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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 13(8): e033628, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-OHB) increases cardiac output (CO) by 35% to 40% in healthy people and people with heart failure. The mechanisms underlying the effects of 3-OHB on myocardial contractility and loading conditions as well as the cardiovascular effects of its enantiomeric forms, D-3-OHB and L-3-OHB, remain undetermined. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three groups of 8 pigs each underwent a randomized, crossover study. The groups received 3-hour infusions of either D/L-3-OHB (racemic mixture), 100% L-3-OHB, 100% D-3-OHB, versus an isovolumic control. The animals were monitored with pulmonary artery catheter, left ventricle pressure-volume catheter, and arterial and coronary sinus blood samples. Myocardial biopsies were evaluated with high-resolution respirometry, coronary arteries with isometric myography, and myocardial kinetics with D-[11C]3-OHB and L-[11C]3-OHB positron emission tomography. All three 3-OHB infusions increased 3-OHB levels (P<0.001). D/L-3-OHB and L-3-OHB increased CO by 2.7 L/min (P<0.003). D-3-OHB increased CO nonsignificantly (P=0.2). Circulating 3-OHB levels correlated with CO for both enantiomers (P<0.001). The CO increase was mediated through arterial elastance (afterload) reduction, whereas contractility and preload were unchanged. Ex vivo, D- and L-3-OHB dilated coronary arteries equally. The mitochondrial respiratory capacity remained unaffected. The myocardial 3-OHB extraction increased only during the D- and D/L-3-OHB infusions. D-[11C]3-OHB showed rapid cardiac uptake and metabolism, whereas L-[11C]3-OHB demonstrated much slower pharmacokinetics. CONCLUSIONS: 3-OHB increased CO by reducing afterload. L-3-OHB exerted a stronger hemodynamic response than D-3-OHB due to higher circulating 3-OHB levels. There was a dissocitation between the myocardial metabolism and hemodynamic effects of the enantiomers, highlighting L-3-OHB as a potent cardiovascular agent with strong hemodynamic effects.


Assuntos
Hidroxibutiratos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Humanos , Suínos , Animais , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/farmacologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Hidroxibutiratos/farmacologia , Coração , Corpos Cetônicos/metabolismo
2.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 8(5): 339-347, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The intra-abdominal injury and traumatic brain injury prediction rules derived by the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) were designed to reduce inappropriate use of CT in children with abdominal and head trauma, respectively. We aimed to validate these prediction rules for children presenting to emergency departments with blunt abdominal or minor head trauma. METHODS: For this prospective validation study, we enrolled children and adolescents younger than 18 years presenting to six emergency departments in Sacramento (CA), Dallas (TX), Houston (TX), San Diego (CA), Los Angeles (CA), and Oakland (CA), USA between Dec 27, 2016, and Sept 1, 2021. We excluded patients who were pregnant or had pre-existing neurological disorders preventing examination, penetrating trauma, injuries more than 24 h before arrival, CT or MRI before transfer, or high suspicion of non-accidental trauma. Children presenting with blunt abdominal trauma were enrolled into an abdominal trauma cohort, and children with minor head trauma were enrolled into one of two age-segregated minor head trauma cohorts (younger than 2 years vs aged 2 years and older). Enrolled children were clinically examined in the emergency department, and CT scans were obtained at the attending clinician's discretion. All enrolled children were evaluated against the variables of the pertinent PECARN prediction rule before CT results were seen. The primary outcome of interest in the abdominal trauma cohort was intra-abdominal injury undergoing acute intervention (therapeutic laparotomy, angiographic embolisation, blood transfusion, intravenous fluid for ≥2 days for pancreatic or gastrointestinal injuries, or death from intra-abdominal injury). In the age-segregated minor head trauma cohorts, the primary outcome of interest was clinically important traumatic brain injury (neurosurgery, intubation for >24 h for traumatic brain injury, or hospital admission ≥2 nights for ongoing symptoms and CT-confirmed traumatic brain injury; or death from traumatic brain injury). FINDINGS: 7542 children with blunt abdominal trauma and 19 999 children with minor head trauma were enrolled. The intra-abdominal injury rule had a sensitivity of 100·0% (95% CI 98·0-100·0; correct test for 145 of 145 patients with intra-abdominal injury undergoing acute intervention) and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 100·0% (95% CI 99·9-100·0; correct test for 3488 of 3488 patients without intra-abdominal injuries undergoing acute intervention). The traumatic brain injury rule for children younger than 2 years had a sensitivity of 100·0% (93·1-100·0; 42 of 42) for clinically important traumatic brain injuries and an NPV of 100·0%; 99·9-100·0; 2940 of 2940), whereas the traumatic brain injury rule for children aged 2 years and older had a sensitivity of 98·8% (95·8-99·9; 168 of 170) and an NPV of 100·0% (99·9-100·0; 6015 of 6017). The two children who were misclassified by the traumatic brain injury rule were admitted to hospital for observation but did not need neurosurgery. INTERPRETATION: The PECARN intra-abdominal injury and traumatic brain injury rules were validated with a high degree of accuracy. Their implementation in paediatric emergency departments can therefore be considered a safe strategy to minimise inappropriate CT use in children needing high-quality care for abdominal or head trauma. FUNDING: The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Traumatismos Abdominais/diagnóstico por imagem , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Med Eng Phys ; 126: 104138, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621836

