Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 247.825
Filtrar
Mais filtros








Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149964, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481162

RESUMO

Energy conversion and utilization of sewage sludge (SS) and lignocellulosic biomass are an important measure to deal with environmental pollution and resource utilization. Addressing the waste by-product in a clean way is essential. In this study, solid char fuel (hydrochar) was obtained through co-hydrothermal carbonization of SS with pinewood sawdust (PS), and methane gas was obtained through anaerobic digestion (AD) of hydrothermal carbonization wastewater (HTCWW). The energy conversion performance of the feedstock organics under different HTC conditions (temperature of 160 °C, 220 °C, and 280 °C; reaction time of 0, 2, and 4 h; feedstock liquid-solid mass ratio of 4:1, 10:1, and 16:1), and the mass and energy yields of hydrochar and methane and their influencing factors were emphasized. More than 60% of the energy in SS and PS can be recovered by coupling the HTC-AD process. With the increase in hydrothermal reaction temperature and reaction time, the mass yield of hydrochar decreased, but the higher heating value increased. The maximum energy yield of hydrochar was 86.47% under the HTC temperature of 160 °C, liquid-solid ratio of 10:1, and reaction time of 2 h. The HTCWW obtained at a lower temperature (160 °C) showed the highest cumulative methane yield of 304.16 mL-CH4/g-COD.


Assuntos
Pinus , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Carbono , Temperatura , Águas Residuárias
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149889, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482131

RESUMO

The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is a global warming hotspot, however, the warming status at high elevation (>5000 m) is poorly understood due to very sparse observations. Here we analyze spatial patterns in TP warming rates based on a novel near-surface air temperature dataset of 1980-2014 recently developed by ingesting high-elevation observations and downscaled reanalysis datasets. We show that the high snow cover persistence at high elevation reduces strengthening of positive feedbacks responsible for elevation dependent warming at low-middle elevations, leading to reversed altitudinal patterns of TP warming above and below 5000 m. An important negative feedback is induced by the presence of snow and glaciers at elevations above 5000 m, due to their "buffering" effects by consuming or reflecting energy that would be used for warming in the absence of snow or ice. A further decrease in snow cover and glacier extent at high elevations may thus amplify the warming on the TP.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Neve , Camada de Gelo , Temperatura , Tibet
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149700, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487901

RESUMO

The Eurasian steppe is the largest steppe region in the world and is an important part of the global grassland ecosystem. The eastern Eurasian steppe has favorable hydrothermal conditions and has the highest productivity and the richest biodiversity. Located in the arid and semi-arid region, the eastern Eurasian steppe has experienced large-scale grassland degradation due to dramatic climate change and intensive human activities during the past 20 years. Hence, accurate estimation of aboveground biomass (AGB, gC m-2) and belowground biomass (BGB, gC m-2) is necessary. In this study, plenty of AGB and BGB in-situ measurements were collected among dominated grassland types during summer in 2013 and 2016-2018 in the eastern Eurasian steppe. Vegetation indices from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and climate variables were chosen as independent variables to establish predictive models for AGB and BGB with random forest (RF). Both AGB (R2 = 0.47, MAE = 21.06 gC m-2, and RMSE = 27.52 gC m-2) and BGB (R2 = 0.44, MAE = 173.02 gC m-2, and RMSE = 244.20 gC m-2) models showed acceptable accuracy. Then the RF models were applied to generate spatially explicit AGB and BGB estimates for the study area over the last two decades (2000-2018). Both AGB and BGB showed higher values in the Greater Khingan Mountains and decreased gradually to the east and west sides. The mean values for AGB and BGB were 62.16 gC m-2 and 531.35 gC m-2, respectively. The climatic factors were much more important in controlling biomass than anthropogenic drivers, and shortage of water and raising temperature were the main limiting factor of AGB and BGB, respectively, in the peak growth season. These findings provide scientific data for the scientific management of animal husbandry and can contribute to the sustainable development of grassland ecology in the eastern Eurasian steppe.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Biomassa , Pradaria , Humanos , Imagens de Satélites , Temperatura
4.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 607(Pt 1): 111-124, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492348

