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1.
Gene ; 809: 146031, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678428

RESUMO

Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) are major transport proteins localized in the outer membrane of mitochondria and play critical roles in regulating plant growth and responding to stress. In this study, a total of 26 VDAC genes in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were identified. TaVDACs that contained ß-barrel structures were classified into three groups with phylogenetic and sequence alignment. Additionally, the gene structure and protein conserved motif composition varied among diverse subfamilies but were relatively conserved within the same subfamily. The basic elements that were stress- and hormone-related, including TATA-box, CAAT-box, MBS, LTR, TC-rich repeats, ABRE, P-box and TATC-box, were predicted within the promoter region of TaVDAC genes. TaVDAC expression patterns differed among tissues, organs and abiotic stress conditions. Overexpression (OE) of TaVDAC1-B conferred high tolerance to salinity and less resistance to drought stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. TaVDAC1-B interacted with Nucleoredoxin-D1 (TaNRX-D1) protein. Furthermore, compared with WT lines, salinity stress further upregulated the level of AtNRX1 (homologous gene of TaNRX-D1 in Arabidopsis) expression and the activity of superoxide dismutase in TaVDAC1-B OE lines, which led to a decrease in superoxide radical accumulation; drought stress further downregulated AtNRX1 expression and superoxide dismutase activity in TaVDAC1-B OE lines, resulting in the accumulation of superoxide radicals. Our study not only presents comprehensive information for understanding the VDAC gene family in wheat but also proposes a potential mechanism in response to drought and salinity stress.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Triticum/genética , Canais de Ânion Dependentes de Voltagem/genética , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Família Multigênica , Oxirredutases/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Salinidade , Triticum/fisiologia , Canais de Ânion Dependentes de Voltagem/química , Canais de Ânion Dependentes de Voltagem/metabolismo
2.
Biomolecules ; 11(12)2021 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944541

RESUMO

Heading time is an important agronomic trait affecting the adaptability and productivity of common wheat. In this study, 95 common wheat varieties from Russia and the late-maturing breeding line 'Velut' were tested for allelic diversity of genes having the strongest effect on heading. In this research, allelic variation at the Ppd-D1, Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, Vrn-D1, and Vrn-B3 loci was tested. The Vrn-B1 and Vrn-B3 loci provided the largest contribution to genetic diversity. We found two novel allelic variants of the Vrn-B3 gene in the studied varieties. Ten varieties carried a 160 bp insertion in the promoter region, and the breeding line 'Velut' carried a 1617 bp insertion. These alleles were designated Vrn-B3e and Vrn-B3d, respectively. The analysis of the sequences showed the recent insertion of a retrotransposon homologous to the LTR retrotransposon (RLX_Hvul_Dacia_ RND-1) in the Vrn-B3d allele. Plants with the Vrn-B3e and the 'Velut' line with the Vrn-B3d allele headed later than the plants with the wild-type allele; among these plants, 'Velut' is the latest maturing wheat variety. Analysis of the gene expression of two groups of lines differing by the Vrn-B3 alleles (Vrn-B3d or vrn-B3) from the F2 population with 'Velut' as a parental line did not reveal a significant difference in the expression level between the groups. Additional research is required to study the reasons for the late maturation of the 'Velut' line. However, the studied wheat varieties could be used as a potential source of natural variation in genes controlling heading times.


Assuntos
Mutagênese Insercional , Fotoperíodo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/fisiologia , Flores/genética , Flores/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Federação Russa , Estações do Ano , Triticum/genética
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948086