RESUMO

Lung cancer is one of the most deadly diseases in the world. Lung cancer detection can save the patient's life. Despite being the best imaging tool in the medical sector, clinicians find it challenging to interpret and detect cancer from Computed Tomography (CT) scan data. One of the most effective ways for the diagnosis of certain malignancies like lung tumours is Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging. So many diagnosis models have been implemented nowadays to diagnose various diseases. Early lung cancer identification is very important for predicting the severity level of lung cancer in cancer patients. To explore the effective model, an image fusion-based detection model is proposed for lung cancer detection using an improved heuristic algorithm of the deep learning model. Firstly, the PET and CT images are gathered from the internet. Further, these two collected images are fused for further process by using the Adaptive Dilated Convolution Neural Network (AD-CNN), in which the hyperparameters are tuned by the Modified Initial Velocity-based Capuchin Search Algorithm (MIV-CapSA). Subsequently, the abnormal regions are segmented by influencing the TransUnet3+. Finally, the segmented images are fed into the Hybrid Attention-based Deep Networks (HADN) model, encompassed with Mobilenet and Shufflenet. Therefore, the effectiveness of the novel detection model is analyzed using various metrics compared with traditional approaches. At last, the outcome evinces that it aids in early basic detection to treat the patients effectively.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Heurística , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Algoritmos
4.
Med Eng Phys ; 126: 104148, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621848

RESUMO

Currently, slow-release gel therapy is considered to be an effective treatment for fundus macular disease, but the lack of effective evaluation methods limits its clinical application. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the application and clinical effect of slow-release gel based on CT image examination in the treatment of diabetic fundus macular disease. CT images of fundus macular lesions were collected in a group of diabetic patients. Then the professional image processing software is used to process and analyze the image and extract the key parameters. A slow-release gel was designed and prepared, and applied to the treatment of diabetic fundus macular disease. CT images before and after treatment were compared and analyzed, and the effect of slow-release gel was evaluated. In a certain period of time after treatment, the lesion size and lesion degree of diabetic fundus macular disease were significantly improved by using slow-release gel therapy with CT image examination. No significant adverse reactions or complications were observed during the treatment. This indicates that the slow-release gel based on CT image examination is a safe, effective and feasible treatment method for diabetic fundus macular disease. This method can help improve the vision and quality of life of patients, and provide a new idea and plan for clinical treatment.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Retinopatia Diabética , Humanos , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Qualidade de Vida , Fundo de Olho , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico por imagem , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Retinopatia Diabética/complicações , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
5.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622020