RESUMO

Herein, a novel adsorbent based on carbon-modified zirconia/spinel ferrite (C@ ZrO2/Mn0.5Mg0.25Zn0.25Fe2O4) nanostructures were chemically prepared to remove 60Co and 152+154Eu radionuclides from liquid media using batch experiments. The XRD pattern confirms the successful preparation of the C@ZrO2/MnMgZnFe2O4 composite. Also, SEM and TEM images confirmed that the composite owns a heterogeneous morphology in the nanoscale range. The optical band gap value of Mn0.5Mg0.25Zn0.25Fe2O4, ZrO2, and the composite samples was 1.45, 2.38, and 1.54 eV, respectively. Many parameters have been studied as the effect of time, solution pH, and initial ion concentration. The kinetics models for the removal process of 152+154Eu and 60Co radionuclides were studied. The second-order kinetic equation could describe the sorption kinetics for both radionuclides. The Langmuir monolayer capacity for 60Co was 82.51 mg/g and for 152+154Eu was 136.98 mg/g. The thermodynamic parameters such as free energy ΔGo, the enthalpy ΔHo, and the entropy ΔSo were calculated. The results indicated that the sorption process has endothermic nature for both two radionuclides onto C@ZrO2/MnMgZnFe2O4 composite.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Óxido de Alumínio , Carbono , Cobalto , Európio , Compostos Férricos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Óxido de Magnésio , Soluções , Temperatura , Termodinâmica , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Zircônio
5.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 607(Pt 1): 76-88, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492356

RESUMO

Dual stimuli-responsive nanogels (NGs) have gained popularity in the field of bio medicine due to their versatile nature of applicability. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-poly(acrylic acid) (pNIPAm-pAAc)-based NGs provide such dual stimuli-response with pNIPAm and pAAc providing thermal and pH-based responses, respectively. Studying the growth of these NGs, as well as, understanding the effect of the incorporation of pAAc in the NG matrix, is important in determining the physico-chemical properties of the NG. Studies have been conducted investigating the effect of increasing pAAc content in the NGs, however, these are not detailed in understanding its effects on the physico-chemical properties of the pNIPAm-pAAc-based NGs. Also, the biocompatibility of the NGs have not been previously reported using human whole blood model. Herein, we report the effect of different reaction parameters, such as surfactant amount and reaction atmosphere, on the growth of pNIPAm-pAAc-based NGs. It is shown that the size of the NGs can be precisely controlled from ~130 nm to ~400 nm, by varying the amount of surfactant and the reaction atmosphere. The effect of increasing incorporation of pAAc in the NG matrix on its physico-chemical properties has been investigated. The potential of these NGs as drug delivery vehicles is investigated by conducting loading and release studies of a model protein drug, cytochrome C (Cyt C) from the NGs at temperature above the volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) and acidic pH. An ex vivo human whole blood model was used to investigate biocompatibility of the NGs by quantifying inflammatory responses during NG exposure. The NGs did not induce any significant production of chemokine IL-8 or pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α), and the cell viability in human whole blood was maintained during 4 h exposure. The NGs did neither activate the complement system, as determined by low Terminal Complement Complex (TCC) activation and Complement Receptor 3 (CR3) activation assays, thereby overall suggesting that the NGs could be potential candidates for biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Acrilatos , Humanos , Nanogéis , Transição de Fase , Temperatura
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149874, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492491

