. RESULTS: Twenty studies were included in this review. 84% of them presented moderate, serious or critical risk of bias. The entire of the studies assessed Tsk during exercise, but only seven studies measured it during rest or after exercise. Eighteen studies used contact thermometry to assess Tsk and the two remaining studies employed non-contact techniques. Seven studies were conducted in warm conditions (>31.5°C) and the remaining studies in moderate conditions (10°C to 26.6°C). According to cooling strategies, ice vests and water spray are effective in reducing Tsk and decreasing the risk of heat stroke. CONCLUSIONS: The 90% of the studies applied contact thermometry and due to their effect in the data assessed, it is necessary more research into the SCI population using infrared thermography due to its differences in characteristics, methodology, and applications. The methodological differences among studies make difficult to perform a meta-analysis.


Assuntos
Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Termometria , Temperatura Corporal , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Temperatura Cutânea
11.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 34(2): 191-193, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35387728

RESUMO

Heat stroke is a critical and health-threatening disease, triggered by thermal stimulus and progressing rapidly. It can give rise to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), resulting in a high mortality rate. Nearly 30% of survivors will suffer with different sequelae, for instance, the neurological sequelae. Currently, the early rapid cooling is the focus of therapy for heat stroke. Therefore, it is imperative to design a cooling module suitable for the treatment of heat stroke in the field and in the hospital to realize the goal of early rapid cooling and the effective targeted temperature management (TTM). The cooling device is composed of a cooling blanket and a cooling cap. The blanket and cap are made by temperature changeable fabric. The cooling blanket comprises a backing layer, a buffer layer, a flexible heat conduction capsule body, a temperature changing component, a fixed part and a temperature sensor. The cooling cap includes a main body and two side ears, in which the main body is worn on the top of the patient's head, and the front is equipped with a flexible display screen, which is convenient for real-time monitoring the temperature of the temperature change component of the cooling blanket. The lateral ear can wrap the patient's ears and neck, and the tympanic membrane thermometer is designed to monitor the tympanic membrane temperature in real time. The tympanic membrane thermometer is also designed at the ear to monitor the tympanic auditory canal temperatures in real time.Continuous dynamic temperature monitoring can guide the duration of cooling treatment and stop cooling in time. The cooling component is portable, easy to operate, real-time temperature monitoring, excellent cooling effect and reusable. It is used for on-site first aid, transportation and continuous cooling for patients with heat stroke in the ward.


Assuntos
Golpe de Calor , Hipotermia Induzida , Temperatura Corporal , Temperatura Baixa , Golpe de Calor/terapia , Humanos , Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , Temperatura
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409132

RESUMO

Exertional heat stroke (HS) is a hyperthermic crisis triggered by an excessive accumulation of Ca2+ in skeletal muscle fibers. We demonstrated that exercise leads to the formation of calcium entry units (CEUs), which are intracellular junctions that reduce muscle fatigue by promoting the recovery of extracellular Ca2+ via store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). Here, we tested the hypothesis that exercise-induced assembly of CEUs may increase the risk of HS when physical activity is performed in adverse environmental conditions (high temperature and humidity). Adult mice were: (a) first, divided into three experimental groups: control, trained-1 month (voluntary running in wheel cages), and acutely exercised-1 h (incremental treadmill run); and (b) then subjected to an exertional stress (ES) protocol, a treadmill run in an environmental chamber at 34 °C and 40% humidity. The internal temperature of the mice at the end of the ES was higher in both pre-exercised groups. During an ES ex-vivo protocol, extensor digitorum longus(EDL) muscles from the trained-1 month and exercised-1 h mice generated greater basal tension than in the control and were those that contained a greater number of CEUs, assessed by electron microscopy. The data collected suggest that the entry of Ca2+ from extracellular space via CEUs could contribute to exertional HS when exercise is performed in adverse environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal , Músculo Esquelético , Animais , Cálcio , Camundongos , Fadiga Muscular , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266534, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35385522

RESUMO

In dust-generating scenarios in occupational environments, it is important to take measures to prevent not only pneumoconiosis, but also heatstroke. The aim of this study was to verify whether using a tight-fitting half-facepiece breath-response powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) in combination with a self-produced cooling device could abate the deep body temperature while performing activities. We conducted a crossover study involving 10 subjects. The subjects were subjected to three conditions: wearing a PAPR equipped with a cooling device, PAPR, or a replaceable particulate respirator. During the experiment, the rectal temperature of the subjects was measured, along with the temperature near the PAPR inlet in container with the cooling device when the PAPR equipped with the cooling device was worn. The subjects rested in a cold chamber set at a dry-bulb temperature of 28°C and relative humidity of 45% for 20 min. Then, they moved to a hot chamber set to a dry-bulb temperature of 36°C (with the same relative humidity) in 5 min and exercised on a cycle ergometer for 30 min. After that, the subjects moved to the cold chamber for 5 min and rested for 20 min. Notably, the air inhaled by the subjects wearing PAPR equipped with the cooling device was approximately 10°C cooler than the ambient air. Furthermore, 35 min after the initiation of the experiment (after the middle of the exercise period), the rectal temperature of the participants wearing the PAPR equipped with the cooling device was lower than of those wearing PAPR or replaceable particulate respirators (p <0.05). Thus, we could deduce that the self-produced cooling device was useful in abating deep body temperature. PAPR is useful for its potential applications in hot occupational environments and can save lives in working environments where heat stress can result in major medical complications.