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the clinical features and CT diagnostic characteristics of Branchio-Oto-Renal or Branchio-Oto Syndrome. Methods: The temporal CT findings and clinical features observations of 13 patients with Branchio-Oto-Renal Syndrome (BORS) or Branchio-Oto Syndrome(BOS) confirmed by genetic testing were retrospectively analyzed. There were 8 males and 5 females, aged from 1 to 39 years, with a median age of 9 years, in which 3 pairs (6 cases) were parent-child relationship. Results: All of 13 cases had hearing loss and preauricular fistula, 11 cases accompanied by 2nd branchial fistulas. There were 20 ears of mixed hearing loss, 3 ears of sensorineural hearing loss, and 2 ears of conductive hearing loss. The mutation point of gene testing was located in EYA1 in 12 cases and SIX1 in 1 case. Twenty ears showed gradually narrowing of the diameter of basal turn, with hypoplasia in the second turn and aplasia in apical turn. There were irregular wall of vestibule and horizontal semicircular canal in 10 ears,widened vestibular in 7 ears, and vestibular fusion with horizontal semicircular canal in 3 ears. Three ears had an enlarged vestibular aqueduct, 8 ears showed enlargement of internal auditory canal. Seventeen ears had adhesion of malleolus to tympanic cavity. Six ears could not measured the incudostapedial joint angle by reason of tympanic inflammatory cover, 3 ears could not show incudostapedial joint, and 8 ears showed the incudostapedial joint angle more than 122°. Six ears showed poor oval window, and 1 ear had poor round window. Eighteen ears showed distended eustachian tube, and accompanied by tympanic or mastoiditis in 11 ears. Anterolateral shift of tympanum was found in 22 ears, 17 ears had low middle cranial fossa, and 3 ears had stenotic external auditory canal. Conclusions: Cochlear dysplasia, ossicular chain malformation and distended eustachian tube comprise the characteristic CT signs of BOS/BORS, which possesses versatile and complex CT findings. Temporal CT can accurately assess the important structures such as cochlea, ossicles, vestibule, semicircular canal, vestibular aqueduct and internal auditory canal. Combing with the clinical characteristics of bilateral, mixed hearing loss, preauricular fistula and branchial fistula can provide valuable information for early diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Síndrome Brânquio-Otorrenal , Fístula , Perda Auditiva Condutiva-Neurossensorial Mista , Vestíbulo do Labirinto , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome Brânquio-Otorrenal/genética , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Proteínas de Homeodomínio
6.
BMC Nephrol ; 25(1): 135, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renal artery variations are clinically significant due to their implications for surgical procedures and renal function. However, data on these variations in Sudanese populations are limited. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of renal artery variations in a Sudanese population. METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted in Khartoum state from October 2017 to October 2020. A total of 400 Sudanese participants who underwent abdominal CT scans were included. Data on demographic characteristics, kidney measurements, and renal vasculature were collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential tests. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 46.7 ± 18 years, with a nearly equal gender distribution. Overall, renal artery variations were present in 11% of participants, with accessory renal arteries observed in 6% of the study population. Among those with accessory vessels, 50% were on the right side, 29.2% on the left, and 20.8% bilateral, distributed across hilar 29.2%, lower polar 29.2%, and upper polar 41.7% regions. No significant associations were found between accessory renal arteries and age or gender (p-value > 0.05). However, participants with accessory renal arteries exhibited significantly narrower width 5.0 ± 1.4 than those with no with accessory renal arteries 5.8 ± 1.1 (p-value 0.002) Early dividing renal arteries were found in 5% of participants, with nearly half being bilateral. No significant associations were found between the presence of early dividing renal arteries and demographic or renal measurements (p-value > 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study provides valuable insights into the prevalence and characteristics of renal artery variations in a Sudanese population. The findings contribute to our understanding of renal anatomy in this demographic and can inform clinical practice and surgical planning, particularly in renal transplantation and other renal procedures.


Assuntos
Artéria Renal , Doenças Vasculares , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Renal/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Renal/cirurgia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rim/irrigação sanguínea , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
7.
Otolaryngol Pol ; 78(2): 35-43, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38623860

RESUMO

<b><br>Introduction:</b> Congenital inner ear malformations resulting from embryogenesis may be visualized in radiological scans. Many attempts have been made to describe and classify the defects of the inner ear based on anatomical and radiological findings.</br> <b><br>Aim:</b> The aim was to propose and discuss computed tomography multi-planar and 3D image assessment protocols for detailed analysis of inner ear malformations in patients undergoing cochlear implantation counseling.</br> <b><br>Material and methods:</b> A retrospective analysis of 22 malformed inner ears. CT scans were analyzed using the Multi-Planar Reconstruction (MPR) option and 3D reconstruction.</br> <b><br>Results:</b> The protocol of image interpretation was developed to allow reproducibility for evaluating each set of images. The following malformations were identified: common cavity, cochlear hypoplasia type II, III, and IV, incomplete partition type II and III, and various combinations of vestibule labyrinth malformations. All anomalies have been presented and highlighted in figures with appropriate descriptions for easier identification. Figures of normal inner ears were also included for comparison. 3D reconstructions for each malformation were presented, adding clinical value to the detailed analysis.</br> <b><br>Conclusions:</b> Properly analyzing CT scans in cochlear implantation counseling is a necessary and beneficial tool for appropriate candidate selection and preparation for surgery. As proposed in this study, the unified scans evaluation scheme simplifies the identification of malformations and reduces the risk of omitting particular anomalies. Multi-planar assessment of scans provides most of the necessary details. The 3D reconstruction technique is valuable in addition to diagnostics influencing the decision-making process. It can minimize the risk of misdiagnosis. Disclosure of the inner ear defect and its precise imaging provides detailed anatomical knowledge of each ear, enabling the selection of the appropriate cochlear implant electrode and the optimal surgical technique.</br>.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear , Implantes Cocleares , Vestíbulo do Labirinto , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Aconselhamento
8.
Pediatr Transplant ; 28(3): e14749, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38623878