RESUMO

The treatment of sewage sludge (SS) is an environmental problem worldwide. In recent years, hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of SS for hydrochar (HC) has attracted extensive attention. This study preliminarily explored the microwave-assisted HTC of SS for the first time. Increasing the reaction temperature (150-250 °C) and reaction time (0-120 min) resulted in a decrease in the HC yield, and it gradually increased with the rising solid-liquid ratio (0.03-0.25 g/mL). Compared with raw SS, the HC products possessed higher aromaticity, carbonization degree, porosity, and polarity, and lower content of soluble nutrients (N/P/K) and leachable heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni), indicating a lower risk of nutrient and heavy metal loss. Attention should be paid to the total contents of Zn and Cd in HC exceeded the permitted value for use in cultivated land with edible crops. The use of CaO as a catalyst improved the yield of HC, made the HC and process water (PW) weakly alkaline, and further passivated the heavy metals in the HC. In the case of H3PO4, although the conversion of SS was enhanced (lower content of volatile organic matter in HC), the contents of soluble nutrients (N/P/K) in HC/PW increased, and the migration of Zn and Cd into process water was enhanced. The HCs obtained in this study had poor combustion properties, but higher ignition temperatures than raw SS. PW must be properly treated or recycled because it still contained high contents of organic matter and nutrients. This fundamental study provides basic insights into the microwave-assisted HTC of SS.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Esgotos , Carbono , Micro-Ondas , Temperatura , Água
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149754, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496344

RESUMO

The immobilized carrier was prepared with complete anaerobic ammonia oxidation granular sludge (AnGS) and crushed AnGS, respectively. We evaluated the effects of granular form and continuous temperature changes on nitrogen removal by immobilized anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) filler. The results showed that the rate of nitrogen removal of crushed and encapsulated AnGS was 20% higher than that of direct encapsulated AnGS. However, the latter had higher thresholds of tolerance to Fe2+ and Cu2+. In addition, the immobilization reduced the activation energy of anammox. Above 12.5 °C, the immobilized filler was efficient at removing nitrogen removal through the dual adjustment of temperature-hydraulic retention time. From 12.5 °C to 23 °C, the temperature had a greater influence on the nitrogen removal effect than the HRT. In contrast, HRT had a dominant influence from 23 °C to 32 °C. Anammox activity was severely inhibited below 12.5 °C. High-throughput sequencing analysis showed that the community structure migrated with the changes in temperature. The anammox functional bacteria Candidatus Kuenenia (18.31-39.73%) were the dominant genus at medium and high temperatures, and it was replaced by Chryseobacterium (24.19%) at 8.5 °C. In addition, an RDA analysis showed that Candidatus Brocadia was more adaptable to low temperatures than Candidatus Kuenenia. In addition, Bellilinea was more sensitive to temperature than Candidatus Kuenenia. Thus, the temperature could be appropriately lowered to avoid overbreeding. The results of this study optimized the operation of an anammox immobilized system and promote its further application.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Desnitrificação , Nitrogênio , Oxirredução , Temperatura
8.
Food Chem ; 370: 131030, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507209

RESUMO

Phytosterols are commonly found in vegetable oils and possess health benefits for humans. While investigating the chemical conversion of stigmasterol at deodorisation temperatures, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) experiments led to the identification of 5-ethyl-6-methyl-3-heptene-2-one, 3-hydoxy-steroid, 3-ketostigmasterol, and 3,7-diketostigmasterol as by-products. The identification of these compounds assisted in the interpretation of the stigmasterol oligomers characterised by high-pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). A similar analysis was conducted in stripped corn oil at the deodorisation temperatures. As such, 5-ethyl-6-methyl-3-heptene-2-one, 3-hydoxy-steroid, 3-ketostigmasterol and 3,7-diketostigmasterol were also detected in stripped corn oil, while the contents of 3-hydoxy-steroid and 5-ethyl-6-methyl-3-heptene-2-one were higher than those of 3-ketostigmasterol, as revealed by quantum chemical simulations. In addition, stripped corn oil exhibited the characteristic of preventing stigmasterol degradation below 200 °C, whereas it enhanced the chemical conversion (such as esterification and degradation) of stigmasterol at higher temperatures.