RESUMO

Drought is one of the most important threats to plants and agriculture; therefore, understanding of the mechanisms of drought tolerance is crucial for breeding of new tolerant varieties. Here, we assessed the effects of a long-term water deficit stress simulated on a precision phenotyping system on some morphological criteria and metabolite traits, as well as the expression of drought associated transcriptional factors of two contrasting drought-responsive African wheat cultivars, Condor and Wadielniel. The current study showed that under drought stress Wadielniel exhibits significant higher tillering and height compared to Condor. Further, we used gas chromatography and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry to identify compounds that change between the two cultivars upon drought. Partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) revealed that 50 metabolites with a possible role in drought stress regulation were significantly changed in both cultivars under water deficit stress. These metabolites included several amino acids, most notably proline, some organic acids, and lipid classes PC 36:3 and TAG 56:9, which were significantly altered under drought stress. Here, the results discussed in the context of understanding the mechanisms involved in the drought response of wheat cultivars, as the phenotype parameters, metabolite content and expression of drought associated transcriptional factors could also be used for potential crop improvement under drought stress.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Secas , Lipídeos , Estresse Fisiológico , Triticum/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Desidratação , Metabolômica , Triticum/química , Triticum/metabolismo
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 598, 2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34915841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phosphatidylinositol 4 phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) plays a key enzyme role in the inositol signal transduction system and has essential functions in plants in terms of growth, development, and stress responses. However, systematic studies on the wheat PIP5K gene family and its relation to male sterility have not been reported yet. RESULTS: Sixty-four TaPIP5K genes were identified. The TaPIP5K genes contained similar gene structures and conserved motifs on the same branches of the evolutionary tree, and their cis-regulatory elements were related to MeJA-responsiveness. Furthermore, 49 pairs of collinearity genes were identified and mainly subjected to purification selection during evolution. Synteny analyses showed that some PIP5K genes in wheat and the other four species shared a relatively conserved evolutionary process. The expression levels of many conservative TaPIP5K genes in HT-ms anthers were significantly lower than that in Normal anthers. In addition, HT-ms anthers have no dehiscence, and levels of OPDA and JA-ILE are significantly lower at the trinucleus stage. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the PIP5K gene family may be associated with male sterility induced by HT, and the reduction of JA-ILE levels and the abnormal levels of these genes expression may be one reason for the HT-ms anthers having no dehiscence, ultimately leading to the abortion of the anthers.


Assuntos
Flores/genética , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/genética , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Triticum/fisiologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Fertilidade , Flores/enzimologia , Flores/fisiologia , Duplicação Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Temperatura Alta , Família Multigênica , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/fisiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sintenia , Triticum/enzimologia , Triticum/genética
5.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0256984, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618822

RESUMO

Wheat is an important global staple food crop; however, its productivity is severely hampered by changing climate. Erratic rain patterns cause terminal drought stress, which affect reproductive development and crop yield. This study investigates the potential and zinc (Zn) and silicon (Si) to ameliorate terminal drought stress in wheat and associated mechanisms. Two different drought stress levels, i.e., control [80% water holding capacity (WHC) was maintained] and terminal drought stress (40% WHC maintained from BBCH growth stage 49 to 83) combined with five foliar-applied Zn-Si combinations (i.e., control, water spray, 4 mM Zn, 40 mM Si, 4 mM Zn + 40 mM Si applied 7 days after the initiation of drought stress). Results revealed that application of Zn and Si improved chlorophyll and relative water contents under well-watered conditions and terminal drought stress. Foliar application of Si and Zn had significant effect on antioxidant defense mechanism, proline and soluble protein, which showed that application of Si and Zn ameliorated the effects of terminal drought stress mainly by regulating antioxidant defense mechanism, and production of proline and soluble proteins. Combined application of Zn and Si resulted in the highest improvement in growth and antioxidant defense. The application of Zn and Si improved yield and related traits, both under well-watered conditions and terminal drought stress. The highest yield and related traits were recorded for combined application of Zn and Si. For grain and biological yield differences among sole and combined Zn-Si application were statistically non-significant (p>0.05). In conclusion, combined application of Zn-Si ameliorated the adverse effects of terminal drought stress by improving yield through regulating antioxidant mechanism and production of proline and soluble proteins. Results provide valuable insights for further cross talk between Zn-Si regulatory pathways to enhance grain biofortification.


Assuntos
Silício/metabolismo , Triticum/fisiologia , Zinco/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Secas , Silício/administração & dosagem , Estresse Fisiológico , Água/metabolismo , Zinco/administração & dosagem
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502055

RESUMO

Among the natural mechanisms used for wheat hybrid breeding, the most desirable is the system combining the cytoplasmic male sterility (cms) of the female parent with the fertility-restoring genes (Rf) of the male parent. The objective of this study was to identify Rf candidate genes in the wheat genome on the basis of transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) and paralog analysis data. Total RNA was isolated from the anthers of two fertility-restorer (Primépi and Patras) and two non-restorer (Astoria and Grana) varieties at the tetrad and late uninucleate microspore stages. Of 36,912 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 21 encoding domains in known fertility-restoring proteins were selected. To enrich the pool of Rf candidates, 52 paralogs (PAGs) of the 21 selected DEGs were included in the analyses. The expression profiles of most of the DEGs and PAGs determined bioinformatically were as expected (i.e., they were overexpressed in at least one fertility-restorer variety). However, these results were only partially consistent with the quantitative real-time PCR data. The DEG and PAG promoters included cis-regulatory elements common among PPR-encoding genes. On the basis of the obtained results, we designated seven genes as Rf candidate genes, six of which were identified for the first time in this study.


Assuntos
Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pólen/genética , Poliploidia , Transcriptoma , Triticum/fisiologia
7.
Plant Sci ; 311: 111022, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482905

RESUMO

Drought has negative effects on cereal production. Studies have shown that many basic leucine zipper transcription factors (bZIP TFs) help to cope with drought stress. In this study, bZIP TF wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) FD-Like2 (TaFDL2) was isolated and functionally analyzed. Three homologs of TaFDL2 were identified and their expression was induced by drought and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. TaFDL2-1A has transactivation activity and two activation domains, and the domain D region has different effects on the transcriptional activity of the two domains. Analysis of TaFDL2-1A overexpression plants indicated their enhanced drought tolerance and greater sensitivity to ABA. TabZIP8-7A was identified as a protein that interacts with TaFDL2-1A in the nucleus, and the overexpression of TabZIP8-7A conferred greater drought resistance and ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis. Surprisingly, TaFDL2-1A × TabZIP8-7A double overexpression lines exhibited the highest drought resistance. Genetic and transcriptional regulation analyses demonstrated that stress-response gene transcription was initiated by TaFDL2-1A or TabZIP8-7A via the ABA signaling pathway. Importantly, TaFDL2-1A and TabZIP8-7A synergistically promoted ABA-inducible gene expression in a more efficient manner to form the transcriptional activation complex. Our findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms that allow bZIP TFs to regulate ABA signaling in response to drought stress.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Triticum/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , China , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Triticum/fisiologia
8.
Plant Sci ; 311: 111015, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482918

RESUMO

In the current climate change scenario, understanding crops' physiological performance under water shortage is crucial to overcome drought periods. Although the implication of leaf water relations maintaining leaf turgor and stomatal functioning under water deprivation has been suggested, the relationships between photosynthesis and osmotic and elastic adjustments remain misunderstood. Similarly, only few studies in dicotyledonous analysed how changes in cell wall composition affected photosynthesis and leaf water relations under drought. To induce modifications in photosynthesis, leaf water relations and cell wall composition, Hordeum vulgare and Triticum aestivum were subjected to different water regimes: control (CL, full irrigation), moderate and severe water deficit stress (Mod WS and Sev WS, respectively). Water shortage decreased photosynthesis mainly due to stomatal conductance (gs) declines, being accompanied by reduced osmotic potential at full turgor (πo) and increased bulk modulus of elasticity (ε). Whereas both species enhanced pectins when intensifying water deprivation, species-dependent adjustments occurred for cellulose and hemicelluloses. From these results, we showed that πo and ε influenced photosynthesis, particularly, gs. Furthermore, the (Cellulose+Hemicelluloses)/Pectins ratio determined ε and mesophyll conductance (gm) in grasses, presenting the lowest pectins content within angiosperms. Thus, we highlight the relevance of cell wall composition regulating grasses physiology during drought acclimation.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/química , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Secas , Hordeum/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Triticum/fisiologia , Água/metabolismo , Mudança Climática , Produtos Agrícolas/fisiologia
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445448

RESUMO

Brassinosteroids (BRs) play crucial roles in various biological processes, including plant developmental processes and response to diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. However, no information is currently available about this gene family in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In the present investigation, we identified the BZR gene family in wheat to understand the evolution and their role in diverse developmental processes and under different stress conditions. In this study, we performed the genome-wide analysis of the BZR gene family in the bread wheat and identified 20 TaBZR genes through a homology search and further characterized them to understand their structure, function, and distribution across various tissues. Phylogenetic analyses lead to the classification of TaBZR genes into five different groups or subfamilies, providing evidence of evolutionary relationship with Arabidopsis thaliana, Zea mays, Glycine max, and Oryza sativa. A gene exon/intron structure analysis showed a distinct evolutionary path and predicted the possible gene duplication events. Further, the physical and biochemical properties, conserved motifs, chromosomal, subcellular localization, and cis-acting regulatory elements were also examined using various computational approaches. In addition, an analysis of public RNA-seq data also shows that TaBZR genes may be involved in diverse developmental processes and stress tolerance mechanisms. Moreover, qRT-PCR results also showed similar expression with slight variation. Collectively, these results suggest that TaBZR genes might play an important role in plant developmental processes and various stress conditions. Therefore, this work provides valuable information for further elucidate the precise role of BZR family members in wheat.


Assuntos
Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Triticum/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Genômica , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Soja/genética , Triazóis , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/fisiologia , Zea mays/genética
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14473, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262108

RESUMO

Stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis tritici) is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat. The most effective ways to control stripe rust are the use of resistant cultivars and the timely use of an appropriate dose of fungicide. However, the changing nature of rust pathogen outwits the use of resistant cultivars, and the use of a fungicide is associated with environmental problems. To control the disease without sacrificing the environment, we screened 16 endophytic bacteria, which were isolated from stripe rust-resistant wheat cultivars in our previous study, for their biocontrol potential. A total of 5 bacterial strains Serratia marcescens 3A, Bacillus megaterium 6A, Paneibacillus xylanexedens 7A, Bacillus subtilis 11A, and Staphyloccus agentis 15A showed significant inhibition of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) urediniospores germination. Two formulations i.e., fermented liquid with bacterial cell (FLBC) and fermented liquid without bacterial cells (FL) of each bacterial strain, were evaluated against the urediniospores germination. Formulations of five selected endophytic bacteria strains significantly inhibited the uredinioospores germination in the lab experiments. It was further confirmed on seedlings of Pakistani susceptible wheat cultivar Inqilab-91 in the greenhouse, as well as in semi-field conditions. FLBC and FL formulations applied 24 h before Pst inoculation (hbi) displayed a protective mode. The efficacy of FLBC was between 34.45 and 87.77%, while the efficacy of FL was between 39.27 and 85.16% when applied 24 hbi. The inoculated wheat cultivar Inqilab-91 was also tested under semi-field conditions during the 2017-2018 cropping season at the adult plant stage. The strains Bacillus megaterium 6A and Paneibacillus xylanexedens 7A alone significantly reduced the disease severity of stripe rust with the efficacy of 65.16% and 61.11% for the FLBC in protective effect, while 46.07% and 44.47% in curative effect, respectively. Inoculated seedlings of Inqilab-91 showed higher activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL). The treated seedlings also showed higher expressions of pathogenesis-related (PR) protein genes, antifungal protein (PR-1), ß-1,3-endoglucanases (PR-2), endochitinases (PR-4), peroxidase (PR-9), and ribonuclease-like proteins (PR-10). These results indicated that endophytic bacteria have the biocontrol potential, which can be used to manage stripe rust disease. High production antioxidant enzymes, as well as high expression of PR protein genes, might be crucial in triggering the host defense mechanism against Pst.


Assuntos
Agentes de Controle Biológico , Endófitos/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Puccinia/patogenicidade , Plântula/microbiologia , Triticum/microbiologia , Bacillus megaterium/fisiologia , Bacillus subtilis/fisiologia , Enzimas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Células Vegetais/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Serratia marcescens/fisiologia , Staphylococcus/fisiologia , Triticum/fisiologia
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15303, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315977

RESUMO

Hypergravity-an evolutionarily novel environment has been exploited to comprehend the response of living organisms including plants in the context of extra-terrestrial applications. Recently, researchers have shown that hypergravity induces desired phenotypic variability in seedlings. In the present study, we tested the utility of hypergravity as a novel tool in inducing reliable phenotype/s for potential terrestrial crop improvement applications. To investigate, bread wheat seeds (UAS-375 genotype) were subjected to hypergravity treatment (10×g for 12, and 24 h), and evaluated for seedling vigor and plant growth parameters in both laboratory and greenhouse conditions. It was also attempted to elucidate the associated biochemical and hormonal changes at different stages of vegetative growth. Resultant data revealed that hypergravity treatment (10×g for 12 h) significantly enhanced root length, root volume, and root biomass in response to hypergravity. The robust seedling growth phenotype may be attributed to increased alpha-amylase and TDH enzyme activities observed in seeds treated with hypergravity. Elevated total chlorophyll content and Rubisco (55 kDa) protein expression across different stages of vegetative growth in response to hypergravity may impart physiological benefits to wheat growth. Further, hypergravity elicited robust endogenous phytohormones dynamics in root signifying altered phenotype/s. Collectively, this study for the first time describes the utility of hypergravity as a novel tool in inducing reliable root phenotype that could be potentially exploited for improving wheat varieties for better water usage management.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/fisiologia , Hipergravidade , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Triticum/fisiologia , Irrigação Agrícola , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/enzimologia , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo , Água/química
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299055

RESUMO

Fusarium culmorum is a worldwide, soil-borne plant pathogen. It causes diseases of cereals, reduces their yield, and fills the grain with toxins. The main direction of modern breeding is to select wheat genotypes the most resistant to Fusarium diseases. This study uses seedlings and plants at the anthesis stage to analyze total soluble carbohydrates, total and cell-wall bound phenolics, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity, hydrogen peroxide content, mycotoxin accumulation, visual symptoms of the disease, and Fusarium head blight index (FHBi). These results determine the resistance of three durum wheat accessions. We identify physiological or biochemical markers of durum wheat resistance to F. culmorum. Our results confirm correlations between FHBi and mycotoxin accumulation in the grain, which results in grain yield decrease. The degree of spike infection (FHBi) may indicate accumulation mainly of deoxynivalenol and nivalenol in the grain. High catalase activity in the infected leaves could be considered a biochemical marker of durum sensitivity to this fungus. These findings allowed us to formulate a strategy for rapid evaluation of the disease severity and the selection of plants with higher level, or resistance to F. culmorum infection.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Fusarium/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Plântula/fisiologia , Tricotecenos/metabolismo , Triticum/fisiologia , Genótipo , Plântula/microbiologia , Triticum/classificação , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia
13.
Theor Appl Genet ; 134(9): 2991-3011, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34095960

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The genetic basis of 27 seedling traits under normal and salt treatments was fully analyzed in a RIL wheat population, and seven QTL intervals were validated in two other genetic populations. Soil salinity seriously constrains wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production globally by influencing its growth and development. To explore the genetic basis of salt tolerance in wheat, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between high-yield wheat cultivar Zhongmai 175 (ZM175) and salt-tolerant cultivar Xiaoyan 60 (XY60) was used to map QTL for seedling traits under normal and salt treatments based on a high-density genetic linkage map. A total of 158 stable additive QTL for 27 morphological and physiological traits were identified and distributed on all wheat chromosomes except 3A and 4D. They explained 2.35-46.43% of the phenotypic variation with a LOD score range of 2.61-40.38. The alleles from XY60 increased corresponding traits for 100 QTL, while the alleles from ZM175 had positive effects for the other 58 QTL. Nearly half of the QTL (78/158) were mapped in nine QTL clusters on chromosomes 2A, 2B, 2D, 4B, 5A, 5B, 5D, and 7D (2), respectively. To prove the reliability and potentiality in molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS), seven QTL intervals were validated in two other genetic populations. Besides additive QTL, 94 pairs of loci were detected with significant epistatic effect and 20 QTL were found to interact with treatment. This study provides a full elucidation of the genetic basis of seedling traits (especially root system-related traits) associated with salt tolerance in wheat, and the developed kompetitive allele-specific PCR markers closely linked to stable QTL would supply strong supports to MAS in salt-tolerant wheat breeding.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Tolerância ao Sal , Plântula/fisiologia , Triticum/fisiologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Plântula/genética , Triticum/genética
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 303, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Organic mulches are widely used in crop production systems. Due to their benefits in improving soil fertility, retention of soil moisture and weed control. Field experiments were conducted during wheat growing seasons of 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 to evaluate the effects of Jatropha leaves mulch on the growth of wheat varieties 'Wadan-17' (rainfed) and 'Pirsabaq-2013' (irrigated) under well irrigated and water stress conditions (non-irrigated maintaining 40% soil field capacity). Jatropha mulch was applied to the soil surface at 0, 1, 3 and 5 Mg ha-1 before sowing grains in the field. Under conditions of water stress, Jatropha mulch significantly maintained the soil moisture content necessary for normal plant growth. RESULTS: We noted a decrease in plant height, shoot and root fresh/dry weight, leaf area, leaf relative water content (LRWC), chlorophyll, and carotenoid content due to water stress. However, water stress caused an increase in leaf and root phenolics content, leaf soluble sugars and electrolytes leakage. We observed that Jatropha mulch maintained LRWC, plant height, shoot and root fresh/dry weight, leaf area and chlorophyll content under water stress. Moreover, water stress adverse effects on leaf soluble sugar content and electrolyte leakage were reversed to normal by Jatropha mulch. CONCLUSION: Therefore, it may be concluded that Jatropha leaves mulch will minimize water stress adverse effects on wheat by maintaining soil moisture and plant water status.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Jatropha , Folhas de Planta , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Desidratação , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/fisiologia
15.
Plant Sci ; 309: 110913, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134840

RESUMO

Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important regulator of plant growth, development, and biotic and abiotic stress responses. Ubiquitination plays important roles in regulating ABA signaling. E3 ligase, a key member in ubiquitination, actively participates in the regulation of biosynthesis, de-repression, and activation of ABA response and degradation of signaling components. In this study, we found that that overexpression of wheat E3 ligase TaPUB1 decreased the sensitivity of wheat seedlings to ABA, whereas TaPUB1-RNA interference (TaPUB1-RNAi) lines increased wheat sensitivity to ABA during germination, root growth, and stomatal opening. TaPUB1 influenced the expression of several ABA-responsive genes, and also interacted with TaPYL4 and TaABI5, which are involved in ABA signal transduction, and promoted their degradation. Additionally, we observed that TaPUB1-OE lines resulted in lower single-split grain numbers, larger seed size, and higher thousand kernel weight, when compared with the WT lines. Contrasting results were obtained for TaPUB1-RNAi lines. It suggests that TaPUB1 acts as a negative regulator in the ABA signaling pathway by interacting with TaPYL4 and TaABI5, subsequently affecting seed development in wheat. In addition, the enhanced abiotic tolerance of overexpression lines due to enhanced photosynthesis and root development may be related to the degradation of TaABI5 by TaPUB1.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Triticum/genética , Germinação , Fotossíntese , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/fisiologia , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/fisiologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12650, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135422

RESUMO

Ethylene plays a crucial role throughout the life cycle of plants under optimal and stressful environments. The present study reports the involvement of exogenously sourced ethylene (as ethephon; 2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid) in the protection of the photosynthetic activity from glucose (Glu) sensitivity through its influence on the antioxidant system for adaptation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants under salt stress. Ten-day-old plants were subjected to control and 100 mM NaCl and treated with 200 µl L-1 ethephon on foliage at 20 days after seed sowing individually or in combination with 6% Glu. Plants receiving ethylene exhibited higher growth and photosynthesis through reduced Glu sensitivity in the presence of salt stress. Moreover, ethylene-induced reduced glutathione (GSH) production resulted in increased psbA and psbB expression to protect PSII activity and photosynthesis under salt stress. The use of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), GSH biosynthesis inhibitor, substantiated the involvement of ethylene-induced GSH in the reversal of Glu-mediated photosynthetic repression in salt-stressed plants. It was suggested that ethylene increased the utilization of Glu under salt stress through its influence on photosynthetic potential and sink strength and reduced the Glu-mediated repression of photosynthesis.


Assuntos
Glutationa/metabolismo , Compostos Organofosforados/farmacologia , Triticum , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Etilenos/farmacologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Salino/fisiologia , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/fisiologia
17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 252, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flavonoids can protect plants against extreme temperatures and ROS due to their antioxidant activities. We found that deep-purple seed coat color was controlled by two gene interaction (12:3:1) from the cross between yellow and deep-purple seed coat colored inbreds. F2:3 seeds were grouped in 3 by seed coat color and germinated under chilling (4 °C) and non-acclimated conditions (18 °C) for a week, followed by normal conditions (18 °C) for three weeks and a subsequent chilling stress (4 °C) induction. We analyzed mean daily germination in each group. Additionally, to study the acclimation in relationship to the different seed coat colors on the germination ability and seedling performances under the cold temperatures, we measured the chlorophyll content, ROS scavenging activity, and expression levels of genes involved in ROS scavenging, flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, and cold response in seedlings. RESULTS: The results of seed color segregation between yellow and deep purple suggested a two-gene model. In the germination study, normal environmental conditions induced the germination of yellow-seed, while under chilling conditions, the germination ratio of deep purple-seed was higher than that of yellow-colored seeds. We also found that the darker seed coat colors were highly responsive to cold acclimation based on the ROS scavenging enzymes activity and gene expression of ROS scavenging enzymes, flavonoid biosynthetic pathway and cold responsive genes. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that deep purple colored seed might be in a state of innate pre-acquired stress response state under normal conditions to counteract stresses in a more effective way. Whereas, after the acclimation, another stress should enhance the cold genes expression response, which might result in a more efficient chilling stress response in deep purple seed seedlings. Low temperature has a large impact on the yield of crops. Thus, understanding the benefit of seed coat color response to chilling stress and the identification of limiting factors are useful for developing breeding strategies in order to improve the yield of wheat under chilling stress.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Temperatura Baixa , Germinação/fisiologia , Plântula/fisiologia , Sementes/fisiologia , Triticum/fisiologia , Antocianinas , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Fenóis , Pigmentos Biológicos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070033

RESUMO

Drought response in wheat is considered a highly complex process, since it is a multigenic trait; nevertheless, breeding programs are continuously searching for new wheat varieties with characteristics for drought tolerance. In a previous study, we demonstrated the effectiveness of a mutant known as RYNO3936 that could survive 14 days without water. In this study, we reveal another mutant known as BIG8-1 that can endure severe water deficit stress (21 days without water) with superior drought response characteristics. Phenotypically, the mutant plants had broader leaves, including a densely packed fibrous root architecture that was not visible in the WT parent plants. During mild (day 7) drought stress, the mutant could maintain its relative water content, chlorophyll content, maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) and stomatal conductance, with no phenotypic symptoms such as wilting or senescence despite a decrease in soil moisture content. It was only during moderate (day 14) and severe (day 21) water deficit stress that a decline in those variables was evident. Furthermore, the mutant plants also displayed a unique preservation of metabolic activity, which was confirmed by assessing the accumulation of free amino acids and increase of antioxidative enzymes (peroxidases and glutathione S-transferase). Proteome reshuffling was also observed, allowing slow degradation of essential proteins such as RuBisCO during water deficit stress. The LC-MS/MS data revealed a high abundance of proteins involved in energy and photosynthesis under well-watered conditions, particularly Serpin-Z2A and Z2B, SGT1 and Calnexin-like protein. However, after 21 days of water stress, the mutants expressed ABC transporter permeases and xylanase inhibitor protein, which are involved in the transport of amino acids and protecting cells, respectively. This study characterizes a new mutant BIG8-1 with drought-tolerant characteristics suited for breeding programs.


Assuntos
Secas , Mutação , Triticum/genética , Triticum/fisiologia , Aclimatação/genética , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Metanossulfonato de Etila/toxicidade , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Fenótipo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Água/metabolismo
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9739, 2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958607

RESUMO

The plant specific TIFY (previously known as ZIM) transcription factor (TF) family plays crucial roles in cross talk between Jasmonic Acid and other phytohormones like gibberellins, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, auxin, and ethylene signaling pathways. Wheat yield is severely affected by rust diseases and many abiotic stresses, where different phytohormone signaling pathways are involved. TIFYs have been studied in many plants yet reports describing their molecular structure and function in wheat are lacking. In the present study, we have identified 23 novel TIFY genes in wheat genome using in silico approaches. The identified proteins were characterized based on their conserved domains and phylogenetically classified into nine subfamilies. Chromosomal localization of the identified TIFY genes showed arbitrary distribution. Forty cis-acting elements including phytohormone, stress and light receptive elements were detected in the upstream regions of TIFY genes. Seventeen wheat microRNAs targeted the identified wheat TIFY genes. Gene ontological studies revealed their major contribution in defense response and phytohormone signaling. Secondary structure of TIFY proteins displayed the characteristic alpha-alpha-beta fold. Synteny analyses indicated all wheat TIFY genes had orthologous sequences in sorghum, rice, maize, barley and Brachypodium indicating presence of similar TIFY domains in monocot plants. Six TIFY genes had been cloned from wheat genomic and cDNA. Sequence characterization revealed similar characteristics as the in silico identified novel TIFY genes. Tertiary structures predicted the active sites in these proteins to play critical roles in DNA binding. Expression profiling of TIFY genes showed their contribution during incompatible and compatible leaf rust infestation. TIFY genes were also highly expressed during the initial hours of phytohormone induced stress. This study furnishes fundamental information on characterization and putative functions of TIFY genes in wheat.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Triticum/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Estresse Fisiológico , Triticum/fisiologia
20.
Plant Cell Rep ; 40(7): 1155-1170, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950277

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The drought and salt tolerances of wheat were enhanced by ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis ornithine aminotransferase (AtOAT) encoded gene. The OAT was confirmed to play a role in proline biosynthesis in wheat. Proline (Pro) accumulation is a common response to both abiotic and biotic stresses in plants. Ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) is pyridoxal-5-phosphate dependent enzyme involved in plant proline biosynthesis. During stress condition, proline is synthesized via glutamate and ornithine pathways. The OAT is the key enzyme in ornithine pathway. In this study, an OAT gene AtOAT from Arabidopsis was expressed in wheat for its functional characterization under drought, salinity, and heat stress conditions. We found that the expression of AtOAT enhanced the drought and salt stress tolerances of wheat by increasing the proline content and peroxidase activity. In addition, it was confirmed that the expression of AtOAT also played a partial tolerance to heat stress in the transgenic wheat plants. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that the transformation of AtOAT up-regulated the expression of the proline biosynthesis associated genes TaOAT, TaP5CS, and TaP5CR, and down-regulated that of the proline catabolism related gene TaP5CDH in the transgenic plants under stress conditions. Moreover, the genes involved in ornithine pathway (Orn-OAT-P5C/GSA-P5CR-Pro) were up-regulated along with the up-regulation of those genes involved in glutamate pathway (Glu-P5CS-P5C/GSA-P5CR-Pro). Therefore, we concluded that the expression of AtOAT enhanced wheat abiotic tolerance via modifying the proline biosynthesis by up-regulating the expression of the proline biosynthesis-associated genes and down-regulating that of the proline catabolic gene under stresses condition.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Ornitina-Oxo-Ácido Transaminase/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Triticum/fisiologia , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Prolina/genética , Prolina/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Triticum/genética
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