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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 234, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plants worldwide are often stressed by low Fe availability around the world, especially in aerobic soils. Therefore, the plant growth, seed yield, and quality of crop species are severely inhibited under Fe deficiency. Fe metabolism in plants is controlled by a series of complex transport, storage, and regulatory mechanisms in cells. Allohexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a staple upland crop species that is highly sensitive to low Fe stresses. Although some studies have been previously conducted on the responses of wheat plants to Fe deficiency, the key mechanisms underlying adaptive responses are still unclear in wheat due to its large and complex genome. RESULTS: Transmission electron microscopy showed that the chloroplast structure was severely damaged under Fe deficiency. Paraffin sectioning revealed that the division rates of meristematic cells were reduced, and the sizes of elongated cells were diminished. ICP-MS-assisted ionmics analysis showed that low-Fe stress significantly limited the absorption of nutrients, including N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, and B nutrients. High-throughput transcriptome sequencing identified 378 and 2,619 genome-wide differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the shoots and roots between high-Fe and low-Fe conditions, respectively. These DEGs were mainly involved in the Fe chelator biosynthesis, ion transport, photosynthesis, amino acid metabolism, and protein synthesis. Gene coexpression network diagrams indicated that TaIRT1b-4A, TaNAS2-6D, TaNAS1a-6A, TaNAS1-6B, and TaNAAT1b-1D might function as key regulators in the adaptive responses of wheat plants to Fe deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: These results might help us fully understand the morpho-physiological and molecular responses of wheat plants to low-Fe stress, and provide elite genetic resources for the genetic modification of efficient Fe use.


Assuntos
Triticum , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Triticum/metabolismo
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 235, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sheath blight is an important disease caused by Rhizoctonia cerealis that affects wheat yields worldwide. No wheat varieties have been identified with high resistance or immunity to sheath blight. Understanding the sheath blight resistance mechanism is essential for controlling this disease. In this study, we investigated the response of wheat to Rhizoctonia cerealis infection by analyzing the cytological changes and transcriptomes of common wheat 7182 with moderate sensitivity to sheath blight and H83 with moderate resistance. RESULTS: The cytological observation showed that the growth of Rhizoctonia cerealis on the surface and its expansion inside the leaf sheath tissue were more rapid in the susceptible material. According to the transcriptome sequencing results, a total of 88685 genes were identified in both materials, including 20156 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of which 12087 was upregulated genes and 8069 was downregulated genes. At 36 h post-inoculation, compared with the uninfected control, 11498 DEGs were identified in resistant materials, with 5064 downregulated genes and 6434 upregulated genes, and 13058 genes were detected in susceptible materials, with 6759 downregulated genes and 6299 upregulated genes. At 72 h post-inoculation, compared with the uninfected control, 6578 DEGs were detected in resistant materials, with 2991 downregulated genes and 3587 upregulated genes, and 7324 genes were detected in susceptible materials, with 4119 downregulated genes and 3205 upregulated genes. Functional annotation and enrichment analysis showed that the main pathways enriched for the DEGs included biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, carbon metabolism, plant hormone signal transduction, and plant-pathogen interaction. In particular, phenylpropane biosynthesis pathway is specifically activated in resistant variety H83 after infection. Many DEGs also belonged to the MYB, AP2, NAC, and WRKY transcription factor families. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, we suggest that the normal functioning of plant signaling pathways and differences in the expression of key genes and transcription factors in some important metabolic pathways may be important for defending wheat against sheath blight. These findings may facilitate further exploration of the sheath blight resistance mechanism in wheat and the cloning of related genes.


Assuntos
Transcriptoma , Triticum , Basidiomycota , Resistência à Doença/genética , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Rhizoctonia/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Triticum/metabolismo
3.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 42(5): 525-32, 2022 May 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543943

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of wheat-grain moxibustion on behavior, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and cortisol in the serum, mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the hippocampus in rats with hypothyroidism complicated with depression, and to explore the possible mechanism of wheat-grain moxibustion on improving depression in rats with hypothyroidism. METHODS: A total of 32 SPF SD rats were randomly divided into a blank group, a model group, a medication group and a wheat-grain moxibustion group, 8 rats in each group. Except for the blank group, the rats in the remaining groups were treated with intragastric administration of 0.1% propylthiouracil (PTU) suspension at 1 mL/100 g, once a day for 4 weeks to establish the rat model of hypothyroidism, and whether the rats were accompanied with depression-like behavior determined through behavioristics evaluation. The rats in the medication group were intervened with euthyrox at 0.9 mL/100 g, once a day, for 4 weeks; the rats in the wheat-grain moxibustion group were treated with wheat-grain moxibustion at "Dazhui" (GV 14), "Mingmen" (GV 4), "Shenshu" (BL 23) and "Pishu" (BL 20), 7 cones each acupoint, once a day, six times a week for 4 weeks. After the intervention, the depression status was observed by behavioristics test; the contents of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxine (TT4), 5-HT and cortisol in the serum were detected by ELISA; the protein expressions of MR and GR in hippocampus were detected by Western blot; the expressions of MR mRNA and GR mRNA in the hippocampus were detected by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Before the intervention, compared with the blank group, the scores of open field test (OFT) were decreased and the immobility time of tail suspension test (TST) was prolonged (P<0.05); the serum TSH contents were increased and TT4 contents were decreased (P<0.01) in the other three groups. After the intervention, compared with the model group, the vertical score of OFT was increased and the immobility time of forced swimming test (FST) was prolonged in the medication group (P<0.05), while the scores of three items of OFT were increased (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the immobility time of FST and TST was shortened in the wheat-grain moxibustion group (P<0.01, P<0.05). Compared with the medication group, the immobility time of TST and FST in the wheat-grain moxibustion group was shorter (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the blank group, in the model group, the contents of serum TSH and cortisol were increased (P<0.01, P<0.001), while the contents of serum TT4 and 5-HT were decreased (P<0.01, P<0.001). Compared with the model group, the contents of serum TT4 and 5-HT were increased, while the contents of serum TSH and cortisol were decreased in the medication group and wheat-grain moxibustion group (P<0.01, P<0.05). Compared with the blank group, the protein and mRNA expression of MR, GR in the hippocampus in the model group was decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.001); compared with the model group, the protein and mRNA expression of MR in the hippocampus in the medication group were increased (P<0.05), and the protein expression of MR, GR and mRNA expression of MR in the hippocampus in the wheat-grain moxibustion group were increased (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the medication group, the expression of MR mRNA in the wheat-grain moxibustion group was increased (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Wheat-grain moxibustion could significantly improve thyroid function and depression in rats with hypothyroidism. Its mechanism may be related to up-regulating the protein and mRNA expression of MR and GR in the hippocampus, and then affecting the expression of serum cortisol and 5-HT.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo , Moxibustão , Pontos de Acupuntura , Animais , Depressão/genética , Depressão/terapia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Hipotireoidismo/metabolismo , Hipotireoidismo/terapia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/metabolismo , Serotonina , Tireotropina/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo
4.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266924, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35427365

RESUMO

Future genetic progress in wheat grain yield will depend on increasing biomass and this must be achieved without commensurate increases in nitrogen (N) fertilizer inputs to minimize environmental impacts. In recent decades there has been a loss of genetic diversity in wheat through plant breeding. However, new genetic diversity can be created by incorporating genes into bread wheat from wild wheat relatives. Our objectives were to investigate amphidiploids derived from hybrids of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and related species from the genera Aegilops, Secale, Thinopyrum and Triticum for expression of higher biomass, N-use efficiency (NUE) and leaf photosynthesis rate compared to their bread wheat parents under high and low N conditions. Eighteen amphidiploid lines and their bread wheat parents were examined in high N (HN) and low N (LN) treatments under glasshouse conditions in two years. Averaged across years, grain yield reduced by 38% under LN compared to HN conditions (P = 0.004). Three amphidiploid lines showed positive transgressive segregation compared to their bread wheat parent for biomass per plant under HN conditions. Positive transgressive segregation was also identified for flag-leaf photosynthesis both pre-anthesis and post-anthesis under HN and LN conditions. For N uptake per plant at maturity positive transgressive segregation was identified for one amphidiploid line under LN conditions. Our results indicated that introgressing traits from wild relatives into modern bread wheat germplasm offers scope to raise biomass and N-use effciency in both optimal and low N availability environments.


Assuntos
Aegilops , Triticum , Aegilops/genética , Pão , Grão Comestível/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Secale , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo
5.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 180: 124-133, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35427995

RESUMO

Heterologous expression of plant genes is becoming an important strategy for the improvement of specific traits in existing cultivars. This study presents the response of a salt-sensitive high-yielding wheat variety under stress-inducible expression of barley HVA1 gene belonging to the Late embryogenesis abundance (LEA) gene family. Six homozygous transgenic wheat plants were developed and advanced for testing under various water regimes and salt stress conditions. Putative transgenic plants showed better germination and root shoot development at the early developmental stages under drought stress conditions. Moreover, transgenic plants illustrated higher values of physiological features as compared to non-transgenic plants under both drought and salinity stresses that indicate improved physiological processes in transgenic plants. Higher membrane stability index (MSI) and lower electrolyte leakage (EL) after exposure to abiotic stresses reveal improved cellular membrane stability (CMS) and reduced injury to chloroplast membrane. Interestingly, under salinity stress, transgenic wheat plants showed preference towards higher K+ accumulation in the shoot, which is not a well-understood HVA1 mediated Na + avoidance mechanism under excessive subsurface salts. The predisposition of K+/Na + under salt stress conditions on heterologous expression of the HVA1 gene in wheat needs to be studied in detail in further studies.


Assuntos
Secas , Triticum , Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo
6.
Molecules ; 27(7)2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: So far, no articles have discussed the hypolipidemic effect of wheat germ protein in in vivo experiments. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the effects of wheat germ protein (WGP, 300 mg/kg/day) and wheat germ (WG, 300 mg/kg/day) on cholesterol metabolism, antioxidant activities, and serum and hepatic lipids in rats fed a high-fat diet through gavage. METHODOLOGY: We used 4-week-old male Wistar 20 rats in our animal experiment. Biochemical indicators of fecal, serum and liver were tested by kits or chemical methods. We also conducted the cholesterol micellar solubility experiment in vitro. RESULTS: After 28 days of treatment, our results showed that WGP significantly reduced the serum levels of total cholesterol (p < 0.05) and nonhigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.05), improved the enzymatic activities of cholesterol 7-α hydroxylase (p < 0.01) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (p < 0.01) and increased bile acid excretion in feces (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: WG did not significantly increase bile acid excretion in feces or decrease serum levels of total cholesterol. Moreover, WGP and WG both presented significant antioxidant activity in vivo (p < 0.05) and caused a significant reduction in cholesterol micellar solubility in vitro (p < 0.001). Therefore, WGP may effectively prevent hyperlipidemia and its complications as WGP treatment enhanced antioxidant activity, decreased the concentration of serum lipids and improved the activity of enzymes involved in cholesterol metabolism.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fezes , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Fígado , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Triticum/metabolismo
7.
Molecules ; 27(7)2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408702

RESUMO

Changes in the metabolome of germinating seeds and seedlings caused by metal nanoparticles are poorly understood. In the present study, the effects of bio-synthesized silver nanoparticles ((Bio)Ag NPs) on grains germination, early seedlings development, and metabolic profiles of roots, coleoptile, and endosperm of wheat were analyzed. Grains germinated well in (Bio)Ag NPs suspensions at the concentration in the range 10-40 mg/L. However, the growth of coleoptile was inhibited by 25%, regardless of (Bio)Ag NPs concentration tested, whereas the growth of roots gradually slowed down along with the increasing concentration of (Bio)Ag NPs. The deleterious effect of Ag NPs on roots was manifested by their shortening, thickening, browning of roots tips, epidermal cell death, progression from apical meristem up to root hairs zone, and the inhibition of root hair development. (Bio)Ag NPs stimulated ROS production in roots and affected the metabolic profiles of all tissues. Roots accumulated sucrose, maltose, 1-kestose, phosphoric acid, and some amino acids (i.e., proline, aspartate/asparagine, hydroxyproline, and branched-chain amino acids). In coleoptile and endosperm, contrary to roots, the concentration of most metabolites decreased. Moreover, coleoptile accumulated galactose. Changes in the concentration of polar metabolites in seedlings revealed the affection of primary metabolism, disturbances in the mobilization of storage materials, and a translocation of sugars and amino acids from the endosperm to growing seedlings.


Assuntos
Germinação , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula , Prata/metabolismo , Prata/farmacologia , Triticum/metabolismo
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(16): 5057-5065, 2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35426662

RESUMO

Wheat gluten peptides (WGPs), identified as Leu-Leu (LL), Leu-Leu-Leu (LLL), and Leu-Met-Leu (LML), were tested for their impacts on cell growth, membrane lipid composition, and membrane homeostasis of yeast under ethanol stress. The results showed that WGP supplementation could strengthen cell growth and viability and enhance the ethanol stress tolerance of yeast. WGP supplementation increased the expressions of OLE1 and ERG1 and enhanced the levels of oleic acid (C18:1) and ergosterol in yeast cell membranes. Moreover, LLL and LML exhibited a better protective effect for yeast under ethanol stress compared to LL. LLL and LML supplementation led to 20.3 ± 1.5% and 18.9 ± 1.7% enhancement in cell membrane fluidity, 21.8 ± 1.6% and 30.5 ± 1.1% increase in membrane integrity, and 26.3 ± 4.8% and 27.6 ± 4.6% decrease in membrane permeability in yeast under ethanol stress, respectively. The results from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) elucidated that WGP supplementation is favorable for the maintenance of yeast cell morphology under ethanol stress. All of these results revealed that WGP is an efficient enhancer for improving the ethanol stress tolerance of yeast by regulating the membrane lipid composition.


Assuntos
Etanol , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Glutens/metabolismo , Lipídeos de Membrana/química , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 236: 113477, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35367883

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most hazardous heavy metals that negatively affect the growth and yield of wheat. He-Ne laser irradiation is known to ameliorate cadmium (Cd) stress in wheat. However, the underlying mechanism of He-Ne laser irradiation on protecting wheat against Cd stress is not well recognized. In present study, Cd-treated wheat showed significant reduction in growth, root morphology and total chlorophyll content, but notably increase of Cd accumulation in both roots and shoots. However, He-Ne laser irradiation dramatically reduced concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and increased total chlorophyll content and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in roots of wheat plants under Cd stress. Further, He-Ne laser irradiation significantly upregulated the transcripts of TaGR (glutathione reductase) and TaGST (glutathione-S-transferase) genes along with the increased activities of GR and GST and glutathione (GSH) concentration in roots of wheat seedlings under Cd stress. In addition, He-Ne laser irradiation enhanced the uptake of mineral elements (N, P, Mg, Fe, Zn and Cu), and significantly decreased Cd uptake and transport mainly through down-regulating the expressions of Cd transport genes (TaHMA2 and TaHMA3) in roots of wheat seedlings under Cd stress. Overall, these findings suggested that He-Ne laser irradiation alleviated the adverse effects of Cd on wheat growth by enhancing antioxidant defense system, improving mineral nutrient status, and decreasing the Cd uptake and transport. This study provides new insights into the roles of He-Ne laser irradiation in the amelioration of Cd stress in wheat and indicates the potential application of this irradiation in crop breeding and growth under Cd stress conditions.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Cádmio , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Clorofila/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Lasers , Nutrientes , Estresse Oxidativo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Plântula/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(8)2022 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457236

RESUMO

The Multidrug and toxin efflux (MATE) gene family plays crucial roles in plant growth and development and response to adverse stresses. This work investigated the structural and evolutionary characteristics, expression profiling and potential functions involved in aluminium (Al) tolerance from a genome-wide level. In total, 211 wheat MATE genes were identified, which were classified into four subfamilies and unevenly distributed on chromosomes. Duplication analysis showed that fragments and tandem repeats played the main roles in the amplification of TaMATEs, and Type II functional disproportionation had a leading role in the differentiation of TaMATEs. TaMATEs had abundant Al resistance and environmental stress-related elements, and generally had a high expression level in roots and leaves and in response to Al stress. The 3D structure prediction by AlphaFold and molecular docking showed that six TaMATE proteins localised in the plasmalemma could combine with citrate via amino acids in the citrate exuding motif and other sites, and then transport citrate to soil to form citrate aluminium. Meanwhile, citrate aluminium formed in root cells might be transported to leaves by TaMATEs to deposit in vacuoles, thereby alleviating Al toxicity.


Assuntos
Alumínio , Triticum , Alumínio/metabolismo , Alumínio/toxicidade , Ácido Cítrico/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 237: 113533, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35453025

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a dispensable element that can be absorbed by crops, posing a threat to human health through the food chains. Melatonin (MT), as a plant growth regulator, has been used to alleviate Cd toxicity in many plant species; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for Cd toxicity in wheat are still poorly understood. In this study, the suitable exogenous MT concentration (50 µM) was screened to mitigate Cd toxicity of wheat plants by increasing the plant height, root length, fresh or dry weight and chlorophyll content, or decreasing the malondialdehyde (MDA) content. In addition, MT application significantly increased ascorbic acid (ASA) and glutathione (GSH) content by reducing ROS production, especially in roots, further decreasing Cd content in fraction of organelles. Moreover, the expression levels of ASA-GSH synthesis genes, APX, GR, and GST were significantly increased by 171.5%, 465.2%, and 256.8% in roots, respectively, whereas GSH, DHAR, or MDHAR were significantly decreased by 48.5%, 54.3%, or 60.0% in roots under MT + Cd stress. However, the expression levels of Cd-induced metal transporter genes TaNramp1, TaNramp5, TaHMA2, TaHMA3, and TaLCT1 were significantly decreased by 53.7%, 50.1%, 86.5%, 87.2%, and 94.5% in roots under MT + Cd stress compared with alone Cd treatment, respectively. In conclusion, our results suggesting that MT alleviate Cd toxicity in wheat by enhancing ASA-GSH metabolism, suppressing Cd transporter gene expression, and regulating Cd uptake and translocation in wheat plants.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico , Melatonina , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Cádmio/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Melatonina/metabolismo , Melatonina/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo
12.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(6): 159, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416548

RESUMO

The role of the most fungal endophytes in the host plant growth and production of metabolites under stress conditions is still unknown. Fungal endophytes occur in almost all plants to benefit the host plants exposed to biotic and abiotic stress. In the present work, we investigated salt (NaCl) stress alleviation capability of a fungal endophyte (Porostereum spadiceum-AGH786). The culture filtrate (CF: 1.5 mL.) of P. spadiceum-AGH786 contained IAA (158 µg/ml), SA (29.3 µg/ml), proline (114.6 µg/ml), phenols (167.4 µg/ml), lipids (71.4 µg/ml), sugar (133.2 µg/ml), flavonoids (105.04 µg/ml). Smaller amounts of organic acids, such as butyric acid (5.8 µg/ml), formic acid (2.34 µg/ml), succinic acid (2.02 µg/ml), and quinic acid (2.25 µg/ml) were also found in CF of P. spadiceum-AGH786. Similarly, the CF displayed antioxidant activity in 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-Azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assays. Moreover, wheat plants colonized by P. spadiceum-AGH786 showed significantly (P = 0.05) higher polyphenol oxidases activity (2.2 mg/g DW) under normal conditions as compared to the NaCl-treated plants. We also observed that P. spadiceum-AGH786 improved biomass (0.30 g) of wheat plants subjected to 140 mM NaCl stress. The results conclude that the wheat plant colonization by P. spadiceum-AGH786 greatly improved the plant growth under 70 mM and 140 mM NaCl stress. Thus, the biomass of the P. Spadiceum-AGH786 can be used in saline soil to help the host plants.


Assuntos
Polyporales , Triticum , Estresse Salino , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo
13.
J Hazard Mater ; 433: 128743, 2022 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366446

RESUMO

Upon environmental stimuli, aldehydes are generated downstream of reactive oxygen species and thereby contribute to severe cell damage. In this study, using two wheat genotypes differing in aluminum (Al) tolerance, we investigated the effects of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes on cell wall composition and subsequent Al-binding capacities. The spatial accumulation of Al along wheat roots was found to the generation of reactive aldehydes, which are highly localized to the apical regions of roots. Elimination of aldehydes by carnosine significantly reduced Al contents in root tips, with a concomitant alleviation of root growth inhibition. In contrast, root growth and Al accumulation were exacerbated by application of the short-chain aldehyde (E)-2-hexenal. We further confirmed that cell wall binding capacity, rather than malate efflux or pH alteration strategies, is associated with the aldehyde-induced accumulation of Al. Scavenging of lipid-derived aldehydes reduced Al accumulation in the pectin and hemicellulose 1 (HC1) fractions of root cell walls, whereas exposure to (E)-2-hexenal promoted a further accumulation of Al, particularly in the cell wall HC1 fraction of the Al-sensitive genotype. Different strategies were introduced by pectin and HC1 to accumulate Al in response to aldehydes in wheat roots. Accumulation in pectin is based on a reduction of methylation levels in response to elevated pectin methylesterase activity and gene expression, whereas that in HC1 is associated with an increase in polysaccharide contents. These findings indicate that aldehydes exacerbate Al phytotoxicity by enhancing Al retention in cell wall polysaccharides.


Assuntos
Alumínio , Pectinas , Aldeídos/metabolismo , Aldeídos/toxicidade , Alumínio/toxicidade , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Desmetilação , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Plântula , Triticum/metabolismo
14.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 292, 2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35410124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: VQ motif-containing (VQ) proteins are cofactors of transcriptional regulation that are widely involved in plant growth and development and respond to various stresses. The VQ gene family has been identified and characterized for many plants, but there is little research on VQ gene family proteins in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). RESULTS: In this study, 113 TaVQ genes (40 homoeologous groups) were identified in the wheat genome. TaVQ proteins all contain the conserved motif FxxhVQxhTG, and most of the TaVQ genes do not contain introns. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that TaVQ proteins can be divided into 8 subgroups (I-VIII). The chromosomal location mapping analysis indicated that TaVQ genes are disproportionally distributed on 21 wheat chromosomes. Gene duplication analysis revealed that segmental duplication significantly contributes to the expansion of the TaVQ gene family. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that the expression pattern of TaVQ genes varies in different tissues. The results of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) found that TaVQ genes displayed different expression levels under different phytohormones and abiotic stresses. The cis-elements analysis of the promoter region demonstrated that stress responses, hormone responses, growth and development, and WRKY binding elements are all widely distributed. Additionally, a potential regulatory network between TaVQ proteins and WRKY transcription factors was visualized. CONCLUSION: This study systematically analyzed the wheat TaVQ gene family, providing a reference for further functional characterization of TaVQ genes in wheat.


Assuntos
Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Triticum , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo
15.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 264, 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35382737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The plant-specific IQ67-domain (IQD) gene family plays an important role in plant development and stress responses. However, little is known about the IQD family in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L), an agriculturally important crop that provides more than 20% of the calories and protein consumed in the modern human diet. RESULTS: We identified 125 IQDs in the wheat genome and divided them into four subgroups by phylogenetic analysis. The IQDs belonging to the same subgroup had similar exon-intron structure and conserved motif composition. Polyploidization contributed significantly to the expansion of IQD genes in wheat. Characterization of the expression profile of these genes revealed that a few T. aestivum (Ta)IQDs showed high tissue-specificity. The stress-induced expression pattern also revealed a potential role of TaIQDs in environmental adaptation, as TaIQD-2A-2, TaIQD-3A-9 and TaIQD-1A-7 were significantly induced by cold, drought and heat stresses, and could be candidates for future functional characterization. In addition, IQD genes in the A, B and D subgenomes displayed an asymmetric evolutionary pattern, as evidenced by their different gain or loss of member genes, expression levels and nucleotide diversity. CONCLUSIONS: This study elucidated the potential biological functions and evolutionary relationships of the IQD gene family in wheat and revealed the divergent fates of IQD genes during polyploidization.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas , Triticum , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo
16.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266368, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421137

RESUMO

Wheat crop is very sensitive to osmotic stress conditions. As an abiotic stress, drought may exert a considerable effect on the levels of specialized metabolites in plants. These metabolites may exert beneficial biological activities in the prevention or treatment of disorders linked to oxidative stress in plants and humans. Furthermore, osmoprotector accumulation helps wheat to increase the maintenance of osmotic balance. Therefore, identifying wheat genotypes with better drought tolerance is extremely important. In this sense, this research aimed to understand agronomic, physiological and biochemical responses of spring wheat strains and cultivars to drought stress, under field conditions, and jointly select strains via multi-trait index. We evaluated agronomic, physiological and biochemical variables in 18 genotypes under field condition. The results demonstrated that all variables were affected by the drought. Most genotypes were significantly reduced in grain yield, except VI_14774, VI_14668, VI_9007 and TBIO_ATON. The variables related to photosynthesis were also affected. An increase above 800% was observed in proline contents in genotypes under drought. Sodium and potassium also increased, mainly for VI_131313 (Na), while VI_130758 and VI_14774 presented increased K. We evaluated the antioxidant potential of the different strains and the total content of phenolic compounds. The most drought-responsive genotypes were BRS_264, VI_14050 and VI_14426. Reduced grain yield and photosynthetic variables, and increased specialized metabolism compounds are due to plant defense mechanisms against drought conditions. Furthermore, variation in genotypes can be explained by the fact that each plant presents a different defense and tolerance mechanism, which may also occur between genotypes of the same species. Four strains were selected by the multivariate index: VI_14055, VI_14001, VI_14426 and VI_1466. Such results allow us to predict which genotype(s) performed best in semi-arid environments and under climatic fluctuations.


Assuntos
Secas , Triticum , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Genótipo , Humanos , Fotossíntese/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Triticum/metabolismo
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(16): e2123299119, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35412884

RESUMO

SignificanceWheat is a globally important food crop that suffers major yield losses due to outbreaks of severe disease. A better mechanistic understanding of how wheat responds to pathogen attack could identify new strategies for enhancing disease resistance. Here, we discover six pathogen-induced biosynthetic pathways that share a common regulatory network and form part of an orchestrated defense response. Investigation of the wheat genome reveals that these pathways are each encoded by biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs). We further show that these BGCs produce flavonoids and terpenes that may serve as phytoalexins or defense-related signaling molecules. Our results provide key insights into the molecular basis of biotic stress responses in wheat and open potential avenues for crop improvement.


Assuntos
Vias Biossintéticas , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Doenças das Plantas , Triticum , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Pão , Resistência à Doença/genética , Família Multigênica/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 204, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35443615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CHY zinc-finger and RING finger (CHYR) proteins have been functionally characterized in plant growth, development and various stress responses. However, the genome-wide analysis was not performed in wheat. RESULTS: In this study, a total of 18 TaCHYR genes were identified in wheat and classified into three groups. All TaCHYR genes contained CHY-zinc finger, C3H2C3-type RING finger and zinc ribbon domains, and group III members included 1-3 hemerythrin domains in the N-terminus regions. TaCHYR genes in each group shared similar conserved domains distribution. Chromosomal location, synteny and cis-elements analysis of TaCHYRs were also analyzed. Real-time PCR results indicated that most of selected 9 TaCHYR genes exhibited higher expression levels in leaves during wheat seedling stage. All these TaCHYR genes were up-regulated after PEG treatment, and these TaCHYRs exhibited differential expression patterns in response to salt, cold and heat stress in seedling leaves. The growth of yeast cells expressing TaCHYR2.1, TaCHYR9.2 and TaCHYR11.1 were inhibited under salt and dehydration stress. Moreover, gene ontology (GO) annotation, protein interaction and miRNA regulatory network of TaCHYR genes were analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: These results increase our understanding of CHYR genes and provide robust candidate genes for further functional investigations aimed at crop improvement.


Assuntos
Pão , Triticum , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo
19.
Planta ; 255(5): 104, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416522

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The high affinity nitrate transport system is a potential target for improving nitrogen use efficiency of bread wheat growing either under optimal or limiting nitrate concentration. Nitrate uptake is one of the most important traits to take into account to improve nitrogen use efficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In this study, we aimed to gain an insight into the regulation of NO3- -uptake and translocation systems in two contrasting wheat genotypes [K9107(K9) vs. Choti Lerma (CL)]. Different conditions, such as NO3--uptake rates, soil-types, N-free solid external media, and external NO3- levels at the seedling stage, were considered. We also studied the contribution of homeolog expression of five genes encoding two nitrate transporters in the root tissue, along with their overall transcript expression levels relative to specific external nitrate availability. We observed that K9107 had a higher 15N influx than Choti Lerma under both limiting as well as optimum external N conditions in vermiculite-perlite (i.e., N-free solid) medium, with the improved translocation efficiency in Choti Lerma. However, in different soil types, different levels of 15N-enrichment in both the genotypes were found. Our results also demonstrated that the partitioning of dry matter in root and shoot was different under these growing conditions. Moreover, K9107 showed significantly higher relative expression of TaNRT2.1 at the lowest and TaNPF6.1 and TaNPF6.2 at the highest external nitrate concentrations. We also observed genotype-specific and nitrate starvation-dependent homeolog expression bias in all five nitrate transporter genes. Our data suggest that K9107 had a higher NO3- influx capacity, involving different nitrate transporters, than Choti Lerma at the seedling stage.


Assuntos
Nitratos , Triticum , Pão , Genótipo , Nitratos/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Solo , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo
20.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0267219, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35476844

RESUMO

The current social context requires an increase in food production, improvement of its quality characteristics and greater environmental sustainability in the management of agricultural systems. Technological innovation plays a great role in making agriculture more efficient and sustainable. One of the main aims of precision farming (PF) is optimizing yield and its quality, while minimizing environmental impacts and improving the efficient use of resources. Variable rate techniques (VRT) are amongst the main management options for PF, and they require spatial information. This work incorporates maps of soil properties from low induction electromagnetic measurements into nitrogen (N) balance calculations for a field application of VRT nitrogen fertilization of (Triticum durum Desf., var. Tirex). The trial was conducted in 2018-19 at Genzano di Lucania (PZ, Italy) geologically located on the clayey hillsides of the Bradanica pit and the Sant'Arcangelo basin. Three soil homogeneous areas were detected through low induction electromagnetic measurements and used as uniform management zones. The amount of nitrogen fertilizer to be applied by VRT was calculated on the base of estimated crop nitrogen uptake and soil characteristics of each homogeneous area. Crop response to VRT was compared to uniform nitrogen application (UA) on the whole field. The application of VRT resulted in a reduction of 25% nitrogen fertilizer with the same level of yield respect to UA. Grain protein content, as well as gluten content and N content, were significantly higher in VRT than in UA. As a consequence of lower nitrogen input and higher levels of N removal, VRT reached a higher nitrogen use efficiency than UA, and this indicates a lower environmental impact and a higher economic profitability.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Triticum , Fertilização , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Solo , Triticum/metabolismo
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