Assuntos
Fitosteróis , Estigmasterol , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Óleo de Milho , Humanos , Óleos Vegetais , Temperatura , Zea mays
9.
Food Chem ; 370: 130899, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509149

RESUMO

The oil-in-water high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) could be stabilized by pea protein isolate nanoparticles (PPINs) induced by potassium metabisulfite (K2S2O5). Confocal laser scanning microscope proved that PPINs were attached on the oil-water interface, indicating characteristic of Pickering HIPEs. The HIPEs stabilized by PPINs of higher concentration had smaller droplet size, better storage and centrifugal stability than that of PPINs of low concentration because there were enough particles to constitute the thick interface film. The storage modulus was higher than loss modulus indicating that HIPEs exhibited gel-like structure. At different temperatures and ionic strengths, HIPEs exhibited flocculation but still maintained a stable gel-like structure. The strain curve of HIPEs showed Type III nonlinear behavior due to the flocculation of emulsion droplets. HIPEs stabilized by PPINs might be a potential alternative to partially hydrogenated oils to reduce intake of trans fatty acids.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Proteínas de Ervilha , Emulsões , Concentração Osmolar , Tamanho da Partícula , Temperatura
10.
Food Chem ; 370: 131044, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509940

RESUMO

The shelf life of chestnut rose beverage is largely dependent on packaging method and storage temperature. In this study, we investigated the effects of packaging beverages in bottles made of either polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or PEN (polyethylene naphthalate)/PET and storage temperature (4, 25, 37, and 55 ℃) on the shelf life of chestnut rose beverage. The physicochemical parameters and enzyme activity of beverages were evaluated, and we found that at 4 °C, the vitamin C, superoxide dismutase, and total polyphenol contents of beverages stored in PEN/PET bottles increased by 9.95 ± 0.49%, 2.86 ± 0.13%, and 3.23 ± 0.09% respectively, compared to beverages in ordinary PET bottles. In addition, other characteristic indicators including total soluble solids, browning index, and color value were also significantly improved. A shelf-life model was established based on the Arrhenius equation, and it will help distributors and consumers to determine the storage time and optimal shelf life of chestnut rose beverage.


Assuntos
Polietilenotereftalatos , Rosa , Bebidas/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos , Polietilenotereftalatos/análise , Temperatura
11.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 607(Pt 1): 323-333, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520900

RESUMO

Applications of superhydrophobic (SHS) and lubricant infused surfaces (LIS) involve exposure to corrosive environments from the acidic to the basic, at a range of temperatures, that are not fully characterized. We present for the first time a multifactorial study of the effects of surface fabrication method, surface modification, surface functionalization time, temperature and pH of the immersion medium on the corrosion performance of nonwetting copper surfaces. Bioinspired SHS and LIS fabricated using facile methods of etching and electrodeposition are systematically assessed using potentiodynamic polarization measurements for their corrosion resistance in saline solution (pH≈ 7) over a temperature range 23-85 °C. SHS and LIS are shown to exhibit diminished corrosion rate, by up to two orders of magnitude, compared to bare copper surface. An Arrhenius model is developed for the first time, describing the temperature-dependent corrosion rate of SHS and LIS. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is used to show that corrosion resistance of LIS is larger by three orders of magnitude in extremely acidic (pH = 1) and by an order magnitude in extremely alkaline (pH = 14) media compared to bare copper surface. Etched LIS are generally more resistant to corrosion compared to SHS at all temperatures with excellent microstructural durability.


Assuntos
Cáusticos , Cobre , Corrosão , Propriedades de Superfície , Temperatura
12.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131690, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352553

RESUMO

The experimental determination of thermophysical properties of nanofluid (NF) is time-consuming and costly, leading to the use of soft computing methods such as response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) to estimate these properties. The present study involves modelling and optimization of thermal conductivity and viscosity of NF, which comprises multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and thermal oil. The modelling is performed to predict the thermal conductivity and viscosity of NF by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Both models were tested and validated, which showed promising results. In addition, a detailed optimization study was conducted to investigate the optimum thermal conductivity and viscosity by varying temperature and NF weight per cent. Four case studies were explored using different objective functions based on NF application in various industries. The first case study aimed to maximize thermal conductivity (0.15985 W/m oC) while minimizing viscosity (0.03501 Pa s) obtained at 57.86 °C and 0.85 NF wt%. The goal of the second case study was to minimize thermal conductivity (0.13949 W/m °C) and viscosity (0.02526 Pa s) obtained at 55.88 °C and 0.15 NF wt%. The third case study targeted maximizing thermal conductivity (0.15797 W/m °C) and viscosity (0.07611 Pa s), and the optimum temperature and NF wt% were 30.64 °C and 0.0.85,' respectively. The last case study explored the minimum thermal conductivity (0.13735) and maximum viscosity (0.05263 Pa s) obtained at 30.64 °C and 0.15 NF wt%.