RESUMO

AIM: Acquired post-transplant diaphragmatic hernia (PTDH) is a rare complication of liver transplantation (LT) in children. We aimed to present our experience in PTDH, and a possible causative background is discussed. METHODS: Medical records of patients who had undergone diaphragmatic repair following LT between 2015 and 2023 were reviewed. Demographic information, details of primary diseases necessitating LT, transplantation techniques, and clinical findings associated with PTDH were evaluated. RESULTS: There were seven patients with PTDH. Median age at transplantation was 69 (range: 9-200) months. Five patients received a left lateral sector, one patient had a right lobe, and one had a left lobe graft. Time between LT and PTDH was 9 (2-123) months. One patient who was diagnosed in the postoperative 10th year was asymptomatic. Respiratory distress and abdominal pain were the main symptoms among all. All patients underwent laparotomy, and primary repair was performed in six patients, and one patient required mesh repair because of a large defect. Small intestine herniated in most cases. There were two complicated cases with perforation of the stomach and colonic volvulus. There is no recurrence or long-term complications for the median 60 (20-119) month follow-up period. CONCLUSION: PTDH is a rare but serious complication. Majority of symptomatic cases present within the first postoperative year, whereas some late-presenting cases may not be symptomatic. Inadvertent injury to the inferior phrenic vasculatures due to excessive use of cauterization for control of hemostasis may be a plausible explanation in those cases.


Assuntos
Hérnia Diafragmática , Volvo Intestinal , Transplante de Fígado , Humanos , Criança , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Hérnia Diafragmática/cirurgia , Hérnia Diafragmática/complicações , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/efeitos adversos , Dor Abdominal/complicações
9.
Physiol Meas ; 45(4)2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38624240

RESUMO

Objective.Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a noninvasive imaging method whereby electrical measurements on the periphery of a heterogeneous conductor are inverted to map its internal conductivity. The EIT method proposed here aims to improve computational speed and noise tolerance by introducing sensitivity volume as a figure-of-merit for comparing EIT measurement protocols.Approach.Each measurement is shown to correspond to a sensitivity vector in model space, such that the set of measurements, in turn, corresponds to a set of vectors that subtend a sensitivity volume in model space. A maximal sensitivity volume identifies the measurement protocol with the greatest sensitivity and greatest mutual orthogonality. A distinguishability criterion is generalized to quantify the increased noise tolerance of high sensitivity measurements.Main result.The sensitivity volume method allows the model space dimension to be minimized to match that of the data space, and the data importance to be increased within an expanded space of measurements defined by an increased number of contacts.Significance.The reduction in model space dimension is shown to increasecomputational efficiency, accelerating tomographic inversion by several orders of magnitude, while the enhanced sensitivitytolerates higher noiselevels up to several orders of magnitude larger than standard methods.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Impedância Elétrica , Tomografia/métodos , Condutividade Elétrica
10.
Radiology ; 311(1): e231793, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625008

RESUMO

Background Currently, no tool exists for risk stratification in patients undergoing segmentectomy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Purpose To develop and validate a deep learning (DL) prognostic model using preoperative CT scans and clinical and radiologic information for risk stratification in patients with clinical stage IA NSCLC undergoing segmentectomy. Materials and Methods In this single-center retrospective study, transfer learning of a pretrained model was performed for survival prediction in patients with clinical stage IA NSCLC who underwent lobectomy from January 2008 to March 2017. The internal set was divided into training, validation, and testing sets based on the assignments from the pretraining set. The model was tested on an independent test set of patients with clinical stage IA NSCLC who underwent segmentectomy from January 2010 to December 2017. Its prognostic performance was analyzed using the time-dependent area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity for freedom from recurrence (FFR) at 2 and 4 years and lung cancer-specific survival and overall survival at 4 and 6 years. The model sensitivity and specificity were compared with those of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG) eligibility criteria for sublobar resection. Results The pretraining set included 1756 patients. Transfer learning was performed in an internal set of 730 patients (median age, 63 years [IQR, 56-70 years]; 366 male), and the segmentectomy test set included 222 patients (median age, 65 years [IQR, 58-71 years]; 114 male). The model performance for 2-year FFR was as follows: AUC, 0.86 (95% CI: 0.76, 0.96); sensitivity, 87.4% (7.17 of 8.21 patients; 95% CI: 59.4, 100); and specificity, 66.7% (136 of 204 patients; 95% CI: 60.2, 72.8). The model showed higher sensitivity for FFR than the JCOG criteria (87.4% vs 37.6% [3.08 of 8.21 patients], P = .02), with similar specificity. Conclusion The CT-based DL model identified patients at high risk among those with clinical stage IA NSCLC who underwent segmentectomy, outperforming the JCOG criteria. © RSNA, 2024 Supplemental material is available for this article.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Pneumonectomia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
11.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 11(1)2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnosing mediastinal tumours, including incidental lesions, using low-dose CT (LDCT) performed for lung cancer screening, is challenging. It often requires additional invasive and costly tests for proper characterisation and surgical planning. This indicates the need for a more efficient and patient-centred approach, suggesting a gap in the existing diagnostic methods and the potential for artificial intelligence technologies to address this gap. This study aimed to create a multimodal hybrid transformer model using the Vision Transformer that leverages LDCT features and clinical data to improve surgical decision-making for patients with incidentally detected mediastinal tumours. METHODS: This retrospective study analysed patients with mediastinal tumours between 2010 and 2021. Patients eligible for surgery (n=30) were considered 'positive,' whereas those without tumour enlargement (n=32) were considered 'negative.' We developed a hybrid model combining a convolutional neural network with a transformer to integrate imaging and clinical data. The dataset was split in a 5:3:2 ratio for training, validation and testing. The model's efficacy was evaluated using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis across 25 iterations of random assignments and compared against conventional radiomics models and models excluding clinical data. RESULTS: The multimodal hybrid model demonstrated a mean area under the curve (AUC) of 0.90, significantly outperforming the non-clinical data model (AUC=0.86, p=0.04) and radiomics models (random forest AUC=0.81, p=0.008; logistic regression AUC=0.77, p=0.004). CONCLUSION: Integrating clinical and LDCT data using a hybrid transformer model can improve surgical decision-making for mediastinal tumours, showing superiority over models lacking clinical data integration.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Neoplasias do Mediastino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Inteligência Artificial , Neoplasias do Mediastino/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8744, 2024 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627515

RESUMO

Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) poses a challenging form of osteomyelitis in patients undergoing antiresorptive therapies in contrast to conventional osteomyelitis. This study aimed to compare the clinical and radiological features of MRONJ between patients receiving low-dose medications for osteoporosis and those receiving high-dose medications for oncologic purposes. The clinical, panoramic radiographic, and computed tomography data of 159 patients with MRONJ (osteoporotic group, n = 120; oncologic group, n = 39) who developed the condition after using antiresorptive medications for the management of osteoporosis or bone malignancy were analyzed. The osteoporotic group was older (75.8 vs. 60.4 years, p < 0.01) and had a longer duration of medication usage than the oncologic group (58.1 vs. 28.0 months, p < 0.01). Pus discharge and swelling were more common in the osteoporotic group (p < 0.05), whereas bone exposure was more frequent in the oncologic group (p < 0.01). The mandibular cortical index (MCI) in panoramic radiographs was higher in the osteoporotic group (p < 0.01). The mean sequestra size was larger in the oncologic group than in the osteoporotic group (15.3 vs. 10.6 mm, p < 0.05). The cured rate was significantly higher in the osteoporotic group (66.3% vs. 33.3%, p < 0.01). Oncologic MRONJ exhibited distinct clinical findings including rapid disease onset, fewer purulent signs, and lower cure rates than osteoporotic MRONJ. Radiological features such as sequestrum size on CT scan, and MCI values on panoramic radiographs, may aid in differentiating MRONJ in osteoporotic and oncologic patients.


Assuntos
Osteonecrose da Arcada Osseodentária Associada a Difosfonatos , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea , Osteomielite , Osteoporose , Humanos , Osteonecrose da Arcada Osseodentária Associada a Difosfonatos/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteonecrose da Arcada Osseodentária Associada a Difosfonatos/etiologia , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/efeitos adversos , Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose/induzido quimicamente , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Difosfonatos/efeitos adversos
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8741, 2024 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627583

RESUMO

Pulmonary embolism is a potentially fatal condition with increased mortality if anticoagulation is delayed. This study aimed to find influencing factors on the duration from requesting a computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiography (CTPA) to performing a CTPA in suspected acute pulmonary embolism. In 1849 cases, automatically generated time data were extracted from the radiological information system. The impact of the distance to the scanner, case-related features (sector of patient care, triage), and workload (demand for CTs, performed CTs, available staff, hospital occupancy) were investigated retrospectively using multiple regression. The time to CTPA was shorter in cases from the emergency room (ER) than in inpatients and outpatients at distances below 160 m and 240 m, respectively. While requests from the ER were also performed faster than cases from regular wards (< 180 m), no difference was found between the ER and intensive care units. Compared to "not urgent" cases, the workflow was shorter in "urgent" (- 17%) and "life-threatening" (- 67%) situations. The process was prolonged with increasing demand (+ 5%/10 CTs). The presented analysis identified relevant in-hospital influences on the CTPA workflow, including the distance to the CT together with the sector of patient care, the case triage, and the demand for imaging.


Assuntos
Embolia Pulmonar , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia/métodos
14.
Crit Care ; 28(1): 124, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627745

RESUMO

Extracorporeal Carbon Dioxide Removal (ECCO2R) is used in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients to facilitate lung-protective ventilatory strategies. Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) allows individual, non-invasive, real-time, bedside, radiation-free imaging of the lungs, providing global and regional dynamic lung analyses. To provide new insights for future ECCO2R research in ARDS, we propose a potential application of EIT to personalize End-Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) following each reduction in tidal volume (VT), as demonstrated in an illustrative case. A 72-year-old male with COVID-19 was admitted to the ICU for moderate ARDS. Monitoring with EIT was started to determine the optimal PEEP value (PEEPEIT), defined as the intersection of the collapse and overdistention curves, after each reduction in VT during ECCO2R. The identified PEEPEIT values were notably low (< 10 cmH2O). The decrease in VT associated with PEEPEIT levels resulted in improved lung compliance, reduced driving pressure and a more uniform ventilation pattern. Despite current Randomized Controlled Trials showing that ultra-protective ventilation with ECCO2R does not improve survival, the applicability of universal ultra-protective ventilation settings for all patients remains a subject of debate. Inappropriately set PEEP levels can lead to alveolar collapse or overdistension, potentially negating the benefits of VT reduction. EIT facilitates real-time monitoring of derecruitment associated with VT reduction, guiding physicians in determining the optimal PEEP value after each decrease in tidal volume. This original description of using EIT under ECCO2R to adjust PEEP at a level compromising between recruitability and overdistention could be a crucial element for future research on ECCO2R.


Assuntos
Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Masculino , Humanos , Idoso , Impedância Elétrica , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Pulmão , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar , Tomografia/métodos
15.
Cancer Rep (Hoboken) ; 7(4): e2063, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psammomatoid ossifying fibroma (POF) is a rare craniofacial neoplasm, primarily affecting the maxillofacial region, and typically observed in adolescents and young adults. This case report presents a unique occurrence of POF in a 50-year-old male, defying the conventional age range and exhibiting an unusual anatomical location within the frontal sinus. CASE: A 50-year-old male with a prior history of cecal adenocarcinoma and colectomy presented with left eye proptosis and new-onset headaches. Imaging revealed a well-defined calcified mass in the left frontal sinus, leading to a diagnosis of POF. Open surgical resection was performed to remove the tumor, and histopathological evaluation confirmed its diagnosis as psammomatoid ossifying fibroma. The patient exhibited no postoperative complications or signs of recurrence. CONCLUSION: This case underscores the diverse clinical presentations and diagnostic challenges associated with POF, emphasizing the importance of accurate diagnosis and multidisciplinary collaboration. Further research is needed to explore the genetic underpinnings and optimal management strategies for this intriguing condition.


Assuntos
Fibroma Ossificante , Seio Frontal , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles , Masculino , Adolescente , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fibroma Ossificante/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibroma Ossificante/cirurgia , Seio Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Seio Frontal/cirurgia , Seio Frontal/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia
16.
Medwave ; 24(3): e2792, 2024 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38588532

RESUMO

Introduction: Osteochondroplastic tracheobronchopathy is a rare benign chronic disease of unknown etiology. Bronchoscopy remains the gold standard for diagnosing osteochondroplastic tracheobronchopathy. Its typical findings are described as a cobblestone, rock garden, mountainscape, or stalactite cave appearance. The present work aims to show the main clinical features of this rare pathology. Clinical cases: The clinical data of four middle-aged patients, three men and one woman, were analyzed. The main clinical symptoms were chronic cough, dyspnea, and dysphonia. The patient's preliminary diagnosis was made by computed axial tomography of the chest, confirmed by bronchoscopy and histopathological examination. Treatment included medication for symptoms and, in one case, cryosurgery and argon plasma coagulation. Discussion: Diagnosing osteochondroplastic tracheobronchopathy was not easy, given its uncommon nature and non-specific symptoms often found in other pathologies. No case series articles on this pathology have been published in Peru. Therefore, we used the original articles published in other countries to reference our findings. Conclusion: Osteochondroplastic tracheopathy is a benign disease that typically affects adults. Men are more likely to be affected. Its clinical manifestations are non-specific and frequently of pharyngeal origin, and the cause is not yet defined. Chest computed axial tomography combined with bronchoscopy are the main diagnostic procedures. There is no standard treatment with consistent therapeutic effects.


Introducción: La traqueobroncopatía osteocondroplástica es una rara enfermedad crónica benigna de etiología desconocida. La broncoscopía sigue siendo el estándar de oro para el reconocimiento de traqueopatía osteocondroplástica. Sus hallazgos típicos se describen como un empedrado, un jardín de rocas, una apariencia de paisaje montañoso o de una cueva con estalactitas. El objetivo del presente trabajo es mostrar las principales características clínicas de una patología poco conocida. Casos clínicos: Se analizaron los datos clínicos de cuatro pacientes de mediana edad, tres fueron hombres y una mujer. Los principales síntomas clínicos fueron tos crónica, disnea, disfonía. Los pacientes tuvieron un diagnóstico preliminar mediante tomografía axial computarizada de tórax, confirmado por examen video broncoscópico e histopatológico. El tratamiento incluyó medicamentos para los síntomas y en un solo caso criocirugía y coagulación con argón plasma. Discusión: El diagnóstico de traqueobroncopatía osteocondroplástica no fue sencillo por ser una entidad rara, cuyos síntomas son inespecíficos y muy frecuentes en otras patologías. En Perú no se han publicado artículos de serie de casos sobre esta patología. Por lo tanto, tomamos como referencia artículos originales publicados en otros países para compararlos con nuestros hallazgos. Conclusión: La traqueopatía osteocondroplástica es una enfermedad benigna que predispone a los adultos, los hombres tienen más probabilidades de verse afectados. Sus manifestaciones clínicas son inespecíficas; frecuentemente de origen faríngeo y la causa no está aún definida. La tomografía axial computarizada de tórax combinada con video broncoscopía son los principales procedimientos para el diagnóstico. No existe un estándar de tratamiento con efectos terapéuticos consistentes.


Assuntos
Broncopatias , Osteocondrodisplasias , Doenças da Traqueia , Adulto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Humanos , Broncopatias/diagnóstico , Broncopatias/patologia , Doenças da Traqueia/diagnóstico , Doenças da Traqueia/terapia , Doenças da Traqueia/patologia , Osteocondrodisplasias/diagnóstico , Osteocondrodisplasias/patologia , Broncoscopia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8718, 2024 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622275

RESUMO

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is characterized by progressive and irreversible airflow limitation, with individual body composition influencing disease severity. Severe emphysema worsens symptoms through hyperinflation, which can be relieved by bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR). To investigate how body composition, assessed through CT scans, impacts outcomes in emphysema patients undergoing BLVR. Fully automated CT-based body composition analysis (BCA) was performed in patients with end-stage emphysema receiving BLVR with valves. Post-interventional muscle and adipose tissues were quantified, body size-adjusted, and compared to baseline parameters. Between January 2015 and December 2022, 300 patients with severe emphysema underwent endobronchial valve treatment. Significant improvements were seen in outcome parameters, which were defined as changes in pulmonary function, physical performance, and quality of life (QoL) post-treatment. Muscle volume remained stable (1.632 vs. 1.635 for muscle bone adjusted ratio (BAR) at baseline and after 6 months respectively), while bone adjusted adipose tissue volumes, especially total and pericardial adipose tissue, showed significant increase (2.86 vs. 3.00 and 0.16 vs. 0.17, respectively). Moderate to strong correlations between bone adjusted muscle volume and weaker correlations between adipose tissue volumes and outcome parameters (pulmonary function, QoL and physical performance) were observed. Particularly after 6-month, bone adjusted muscle volume changes positively corresponded to improved outcomes (ΔForced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1], r = 0.440; ΔInspiratory vital capacity [IVC], r = 0.397; Δ6Minute walking distance [6MWD], r = 0.509 and ΔCOPD assessment test [CAT], r = -0.324; all p < 0.001). Group stratification by bone adjusted muscle volume changes revealed that groups with substantial muscle gain experienced a greater clinical benefit in pulmonary function improvements, QoL and physical performance (ΔFEV1%, 5.5 vs. 39.5; ΔIVC%, 4.3 vs. 28.4; Δ6MWDm, 14 vs. 110; ΔCATpts, -2 vs. -3.5 for groups with ΔMuscle, BAR% < -10 vs. > 10, respectively). BCA results among patients divided by the minimal clinically important difference for forced expiratory volume of the first second (FEV1) showed significant differences in bone-adjusted muscle and intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) volumes and their respective changes after 6 months (ΔMuscle, BAR% -5 vs. 3.4 and ΔIMAT, BAR% -0.62 vs. 0.60 for groups with ΔFEV1 ≤ 100 mL vs > 100 mL). Altered body composition, especially increased muscle volume, is associated with functional improvements in BLVR-treated patients.


Assuntos
Enfisema , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Enfisema Pulmonar , Humanos , Pneumonectomia/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Broncoscopia/métodos , Enfisema Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Enfisema Pulmonar/cirurgia , Enfisema Pulmonar/etiologia , Enfisema/etiologia , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Composição Corporal , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
BMC Cancer ; 24(1): 434, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung adenocarcinoma, a leading cause of cancer-related mortality, demands precise prognostic indicators for effective management. The presence of spread through air space (STAS) indicates adverse tumor behavior. However, comparative differences between 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography(PET)/computed tomography(CT) and CT in predicting STAS in lung adenocarcinoma remain inadequately explored. This retrospective study analyzes preoperative CT and 18F-FDG PET/CT features to predict STAS, aiming to identify key predictive factors and enhance clinical decision-making. METHODS: Between February 2022 and April 2023, 100 patients (108 lesions) who underwent surgery for clinical lung adenocarcinoma were enrolled. All these patients underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT, thin-section chest CT scan, and pathological biopsy. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze CT and 18F-FDG PET/CT image characteristics. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to identify a cut-off value. RESULTS: Sixty lesions were positive for STAS, and 48 lesions were negative for STAS. The STAS-positive was frequently observed in acinar predominant. However, STAS-negative was frequently observed in minimally invasive adenocarcinoma. Univariable analysis results revealed that CT features (including nodule type, maximum tumor diameter, maximum solid component diameter, consolidation tumor ratio, pleural indentation, lobulation, spiculation) and all 18F-FDG PET/CT characteristics were statistically significant difference in STAS-positive and STAS-negative lesions. And multivariate logistic regression results showed that the maximum tumor diameter and SUVmax were the independent influencing factors of CT and 18F-FDG PET/CT in STAS, respectively. The area under the curve of maximum tumor diameter and SUVmax was 0.68 vs. 0.82. The cut-off value for maximum tumor diameter and SUVmax was 2.35 vs. 5.05 with a sensitivity of 50.0% vs. 68.3% and specificity of 81.2% vs. 87.5%, which showed that SUVmax was superior to the maximum tumor diameter. CONCLUSION: The radiological features of SUVmax is the best model for predicting STAS in lung adenocarcinoma. These radiological features could predict STAS with excellent specificity but inferior sensitivity.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/cirurgia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
19.
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi ; 27(3): 179-186, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Computed tomography guided percutaneous lung biopsy (CT-PLB) is a widely used method for the diagnosis of lung lesions. However, it is invasive, and the most common complications are pneumothorax and pulmonary hemorrhage, which can be life-threatening in severe cases. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the independent risk factors affecting the occurrence of different complications of CT-PLB, so as to reduce the incidence of complications. METHODS: The 605 patients with complete clinical data who underwent CT-PLB in our hospital from May 2018 to December 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. According to the location of the lesions, they were divided into subpleural group and non-subpleural group. The patients were divided into pneumothorax group, pulmonary hemorrhage group, pneumothorax with pulmonary hemorrhage group and non-pneumothorax/pulmonary hemorrhage group according to the complications. The risk factors affecting the incidence of different complications and the independent risk factors of each complication were analyzed. RESULTS: The incidence of pneumothorax was 34.1%, the incidence of pulmonary hemorrhage was 28.1%, and the incidence of pneumothorax complicated with pulmonary hemorrhage was 10.8% (63 cases). The independent risk factor affecting the incidence of subpleural pneumothorax was lesion size (P=0.002). The independent risk factors affecting the occurrence of pneumothorax in the non-subpleural group were plain scan CT value (P=0.035), length of needle through lung tissue (P=0.003), and thickness of needle through chest wall (P=0.020). Independent risk factors affecting the occurrence of pulmonary hemorrhage in the non-subpleural group were length of needle through lung tissue (P<0.001), △CT value of needle travel area (P=0.001), lesion size (P=0.034) and body position (P=0.014). The independent risk factors affecting the co-occurrence of pneumothorax and pulmonary hemorrhage were the length of needle through lung tissue (P<0.001) and the △CT value of needle travel area (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: CT-PLB is a safe and effective diagnostic method, which of high diagnostic value for lung lesions. Selecting the appropriate puncture program can reduce complications such as pneumothorax and pulmonary hemorrhage, and improve diagnosis and treatment efficiency.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Pneumotórax , Parede Torácica , Humanos , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Pneumotórax/terapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Wiad Lek ; 77(2): 353-357, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593001

RESUMO

The article focuses on the instrumental imaging methods which greatly enhance the possibilities when arriving at correct and quick diagnosis of acute surgical pathology. Analysis of clinical and anamnestic data of the disease course and the results of instrumental research methods made it possible to arrive at clear clinical diagnosis, determine the indications for surgical treatment in this specific clinical case. The use of modern visualization methods while examining the patients prevents errors in diagnosis and helps to determine the optimal treatment tactics.


Assuntos
Hérnia Diafragmática Traumática , Humanos , Hérnia Diafragmática Traumática/diagnóstico por imagem , Hérnia Diafragmática Traumática/etiologia , Hérnia Diafragmática Traumática/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
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