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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682013

RESUMO

Sandy soils in tropical areas are more vulnerable to potential toxic elements as a result of their low nutrition. The composite addition of biochar and phosphate material is considered a promising method of immobilizing toxic metals in sandy soils, but the synergistic effects of this process still need to be further explored, especially in typical tropical vegetables. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the agronomic and toxic metal-immobilization effects of single amendments (phosphate rock, activated phosphate rock, and biochar) and combined amendments, including biochar mixed with phosphate rock (BCPR) and biochar mixed with activated phosphate rock (BCAPR), on vegetables grown in tropical sandy soil. Among these amendments, the composite amendment BCAPR was the most effective for increasing Ca, Mg, and P uptake based on water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica L.) and pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), showing increased ratios of 22.5%, 146.0%, and 136.0%, respectively. The SEM-EDS and FTIR analysis verified that the activation process induced by humic acid resulted in the complexation and chelation of the elements P, Ca, and Mg into bioavailable forms. Furthermore, the retention of available nutrition elements was enhanced due to the strong adsorption capacity of the biochar. In terms of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) passivation, the formation of insoluble mineral precipitates reduced the mobility of these metals within the BCAPR treatments, with the maximum level of extractable Cd (86.6%) and Pb (39.2%) reduction being observed in the tropical sandy soil. These results explore the use of sustainable novel cost-effective and highly efficient bi-functional mineral-based soil amendments for metal passivation and plant protection.


Assuntos
Ipomoea , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , Carvão Vegetal , Chumbo/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Fosfatos/análise , Areia , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Verduras
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682216

RESUMO

Plasma-activated water (PAW) has received a lot of attention lately because of its antibacterial efficacy and eco-friendly nature. Compared to traditional disinfectants, this novel and intriguing option has a high disinfectant capacity while causing little to no modifications to the foodstuffs. Until now, PAW has successfully demonstrated its effectiveness against a broad range of microorganisms on a wide variety of food items. Though the efficacy of PAW in microbial reduction has been extensively reviewed, a relatively significant issue of food quality has been largely overlooked. This review aims to summarize the current studies on the physicochemical characteristics and antimicrobial potential of PAW, with an in-depth focus on food quality and safety. According to recent studies, PAW can be a potential microbial disinfectant that extends the shelf life of various food products, such as meat and fish products, fruits and vegetables, cereal products, etc. However, the efficacy varies with treatment conditions and the food ingredients applied. There is a mixed opinion about the effect of PAW on food quality. Based on the available literature, it can be concluded that there has been no substantial change in the biochemical properties of most of the tested food products. However, some fruits and vegetables had a higher value for the enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) after PAW treatment, while only a few demonstrated a decrease in the Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value. Sensory properties also showed no significant difference, with some exceptions in meat and fish products.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Água , Animais , Desinfetantes/química , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Produtos Pesqueiros , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Verduras , Água/química
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682322

RESUMO

Background: This study was to culturally adapt a lifestyle intervention for employees' obesity control and prevention using a participatory process, and evaluate the effectiveness of the project at worksites. Methods: A group randomized experimental study included four worksites (two intervention, two control) in the Yangtze River Delta in China was conducted. A total of 388 participants (216 in the intervention worksites and 172 in the control worksites) were finally recruited from 955 employees at the four worksites (464 in the intervention worksites and 491 in the control worksites). The final evaluation was completed by two hundred and seventy-eight employees (159 in the intervention worksites and 119 in the control worksites, respectively). Data of demographic information, weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and weight-related behaviors including diary behaviors and physical activities were collected before and after a 12-month intervention and analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, chi-square test, linear mixed regression and logistic mixed regression. Results: Although the intervention worksites had a reduction in body mass index (23.21 to 22.95, p < 0.01), hip circumference (95.97 to 95.28, p = 0.03) and waist-to-height ratio (0.49 to 0.48, p = 0.01), the differential changes compared to those of the control group were not statistically significant. The frequency of sweet beverages (-1.81, 95%CI: -0.52, -3.11), frequency of vegetable intake (5.66, 95%CI: 1.59, 9.74), daily servings of vegetables (0.53, 95%CI: 0.24, 0.82), frequency of fruit intake (3.68, 95%CI: 1.25, 6.12), daily servings of fruit (0.26, 95%CI: 0.44, 0.92), daily servings of vegetables and fruit (0.79, 95%CI: 0.43, 1.16), daily steps (863.19, 95%CI: 161.42, 1564.97) and self-efficacy to change physical activity (OR = 1.91, 95%CI: 1.02,3.60) were more improved in the intervention group than were those measures in the control group. Conclusions: The worksite-based lifestyle intervention project for obesity control and prevention improved several employees' dietary behaviors and physical activities at worksites in China in a short time. Long-term intervention with larger samples in more worksites should be further examined.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Local de Trabalho , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Verduras
4.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0260684, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35700182

RESUMO

Global climate change is having a significant effect on agriculture by causing greater precipitation variability and an increased risk of drought. To mitigate these effects, it is important to identify specific traits, adaptations, and germplasm that improve tolerance to soil water deficit. Local varieties, known as landraces, have undergone generations of farmer-mediated selection and can serve as sources of variation, specifically for tolerance to abiotic stress. Landraces can possess local adaptations, where accessions adapted to a particular environment will outperform others grown under the same conditions. We explore adaptations to water deficit in chile pepper landraces from across an environmental gradient in Mexico, a center of crop domestication and diversity, as well in improved varieties bred for the US. In the present study, we evaluated 25 US and Mexico accessions in a greenhouse experiment under well-watered and water deficit conditions and measured morphological, physiological, and agronomic traits. Accession and irrigation regime influenced plant biomass and height, while branching, CO2 assimilation, and fruit weight were all influenced by an interaction between accession and irrigation. A priori group contrasts revealed possible adaptations to water deficit for branching, CO2 assimilation, and plant height associated with geographic origin, domestication level, and pepper species. Additionally, within the Mexican landraces, the number of primary branches had a strong relationship with precipitation from the environment of origin. This work provides insight into chile pepper response to water deficit and adaptation to drought and identifies possibly tolerant germplasm.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Dióxido de Carbono , Domesticação , Melhoramento Vegetal , Verduras , Água
5.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 54(3): 526-531, 2022 Jun 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35701131

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the introduction of vegetables and fruits in 4-8 months old infants, and to describe the maternal and infants' characteristics associated with the introduction of vegetables and fruits. METHODS: Mother-infant dyads (n=228) were recruited from 12 to 16 weeks postpartum and formally entered the study at 4 months of age. Data collected via face to face interview at 4-8 months postpartum, including the timing and types of added vegetables and fruits, as well as a variety of maternal and infant characteristics (n=204). Rank sum test and multiple linear regression were used to analyze the maternal and infant characteristics related to the introduction of vegetables and fruits. RESULTS: The time of introducing vegetables was concentrated at the age of 7 months, and the time of adding fruits was mainly at 6 months. Fruits were added earlier than vegetables (P < 0.001), and the variety of the added fruits was higher than that of vegetables (P=0.045). 48% (n=98) of infants had no more than three types of fruits and vegetables at 8 months. Only 9.8% (n=20) had added more than 10 kinds of fruits and vegetables at 8 months. Green leafy vegetables were the most commonly added vegetable, and apple was the most popular fruit. Compared with women who were 35 years of age or younger, women beyond 35 years old introduced vegetables to their babies 0.6 months later. 4-month-old exclusively breastfed infants had vegetables 0.4 months later than mixed-fed infants. Women with a bachelor's degree or above added 2-3 more types of fruits and vegetables to their babies than those with junior high school education and below. CONCLUSION: The adding time of fruits was earlier than that of vegetable. Apples and green leafy vegetables are commonly added. Women with lower educational backgrounds add fewer types of fruits and vegetables to their babies. Mothers who choose exclusive breastfeeding and those over 35 years of age at childbirth add vegetables to their babies later than others. They should be targeted for health promotion programs that aim to improve the intake of fruits and vegetables among infants.


Assuntos
Frutas , Verduras , Adulto , Pequim , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9825, 2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35701477

RESUMO

The factors associated with cognitive decline among older adults include physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake. However, the long-term effects of concomitant physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake are unknown. This 16-year longitudinal study explored the joint effect of mitigating cognitive decline in a cohort of older Taiwanese individuals. Five population-based surveys (Taiwan Longitudinal Survey on Aging [1999-2015]) involving 4440 respondents over 53 years old in 1999 were conducted. Cognitive function was assessed using the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ). The demographic, socioeconomic, health-related, behavioral, and disease status covariates were adjusted in the regression analysis. Trends in cognitive decline were observed over 16 years. The risk of cognitive decline decreased by 63% when high physical activity and high fruit and vegetable intake were combined (odds ratio 0.37; 95% confidence interval 0.23-0.59), indicating a potential combined effect of physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake on mitigating cognitive decline. These personal actions are safe, effective, and economical approaches to health promotion and disease prevention.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Frutas , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Verduras
7.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 51(3): 428-496, 2022 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35718906

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop the nutrient profiling model based on the nutrition and health status of Chinese residents, and comprehensively evaluate the nutritional quality of food and dietary pattern. METHODS: Nutrient-and food group-indexes closely related to the main health problems of Chinese residents were screened and determined based on the level of evidence. Different food and dietary patterns were taken as examples to calculate the nutrient dense score. RESULTS: The nutrient indexes of this model included protein, dietary fiber, vitamin D, sodium, potassium, calcium, saturated fatty acid and sugar. Food group indexes included whole grain and legume, fruit, vegetable, soybean and nut. CONCLUSION: Nutrient profiling model included both nutrient-and food group-indexes could provide a more comprehensive evaluation on nutrient density of food and diet, and the rationality of diet align with dietary guidelines.


Assuntos
Dieta , Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Valor Nutritivo , Verduras , Vitaminas
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682484

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of environmental pollution and the living conditions of indigenous Ecuadorians on the transmission of enteroparasites in an Andean agricultural area located at high altitude. Environmental pollution was recorded after observation in each community. The parasites were identified by microscopic sediment analysis using physiological saline solution from macerated arthropods, washed vegetables, and human stools, utilizing four coproparasitological techniques (direct examination, Kato-Katz, ether concentration, and Ziehl-Neelsen). The results show that the inadequate disposal of human and animal excreta that contaminate soil and water, incorrect food hygiene, inadequate sanitary infrastructure in houses, a lack of animal veterinary care, and rodent proliferation are important reservoirs of zoonotic parasites. The use of excrement as fertilizer increases the number of flies, which act as mechanical vectors, and vegetables grown in areas with disperse infective parasitic forms act as vehicles that are marketed at the local, regional, and international levels. These analyses verify contamination levels of 52.7% in mechanical vectors, 70.6% in vegetables, and 98.2% in human stools. The agricultural communities analyzed maintained poor hygienic-sanitary and environmental conditions, which had a significant influence on the transmission of enteroparasites that affect human health.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias , Parasitos , Animais , Equador , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Prevalência , Condições Sociais , Verduras
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(7): 516, 2022 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35731304

RESUMO

The presence of pesticide residues in agricultural products is posing serious health concerns for consumers. This study monitored the concentrations of pesticide residues in some selected fruit and vegetables, and their potential health risks were also assessed. Organochlorine (OCPs) and organophosphate (OPPs) residues were extracted and quantified with a gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric detector. A total of 38 pesticide residues were identified and the results showed mean concentration (mg/kg fresh weight) of (OCPs) residues ranging from 0.02 to 0.37 and (OPPs) residues ranging from 0.01 to 0.33. The concentrations (mg/kg) of isodrin, heptachlor, dicofol, prothiophos, profenofos and dichlorvos were above the maximum residue limit. The non-carcinogenic health risk estimates revealed a possible potential health risk from consumption of the fruits and vegetables in adults and children for most of the pesticide residues. The cancer risk assessment estimates gave values below 10-6 which suggests no probable cancer risk. As a result of the increasing trend in pesticide use in Nigeria, routine monitoring of pesticide residues in agricultural produce is a necessity to ensure the safety of consumers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Frutas/química , Humanos , Nigéria , Organofosfatos/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Verduras/química
10.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1238, 2022 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35733142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health behavior interventions, especially those that promote improved diet and physical activity, are increasingly directed toward cancer survivors given their burgeoning numbers and high risk for comorbidity and functional decline. However, for health behavior interventions to achieve maximal public health impact, sustainability at both the individual and organizational levels is crucial. The current study aimed to assess the individual and organizational sustainability of the Harvest for Health mentored vegetable gardening intervention among cancer survivors. METHODS: Telephone surveys were conducted among 100 cancer survivors (mean age 63 years; primarily breast cancer) completing one-of-two Harvest for Health feasibility trials. Surveys ascertained whether participants continued gardening, and if so, whether they had expanded their gardens. Additionally, surveys were emailed to 23 stakeholders (Cooperative Extension county agents, cancer support group leaders, and healthcare representatives) who were asked to rate the intervention's ability to generate sustained service and produce benefits over time using the eight-domain Program Sustainability Assessment Tool (PSAT). RESULTS: The survey among cancer survivors (91.9% response rate) indicated that 85.7% continued gardening throughout the 12 months following intervention completion; 47.3% expanded their gardens beyond the space of the original intervention. Moreover, 5.5% of cancer survivors enrolled in the certification program to become Extension Master Gardeners. The survey among stakeholders generated a similar response rate (i.e., 91.3%) and favorable scores. Of the possible maximum of 7 points on the PSAT, the gardening intervention's "Overall Capacity for Sustainability" scored 5.7 (81.4% of the maximum score), with subscales for "Funding Stability" scoring the lowest though still favorably (5.0) and "Program Evaluation" scoring the highest (6.3). CONCLUSIONS: Data support the sustainability capacity of the Harvest for Health vegetable gardening intervention for cancer survivors. Indeed, few interventions have proven as durable in terms of individual sustainability. Furthermore, Harvest for Health's overall organizational score of 5.7 on the PSAT is considered strong when compared to a previous review of over 250 programs, where the mean overall organizational PSAT score was 4.84. Thus, solutions for long-term funding are currently being explored to support this strong, holistic program that is directed toward this vulnerable and growing population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02150148.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Feminino , Jardinagem , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Verduras
11.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1240, 2022 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35733208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is clear evidence that lifestyle interventions are effective towards reducing cardiovascular risk. However, implementing these interventions in real-world setting has been suboptimal, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, thus creating 'evidence to practice gap.' We explore perceptions of community members on contextual factors driving cardiovascular disease (CVD) behavioural risk (alcohol consumption, smoking, physical (in)activity and fruits and vegetables consumption) in Ghana. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. Thirty (30) focus group discussions (FGDs) were carried out in five communities in Ghana (Ga Mashie, Tafo, Gyegyeano, Chanshegu and Agorve) between October and November 2017, and these were analysed using a thematic approach. RESULTS: Five main factors were raised by participants as contextual factors driving alcohol consumption and smoking and these include economic (poverty, unemployment, loss of jobs), psycho-social (worries, hardships, anxieties), medical (pain suppression, illness management), sexual (sexual performance boost), and socio-cultural (curse invocation, quest for supernatural powers) factors. Personal/social factors (time constraints, personal dislike, lack of knowledge of the benefits of exercise), economic factors (poverty, economic hardship), and negative health effects (getting tired easily, medical conditions) were cited as reasons why community members did not engage in physical activity. Consumption of fruits and vegetables in the five communities were determined by availability, cost, personal (dis)like, lack of knowledge about benefits, and cultural taboo. Participants' narratives revealed that the symbolic functions of some of these behavioural risk factors and the built environment were important determining factors that have sustained these behaviours in these communities over the years. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that successful implementation of CVD interventions in Ghana needs to address the perceptions of community members on factors driving CVD behavioural risk factors. Future policies and interventions should be developed based on these contextual factors taking into consideration the age, sex and ethnic variations especially with interventions seeking to address CVD risk factors at the primary health care level. These findings should urge local policy makers and health managers to incorporate the roles of these contextual factors in new programs targeting cardiovascular health. Closing the 'evidence to practice' gap as far as CVD interventions are concerned may be impossible without this.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Focais , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Risco , Verduras
12.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(6)2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35735561

RESUMO

Cyromazine is an insect growth regulator insecticide with high selectivity and is widely used in the production and cultivation of fruits and vegetables. In recent years, incidents of excessive cyromazine residues in food have occurred frequently, and it is urgent to establish an accurate, fast, and convenient method for the detection of cyromazine residues to ensure the safety of edible agricultural products. To achieve rapid detection of cyromazine residues, we prepared a molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor for the detection of cyromazine residues in agricultural products. Samples of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), and water were tested for the recovery rate of cyromazine. The results showed that the concentration of cyromazine showed a good linear relationship with the peak response current of the sensor developed in this study. The lower limit of detection for cyromazine was 0.5 µmol/L, and the sensor also had good reproducibility and interference resistance. This paper can be used as a basis for the study of methods for the detection of cyromazine residues in edible agricultural products.


Assuntos
Impressão Molecular , Verduras , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Frutas , Limite de Detecção , Impressão Molecular/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Triazinas , Verduras/química
13.
J Environ Manage ; 317: 115287, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642807

RESUMO

Unsustainable diet is one of the main reasons for the nutrition-health-environment trilemma. However, information on environment-nutrition-obesity effects associated with food consumption is still limited. This study analyzes these diet-related impacts of different groups classified by various socio-economic attributes: location, gender, age, income, education, and occupation. We applied the samples in China Health and Nutrition Survey and divided them into advantaged group and dis-advantaged group according to the probability of access to more nutritious food. Results show that the advantaged groups had higher and more rapidly increasing dietary and nutrition quality than their counterpart during 1997-2011. On the contrary, the non-advantaged group' body mass index increased faster. Meanwhile, the high-income group as well as government and professional & technological workers have passed the criterion for overweight. The environmental footprints, i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon, and water footprints, of high-income group were higher 89%, 70%, 98%, and 41% than low-income group, respectively. Notably, food consumption sustainability of each group has declined, and the non-advantaged groups' is much more sustainable. We concluded that inequality existed and tends to expand in food consumption and its related impacts of different socio-economic groups. A reformed responsibility allocation system is needed during dietary transition for better environmental management. Strategies to improve dietary quality for advantaged group focus on improving the types of high-quality protein foods, such as milk and seafood, while the non-advantaged group can choose to increase the types of high-quality but relatively cheap foods like vegetables and fruits considering the availability and living cost.


Assuntos
Dieta , Obesidade , China , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Verduras
14.
J Hazard Mater ; 436: 129147, 2022 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643000

RESUMO

Microbial remediation of heavy metals in soil has been widely studied. However, bioremediation efficiency is limited in practical applications because of nutritional deficiency, low efficiency, and competition with indigenous microorganisms. Herein, we prepared a biochar-based microbial agent (BMA) by immobilizing the microbial agent (MA, containing Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, and Citrobacter sp.) on biochar for the remediation of U and Cd in soil. The results showed that BMA increased soil organic matter, cation exchange capacity, and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis activity and dehydrogenase activity by 58.7%, 38.2%, 42.9%, and 51.1%. The availability of U and Cd were significantly decreased by 67.4% and 54.2% in BMA amended soil, thereby reducing their accumulation in vegetables. BMA greatly promoted vegetable growth. Additionally, BMA significantly altered the structure and function of rhizosphere soil microbial communities. Coincidently, more abundant ecologically beneficial bacteria like Nitrospira, Nitrosomonas, Lysobacter, and Bacillus were observed, whereas plant pathogenic fungi like Fusarium and Alternaria reduced in BMA amended soil. The network analysis revealed that BMA amendment increased the tightness and complexity of microbial communities. Importantly, the compatibility of niches and microbial species within co-occurrence network was enhanced after BMA addition. These findings provide a promising strategy for suppressing heavy metal accumulation in vegetables and promoting their growth.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Bactérias , Cádmio/análise , Carvão Vegetal , Metais Pesados/análise , Rizosfera , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Verduras
15.
Food Chem ; 393: 133343, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35661595

RESUMO

In this work, a novel ultrasound assisted-thin film microextraction (USA-TFME) method has been developed to determine organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in some fruits and vegetables samples followed by gas chromatography. In this regards, a novel nanocomposite (NC) was prepared by incorporation of zirconium-based metal-organic framework (MOF) into polystyrene (UiO-66/PS) and used as an efficient thin film. The effect of MOF doping level into UiO-66/PS NC and also the effective parameters influencing the TFME method has been studied. Based on the method validation, limits of detection were in the range of 1.5 to 3 µg kg-1. The intra-day precision, inter-day precision and inter-sorbent precision were in the range of 5.1 to 7.2, 5.3 to 10.2 and 4.6 to 7.3 %, respectively. The developed method was prosperously applied for determination of OPPs in some fruit and vegetable samples, leading to the acceptable relative recoveries in the range of 87.8% to 96.3%.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Nanocompostos , Praguicidas , Limite de Detecção , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Nanocompostos/química , Compostos Organofosforados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos , Poliestirenos/química , Verduras/química
16.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 22(2): 225-232, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35673288

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate food consumption frequency in 1-6-year-olds as an eating behaviour-related predictor of behavioural problems over a span of six years. Eating behaviour in early childhood serves as a foundation for future health outcomes. Diet patterns can have long-term beneficial or adverse effects on social behaviour development. Methods: This longitudinal study was performed based on information obtained between July 2011 and August 2017 provided from a project named 'Community Empowerment and Care for Wellbeing and Health Longevity' initiated in 1991; the current study involved 124 mother-child dyads from the project. Children aged 1-6 years were studied in July 2011, with a follow-up assessment in August 2017. The primary exposure examined was the frequency of food items intake. The primary outcome was behaviour problems as assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results: The adjusted results suggested that a higher intake of leafy green and light-coloured vegetables were significantly associated with decreased odds of conduct problems and prosocial behaviour problems in Japanese children. However, no associations were observed among fruits, milk, small fish, eggs, soybeans, seaweed and any SDQ subscales. Conclusion: This study shows that eating leafy green and light-coloured vegetables may have a protective effect on a child's conduct and against prosocial behaviour problems. Due consideration should be given to children's eating habits in the early stages of their lives to ensure better mental health.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Verduras , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(7): 468, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648302

RESUMO

Pollution caused by municipal solid waste (MSW) is becoming a serious threat to the environment. Composting may be an effective way to speed up the decomposition of biodegradable components in MSW, resulting in compost that can be utilized as an organic fertilizer. The pot experiments were carried out with different soil-MSW mixtures (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, and 25:75; w/w) to determine the impact of MSW on the bioconcentration of Cd in commonly consumed plants of Sargodha. The possible health risks were evaluated by applying pollution indices, such as the pollution load index, bioconcentration factor, enrichment factor, and health risk index. The pollution load index was higher than 1 in 75% MSW-amended soil. However, the concentration of Cd was found to be below the permissible limits in all studied vegetables, with a range of 0.019-0.106 mg/kg. In the study, serum samples from different volunteers living in four sites in Sargodha were also collected and analyzed. For vegetable crops, the health risk index (HRI) was less than one. It is concluded that the concentration of Cd was increased by increasing the fraction of MSW. Although the metal contents in the soil treated with MSW were not high enough to categorize the soil as polluted, these findings show that the reuse of MSW can serve as an alternative to mineral fertilizers. However, the presence of Cd in MSW can have a direct impact on soil fertility and, if biomagnified, on crop production and human health.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Cádmio/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fertilizantes/análise , Humanos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Resíduos Sólidos , Verduras
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(6): e2214371, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648401

RESUMO

Importance: Fiscal policy is a promising approach to incentivizing better food choices and reducing the burden of chronic disease. To inform guidelines on using fiscal policies, including taxes and subsidies, to promote health, the World Health Organization commissioned a systematic review and meta-analysis of the worldwide literature on the outcomes of such policies for food products. Objective: To assess the outcomes of implemented food taxes and subsidies for prices, sales, consumption, and population-level diet and health. Data Sources: Eight bibliographic databases were searched for peer-reviewed literature and 14 data sources along with governmental websites were searched for grey literature that were published from database inception through June 1, 2020. There were no language and setting restrictions. Study Selection: Only primary studies of implemented food taxes and subsidies were considered for inclusion. Data Extraction and Synthesis: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) reporting guideline was followed. A 3-level random-effects model was used to conduct a meta-analysis of sales and consumption outcomes of fruit and vegetable subsidies. Other outcomes were analyzed in a narrative synthesis. Main Outcomes and Measures: Study estimates in the meta-analysis were combined using a price elasticity measure for sales and consumption outcomes. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 statistic and τ2. Studies varied in how diet and health were measured. Results: A total of 54 articles were included in the systematic review, of which 15 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Most food subsidies targeted fruits and vegetables and populations with low income, whereas the evidence on food taxes was primarily from the nonessential energy-dense food tax in Mexico. Sales of subsidized fruits and vegetables increased significantly, with an estimated price elasticity of demand of -0.59 (95% CI, -1.04 to -0.13 [P = .02]; 95% prediction interval, -2.07 to 0.90; I2 = 92.4% [95% CI, 89.0%-94.8%; P < .001]), suggesting inelastic demand. There was no significant change in the consumption of subsidized fruits and vegetables, with an estimated price elasticity of demand of -0.17 (95% CI, -0.49 to 0.15 [P = .26]; 95% prediction interval, -1.01 to 0.67; I2 = 76.2% [95% CI, 54.3%-87.6%; P < .001]). Food excise taxes were associated with higher prices and reduced sales. Evidence was limited on the differential outcomes of food taxes and subsidies across subpopulations. Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that fruit and vegetable subsidies were associated with a moderate increase in fruit and vegetable sales. Further research is warranted to understand the implications of food taxes and subsidies for population-level consumption, diet, and health outcomes.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Impostos , Dieta , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Verduras
19.
Food Res Int ; 156: 111363, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35650982

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of glycosylation with four different sources of pectin on the structural, interfacial and emulsifying properties of coconut protein isolate (CPI). The conjugates achieved the degree of graft of 59.11%, 52.80%, 41.39% and 39.26% for apple pectin, citrus pectin, mango pectin and sugar beet pectin, respectively. The covalent bonding of the conjugates was further confirmed by SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis and FT-IR spectra. In addition, CD spectra exhibited that the conjugates had less α-helix and ß-sheet, and more random coil, resulting in more flexible and loose protein structure. Attributed to glycosylation and the strong steric hindrance effects of pectin, fluorescence intensity of the conjugates decreased significantly. Moreover, the solubility, soluble free sulfhydryl content, surface hydrophobicity, emulsifying activity and emulsifying stability of the conjugates improved significantly after glycosylation. The results of adsorption kinetics showed that glycosylation could increase interfacial pressure, adsorption and rearrangement rates of CPI at the oil-water interface. In summary, the glycosylation between CPI and the four different sources of pectin can significantly improve their emulsifying properties, in particular, citrus pectin and sugar beet pectin have more significant effects.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris , Malus , Mangifera , Beta vulgaris/química , Cocos , Glicosilação , Pectinas/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Açúcares , Verduras
20.
Food Res Int ; 156: 111145, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35651017

RESUMO

Brazilian biodiversity includes species of the genus Solanum that have several biological activities, in addition to their relevance to agriculture, economics and popular medicine. The ripe fruits of Solanum lycocapum are an important nutritional food source, since they have levels of vitamin C, total soluble sugars, sucrose, phosphorus, and iron comparable or exceed the levels present in fruits such as pineapples, bananas, oranges, and mangoes. The pulp of the fruit is consumed by the population, and it is also used to produce jellies; to make marmalade, replacing the quince, and it can also be mixed with peaches in the preparation of peach. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of fractions obtained from the ripe fruits and to identify the constituents with these biological properties. The ripe fruits were collected, dried, crushed, and subjected to extraction by exhaustive percolation, obtaining an ethanol extract that was partitioned with solvents of increasing polarities, obtaining hexane (HEX), ethyl acetate (AC), and hydroethanol (HE) fractions. The AC fraction showed higher antioxidant potential compared to BHT (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol) and similar activity to AA (ascorbic acid) by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical assay, while HEX and HE fractions exhibited of IC50 values similar to BHT. The AC fraction also presented similar activity to BHT by FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) test. Intraperitoneal treatment with HEX (100 and 300 mg/kg) and HE (100 mg/kg) fractions caused significant inhibition of paw edema induced by carrageenan, 4 and 6 h after the inflammatory stimuli. When analyzed by GC-MS, fatty acids, phytosterols, and triterpenoid were identified in the HEX fraction, whilst 31 compounds were annotated in the AC and HE fractions analyzed by LC-DAD-MS, being phenylpropanoid derivatives, chlorogenic acids, and steroidal glycoalkaloids. The ripe fruits of S. lycocarpum have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and the detected chemical compounds, especially caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, spermidine, stigmasterol, and ß-sitosterol, may be correlated with these activities. The ripe fruits of this species can be a food alternative rich in bioactive compounds and with benefits for human health.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Solanum , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Hidroxitolueno Butilado , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Solanum/química , Verduras
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