Assuntos
Nanotubos de Carbono , Temperatura , Condutividade Térmica , Viscosidade
13.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131774, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365172

RESUMO

This study reports an alternative method for black liquor treatment with potential for energy and process savings in the paper and pulp industry. Gasification of black liquor was carried out under sub- and supercritical conditions, varying the black liquor feed composition (0.10, 2.55 and 5.00 wb%) and temperature (350, 425 and 500 °C). Liquid products were identified by high resolution mass spectrometry (FT-Orbitrap MS) and compounds belonging to classes O3 and O4 were found to be the most representative in the products of reactions performed at 500 °C. The mass spectra results also revealed the overall selectivity of reactions, where decarboxylation and demethoxylation reactions were favored under subcritical and supercritical conditions, respectively. Among the gaseous products, hydrogen and methane were produced with maximum of 69.04 and 28.75 mol%, respectively, at 2.55 wb% and 425 °C. The proposed thermodynamic modelling of the reaction system satisfactorily predicted the gas phase behavior of the system. In the economic analysis, the simulated conditions indicated that the main energy requirements for a scaled-up black liquor gasification process are related to the necessary heat exchangers and pressurizing of the black liquor solution. Furthermore, the cost of the black liquor gasification is around 0.06 US$ per kg of feed stream. Liquid and gaseous products from gasification could be obtained at a cost of 56.64 US$ and 3.35 US$ per tonne of stream, respectively. Therefore, black liquor gasification is an interesting route for obtaining combustible gases and value-added bioproducts.


Assuntos
Gases , Metano , Hidrogênio , Temperatura , Termodinâmica , Água
14.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131754, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399263

RESUMO

The problem of deep oxidation of low concentrations of VOCs in industrial tail gas is exceptionally urgent. The preparation of VOCs ozonation catalyst with a high mineralization rate is still a challenge. In this paper, manganese oxide carriers with different morphologies were synthesized by simple methods and used to catalyze ozone mineralization of toluene after loading Pt nanoparticles efficiently. The conversion of toluene over Pt/MnOx-T catalyst was more than 98 % at ambient temperature, and the mineralization rate of toluene was close to 100 % at 70 °C. Through a variety of characterization methods, the strong metal-support interaction (SMSI) between Pt nanoparticles and carriers was successfully constructed. It was found that SMSI successfully optimized the surface oxygen species and oxygen migration ability of the catalyst, and then realized the high degree of mineralization of toluene at low temperature. This paper guides the subsequent development of Pt-Mn catalysts for catalytic organic pollutants ozonation with high activity.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Tolueno , Catálise , Oxirredução , Oxigênio , Temperatura
15.
Food Chem ; 371: 130821, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628251

RESUMO

This study examined the effect of the intake of orange juice provided freshly squeezed (FS) or processed using low-temperature pasteurisation (LP), high-pressure processing (HPP), or pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on the serum carotenoid concentrations of 12 healthy individuals, aged 20-32 years, enrolled in a crossover study. Participants were instructed to consume 500 ml of orange juice/day for 14 days. Carotenoid concentrations in the orange juice as well as serum samples retrieved on days 7 and 14 were analysed via HPLC. A significant increase in serum xanthophyll concentrations, but not serum carotenes, was observed, with the highest increase in α- and ß-cryptoxanthin. The processing technologies applied appeared to affect serum carotenoid concentrations, with concentrations being similar in the HPP and FS orange juice types. As high variability in serum carotenoid concentrations was observed, the effect of different technologies on serum carotenoid concentration warrants further studies with larger sample sizes.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Disponibilidade Biológica , Carotenoides , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Temperatura , Xantofilas
16.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 266: 120462, 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649125

RESUMO

Besides the vast research regarding the hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP) materials used in the solar cell production, their properties are still not fully uncovered. In this paper, detailed investigation on the phase transitions in guanidinium lead iodide (GAPbI3) using vibrational spectroscopy techniques (IR and Raman) are presented. In addition to the well-known three phases of GAPbI3 (denoted as I, II and III) another one existing in the temperature range from 48 °C to 160 °C is characterized. The thorough inspection of the vibrational spectra revealed some interesting changes occurring in the low temperature region (from -90 to -62 °C) that suggest presence of a new phase. Finally, a redefinition of the phase nomenclature according to the recommendations given by the IUCr is proposed.


Assuntos
Iodetos , Vibração , Guanidina , Transição de Fase , Temperatura
17.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 361: 109457, 2022 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742145

RESUMO

Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) is a medicinal crop with laxative properties, and it has significant demand in the global pharmaceutical market. Senna pods are highly susceptible to aflatoxin contamination, and the successful export of pods is hindered due to the regulatory limits of importing countries. The senna pod water activity (aw) from harvest to storage is the key factor determining AFB1 accumulation. The temperature conditions from field to warehouse also interact with pod aw, which influences fungal growth and AFB1 production. The determination of an ideal combination of aw and temperature led to the assessment of the critical control point for AFB1 synthesis in senna. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the influence of aw (0.99, 0.96, 0.93, 0.90, and 0.87 aw) and temperature (20, 28, and 37 °C) on fungal growth, gene expression (aflR and aflS), and AFB1 production by A. flavus in senna agar medium. The fungus showed the longest lag time (7.7 days) at 20 °C with 0.87 aw. We observed that 0.96 aw (P < 0.01) was optimum for the diametric growth rate at 28 and 37 °C. However, the peak expression of regulatory genes (aflR and aflS) and the maximum AFB1 production were observed only at 28 °C (0.96 aw). The highest growth rate occurred at 37 °C, which did not favor the expression of genes and AFB1 production. However, at 28 °C, it positively correlated with gene expression and AFB1 production. The suppressed expression of regulatory genes and a trace amount of aflatoxin B1 were found at 20 °C with all the tested aw. In our experiments, the low aw (0.87 and 0.90 aw) suppressed the fungal growth, gene expression, and AFB1 production of A. flavus at all of the tested temperatures (20, 28, and 37 °C). The rapid drying of senna pods with a low water activity (≤0.87 aw) and storage at low temperature (20 °C) are ideal conditions to avoid AFB1 and ensure the quality of produce for export.


Assuntos
Aspergillus flavus , Senna (Planta) , Aflatoxina B1 , Aspergillus flavus/genética , Expressão Gênica , Temperatura , Água
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150045, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798718

RESUMO

Understanding the effects of elevated temperatures on soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition pathways in northern peatlands is central to predicting their fate under future warming. Peatlands role as carbon (C) sink is dependent on both anoxic conditions and low temperatures that limit SOM decomposition. Previous studies have shown that elevated temperatures due to climate change can disrupt peatland's C balance by enhancing SOM decomposition and increasing CO2 emissions. However, little is known about how SOM decomposition pathways change at higher temperatures. Here, we used an integrated research approach to investigate the mechanisms behind enhanced CO2 emissions and SOM decomposition under elevated temperatures of surface peat soil collected from a raised and Sphagnum dominated mid-continental bog (S1 bog) peatland at the Marcel Experimental Forest in Minnesota, USA, incubated under oxic conditions at three different temperatures (4, 21, and 35 °C). Our results indicated that elevated temperatures could destabilize peatland's C pool via a combination of abiotic and biotic processes. In particular, temperature-driven changes in redox conditions can lead to abiotic destabilization of Fe-organic matter (phenol) complexes, previously an underestimated decomposition pathway in peatlands, leading to increased CO2 production and accumulation of polyphenol-like compounds that could further inhibit extracellular enzyme activities and/or fuel the microbial communities with labile compounds. Further, increased temperatures can alter strategies of microbial communities for nutrient acquisition via changes in the activities of extracellular enzymes by priming SOM decomposition, leading to enhanced CO2 emission from peatlands. Therefore, coupled biotic and abiotic processes need to be incorporated into process-based climate models to predict the fate of SOM under elevated temperatures and to project the likely impacts of environmental change on northern peatlands and CO2 emissions.