Assuntos
Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , Temperatura Corporal , Estudos Cross-Over , Poeira/análise , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Local de Trabalho
14.
J Occup Health ; 64(1): e12323, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35384178

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether a fan-attached jacket (FAJ) may mitigate the heat strain in hot or humid environment. METHODS: Nine healthy men engaged in 60-min sessions on a bicycle ergometer (4 metabolic equivalents [METs] workload) in hot-dry (40°C and 30% relative humidity) and warm-humid (30°C and 85% relative humidity) environments. Both are equivalent to an approximately 29°C wet-bulb globe temperature. The experiment was repeated-once wearing an ordinal jacket (control condition) and once wearing a long-sleeve FAJ that transfers ambient air at a flow rate of 12 L/s (FAJ condition)-in both environments. RESULTS: Increases in core temperatures in hot-dry environment were not statistically different between control and FAJ; however, that in the warm-humid environment were significantly different between control and FAJ (0.96 ± 0.10°C and 0.71 ± 0.11°C in rectal temperature, P < .0001; and 0.94 ± 0.09°C and 0.61 ± 0.09°C in esophageal temperature, P < .0001). Changes in heart rate were different between control and FAJ in both environments (62 ± 3 bpm and 47 ± 7 bpm, P < .0001 in hot-dry environment; and 61 ± 3 bpm and 46 ± 5 bpm, P < .0001 in the warm-humid environment) and decrease of %weight change was different in hot-dry environment (1.59 ± 0.12% and 1.25 ± 0.05%, P = .0039), but not in the warm-humid environment. CONCLUSIONS: Wearing a FAJ may mitigate heat strain both in hot or humid environments.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Temperatura Alta , Temperatura Corporal , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Umidade , Masculino , Temperatura
15.
J Healthc Eng ; 2022: 7375006, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35388330

RESUMO

In order to probe into the impact of high-flux dialysis and hemodiafiltration on patients with chronic rental failure, this paper selects in total 92 cases with chronic renal failure receiving hemodialysis from November 2018 to July 2021, allocating them into two groups based on the random table, each with 46 cases. The control group received hemodiafiltration, the observation group is given high-flux hemodialysis, and we compared serum inflammatory factor level and antioxidant factor level before and after treatment, as well as cellular immune factor level (CD3+, CD4+) and humoral immune factor level (IgE) before and after treatment in the two groups; the renal function, serum total calcium ion level, and serum phosphorus ion level in the two groups were compared before and after treatment, as well as the proportion of metabolic abnormalities in calcium and phosphorus ion levels during treatment; the trend of changes in axillary temperature during treatment in the two groups is analyzed. After treatment, serum inflammatory factor level (hs-CRP & TNF-α) is lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05), antioxidant factor level (MDA) is lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05), and SOD level is higher than that in the control group (P < 05). After treatment CD3+ and CD4+ levels in the observation group are higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). For patients with chronic renal failure, high-flux hemodialysis is available to better reduce inflammatory response, improve antioxidant and immune capacity in the body, and help maintain calcium and phosphorus metabolic balance.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Antioxidantes , Temperatura Corporal , Cálcio , Humanos , Imunidade , Inflamação , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Fósforo , Diálise Renal
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6377, 2022 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430598

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a clinical syndrome with multiple metabolic disorders. As the diagnostic criteria for MS still lacking of imaging laboratory method, this study aimed to explore the differences between healthy people and MS patients through infrared thermography (IRT). However, the observation region of the IRT image is uncertain, and the research tried to solve this problem with the help of knowledge mining technology. 43 MS participants were randomly included through a cross-sectional method, and 43 healthy participants were recruited through number matching. The IRT image of each participant was segmented into the region of interest (ROI) through the preprocessing method proposed in this research, and then the ROI features were granulated by the K-means algorithm to generate the formal background, and finally, the two formal background were separately built into a knowledge graph through the knowledge mining method based on the attribute partial order structure. The baseline data shows that there is no difference in age, gender, and height between the two groups (P > 0.05). The image preprocessing method can segment the IRT image into 18 ROI. Through the K-means method, each group of data can be separately established with a 43 × 36 formal background and generated a knowledge graph. It can be found through knowledge mining and independent-samples T test that the average temperature and maximum temperature difference between the chest and face of the two groups are statistically different (P < 0.01). IRT could reflect the difference between healthy people and MS people. The measurement regions were found by the method of knowledge mining on the premise of unknown. The method proposed in this paper may add a new imaging method for MS laboratory examinations, and at the same time, through knowledge mining, it can also expand a new idea for clinical research of IRT.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Termografia , Temperatura Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Raios Infravermelhos , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Temperatura , Termografia/métodos
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6473, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35440747

RESUMO

It is widely accepted that most people spend the majority of their lives indoors. Most individuals do not realize that while indoors, roughly half of heat exchange affecting their thermal comfort is in the form of thermal infrared radiation. We show that while researchers have been aware of its thermal comfort significance over the past century, systemic error has crept into the most common evaluation techniques, preventing adequate characterization of the radiant environment. Measuring and characterizing radiant heat transfer is a critical component of both building energy efficiency and occupant thermal comfort and productivity. Globe thermometers are typically used to measure mean radiant temperature (MRT), a commonly used metric for accounting for the radiant effects of an environment at a point in space. In this paper we extend previous field work to a controlled laboratory setting to (1) rigorously demonstrate that existing correction factors used in the American Society of Heating Ventilation and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 55 or ISO7726 for using globe thermometers to quantify MRT are not sufficient; (2) develop a correction to improve the use of globe thermometers to address problems in the current standards; and (3) show that mean radiant temperature measured with ping-pong ball-sized globe thermometers is not reliable due to a stochastic convective bias. We also provide an analysis of the maximum precision of globe sensors themselves, a piece missing from the domain in contemporary literature.


Assuntos
Convecção , Termômetros , Temperatura Corporal , Calefação , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Temperatura
18.
J Healthc Eng ; 2022: 6955870, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35444780

RESUMO

Patients undergo surgery and anaesthesia on a daily basis across the United States and throughout the world. A major source of worry for these patients continues to be inadvertent hypothermia, once core temperature <36°C (96.8°F). Despite well-documented adverse physiological consequences, anaesthesia nurses continue to have a difficult task in keeping patient warmth pre-/peri-/post-surgical procedure. Thermostasis within postoperative patient necessitates the collaboration of many individuals. In order to provide safe and high-quality treatment, it is essential to use the most up-to-date data to guide therapeutic procedures targeted at achieving balance body temperature in surgical patients. Providing a review of the physiology of perioperative temperature variations and the comorbidities linked with accidental intraoperative hypothermia, this article will also provide preventive and treatment methods.


Assuntos
Hipotermia , Temperatura Corporal , Humanos , Hipotermia/complicações , Hipotermia/prevenção & controle , Temperatura
19.
Global Health ; 18(1): 43, 2022 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35449006

RESUMO

Hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a major cause of neonatal mortality and disability in the United Kingdom (UK) and has significant human and financial costs. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH), which consists of cooling down the newborn's body temperature, is the current standard of treatment for moderate or severe cases of HIE. Timely initiation of treatment is critical to reduce risk of mortality and disability associated with HIE. Very expensive servo-controlled devices are currently used in high-income settings to induce TH, whereas low-income settings rely on the use of low-tech devices such as water bottles, ice packs or fans. Cooling mattresses made with phase change materials (PCMs) were recently developed as a safe, efficient, and affordable alternative to induce TH in low-income settings. This frugal innovation has the potential to become a reverse innovation for the National Health Service (NHS) by providing a simple, efficient, and cost-saving solution to initiate TH in geographically remote areas of the UK where cooling equipment might not be readily available, ensuring timely initiation of treatment while waiting for neonatal transport to the nearest cooling centre. The adoption of PCM cooling mattresses by the NHS may reduce geographical disparity in the availability of treatment for HIE in the UK, and it could benefit from improvements in coordination across all levels of neonatal care given challenges currently experienced by the NHS in terms of constraints on funding and shortage of staff. Trials evaluating the effectiveness and safety of PCM cooling mattresses in the NHS context are needed in support of the adoption of this frugal innovation. These findings may be relevant to other high-income settings that experience challenges with the provision of TH in geographically remote areas. The use of promising frugal innovations such as PCM cooling mattresses in high-income settings may also contribute to challenge the dominant narrative that often favours innovation from North America and Western Europe, and consequently fight bias against research and development from low-income settings, promoting a more equitable global innovation landscape.


Assuntos
Hipotermia Induzida , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica , Leitos , Temperatura Corporal , Humanos , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Recém-Nascido , Medicina Estatal
20.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e057073, 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35473726

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) is an important illness associated with death or cerebral palsy. This study aims to assess the safety and tolerability of the allogenic human multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring cell (Muse cell)-based product (CL2020) cells in newborns with HIE. This is the first clinical trial of CL2020 cells in neonates. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a single-centre, open-label, dose-escalation study enrolling up to 12 patients. Neonates with HIE who receive a course of therapeutic hypothermia therapy, which cools to a body temperature of 33°C-34°C for 72 hours, will be included in this study. A single intravenous injection of CL2020 cells will be administered between 5 and 14 days of age. Subjects in the low-dose and high-dose cohorts will receive 1.5 and 15 million cells per dose, respectively. The primary outcome is the occurrence of any adverse events within 12 weeks after administration. The main secondary outcome is the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Third Edition score and the developmental quotient per the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001 at 78 weeks. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study will be conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and Good Clinical Practice. The Nagoya University Hospital Institutional Review Board (No. 312005) approved this study on 13 November 2019. The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journal and reported in international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: NCT04261335, jRCT2043190112.


Assuntos
Hipotermia Induzida , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica , Temperatura Corporal , Humanos , Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Equipamentos de Proteção , Pesquisa
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