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1.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 44(5): 689-695, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35362770

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Control of adrenal vein is the key of adrenal surgery. Its anatomy can present variations. Our aim was to study the anatomy of the main left adrenal vein (LAV) and its anatomical variations. METHODS: Our work is based on dissection of 40 cadavers. We studied the number of LAV and the drainage of the main adrenal vein as well as its level of termination. We measured its length, its width and the distance between its termination level and the termination level of the gonadal vein (GV). RESULTS: The average length of the LAV was 21 mm its mean width was 5 mm. It ended in 100% of cases at the upper edge of the left renal vein after an anastomosis with the lower phrenic vein in 36 cases (90%) and without anastomosis with the lower phrenic vein in four cases (10%). The left adrenal vein ended at the upper edge of the left renal vein either at the same level as the termination of the left GV in 14 cases (35%) or within the termination of the left GV in 26 cases (65%) by an average of 8 mm. The LAV was unique central vein in 22 cases (55%) and in 12 cases (30%), a major central adrenal vein with several small veins was found. CONCLUSIONS: The LAV is usually unique but there are variations in number. There are also variations in the level of its termination in the left renal vein as well as its anastomosis. During surgery, in case of difficulty, the left GV and the adrenal-diaphragmatic venous trunk could be used as benchmarks.


Assuntos
Glândulas Suprarrenais , Veias Renais , Cadáver , Dissecação , Humanos , Veias Renais/anatomia & histologia , Veias/anatomia & histologia
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2155, 2022 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35140261

RESUMO

The influence of large vessels on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurement is generally considered negligible. Aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that changes in the vessel size, by varying the amount of absorbed NIR light, could profoundly affect NIRS blood volume indexes. Changes in haemoglobin concentration (tHb) and in tissue haemoglobin index (THI) were monitored over the basilic vein (BV) and over the biceps muscle belly, in 11 subjects (7 M - 4 F; age 31 ± 8 year) with simultaneous ultrasound monitoring of BV size. The arm was subjected to venous occlusion, according to two pressure profiles: slow (from 0 to 60 mmHg in 135 s) and rapid (0 to 40 mmHg maintained for 30 s). Both tHb and THI detected a larger blood volume increase (1.7 to 4 fold; p < 0.01) and exhibited a faster increase and a greater convexity on the BV than on the muscle. In addition, NIRS signals from BV exhibited higher correlation with changes in BV size than from muscle (r = 0.91 vs 0.55, p < 0.001 for THI). A collection of individual relevant recordings is also included. These results challenge the long-standing belief that the NIRS measurement is unaffected by large vessels and support the concept that large veins may be a major determinant of blood volume changes in multiple experimental conditions.


Assuntos
Volume Sanguíneo , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Veias/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/química , Ultrassonografia , Veias/diagnóstico por imagem
3.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 305(8): 1871-1891, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545690

RESUMO

Our knowledge of nasal cavity anatomy has grown considerably with the advent of micro-computed tomography (CT). More recently, a technique called diffusible iodine-based contrast-enhanced CT (diceCT) has rendered it possible to study nasal soft tissues. Using diceCT and histology, we aim to (a) explore the utility of these techniques for inferring the presence of venous sinuses that typify respiratory mucosa and (b) inquire whether distribution of vascular mucosa may relate to specialization for derived functions of the nasal cavity (i.e., nasal-emission of echolocation sounds) in bats. Matching histology and diceCT data indicate that diceCT can detect venous sinuses as either darkened, "empty" spaces, or radio-opaque islands when blood cells are present. Thus, we show that diceCT provides reliable information on vascular distribution in the mucosa of the nasal airways. Among the bats studied, a nonecholocating pteropodid (Cynopterus sphinx) and an oral-emitter of echolocation sounds (Eptesicus fuscus) possess venous sinus networks that drain into the sphenopalatine vein rostral to the nasopharynx. In contrast, nasopharyngeal passageways of nasal-emitting hipposiderids are notably packed with venous sinuses. The mucosae of the nasopharyngeal passageways are far less vascular in nasal-emitting phyllostomids, in which vascular mucosae are more widely distributed in the nasal cavity, and in some nectar-feeding species, a particularly large venous sinus is adjacent to the vomeronasal organ. Therefore, we do not find a common pattern of venous sinus distribution associated with nasal emission of sounds in phyllostomids and hipposiderids. Instead, vascular mucosa is more likely critical for air-conditioning and sometimes vomeronasal function in all bats.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Cavidade Nasal , Mucosa Nasal , Veias , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Animais , Quirópteros/anatomia & histologia , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Ecolocação/fisiologia , Cavidade Nasal/anatomia & histologia , Cavidade Nasal/irrigação sanguínea , Cavidade Nasal/citologia , Cavidade Nasal/diagnóstico por imagem , Mucosa Nasal/anatomia & histologia , Mucosa Nasal/irrigação sanguínea , Mucosa Nasal/citologia , Mucosa Nasal/diagnóstico por imagem , Veias/anatomia & histologia , Veias/citologia , Veias/diagnóstico por imagem
4.
JCI Insight ; 6(21)2021 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546977

RESUMO

We recently described a transtentorial venous system (TTVS), which to our knowledge was previously unknown, connecting venous drainage throughout the brain in humans. Prior to this finding, it was believed that the embryologic tentorial plexus regresses, resulting in a largely avascular tentorium. Our finding contradicted this understanding and necessitated further investigation into the development of the TTVS. Herein, we sought to investigate mice as a model to study the development of this system. First, using vascular casting and ex vivo micro-CT, we demonstrated that this TTVS is conserved in adult mice. Next, using high-resolution MRI, we identified the primitive tentorial venous plexus in the murine embryo at day 14.5. We also found that, at this embryologic stage, the tentorial plexus drains the choroid plexus. Finally, using vascular casting and micro-CT, we found that the TTVS is the dominant venous drainage in the early postnatal period (P8). Herein, we demonstrated that the TTVS is conserved between mice and humans, and we present a longitudinal study of its development. In addition, our findings establish mice as a translational model for further study of this system and its relationship to intracranial physiology.


Assuntos
Veias/anatomia & histologia , Veias/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos
5.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 43(12): 2071-2076, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432130

RESUMO

PURPOSE: An antegrade approach is frequently used in catheter-directed thrombolysis to remove deep-vein thrombosis. However, the antegrade approach is difficult when accessing veins with small diameters; therefore, understanding the variation of deep calf vein is important. METHODS: This study measured the diameters and surface areas of the proximal and distal posterior tibial vein, peroneal vein, and anterior tibial vein to determine which are preferable for venous access. This study dissected 132 legs from Korean and Thai cadavers. The proximal and distal posterior tibial vein, peroneal vein, and anterior tibial vein were scanned and measured. RESULTS: The mean diameter and surface area were largest for the proximal tibial vein, at 6.34 mm and 0.312 cm2, respectively, followed by the anterior tibial vein (5.22 mm and 0.213 cm2), distal posterior tibial vein (3.29 mm and 0.091 cm2), and peroneal vein (3.43 mm and 0.081 cm2). The proximal posterior tibial vein and anterior tibial vein have large diameters and surface areas, which make them ideal for applying an antegrade approach in catheter-directed thrombolysis. CONCLUSIONS: The distal posterior tibial vein and peroneal vein are not recommended due to their smaller surface areas and also the anatomical variations therein.


Assuntos
Perna (Membro)/anatomia & histologia , Perna (Membro)/irrigação sanguínea , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cadáver , Cateteres , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Trombolítica/instrumentação , Veias/anatomia & histologia
6.
Clin Anat ; 34(8): 1208-1214, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448241

RESUMO

Recipient vessel selection for free flap reconstruction depends on numerous factors and may be limited due to previous treatment. Currently, little evidence is available regarding the anatomy and reconstructive potential of the common facial vein (CFV), a tributary of the internal jugular vein (IJV). The aim of this project was to determine the diameter of the CFV at various points along its course and identify suitable landmarks to locate the CFV, to consider the vessel as a potential recipient vein in free flap reconstruction. A cadaveric study was conducted by dissecting 17 embalmed neck hemi-sections in the Keele University Medical School Anatomy Suite. Our intent was to describe the gross anatomy of the CFV in terms of diameter and relation to surrounding structures. We found the mean diameter of the CFV to be 5.9 (± 1.8) mm at its termination into the IJV. We also found the mean distance of the CFV termination into the IJV from the level of the hyoid bone was 8.0 (± 4.0) mm. The diameter of the CFV could accommodate for end-to-end anastomoses to be formed with the IJV system. The diameter also suggests the vein to be appropriate for microvascular anastomosis with commonly used free flaps. The results propose that the CFV can be found within 12 mm of the level of the hyoid bone, knowledge of which could reduce operative time and site morbidity. These findings support the CFV as a potential recipient vein in free flap reconstruction of the head and neck.


Assuntos
Face/irrigação sanguínea , Retalhos de Tecido Biológico/irrigação sanguínea , Veias/anatomia & histologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anastomose Cirúrgica/métodos , Cadáver , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Heart Rhythm ; 18(11): 1951-1958, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitral isthmus gaps have been ascribed to an epicardial musculature anatomically related to the great cardiac vein (GCV) and the vein of Marshall (VOM). Their lumen offers an access for radiofrequency application or ethanol infusion, respectively. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of mitral isthmus gaps accessible via the GCV lumen, to assess their location around the GCV circumference, and to propose an efficient ablation strategy when present. METHODS: One hundred consecutive patients underwent VOM ethanol infusion (step 1) and endocardial linear ablation from the mitral annulus to the left inferior pulmonary vein (step 2). In cases of mitral isthmus gap, endovascular ablation of the GCV anchored wall facing the left atrium was systematically performed (step 3), while the opposite GCV free wall was targeted in case of block failure only (step 4). RESULTS: After VOM ethanol infusion and endocardial ablation, mitral isthmus block occurred in 51 patients (51%). Pacing maneuvers and activation sequences demonstrated an epicardial gap via the VOM in 2 patients (2%) and via the GCV in 47 patients (47%). In the latter case, block was achieved at the GCV anchored wall in 42 patients (89%) and the GCV free wall in 5 patients (11%). Global success rate of mitral isthmus block was 98%. No tamponade occurred. CONCLUSION: With the advent of VOM ethanol infusion, residual mitral isthmus gaps are mostly eliminated within the first centimeter of the GCV. Thorough mapping of the entire circumference of the GCV wall can help identify these epicardial gaps.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Ablação por Cateter , Vasos Coronários/anatomia & histologia , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Músculo Liso Vascular/anatomia & histologia , Veias/anatomia & histologia , Idoso , Mapeamento Epicárdico , Feminino , Bloqueio Cardíaco/etiologia , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pericárdio/anatomia & histologia
8.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 60(5): 103198, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to determine the phlebotomy and procedural outcomes using a vein assessment tool (VAT) in Double Dose Platelet (DDP) collections by apheresis. METHODS: VAT was based on assessing vein visibility, palpation and size with maximum score of 12 and the least being 0 and the scores were graded as adequate and inadequate. A vein-viewer was used for studying cubital vein patterns (type 1-5). Phlebotomy outcome was defined based on need for re-puncture. Procedural outcomes in terms of target yield attained and RBC reinfusion completed. Chi square test and Mann- Whitney U test were used to assess the vein score and pattern against phlebotomy and procedural outcome. RESULTS: Out of 200 DDP collections, the phlebotomy was successful in 88 % with good procedural outcome in 94 % donations. The cut off in VAT scores for successful phlebotomy was ≥8 (AUC: 70 %). Median vein scores of the arm selected for phlebotomy was 9 and graded adequate in 154 (77 %) donations.Odds for successful phlebotomy was 3.7 times higher when donors had an adequate VAT grades(p = 0.003). Procedural outcomes was favourable when at least one arm had adequate VAT grade when compared to both arms being inadequate (98 % vs 82 %; p < 0.001). Phlebotomy failure was more with first time apheresis donors than repeat apheresis donors (p = 0.014). CONCLUSION: This study indicated that a VAT score with a cut off of ≥8 had better phlebotomy and procedural outcomes in DDP collections and that donor with at least one arm having the VAT score of ≥8 are preferred for DDP collections.


Assuntos
Remoção de Componentes Sanguíneos/métodos , Plaquetas/citologia , Plaquetoferese/instrumentação , Plaquetoferese/métodos , Veias/anatomia & histologia , Veias/fisiologia , Adulto , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos/instrumentação , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos/métodos , Doadores de Sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Flebotomia , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
9.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 217(2): 411-417, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. The left inferior phrenic vein (LIPV) can be an origin of a gastrorenal shunt from gastric varices. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the angiographic anatomy of the LIPV, particularly anastomoses of the LIPV with the portal vein (PV). SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Of 240 patients with primary aldosteronism who underwent adrenal venous sampling from April 2011 to July 2019, 236 had normal liver and renal function and were included in this study. Of those patients, 214 had evaluable LIPV venography. The angiographic anatomy of the LIPV was classified as type 1 when the subdiaphragmatic transverse part of the LIPV could be visualized or as type 2 when it could not. Type 1 was subclassified into type 1a, which was defined as the transverse part of the LIPV connected with a single vein, or type 1b, which was defined as the transverse part of the LIPV connected with several veins via anastomoses. Type 2 LIPVs were subclassified into type 2a, in which the LIPV had an undeveloped vertical part; type 2b, in which the LIPV had backflow into systemic veins; or type 2c, in which the LIPV had a connection to the PV. The presence of an anastomosis with the PV was defined as the PV being visualizable on LIPV venography. RESULTS. Assessment of LIPV venography revealed type 1 in 71.5% (153/214) of patients, including type 1a (22.4%, 48/214) and type 1b (49.1%, 105/214). Type 2 LIPVs were observed in 28.5% (61/214) of patients, including types 2a (6.5%, 14/214), 2b (11.2%, 24/214), and 2c (10.7%, 23/214). An anastomosis of the LIPV with the PV was found in 28.0% (60/214) of patients, including 10.7% (23/214) with type 2c and 17.3% (37/214) with type 1 with a visible PV. The anastomoses of the LIPV with the PV were of various sizes. CONCLUSION. The angiographic anatomy of the LIPV varied and was commonly formed from several veins connected by anastomoses. An anastomosis between the LIPV and PV, which might be the origin of gastric varices, was found in 28.0% of patients.


Assuntos
Diafragma/anatomia & histologia , Diafragma/irrigação sanguínea , Adulto , Idoso , Angiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Veias/anatomia & histologia
10.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804224

RESUMO

The measurement of glycemia is impacted by several constraints; those constraints have to be identified and quantified when designing an electromagnetic noninvasive sensor. The second phase concerns the level of the influence of these constraints. In this work, we investigated the impact of vein radius located in the forearm on a resonant microwave sensor to measure glycemia. We performed a numerical simulation using COMSOL Multiphysics of a proposed tissue model that was in contact with a microwave resonator. Some other factors affect the measurement, such as temperature, perfusion, sensor positioning and motion, tissue heterogeneity, and other biological activity. The sensor must be robust to the above-mentioned constraints. Because vein size changes from one person to another, the dielectric properties seen by the sensor will be different. This has been demonstrated by the change created in the resonance frequency of the simulated sensor for different vein sizes. The second constraint that was assessed is the dosimetry. The specific absorption rate (SAR) of any electromagnetic device should be evaluated and compared with SAR limits in the safety standards to ensure the safety of the user. Simulation results are in good agreement with SAR limits in the safety standards.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Glicemia/análise , Micro-Ondas , Veias/anatomia & histologia , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Temperatura
11.
Clin Anat ; 34(7): 1087-1094, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905588

RESUMO

There is little anatomical evidence about the venous plexus in the floor of the oral cavity, although venous injury can elicit late postoperative bleeding after oral surgery and it is difficult to identify the exact location of such an injury. The aim of this study was to assess the relative risk for venous injury during surgery. We investigated the course patterns of the venous plexus in the floor of the oral cavity and analyzed their relationships to those of the arteries using 23 human cadavers (41 halves) in the anatomy course at Niigata University during 2016-2018. The venous plexus in the floor of the oral cavity comprised the perforating submental vein, the vena comitans of the hypoglossal nerve, the vena comitans of the submandibular duct, the vena comitans of the lingual nerve, the sublingual vein, and the deep lingual vein. Individual variations of this plexus include duplications or absences of some veins. There is a high incidence of a submental branch running above the mylohyoid or perforating submental artery in the sublingual fossa among individuals with the perforating submental vein piercing the mylohyoid muscle, whereas the sublingual artery has a high incidence there when there is no perforating submental vein. The course patterns of arteries in the floor of the oral cavity can be predicted by estimating the course patterns of the submental veins. The course patterns of the submental veins or veins associated with the nerves and submandibular duct need to be carefully considered during surgery.


Assuntos
Variação Anatômica , Boca/irrigação sanguínea , Boca/cirurgia , Veias/anatomia & histologia , Cadáver , Feminino , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Bucais
12.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 43(7): 1159-1168, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399919

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the anatomical features encountered in the parietal foramen in a series of 178 human bones and 123 head MRI examinations. A cadaveric specimen was also dissected to demonstrate the trajectory of a superficial scalp vein through the parietal foramen as far as the dura mater. A literature review was performed regarding prevalence of parietal foramen in different populations. METHODS: Totally, 178 paired adult bones were used to investigate the presence, shape and number of the parietal foramina. In addition, 123 brain MRI examinations were also studied. RESULTS: The parietal foramina were encountered in 75/89 (84.3%) skulls [32/38 (84.2%) in women vs. 43/51 (84.3%) in men, p > 0.05]. The parietal foramen was present bilaterally in 44.73% of females and 54.9% of males. Regarding unilaterality of the parietal foramen, a right or left laterality was observed in female 21% right versus 18% left; and 16% versus 14% (left) in males (p > 0.05). The accessory parietal foramen was present in the right parietal in 2.6% and in 7.9% on the left side of the females, while 5.9% and 3.9% of the males on the right or left sides, respectively. The parietal foramina located in the proximity of the sagittal suture (male 7.1 ± 2.5 mm vs. female, 7.4 ± 2.7 mm). There was a positive correlation between the right and left parietal foramina regarding the distance from the median line. The distance from a foramen to the contralateral one was 16 ± 4 mm in men and 18 ± 5 mm in women, respectively (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: No major differences were encountered between sexes regarding the anatomical features of parietal foramen.


Assuntos
Variação Anatômica , Osso Parietal/irrigação sanguínea , Couro Cabeludo/irrigação sanguínea , Veias/anatomia & histologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cadáver , Dissecação , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osso Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Prevalência , Couro Cabeludo/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
13.
World Neurosurg ; 145: 381-395, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049379

RESUMO

The venous drainage of the vertebral and paravertebral regions is important for a better understanding of hematogenous disease spread. Moreover, the spine surgeon must be well acquainted with this anatomy to minimize intraoperative and postoperative complications. A comprehensive review of the vertebral venous plexus (Batson plexus) was performed with a concentration on the clinical and surgical correlations of this venous network.


Assuntos
Coluna Vertebral/irrigação sanguínea , Veias/anatomia & histologia , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Neuroanatomia/história
14.
Surg Today ; 51(4): 627-633, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940788

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Intraoperative bleeding from the pelvic venous structures is one of the most serious complications of total pelvic exenteration with distal sacrectomy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the topographic anatomy of these veins and the potential source of the bleeding in cadaver dissections. METHODS: We dissected seven cadavers, focusing on the veins in the surgical resection line for total pelvic exenteration with distal sacrectomy. RESULTS: The presacral venous plexus and the dorsal vein complex are thin-walled, plexiform, and situated on the line of resection. The internal iliac vein receives blood from the pelvic viscera and the perineal and the gluteal regions and then crosses the line of resection as a high-flow venous system. It has abundant communications with the presacral venous plexus and the dorsal vein complex. CONCLUSION: The anatomical features of the presacral venous plexus, the dorsal vein complex, and the internal iliac vein make them highly potential sources of bleeding. Surgical management strategies must consider the anatomy and hemodynamics of these veins carefully to perform this procedure safely.


Assuntos
Pelve/irrigação sanguínea , Pelve/cirurgia , Veias/anatomia & histologia , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Cadáver , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Veia Ilíaca/anatomia & histologia , Veia Ilíaca/fisiologia , Exenteração Pélvica/métodos , Veias/fisiologia
15.
J Morphol ; 282(3): 368-377, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368528

RESUMO

We studied urinary bladders of adult male and female Xenopus laevis using light microscopy of stained tissue sections and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of vascular corrosion casts (VCCs). Results showed that bilaterally a vesical artery branched off the femoral artery. At the dorso-lateral serosal surface of the body of the bladder each artery splitted within a short distance into up to five smaller arteries that supplied body and neck regions. Arteries gave off short and long terminal arterioles, which fed the mucosal capillary meshwork. Long terminal arterioles followed dimensional changes of the bladder, while short ones anchored the capillary network to the arterial system. Capillary mesh sizes and shapes varied according to the filling state of the urinary bladder. In the highly to moderately distended (filled) bladder, capillaries were rather straight or undulated only slightly, in the contracted (emptied) bladder they undulated strongly and lay side by side. Postcapillary venules formed by two equally sized capillaries or from capillaries, which serially drained into a small postcapillary venule. Vesical venules formed a large dorsal vesical and a varying number of smaller lateral and ventral vesical veins. The dorsal vesical vein drained either directly or via the posterior hemorrhoidal vein into the common pelvic vein. Lateral and ventral vesical veins also drained into the latter. The vascular patterns found were discussed in respect to the bladder spatial movements during distention (filling) and relaxation (emptying). Furthermore, it was hypothesized that an extensively filled bladder could compress the overlaying abdominal vein forcing part of the blood otherwise drained towards the liver to be detoured via the renal portal veins to the kidneys.


Assuntos
Molde por Corrosão , Microvasos/anatomia & histologia , Microvasos/ultraestrutura , Bexiga Urinária/anatomia & histologia , Bexiga Urinária/irrigação sanguínea , Xenopus laevis/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Artérias/anatomia & histologia , Arteríolas/anatomia & histologia , Capilares/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Masculino , Bexiga Urinária/ultraestrutura , Veias/anatomia & histologia
16.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 43(3): 389-396, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164135

RESUMO

PURPOSE: With advances in diagnostic imaging techniques of gastric cancer screening with X-ray fluoroscopy, it has been suggested that mucosal projections induced by the vessels distributed in the submucosal layer of the stomach may be mistaken for abnormal mucosal folds. In this study, we aimed to describe the distribution of blood vessels in the submucosal layer of the stomach to improve the diagnostic accuracy of screening of gastric cancer. METHODS: Twenty-four stomachs from Japanese cadavers were used in this study. Uncolored or colored contrast agents were injected into arteries and/or veins for macroscopic analyses, X-ray imaging, and methyl salicylate clearing. In addition, histological analysis was performed to examine blood vessels distributed inside the stomach wall. RESULTS: Following contrast agent injection, thick blood vessels were distributed perpendicular to both curvature sides, and branches parallel to both curvature sides flowed from these thick blood vessels, and a vascular network was formed throughout the stomach wall. This vascular network had intra-mural anastomoses connecting both curvature sides. Moreover, in histological analyses, blood vessels depicted by injection were mainly distributed in the submucosal layer. CONCLUSION: This study strongly suggests that the mucosal projections induced by arteries and veins in the submucosal layer could be mistaken for abnormal mucosal folds. Therefore, a better understanding of the vascular distribution in the submucosal layer is important to improve diagnostic accuracy from imaging studies of the stomach. The information provided by this research may facilitate better accuracy in diagnosis and reduce the number of unnecessary invasive procedures.


Assuntos
Artérias/anatomia & histologia , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Mucosa Gástrica/irrigação sanguínea , Veias/anatomia & histologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artérias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cadáver , Feminino , Fluoroscopia , Mucosa Gástrica/diagnóstico por imagem , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Veias/diagnóstico por imagem
17.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 74(7): 1615-1620, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Volumetric rejuvenation of the dorsum of the hand with fat grafting or injectable fillers has increased in popularity in recent years. It has become widely accepted that the dorsum of the hand contains three fatty laminae: superficial, intermediate, and deep laminae. The dorsal venous plexus and dorsal cutaneous nerves are known to reside in the dorsal intermediate lamina. However, the superficial vein and cutaneous nerve might not be located in the same layer of subcutaneous tissue, as is the case in other body regions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight hands were dissected in a layer-by-layer fashion from the skin to the extensor tendons. In another 13 hands from among 21 investigated cadavers, samples from the dorsum of the hand were harvested and stained using trichrome stains for histologic analysis. B-mode ultrasound was also performed for identifying structures of the dorsum of the hand. RESULTS: Anatomic dissection and histologic analysis of the dorsum of the hand revealed the presence of an unknown fascia in addition to the three known fascial layers. The additional fascia was located in the dorsal intermediate lamina and separated it into two compartments: one containing the dorsal venous plexus superficially and the other containing the dorsal cutaneous nerves deeply. Ultrasound showed corresponding structures including three hyperechoic fascial layers, three hypoechoic laminae, and additional hyperechoic fascia in dorsal intermediate lamina. CONCLUSIONS: Accurate anatomic knowledge of the dorsum of the hand will help practitioners determine the optimal and safe locations for performing fat grafting and injecting dermal fillers.


Assuntos
Técnicas Cosméticas , Mãos/anatomia & histologia , Rejuvenescimento , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fáscia/anatomia & histologia , Fáscia/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Mãos/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pele/anatomia & histologia , Pele/diagnóstico por imagem , Pele/inervação , Ultrassonografia , Veias/anatomia & histologia , Veias/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242214, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196658

RESUMO

Current clinical and anatomical studies show that the venous problem associated with the deep inferior epigastric perforator flap results from poor midline-crossing. We examined the venous anatomy of the infraumbilical midline area and the dynamic venous flow of the deep inferior epigastric perforator flap in nine fresh cadavers. All nine abdominal specimens were harvested between the subcostal margin and the groin crease. Two specimens were used to analyze the abdominal venous anatomy, one of which was divided into two hemi-abdominal specimens. The remaining seven specimens were harvested as deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps with one major paraumbilical perforator. Venous cannulation and serial angiographic agent injection were performed in several conditions. Each specimen was radiographed using a soft X-ray system. For additional information, computed tomography (CT) angiography-visualized superficial inferior epigastric veins (SIEVs) and the supraumbilical branch were analyzed. We noted that the venous drainage between the bilateral SIEVs was easier to configure in the supraumbilical area than in the infraumbilical area. Only one to two short polygonal venous networks connect the bilateral superficial inferior epigastric veins in the supraumbilical area; however, long and multiple polygonal venous networks connect the bilateral superficial inferior epigastric veins in the infraumbilical area, which could be a predisposing factor for venous congestion. The mean distance from the umbilicus upper border to evident supraumbilical midline crossover was 18.39±4.03 mm (range: 10.10-28.49) in CT angiograms. In cadaver specimens, the mean distance was 10.87±4.85 mm (range: 4.6-18.9). Supraumbilical midline crossover was more favorable than infraumbilical midline crossover in venous flow.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Veias/anatomia & histologia , Abdome/irrigação sanguínea , Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Cadáver , Drenagem , Artérias Epigástricas/anatomia & histologia , Artérias Epigástricas/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperemia/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Umbigo/irrigação sanguínea , Umbigo/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
Appl Opt ; 59(28): 8751-8758, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104557

RESUMO

Biometric authentication is the recognition of human identity via unique anatomical features. The development of novel methods parallels widespread application by consumer devices, law enforcement, and access control. In particular, methods based on finger veins, as compared to face and fingerprints, obviate privacy concerns and degradation due to wear, age, and obscuration. However, they are two-dimensional (2D) and are fundamentally limited by conventional imaging and tissue-light scattering. In this work, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, we demonstrate a method of three-dimensional (3D) finger vein biometric authentication based on photoacoustic tomography. Using a compact photoacoustic tomography setup and a novel recognition algorithm, the advantages of 3D are demonstrated via biometric authentication of index finger vessels with false acceptance, false rejection, and equal error rates <1.23%, <9.27%, and <0.13%, respectively, when comparing one finger, a false acceptance rateimprovement>10× when comparing multiple fingers, and <0.7% when rotating fingers ±30.


Assuntos
Identificação Biométrica/métodos , Dedos/irrigação sanguínea , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Técnicas Fotoacústicas/instrumentação , Tomografia/instrumentação , Veias/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador
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