Assuntos
Solo , Sphagnopsida , Mudança Climática , Temperatura , Áreas Alagadas
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150167, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798731

RESUMO

Climate change often leads to shifts in the distribution of small pelagic fish, likely by changing the match-mismatch dynamics between these sensitive species within their environmental optima. Using present-day habitat suitability, we projected how different scenarios of climate change (IPCC Representative Concentration Pathways 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5) may alter the large scale distribution of European sardine Sardina pilchardus (a model species) by 2050 and 2100. We evaluated the variability of species-specific environmental optima allowing a comparison between present-day and future scenarios. Regardless of the scenario, sea surface temperature and salinity and the interaction between current velocity and distance to the nearest coast were the main descriptors responsible for the main effects on sardine's distribution. Present-day and future potential "hotspots" for sardine were neritic zones (<250 km) with water currents <0.4 m s-1, where SST was between 10 and 22 °C and SSS > 20 (PSU), on average. Most variability in projected shifts among climatic scenarios was in habitats with moderate to low suitability. By the end of this century, habitat suitability was projected to increase in the Canary Islands, Iberian Peninsula, central North Sea, northern Mediterranean, and eastern Black Sea and to decrease in the Atlantic African coast, southwest Mediterranean, English Channel, northern North Sea and Western U.K. A gradual poleward-eastward shift in sardine distribution was also projected among scenarios. This shift was most pronounced in 2100 under RCP 8.5. In that scenario, sardines had a 9.6% range expansion which included waters along the entire coast of Norway up and into the White Sea. As habitat suitability is mediated by the synergic effects of climate variability and change on species fitness, it is critical to apply models with robust underlying species-habitat data that integrate knowledge on the full range of processes shaping species productivity and distribution.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Animais , Peixes , Previsões , Temperatura
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150182, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798735

RESUMO

Understanding the evolutions of the permafrost extent and active layer thickness (ALT) in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) are critical for global carbon flux simulation, climate change prediction, and engineering risk assessment. The temporal change characteristics of the permafrost extent and ALT for the NH have not been studied. We used the Kudryavtsev method, integrating a 0.5° × 0.5° spatial resolution of air temperature, soil texture, snow depth, vegetation type, soil volume moisture content, and organic content to simulate the changes of permafrost extent and ALT in the NH from 1969 to 2018. The results indicated that permafrost extent decreased from 23.25 × 106 km2 (average from 1969 to 1973) to 21.64 × 106 km2 (average from 2014 to 2018), with a linear rate of -0.023 × 106 km2/a. Siberia had the highest degradation rate of 0.014 × 106 km2/a, followed by Alaska, Mongolian Plateau, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Northern Canada, and Greenland, with linear rates of -0.012 × 106, -0.005 × 106, -0.004 × 106, -0.0014 × 106, and - 0.0004× 106 km2/a, respectively. The average ALT in the NH increased at a linear rate of 0.0086 m/a. Alaska and Mongolian Plateau had the highest thickening rate of 0.024 m/a, followed by Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Siberia, Northern Canada, and Greenland, which had linear rates of 0.009, 0.008, 0.0072, and 0.003 m/a, respectively. The uncertainty of the results could be attributed to the inaccurate forcing data and limitations of the Kudryavtsev model.


Assuntos
Pergelissolo , Mudança Climática , Solo , Temperatura , Tibet
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA