Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 255.630
Filtrar
Mais filtros








Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253436, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355870

RESUMO

Abstract The in vitro sporulation of Didymella bryoniae is of great importance for studies that require pure inoculum and in large quantities. Thus, the objectives of this study were to identify the best condition for D. bryoniae sporulation combining different light spectra (UV-A or UV-B light, white light, and continuous dark), with distinct culture media (PDA, V8, ML, and PDAB) and, to evaluate fungus' survivability stored at -20°C over time. The fungus samples were only able to sporulate when subjected to the UV-B light treatment, regardless of the culture medium. The highest appearance of spores conidium type was observed in the PDAB medium, and the lowest production occurred in the ML medium. Reproductive structures, such as perithecia and pycnidia, were observed in all culture media. However, there was considerable variation in the amount of each structure between the different culture media. The ML and V8 media showed a greater number of perithecia and the PDA and PDAB media presented a greater proportion of pycnidia compared to perithecia. The storage duration at -20°C did not affect mycelial growth or mycelial growth rate. In conclusion, the UV-B light is essential for D. bryoniae in vitro sporulation. Moreover, the culture medium composition influences the type of fungal structure produced, as well as spores' size and quantity. Freezing at -20°C is an efficient technique that can be used to store D. bryoniae for at least five months without loss of viability.


Resumo A esporulação de Didymella bryoniae in vitro é de grande importância para estudos que requerem inóculo puro e em grandes quantidades. Assim, os objetivos deste estudo foram identificar a melhor condição para esporulação de D. bryoniae combinando diferentes espectros de luz (luz UV-A ou UV-B, luz branca e escuro contínuo) com distintos meios de cultura (PDA, V8, ML e PDAB) e, avaliar a sobrevivência do fungo armazenado a -20°C ao longo do tempo. As amostras de fungo só esporularam quando submetidas ao tratamento com luz UV-B, independentemente do meio de cultura. Maior aparecimento de esporos do tipo conídio foi observado no meio PDAB, e a menor produção ocorreu no meio ML. Estruturas reprodutivas, como peritécios e picnídeos, foram observadas em todos os meios de cultura. No entanto, houve uma variação considerável na quantidade de cada estrutura entre os diferentes meios de cultura. Os meios ML e V8 apresentaram maior número de peritécios e os meios PDA e PDAB apresentaram maior proporção de picnídeos em relação aos peritécios. A duração do armazenamento a -20°C não afetou o crescimento micelial ou a taxa de crescimento micelial. Em conclusão, a luz UV-B é essencial para a esporulação de D. bryoniae in vitro. Além disso, a composição do meio de cultura influencia o tipo de estrutura fúngica produzida, bem como o tamanho e a quantidade dos esporos. O congelamento a -20°C é uma técnica eficiente que pode ser usada para armazenar D. bryoniae por pelo menos cinco meses sem perda de viabilidade


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Esporos Fúngicos , Temperatura , Micélio
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252845, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355877

RESUMO

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate whether skeletal development of the Pantanal Caiman (Caiman yacare) is similarly influenced by temperature variation and controlled increases in embryo motility. All eggs were incubated at 90% humidity and 29 °C for the first 45 days. Thereafter, the incubation temperature was either maintained at 29 °C and embryos were treated with 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) on days 46, 47, 48, and 49 (Group I, 29 °C 4-AP, n = 15); maintained at 29 °C (n = 14; Group II); or at 33 °C (n = 14, Group III). Embryonic movement was measured using an Egg Buddy® digital monitor on days 30, 35, 42, 49, 56, and 60, at which point embryos were euthanized and samples were collected for analysis. No differences were observed between groups with varying incubation temperatures. In contrast, embryonic motility was greater in embryos treated with 4-AP (P < 0.001) on day 49, and this was associated with higher proportions of snout-vent and hand lengths. This study demonstrates for the first time that pharmacologically induced increases in embryo motility result in phenotypic changes to the proportion of elements during prenatal ontogeny, thereby effectively altering the adaptation of the species to specific environments.


Resumo Este estudo objetivou avaliar os efeitos da temperatura e motilidade embrionária sobre o desenvolvimento esquelético de jacaré-do-pantanal (Caiman yacare). Os ovos foram incubados com 90% de umidade e empregou-se a temperatura de 29°C por 45 dias. Após, para a incubação do Grupo I a temperatura continuou em 29°C, mas associou-se à injeção de 4-aminopiridina (29°C-4AP, n = 15) aplicada nos dias 46, 47, 48 e 49, do Grupo II permaneceu em 29°C (n = 14) e do Grupo III elevou-se para 33°C (n = 14). A movimentação foi mensurada através do monitor digital Egg Buddy® nos dias 30, 35, 42, 49, 56 e 60 dias. Aos 60 dias, os embriões foram eutanasiados e coletadas amostras embrionárias. Na análise estatística não foram observadas diferenças entre os grupos para o fator temperatura sobre a motilidade embrionária no desenvolvimento esquelético. Em contraste, a motilidade evidenciou diferença estatística no dia 49 para o Grupo I (P < 0,001) e apresentou maiores proporções de nariz e mão. Esses dados demonstraram pela primeira vez que o aumento na motilidade, induzidos farmacologicamente resultam em divergências fenotípicas na proporção de segmentos anatômicos durante a ontogenia pré-natal, podendo alterar efetivamente a adaptação dos animais em ambientes específicos.


Assuntos
Animais , Jacarés e Crocodilos , Temperatura
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e260515, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374649

RESUMO

The current research work aims to provide knowledge about the diversity of spiders' fauna and their occurrence throughout the year from District Charsadda Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Research data were collected from March-2015 to January-2017 from seven different localities of Charsadda District by using the camera, bottle, plastic bags, paraffin films, field book and 70% of ethylene alcohol and 20% of glycerine were used as chemicals. By using special identification keys, spiders were differentiated into families, genera and species. During the study time, a total of 2734 specimens of spiders were collected belonging from 35 genera, 15 families and 44 species were identified. Salticidae was the dominant family according to genera studied plus spiders samples numbers collected with 10 genera and 616 species specimens count. The high occurrence of spiders was studied during July. The result of the current study also shows a reduction of spider's species in December due to lowering the temperature. The current study shows that Salticidae were the dominant family as capered to other species. The occurrence of spiders species greatly depends on changing the weather condition. The present study also shows great fluctuation in spider's occurrence with changing of hot climate to colder during the study duration. Moreover, the wet season plays a great role in spiders' population increase and growth.


O objetivo do presente trabalho de pesquisa é fornecer conhecimento sobre a diversidade da fauna de aranhas e sua ocorrência ao longo do ano no distrito Charsadda Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão. Os dados da pesquisa foram coletados no período de março de 2015 a janeiro de 2017 em sete diferentes localidades do distrito de Charsadda por meio de câmera, garrafa, sacos plásticos, filmes de parafina, livro de campo, e 70% de álcool etílico e 20% de glicerina foram utilizados como produtos químicos. Usando chaves de identificação especiais, as aranhas foram diferenciadas em família, gênero e espécie. Durante o período de estudo foram coletados 2.734 espécimes de aranhas pertencentes a 35 gêneros, 15 famílias e 44 espécies. Salticidae foi a família dominante de acordo com os gêneros estudados mais o número de amostras de aranhas coletadas com 10 gêneros e contagem de 616 espécies. Altas ocorrências de aranhas foram estudadas durante o mês de julho. O resultado do estudo atual também mostra redução das espécies de aranhas no mês de dezembro devido à diminuição da temperatura. O estudo atual mostra que os Salticidae foram a família dominante como alcaparras para outras espécies. A ocorrência de espécies de aranhas depende muito da mudança das condições climáticas. O presente estudo também mostra grande flutuação na ocorrência de aranhas com a mudança do clima quente para mais frio durante a duração do estudo. Além disso, a estação chuvosa desempenha um grande papel no aumento e crescimento da população de aranhas.


Assuntos
Animais , Paquistão , Aranhas , Temperatura , Crescimento Demográfico , Estação Chuvosa , Biodiversidade
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e259259, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364517

RESUMO

Rice is a widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population. Approximately 90% of the world's rice is grown in Asian continent and constitutes a staple food for 2.7 billion people worldwide. Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is one of the devastating diseases of rice. A field experiment was conducted during the year 2016 and 2017 to investigate the influence of different meteorological parameters on BLB development as well as the computation of a predictive model to forecast the disease well ahead of its appearance in the field. The seasonal dataset of disease incidence and environmental factors was used to assess five rice varieties/ cultivars (Basmati-2000, KSK-434, KSK-133, Super Basmati, and IRRI-9). The accumulated effect of two year environmental data; maximum and minimum temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and rainfall, was studied and correlated with disease incidence. Average temperature (maximum & minimum) showed a negative significant correlation with BLB disease and all other variables; relative humidity, rainfall, and wind speed had a positive correlation with BLB disease development on individual varieties. Stepwise regression analysis was performed to indicate potentially useful predictor variables and to rule out incompetent parameters. Environmental data from the growing seasons of July to October 2016 and 2017 revealed that, with the exception of the lowest temperature, all environmental factors contributed to disease development throughout the cropping season. A disease prediction multiple regression model was developed based on two-year data (Y = 214.3-3.691 Max T-0.508 Min T + 0.767 RH + 2.521 RF + 5.740 WS), which explained 95% variability. This disease prediction model will not only help farmers in early detection and timely management of bacterial leaf blight disease of rice but may also help reduce input costs and improve product quality and quantity. The model will be both farmer and environmentally friendly.


O arroz é um alimento básico amplamente consumido por grande parte da população humana mundial. Aproximadamente 90% do arroz do mundo é cultivado no continente asiático e constitui um alimento básico para 2,7 bilhões de pessoas em todo o mundo. O crestamento bacteriano das folhas (BLB) causado por Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae é uma das doenças devastadoras do arroz. Um experimento de campo foi realizado durante os anos de 2016 e 2017 para investigar a influência de diferentes parâmetros meteorológicos no desenvolvimento do BLB, bem como o cálculo de um modelo preditivo para prever a doença bem antes de seu aparecimento em campo. O conjunto de dados sazonais de incidência de doenças e fatores ambientais foi usado para avaliar cinco variedades/cultivares de arroz (Basmati-2000, KSK-434, KSK-133, Super Basmati e IRRI-9). O efeito acumulado de dados ambientais de dois anos; temperatura máxima e mínima, umidade relativa do ar, velocidade do vento e precipitação pluviométrica foram estudados e correlacionados com a incidência da doença. A temperatura média (máxima e mínima) apresentou correlação significativa negativa com a doença BLB e todas as outras variáveis; umidade relativa, precipitação e velocidade do vento tiveram uma correlação positiva com o desenvolvimento da doença BLB em variedades individuais. A análise de regressão stepwise foi realizada para indicar variáveis preditoras potencialmente úteis e para descartar parâmetros incompetentes. Os dados ambientais das safras de julho a outubro de 2016 e 2017 revelaram que, com exceção da temperatura mais baixa, todos os fatores ambientais contribuíram para o desenvolvimento da doença ao longo da safra. Um modelo de regressão múltipla de previsão de doença foi desenvolvido com base em dados de dois anos (Y = 214,3-3,691 Max T-0,508 Min T + 0,767 RH + 2,521 RF + 5,740 WS), que explicou 95% de variabilidade. Este modelo de previsão de doenças não só ajudará os agricultores na detecção precoce e gestão atempada da doença bacteriana das folhas do arroz, mas também pode ajudar a reduzir os custos de insumos e melhorar a qualidade e a quantidade do produto. O modelo será agricultor e ambientalmente amigável.


Assuntos
Oryza , Temperatura , Pragas da Agricultura , Umidade
5.
PeerJ ; 11: e14527, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36655044

RESUMO

The Montseny massif shelters the southernmost western populations of common frogs (Rana temporaria) that live in a Mediterranean climate, one which poses a challenge for the species' persistence in a scenario of rising temperatures. We evaluated the effect of climate change at three levels. First, we analysed if there has been an advancement in the onset of spawning period due to the increase in temperatures. Second, we analysed the impact of climatic variables on the onset of the spawning period and, third, how the distribution of this species could vary according to the predictions with regard to rising temperatures for the end of this century. From 2009 to 2021, we found there had been an increase in temperatures of 0.439 °C/decade, more than the 0.1 °C indicated by estimates for the second half of the previous century. We found an advancement in the onset of the reproduction process of 26 days/decade for the period 2009-2022, a change that has been even more marked during the last eight years, when data were annually recorded. Minimum temperatures and the absence of frost days in the week prior to the onset of the spawning period determine the start of reproduction. Predictions on habitat availability for spawning provided by climatic niche analysis for the period 2021-2100 show a potential contraction of the species range in the Montseny and, remarkably, much isolation from the neighbouring populations.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Animais , Rana temporaria , Temperatura , Reprodução
6.
Forensic Toxicol ; 41(1): 81-93, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652059

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Synthetic cathinones, one of the largest groups of new psychoactive substances, represent a large analytical and interpretative challenge in forensic laboratories. Of these is the synthetic cathinones' instability in different biological samples, which may lead to drug concentration discrepancies when interpreting toxicological findings. In this study, the stability of a panel of synthetic cathinones and their dihydro-metabolites (n = 26) together with internal standard was monitored in human whole blood stored at various temperatures over 6 months. The influence of sodium fluoride as a preservative in blood collection tubes was also investigated. METHODS: Samples were extracted using a two-step liquid-liquid extraction technique, and analyzed using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method following recommendations of published guidelines. RESULTS: The influence of temperature over analytes' stability was an important element in whole blood samples, with - 40 °C being the best storage temperature for all tested analytes. Sodium fluoride did not significantly affect the stability of cathinones except at room temperature. Dihydro-metabolites displayed better stability in whole blood samples and remained detectable for a longer period of time under all tested conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that samples containing synthetic cathinones should be analyzed immediately, if possible. Alternatively, whole blood samples should be stored frozen (at - 40 °C or lower); however, (quantitative) results should be interpreted with caution after long-term storage. The data also promote the use of dihydro-metabolites as biomarkers for synthetic cathinones intake, as these reduced metabolites may be detected for longer period of time when compared with parent drugs in whole blood samples.


Assuntos
Fluoreto de Sódio , Humanos , Temperatura , Psicotrópicos , Espectrometria de Massas
7.
Environ Int ; 171: 107729, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36623379

RESUMO

Nocturnal temperature is observed increasing with global warming. However, evidence on night-time non-optimal temperature on the risk of preterm birth (PTB) is limited, and the potential interactions with air pollution on PTB has not been well clarified. We therefore conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study to evaluate the effect of night-time temperature extremes on the risk of PTB and its interaction with air pollution. Records of 196,780 singleton births from 4 counties in Huai River Basin (2013-2018) were obtained. Gridded data on night-time temperature were collected from a high-quality Chinese Air Quality Reanalysis dataset. We used a multivariate logistic regression to evaluate the effects of night-time heat and cold exposure on the risk of PTB as well as its subtypes. Potential interactions between night-time temperature extremes and fine particulate matter < 2.5 µm (PM2.5) were examined using the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). We found that the risk of PTB was positively associated with third trimester night-time extremely heat and cold exposure, with adjusted OR of 1.898 (95 %CI: 1.655-2.177) and 2.044 (95 %CI: 1.786-2.339). Similar effects were observed for PTB subtypes, moderately PTB (mPTB) and very PTB (vPTB). Synergistic effects (RERI greater than 0) of each trimester night-time temperature extremes exposure and PM2.5 on PTB were observed. We identified consistent positive interactions between night-time temperature extremes and PM2.5 on mPTB. No significant interaction of night-time temperature extremes and PM2.5 on vPTB was found. In conclusion, this large retrospective cohort study found that third trimester night-time heat and cold exposure significantly increased the risk of PTB and its subtypes. There is a synergistic effect between night-time temperature extremes and high PM2.5 levels on PTB and mPTB. In the context of climate warming, our results add new evidence to the current understanding of night-time non-optimal temperature exposure on PTB.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Nascimento Prematuro , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Estudos Retrospectivos , Temperatura , Rios , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , China/epidemiologia
8.
Nature ; 613(7944): 503-507, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36653569

RESUMO

The Greenland Ice Sheet has a central role in the global climate system owing to its size, radiative effects and freshwater storage, and as a potential tipping point1. Weather stations show that the coastal regions are warming2, but the imprint of global warming in the central part of the ice sheet is unclear, owing to missing long-term observations. Current ice-core-based temperature reconstructions3-5 are ambiguous with respect to isolating global warming signatures from natural variability, because they are too noisy and do not include the most recent decades. By systematically redrilling ice cores, we created a high-quality reconstruction of central and north Greenland temperatures from AD 1000 until 2011. Here we show that the warming in the recent reconstructed decade exceeds the range of the pre-industrial temperature variability in the past millennium with virtual certainty (P < 0.001) and is on average 1.5 ± 0.4 degrees Celsius (1 standard error) warmer than the twentieth century. Our findings suggest that these exceptional temperatures arise from the superposition of natural variability with a long-term warming trend, apparent since AD 1800. The disproportionate warming is accompanied by enhanced Greenland meltwater run-off, implying that anthropogenic influence has also arrived in central and north Greenland, which might further accelerate the overall Greenland mass loss.


Assuntos
Clima , Aquecimento Global , Temperatura , Aquecimento Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Groenlândia , Camada de Gelo , Atividades Humanas/tendências , Movimentos da Água , Congelamento
9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2617: 17-30, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656514

RESUMO

The temperature-inducible λpL/pR-cI857 expression system has been widely used to produce recombinant proteins (RPs), especially when it is necessary to avoid the addition of exogenous materials to induce the expression of recombinant genes, preventing contamination of bioprocesses. The temperature increase favors the formation of inclusion bodies (IBs). The temperature upshift could change the metabolism, productivities, cell viability, IBs architecture, and the host cell proteins inside IBs, affecting downstream to obtain the final product. In this contribution, we focus on the relationship between the bioprocesses using temperature increase as inducer, the heat shock response associated with temperature up-shift, the RP accumulation, and the formation of IBs. Here, we describe how to produce IBs and how culture conditions can modulate the composition and architecture of IBs by modifying the induction temperature in RP production.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Humanos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Temperatura , Corpos de Inclusão/metabolismo
10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2617: 189-200, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656525

RESUMO

Inclusion bodies (IB) are dense insoluble aggregates of mostly misfolded polypeptides that usually result from recombinant protein overexpression. IB formation has been observed in protein expression systems such as E. coli, yeast, and higher eukaryotes. To recover soluble recombinant proteins in their native state, IB are commonly first solubilized with a high concentration of denaturant. This is followed by concurrent denaturant removal or reduction and a transition into a refolding-favorable chemical environment to facilitate the refolding of solubilized protein to its native state. Due to the high concentration of denaturant used, conventional refolding approaches can result in dilute products and are buffer inefficient. To circumvent the limitations of conventional refolding approaches, a temperature-based refolding approach which combines a low concentration of denaturant (0.5 M guanidine hydrochloride, GdnHCl) with a high temperature (95 °C) during solubilization was proposed. In this chapter, we describe a temperature-based refolding approach for the recovery of core streptavidin (cSAV) from IB. Through the temperature-based approach, intensification was achieved through the elimination of a concentration step which would be required by a dilution approach and through a reduction in buffer volumes required for dilution or denaturant removal. High-temperature treatment during solubilization may have also resulted in the denaturation and aggregation of undesired host-cell proteins, which could then be removed through a centrifugation step resulting in refolded cSAV of high purity without the need for column purification. Refolded cSAV was characterized by biotin-binding assay and SDS-PAGE, while purity was determined by RP-HPLC.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Temperatura Alta , Temperatura , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Corpos de Inclusão/metabolismo , Dobramento de Proteína , Redobramento de Proteína
11.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0277711, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656839

RESUMO

The combustion chamber pressure of rockets, gas turbines and diesel engines is known to be above the critical pressure of fuel and oxidizers. In the case of rocket engines the fuel and/or oxidizer is often injected at cryogenic temperatures. This elevated combustion chamber pressure and low temperature demands special treatment for numerical analysis of mixing. Thus a novel implementation of an improved equation of state has been proposed which provides better estimation of densities. Experimental and numerical data from literature has been used for validation of the analysis methodology.


Assuntos
Emissões de Veículos , Temperatura , Fenômenos Químicos
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(4): e2120869120, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656855

RESUMO

Observed range shifts of numerous species support predictions of climate change models that species will shift their distribution northward into the Arctic and sub-Arctic seas due to ocean warming. However, how this is affecting overall species richness is unclear. Here we analyze 20,670 scientific research trawls from the North Sea to the Arctic Ocean collected from 1994 to 2020, including 193 fish species. We found that demersal fish species richness at the local scale has doubled in some Arctic regions, including the Barents Sea, and increased at a lower rate at adjacent regions in the last three decades, followed by an increase in species richness and turnover at a regional scale. These changes in biodiversity correlated with an increase in sea bottom temperature. Within the study area, Arctic species' probability of occurrence generally declined over time. However, the increase in species from southern latitudes, together with an increase in some Arctic species, ultimately led to an enrichment of the Arctic and sub-Arctic marine fauna due to increasing water temperature consistent with climate change.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Peixes , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Oceanos e Mares , Temperatura , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Oceano Atlântico
13.
Carbohydr Polym ; 303: 120477, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36657850

RESUMO

The effects of starch granule-associated surface lipids removal on hull-less barley starch structure formed by heat-moisture treatment were investigated. Removing surface lipids made the peak at 2θ of 13° disappear and resulted in higher lamellar peak intensity after harsh treatment and a lower reduction in mass fractal dimension (from 2.49 to 2.43) and radius of gyration (from 24.3 to 24.0) when temperature increased from 100 to 120 °C at 20 % moisture. Treatment at 25 % moisture and 120 °C decreased relative crystallinity (from 15.73 % to 7.43 %) and Gaussian peak area (from 646.7 to 137.7) of native starch, and decreased relative crystallinity (from 14.24 % to 12.56 %) and Gaussian peak area (from 604.1 to 539.6) for starch without surface lipids. Different trends of change in lamellar thickness, linear crystallinity, peak temperatures, and enthalpy of gelatinization were observed among modified starches with increasing temperature and/or moisture content. These results demonstrate that removing surface lipids changes structure of heat-moisture treated starch.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Amido , Amido/química , Temperatura Alta , Temperatura , Lipídeos
14.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1073, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658207

RESUMO

Adipose tissue (AT) optical properties for physiological temperatures and in vivo conditions are still insufficiently studied. The AT is composed mainly of packed cells close to spherical shape. It is a possible reason that AT demonstrates a very complicated spatial structure of reflected or transmitted light. It was shown with a cellular tissue phantom, is split into a fan of narrow tracks, originating from the insertion point and representing filament-like light distribution. The development of suitable approaches for describing light propagation in a AT is urgently needed. A mathematical model of the propagation of light through the layers of fat cells is proposed. It has been shown that the sharp local focusing of optical radiation (light localized near the shadow surface of the cells) and its cleavage by coupling whispering gallery modes depends on the optical thickness of the cell layer. The optical coherence tomography numerical simulation and experimental studies results demonstrate the importance of sharp local focusing in AT for understanding its optical properties for physiological conditions and at AT heating.


Assuntos
Adipócitos , Modelos Teóricos , Temperatura , Espalhamento de Radiação , Simulação por Computador
15.
Genet Sel Evol ; 55(1): 4, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heat stress negatively influences cattle welfare, health and productivity. To cope with the forecasted increases in temperature and heat waves frequency, identifying high-producing animals that are tolerant to heat is of capital importance to maintain milk production. This study, based on the joint analysis of on-farm performance and weather data, had two objectives: (1) to determine the response in production performances (milk, fat and protein yields, fat and protein contents) and udder health (somatic cell score) to temperature-humidity index (THI) variations in Montbeliarde cows, and (2) to estimate the interactions between genotype and THI, to enable the identification of the most adapted animals for facing the expected increases in temperature. RESULTS: Test-day records from first and second lactations from 2016 to 2020 were associated with the average THI during the three days before the test-day record. In total, 446,717 test-day records from 55,650 cows in first lactation and 457,516 test-day records from 58,229 cows in second lactation were analysed. The optimal THI was below 55 (i.e. ~ 12-13 °C) for all traits. Individual responses to THI were estimated by random regression models, which also included individual responses to days in milk. Regardless of the stage of lactation, genetic correlations along the THI gradient were above 0.80, which suggests that genotype-by-THI interactions were weak for production and udder health traits. Nevertheless, a variability in the individual slope of decay could be highlighted at high THI. The genetic correlation between production level at moderate THI and the slope at high THI was negative, while for somatic cell score, it was positive, indicating that heat stress amplifies the susceptibility to mastitis. CONCLUSIONS: The optimal THI for French Montbeliarde cows is below 55 for production and udder health traits. Genetic-by-THI interactions are weak in French Montbeliarde cows for production and udder health traits, but not all animals react in the same way to high temperatures. Even if there is little room for improvement, using a heat tolerance index in cattle selection would be relevant to anticipate the expected increases in temperature. Further investigations are needed to interpret this variability on production traits. However, the current selection for mastitis resistance seems appropriate to adapt cattle to rising temperatures.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Leite , Feminino , Bovinos/genética , Animais , Umidade , Leite/metabolismo , Temperatura , Glândulas Mamárias Animais , Lactação/genética , Genótipo , Temperatura Alta , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária
16.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677768

RESUMO

The delayed healing of wounds among people with diabetes is a severe problem worldwide. Hyperglycemia and increased levels of free radicals are the major inhibiting factors of wound healing in diabetic patients. Plant extracts are a rich source of polyphenols, allowing them to be an effective agent for wound healing. Drying temperature and extraction solvent highly affect the stability of polyphenols in plant materials. However, there is a need to optimize the extraction protocol to ensure the efficacy of the final product. For this purpose, the effects of drying temperature and solvents on the polyphenolic composition and diabetic wound healing activity of Moringa oleifera leaves were examined in the present research. Fresh leaves were oven dried at different temperatures (10 °C, 30 °C, 50 °C, and 100 °C) and extracted in three solvents (acetone, ethanol, and methanol) to obtain twelve extracts in total. The extracts were assessed for free radical scavenging and antihyperglycemic effects using DPPH (2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl) and α- glucosidase inhibition assays. Alongside this, a scratch assay was performed to evaluate the cell migration activity of M. oleifera on the human retinal pigment epithelial cell line. The cytotoxicity of the plant extracts was assessed on human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) and hepatocellular carcinoma (Huh-7) cell lines. Using high-performance liquid chromatography, phenolic compounds in extracts of M. oleifera were identified. We found that an ethanol-based extract prepared by drying the leaves at 10 °C contained the highest amounts of identified polyphenols. Moringa oleifera extracts showed remarkable antioxidant, antidiabetic, and cell migration properties. The best results were obtained with leaves dried at 10 °C and 30 °C. Decreased activities were observed with drying temperatures of 50 °C and above. Moreover, M. oleifera extracts exhibited no toxicity on RPE cells, and the same extracts were cytotoxic for Huh-7 cells. This study revealed that M. oleifera leaves extracts can enhance wound healing in diabetic conditions due to their antihyperglycemic, antioxidant, and cell migration effects. The leaves of this plant can be an excellent therapeutic option when extracted at optimum conditions.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Moringa oleifera , Humanos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Solventes , Moringa oleifera/química , Temperatura , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Polifenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Cicatrização , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Etanol , Folhas de Planta/química
17.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677896

RESUMO

Self-assembled fibrillation of wheat gluten is a common phenomenon in the daily production and processing of wheat flour products. The driving forces for its formation and the factors that influence the morphology of fibrils have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, the effect of three bonding changes (breaking hydrogen bonds, strengthening hydrophobic interactions, and SH-SS exchange reactions) on gluten polypeptide (GP) fibrillation was simulated by adjusting the heating temperature (room temperature (RT), 45 °C, 65 °C, and 95 °C). The results showed that the breakage of hydrogen bonds could induce conformational transitions in GPs and help to excite fibrillation in GPs. Strengthened hydrophobic interactions significantly contributed to the fibrillation of GPs. Covalent crosslinks generated by SH-SS exchange reactions might also promote the fibrillation of GPs. GPs with different degrees of hydrolysis (4.0%, 6.0%, and 10.0%, represented by DH 4, DH 6, and DH 10, respectively) presented different extents of fibrillation, with DH 10 GPs having a higher propensity to fibrillation than DH 4 and DH 6 GPs. The results of Fourier's transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that hydrophobic interactions drive the transition from a random coil and α-helix to a ß-sheet. In addition, hydrophobic interactions also drive the intermolecular polymerization of GPs, resulting in larger molecular weight aggregates. The morphology presented by transmission electron microscopy showed that the greater the DH, the stronger the tendency for the worm-like aggregation of GPs.


Assuntos
Farinha , Triticum , Triticum/química , Farinha/análise , Glutens/química , Peptídeos , Temperatura
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679371

RESUMO

The improvement of comfort monitoring resources is pivotal for a better understanding of personal perception in indoor and outdoor environments and thus developing personalized comfort models maximizing occupants' well-being while minimizing energy consumption. Different daily routines and their relation to the thermal sensation remain a challenge in long-term monitoring campaigns. This paper presents a new methodology to investigate the correlation between individuals' daily Thermal Sensation Vote (TSV) and environmental exposure. Participants engaged in the long-term campaign were instructed to answer a daily survey about thermal comfort perception and wore a device continuously monitoring temperature and relative humidity in their surroundings. Normalized daily profiles of monitored variables and calculated heat index were clustered to identify common exposure profiles for each participant. The correlation between each cluster and expressed TSV was evaluated through the Kendall tau-b test. Most of the significant correlations were related to the heat index profiles, i.e., 49% of cases, suggesting that a more detailed description of physical boundaries better approximates expressed comfort. This research represents the first step towards personalized comfort models accounting for individual long-term environmental exposure. A longer campaign involving more participants should be organized in future studies, involving also physiological variables for energy-saving purposes.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Humanos , Sensação Térmica , Temperatura , Percepção
19.
Food Microbiol ; 111: 104190, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36681396

RESUMO

Temperature is a major determinant of Listeria (L.) monocytogenes adherence and biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. However, its role on gene regulation of L. monocytogenes mature biofilms has not been investigated. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of temperature up- and down-shift on L. monocytogenes biofilms gene transcription. L. monocytogenes strain EGD-e biofilms were first developed on stainless steel surfaces in Brain Heart Infusion broth at 20 °C for 48 h. Then, nutrient broth was renewed, and mature biofilms were exposed to 10 °C, 20 °C or 37 °C for 24 h. Biofilm cells were harvested and RNA levels of plcA, prfA, hly, mpl, plcB, sigB, bapL, fbpA, fbpB, lmo2178, lmo0880, lmo0160, lmo1115, lmo 2089, lmo2576, lmo0159 and lmo0627 were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. The results revealed an over-expression of all genes tested in biofilm cells compared to planktonic cells. When biofilms were further allowed to proliferate at 20 °C for 24 h, the transcription levels of key virulence, stress response and putative binding proteins genes plcA, sigB, fbpA, fbpB, lmo1115, lmo0880 and lmo2089 decreased. A temperature-dependent transcription for sigB, plcA, hly, and lmo2089 genes was observed after biofilm proliferation at 10 °C or 37 °C. Our findings suggest that temperature differentially affects gene regulation of L. monocytogenes mature biofilms, thus modulating attributes such as virulence, stress response and pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Listeria monocytogenes , Listeria , Listeria monocytogenes/fisiologia , Virulência/genética , Temperatura , Biofilmes , Listeria/genética
20.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 149, 2023 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36681785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With complex changes in the global climate, it is critical to understand how ambient temperature affects health, especially in China. We aimed to assess the effects of temperature on daily mortality, including total non-accidental, cardiovascular disease (CVD), respiratory disease, cerebrovascular disease, and ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality between 2016 and 2020 in Chengdu, China. METHODS: We obtained daily temperature and mortality data for the period 2016-2020. A Poisson regression model combined with a distributed-lag nonlinear model was used to examine the association between temperature and daily mortality. We investigated the effects of individual characteristics by sex, age, education level, and marital status. RESULTS: We found significant non-linear effects of temperature on total non-accidental, CVD, respiratory, cerebrovascular, and IHD mortality. Heat effects were immediate and lasted for 0-3 days, whereas cold effects persisted for 7-10 days. The relative risks associated with extreme high temperatures (99th percentile of temperature, 28 °C) over lags of 0-3 days were 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17, 1.28) for total non-accidental mortality, 1.40 (95% CI: 1.30, 1.50) for CVD morality, 1.34 (95% CI: 1.24, 1.46) for respiratory morality, 1.33 (95% CI: 1.20, 1.47) for cerebrovascular mortality, and 1.38 (95% CI: 1.20, 1.58) for IHD mortality. The relative risks associated with extreme cold temperature (1st percentile of temperature, 3.0 °C) over lags of 0-14 days were 1.32 (95% CI: 1.19, 1.46) for total mortality, 1.45 (95% CI: 1.24, 1.68) for CVD morality, 1.28 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.50) for respiratory morality, 1.36 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.70) for cerebrovascular mortality, and 1.26 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.68) for IHD morality. We found that hot and cold affects were greater in those over 85 years of age, and that women, individuals with low education levels, and those who were widowed, divorced, or never married, were more vulnerable. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that exposure to hot and cold temperatures in Chengdu was associated with increased mortality, with people over 85 years old, women, those with low education levels, and unmarried individuals being more affected by hot and cold temperatures.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Isquemia Miocárdica , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Temperatura Alta , Temperatura Baixa , China/epidemiologia , Dinâmica não Linear , Mortalidade
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA