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1.
Microsc Res Tech ; 85(4): 1421-1432, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34859545

RESUMO

The current research aims to perform a comparative evaluation of vegetable matter involved lesions with oral parasitic infections found in oral mucosa, presenting histochemical methods to differentiate their microscopic similarities. Eight cases were selected out of a sample of 1.975 reports from a single Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Service of the author's institution from 2012 to 2019. Specimens were examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining (HE), periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining, Gomori-Grocott staining, Ziehl-Neelsen staining, Giemsa, and mucicarmine staining. Microscopic analysis included fluorescence, polarized light, and confocal microscopy. Microscopically, in HE coloration, hookworm eggs showed as eosinophilic. Inflammatory multinucleated giant cells and lymphocytes, were usually related to the nematode eggs, forming an intense inflammatory infiltrate. Biofluorescent properties of eggs and larvae revealed to be sensitive in the detection of parasitic structures contrasting with the inflamed connective tissue. Vegetable presence was confirmed by polarized light microscopy and it was found to be associated with microbial biofilms. Confocal microscopy has showed to be an excellent method for morphotype differentiation of parasitic eggs. Parasitic infection and vegetable matter displayed similarities in the inflammatory response, but the latter can rot and agglomerate biofilms. The microscopic diagnosis of such infections requires the interpretation of challenging morphological features since the parasites are usually sectioned and mixed with an inflammatory reaction. These histochemical approaches proved to be excellent to distinguish both lesions.


Assuntos
Parasitos , Doenças Parasitárias , Animais , Amarelo de Eosina-(YS) , Boca , Verduras/parasitologia
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242614, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350297

RESUMO

Abstract Vegetables eating raw are a leading source of transmission of infective forms of pathogenic internal parasites among human beings. This research was conducted from April to October, 2017 to assess the parasitic contamination of vegetables sold at main vegetable markets in districts Lower Dir and Peshawar, Pakistan. Eight hundred specimens of different vegetables were purchased and soaked in physiological saline solution, shaken with a mechanical shaker for 20 minutes and processed by sedimentation concentration method. Results revealed that only 19.7% (n=158/800) of the vegetables were found to be contaminated with single or multiple parasite species. Ascaris lumbricoides (the large round worm) 12.3% (n=99/800) was the most commonly detected pathogen and Taenia saginata (the beef tapeworm) 1.62% (n=13/800) was the least frequently detected one. Interestingly, significant p value (p>0.05 at 95%CI) between the number of examined and contaminated for all the variables studied including education status of the vendors, markets location, type of vegetables, means of display, washed before display, washing source of water and market type. The findings of this study evidenced that consumption of raw vegetables possesses great risk of getting parasitic infections in Lower Dir and Peshawar districts, Pakistan. Instructing the sellers and the public about parasitic disease transfer and their hygiene can reduce the infection rate of parasites of human origin.


Resumo Os vegetais crus são a principal fonte de transmissão de formas infecciosas de parasitas internos patogênicos entre os seres humanos. Esta pesquisa foi realizada de abril a outubro de 2017 para avaliar a contaminação parasitária de vegetais vendidos nos principais mercados de vegetais nos distritos de Lower Dir e Peshawar, Paquistão. Oitocentos exemplares de diferentes vegetais foram adquiridos e embebidos em solução salina fisiológica, agitados em agitador mecânico por 20 minutos e processados ​​pelo método de concentração por sedimentação. Os resultados revelaram que apenas 19,7% (n = 158/800) das hortaliças estavam contaminadas com uma ou várias espécies de parasitas. Ascaris lumbricoides (o verme redondo grande) 12,3% (n = 99/800) foi o patógeno mais comumente detectado e Taenia saginata (a tênia da carne) 1,62% (n = 13/800) foi o menos freqüentemente detectado. Curiosamente, valor de p significativo (p> 0,05 em IC de 95%) entre o número de examinados e contaminados para todas as variáveis ​​estudadas incluindo escolaridade dos vendedores, localização dos mercados, tipo de vegetais, meios de exposição, lavado antes da exposição, fonte de lavagem de água e tipo de mercado. Os resultados deste estudo evidenciaram que o consumo de vegetais crus possui grande risco de contrair infecções parasitárias nos distritos de Lower Dir e Peshawar, no Paquistão. Instruir os vendedores e o público sobre a transferência de doenças parasitárias e sua higiene pode reduzir a taxa de infecção de parasitas de origem humana.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Parasitos , Verduras/parasitologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Nematoides , Paquistão , Saúde Pública , Parasitologia de Alimentos
3.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e242614, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816974

RESUMO

Vegetables eating raw are a leading source of transmission of infective forms of pathogenic internal parasites among human beings. This research was conducted from April to October, 2017 to assess the parasitic contamination of vegetables sold at main vegetable markets in districts Lower Dir and Peshawar, Pakistan. Eight hundred specimens of different vegetables were purchased and soaked in physiological saline solution, shaken with a mechanical shaker for 20 minutes and processed by sedimentation concentration method. Results revealed that only 19.7% (n=158/800) of the vegetables were found to be contaminated with single or multiple parasite species. Ascaris lumbricoides (the large round worm) 12.3% (n=99/800) was the most commonly detected pathogen and Taenia saginata (the beef tapeworm) 1.62% (n=13/800) was the least frequently detected one. Interestingly, significant p value (p>0.05 at 95%CI) between the number of examined and contaminated for all the variables studied including education status of the vendors, markets location, type of vegetables, means of display, washed before display, washing source of water and market type. The findings of this study evidenced that consumption of raw vegetables possesses great risk of getting parasitic infections in Lower Dir and Peshawar districts, Pakistan. Instructing the sellers and the public about parasitic disease transfer and their hygiene can reduce the infection rate of parasites of human origin.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos , Nematoides , Parasitos , Verduras/parasitologia , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Paquistão , Saúde Pública
4.
Food Microbiol ; 99: 103798, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119093

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii infection can result in toxoplasmosis and potential psychological effects. Research commonly focuses on infection through contact with cat fecal matter or consumption of contaminated meat. However, T. gondii oocysts can persist in the environment for years and may be present in soils and on soil-grown produce. Rates of oocyst DNA recovery from produce were high, with 18% of vegetable samples testing positive for T. gondii via PCR test and melt curve analysis. Radishes had significantly higher oocyst counts than arugula, collard greens, kale, lettuce, and spinach. There were no significant differences in oocyst detection rates between samples taken from organic farmer's markets and conventional grocery stores. This study demonstrates that these oocysts can transfer to produce grown both conventionally and using organic techniques.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Verduras/parasitologia , Alimentos Orgânicos/parasitologia , Oocistos/classificação , Oocistos/genética , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Agricultura Orgânica/métodos , Solo/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/classificação , Toxoplasma/genética , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
Food Microbiol ; 98: 103802, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875194

RESUMO

Recently, outbreaks of Cyclospora cayetanensis in the U.S. were linked to the consumption of a variety of salads containing romaine and/or iceberg lettuce, carrots and/or red cabbage. The Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) Chapter 19b method was validated for the detection of C. cayetanensis in carrots, cabbage and romaine lettuce, but has not been previously evaluated in ready-to-eat (RTE) salad mixes. In addition, the only samples available for traceback investigations are sometimes leftovers in bad conditions. This study evaluated the validated BAM method for detection of C. cayetanensis in two different RTE mixed salads (mix 1: romaine and iceberg lettuces, carrots, and red cabbage and mix 2: romaine and iceberg lettuces, carrots, red cabbage, radish, and pea pods) in good condition and after their sell by date. Individual samples (25 g) were seeded with five and 200 C. cayetanensis oocysts. Unseeded produce was used as negative control. The method included washing of the produce, concentration and extraction of C. cayetanensis DNA and molecular detection of C. cayetanensis 18 S rRNA gene. As few as five oocysts were detected in both fresh and after sell by date mix salads. All unseeded samples were negative, and all samples of both salad types seeded with 200 oocysts were positive. In samples seeded with 200 oocysts, average 18 S rRNA C. cayetanensis CT values were significantly higher in fresh salad mix 1 compared to fresh salad mix 2; CT values were significantly higher in the after sell by date salads compared to their respective fresh mixes (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the BAM method was able to detect as few as five oocysts even in after sell by date RTE mix salads. However, the differences in detection observed, highlight the importance of evaluating the performance of the validated C. cayetanensis detection method in different food matrices and conditions, in advance for future outbreak investigations.


Assuntos
Cyclospora/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/normas , Saladas/parasitologia , Verduras/parasitologia , Cyclospora/genética , Cyclospora/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Oocistos/genética , Oocistos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Saladas/economia , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration , Verduras/economia
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 998, 2021 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441768

RESUMO

Liriomyza trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae) is a leafminer that causes ruinous damage to many leafy vegetables including lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) by stippling and tunneling the leaves. In this study, a population of 125 F3 families was developed from the intraspecific cross of 'Valmaine' (resistant) and 'Okeechobee' (susceptible) romaine cultivars for inheritance analysis and molecular mapping of the resistance loci controlling stippling damage. The experiments were conducted in an insectarium (controlled environment). Stippling damage proved to be heritable because the broad-sense heritability (H2) was 0.58. A segregation analysis suggested that a single dominant allele, Sd1 locus, controls resistance against L. trifolii. Furthermore, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis identified one novel QTL, named Stippling on LG5 (qSTP5), flanked by two SNPs that were mapped to a 5.2 cM (8.5 Mb region) interval, explaining over 13% of the total phenotypic variance. Desirable allele for resistance to L. trifolii was derived from resistant cultivar Valmaine. Identification of SNPs closely linked to the QTL responsible for L. trifolii resistance should facilitate plant breeders to develop resistant romaine lettuce cultivars.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Alface/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Alelos , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Dípteros/genética , Alface/parasitologia , Fenótipo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Verduras/genética , Verduras/parasitologia
7.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e49, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504406

RESUMO

Cyclospora cayetanensis is a parasite causing cyclosporiasis (an illness in humans). Produce (fruits, vegetables, herbs), water and soil contaminated with C. cayetanensis have been implicated in human infection. The objective was to conduct a scoping review of primary research in English on the detection, epidemiology and control of C. cayetanensis with an emphasis on produce, water and soil. MEDLINE® (Web of ScienceTM), Agricola (ProQuest), CABI Global Health, and Food Science and Technology Abstracts (EBSCOhost) were searched from 1979 to February 2020. Of the 349 relevant primary research studies identified, there were 75 detection-method studies, 40 molecular characterisation studies, 38 studies of Cyclospora in the environment (33 prevalence studies, 10 studies of factors associated with environmental contamination), 246 human infection studies (212 prevalence/incidence studies, 32 outbreak studies, 60 studies of environmental factors associated with non-outbreak human infection) and eight control studies. There appears to be sufficient literature for a systematic review of prevalence and factors associated with human infection with C. cayetanensis. There is a dearth of publicly available detection-method studies in soil (n = 0) and water (n = 2), prevalence studies on soil (n = 1) and studies of the control of Cyclospora (particularly on produce prior to retail (n = 0)).


Assuntos
Cyclospora/isolamento & purificação , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Frutas/parasitologia , Solo/parasitologia , Verduras/parasitologia , Água/parasitologia
8.
Food Microbiol ; 96: 103719, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494896

RESUMO

Although multiple outbreak clusters of Cyclospora cayetanensis have been traced back to consumption of dishes in Mexican-style restaurants, the FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) does not currently provide methods to detect C. cayetanensis in dishes that contain multiple produce ingredients, such as salsas and guacamole. These complex food matrices also may contain high levels of fats, which can interfere with the detection. Several modifications to the BAM Chapter 19b method (washing produce, DNA extraction, and a TaqMan real-time PCR assay targeting the 18S rRNA gene of C. cayetanensis) were assessed with the goal to detect as few as 5 oocysts of C. cayetanensis in 25 g samples of commercial salsa/pico de gallo, guacamole, and salsa verde. Both freshly prepared and frozen versions of these foods were seeded with 5, 10 and 200 oocysts. For salsa samples, using a gentler washing step than recommended by BAM, we achieved detection of 5 oocysts in the samples (81.8%, n = 11). Increasing the amount of Alconox® in the wash solution to 1%, rather than the 0.1% used in BAM, and adjusting the DNA extraction protocol to process large wash pellets, enabled detection of 5 oocysts in guacamole. To reach the desired level of detection in salsa verde, two types of modifications were necessary: gentler washing and DNA extraction modifications. The use of these same method modifications on previously frozen food samples, provided levels of detection similar to those achieved with fresh dishes. Our modifications enabled robust and reproducible detection of C. cayetanensis in multi-ingredient Mexican dishes, detecting as few as 5 oocysts in 25 g samples. Validating and deploying effective methods to detect C. cayetanensis in high risk fresh produce and prepared dishes are critically important for prevalence studies and outbreak investigations of this parasite.


Assuntos
Cyclospora/isolamento & purificação , Fast Foods/parasitologia , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Persea/parasitologia , Verduras/parasitologia , Cyclospora/classificação , Cyclospora/genética , Cyclospora/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Alimentos/normas , Frutas/parasitologia , Humanos , Oocistos/classificação , Oocistos/genética , Oocistos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
9.
Food Microbiol ; 95: 103704, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397622

RESUMO

Fresh vegetables are essential components of a healthy and nutritious diet, but if consumed raw without proper washing and/or disinfection, can be important agents of transmission of enteric pathogens. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of zoonotic parasites on vegetables freshly harvested and "ready to eat" vegetables from greengrocers and markets in northwestern Iran. In addition, the effect of cropping system and season on contamination levels were assessed as well as the efficacy of washing procedures to remove parasites from the vegetables. A total of 2757 samples composed of field (n = 1, 600) and "ready to eat" (n = 1157) vegetables were analyzed. Vegetables included leek, parsley, basil, coriander, savory, mint, lettuce, cabbage, radish, dill, spinach, mushroom, carrot, tomato, cucumber and pumpkin. Normal physiological saline washings from 200 g samples were processed using standard parasitological techniques and examined microscopically. A total of 53.14% of vegetable samples obtained from different fields and 18.23% of "ready to eat" vegetables purchased from greengrocers and markets were contaminated with different parasitic organisms including; Entamoeba coli cysts, Giardia intestinalis cysts, Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, Fasciola hepatica eggs, Dicrocoelium dendriticum eggs, Taenia spp. eggs, Hymenolepis nana eggs, Ancylostoma spp. eggs, Toxocara cati eggs, Toxocara canis eggs, Strongyloides stercoralis larvae, and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs. In both field and "ready to eat" vegetables, the highest parasitic contamination was observed in lettuce with a rate of 91.1% and 55.44%, respectively. The most common parasitic organism was Fasciola hepatica. A seasonal difference in contamination with parasitic organisms was found for field and "ready to eat" vegetables (P < 0.05). There was a significant difference in the recovery of parasitic organisms depending on the washing method with water and dishwashing liquid being the least effective. Proper washing of vegetables is imperative for a healthy diet as the results of this study showed the presence of zoonotic parasites from field and ready to eat vegetables in Iran.


Assuntos
Zoonoses Bacterianas/parasitologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Verduras/parasitologia , Animais , Cucumis sativus/parasitologia , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Alface/parasitologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/parasitologia , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/genética , Parasitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Petroselinum/parasitologia
10.
Hig. aliment ; 34(291): e1015, jul-.dez. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-16045

RESUMO

O consumo diário de vegetais fornece inúmeros benefícios para a saúde do ser humano, no entanto têm sido um dos alimentos mais relacionados a surtos de toxinfecção alimentar em nível mundial. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a presença de estruturas parasitárias em hortaliças comercializadas na feira livre do município de Picos, Piauí antes e após a utilização de hipoclorito de sódio como sanitizante. Foram analisadas 160 amostras, sendo 40 de alfaces-crespa (Lactuca sativa L.), 40 amostras de acelga (Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.), 40 amostras de coentro (Coriandrum sativum L.) e 40 amostras de cebolinha (Allium fistulosum L.), todas oriundas de plantio convencional. Para a busca parasitária, utilizou-se o método de sedimentação espontânea (Hoffmann). Os resultados mostraram que 75% das amostras, após lavagem com água destilada, estavam contaminadas por alguma estrutura parasitária, incluindo casos de múltipla contaminação. Os parasitos que prevaleceram nas amostras foram Ancilostomídeo (ovo e larva), Ascaris lumbricoides (ovo), Entamoeba histolytica (cisto), Taenia sp. (ovo) e Trichuris trichiura (ovo e larva). Após a sanitização das amostras, houve a redução da carga parasitária, o que torna indispensável esse processo. Esses dados demonstram a situação higiênico-sanitária precária das hortaliças comercializadas na feira livre e a necessidade da realização de campanhas de educação em saúde para produtores, comerciantes e consumidores de hortaliças da região. Essas medidas proporcionam melhora na qualidade das hortaliças e segurança para quem as consome.(AU)


Daily intake of vegetables provides numerous benefits to human health, yet they have been one of the foods most related to food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of parasitic structures in vegetables sold in the open fairs in Picos Piauí, before and after the use of 2% sodium hypochlorite as a sanitizer. One hundred and sixty samples were analyzed: 40 of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), 40 samples of Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.), 40 samples of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and 40 samples of chives (Allium fistulosum L.), all from conventional planting. For parasitic search, the spontaneous sedimentation method (Hoffmann) was used. All samples examined were contaminated by some parasitic structure and had multiple contamination. The predominant parasites were hookworm (egg and larva), Ascaris lumbricoides (egg), Entamoeba histolytica (cyst), Taenia sp. (egg) and Trichuris trichiura (egg and larva). The samples were sanitized, and the process reduced the parasite load by more than half. It is important to carry out health education campaigns for producers, traders and consumers of vegetables in the region and a strict supervision of the hygienic-sanitary quality of these foods, measures that provide improvement in the quality of vegetables and safety for those who consume them.(AU)


Assuntos
Verduras/parasitologia , Saneamento de Mercados , Hipoclorito de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Abastecimento de Alimentos
11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19448, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173088

RESUMO

Organic waste is a rapidly increasing problem due to the growth of the agricultural production needed to meet global food demands. Development of sustainable waste management solutions is essential. Black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) (BSF), larvae are voracious consumers of a wide range of organic materials ranging from fruits and vegetables to animal remains, and manure. Thanks to this ability and considering the larval high protein and lipid content, BSF larvae are a useful additive in animal feeds and biodiesel production. Unfortunately, the feasibility of using the black soldier fly as a tool for waste valorization and feed production has primarily been investigated at the benchtop scale. Thus, mobilization of current practices to an industrial scale is challenging because scaling up from small laboratory studies to large industrial studies is not necessarily linear. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the ability of the BSF to recycle organic waste at an industrial scale. To accomplish this goal, three organic waste streams were used (e.g., apples, bananas, and spent grain from a brewery) to test six diet treatments (1) apple, (2) banana, (3) spent grain, (4) apple and banana, (5) apple and spent grain, and (6) banana and spent grain. Working at scale of 10,000 BSF larvae life history traits, waste valorization, protein and lipid profiles were measured for each diet treatment. Differences were recorded across all variables, except substrate conversion, for larvae fed on fruit and spent grain (alone or with fruit). Growth rate significantly differed across treatments; larvae reared on spent grain grew twice as fast as those fed apples alone, but those reared on the apple and spent grain mixture produced twice as much insect biomass. However, it should be noted that larvae resulting from the apple diet contained 50% more fat than larvae fed the fruit and spent grain mixtures. Commonly-available organic wastes were successfully used at an industrial scale to produce BSF larvae that have the potential to substitute other sources of protein and lipids in different industrial applications. Industrialization efforts are encouraged to assess these impacts when integrating diverse ingredients into larval diets as a means to more precisely predict output, such as larval development time and final larval biomass.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Dípteros/metabolismo , Larva/metabolismo , Nutrientes/análise , Reciclagem/métodos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Animais , Biomassa , Dieta , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/parasitologia , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/parasitologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lipídeos/análise , Esterco/análise , Esterco/parasitologia , Compostos Orgânicos/metabolismo , Proteínas/análise , Verduras/metabolismo , Verduras/parasitologia
12.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 44(3): 143-148, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928721

RESUMO

Objective: Parasitic diseases have created numerous health and economic problems in developing and developed countries. One of the most prevalent ways of transmitting diseases is by consuming raw vegetables that are contaminated with parasites. With respect to the importance of healthy vegetable consumption, an awareness of vegetable status helps prevent infection. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine the level of parasitic contamination of vegetables consumed in Tehran. Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted on vegetable samples spread in Tehran from October 2017 to September 2018. The samples included 240 vegetables selected from 10 types of vegetable including leek, basil, mint, spring onion, radish, parsley, lettuce, cress, tarragon and coriander. Each sample was examined after passing through washing and centrifuging. Parasitic agents such as unicellular, egg and larva of the worms were studied. The data were analysed using SPSS software. Conclusion: Parasitic infection was observed in 62 samples (25.8%). The highest and lowest rates of contamination were observed in coriander and lettuce, respectively. Rhabditoid larva (12.5%; 15 cases) and Physaloptera egg (1.6%; 2 cases) were the most and least observed parasites, respectively. Other parasites such as Entamoeba, Giardia, Blastocystis, Hymenolepis, Ascaris and the egg and larva of hookworms were also observed. Despite the relative improvement of social, agricultural, economic and health conditions in Tehran, the prevalence of parasitic infections still persists. Factors such as developing modern waste collection methods, improving urban sewage systems, preventing domestic animal traffic on pastures and promoting the knowledge of different classes of people could reduce the prevalence of these types of diseases.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Verduras/parasitologia , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias/etiologia , Prevalência
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008560, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food and water-borne illness caused by ingestion of (oo)cysts of Cryptosporidium and Giardia is one of the major health problems globally. Several methods are available to detect Giardia cyst and Cryptosporidium oocyst in food and water. Most of the available methods require a good laboratory facility and well-trained manpower and are therefore costly. There is a need of affordable and reliable method that can be easily implemented in resource limited settings. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: We developed a smartphone based microscopic assay method to screen (oo)cysts of Cryptosporidium and Giardia contamination of vegetable and water samples. The method consisting of a ball lens of 1 mm diameter, white LED as illumination source and Lugols's iodine staining provided magnification and contrast capable of distinguishing (oo)cysts of Cryptosporidium and Giardia. The analytical performance of the method was tested by spike recovery experiments. The spike recovery experiments performed on cabbage, carrot, cucumber, radish, tomatoes, and water resulted in 26.8±10.3, 40.1±8.5, 44.4±7.3, 47.6±11.3, 49.2 ±10.9, and 30.2±7.9% recovery for Cryptosporidium, respectively and 10.2±4.0, 14.1±7.3, 24.2±12.1, 23.2±13.7, 17.1±13.9, and 37.6±2.4% recovery for Giardia, respectively. The spike recovery results are comparable with data obtained using commercial brightfield and fluorescence microscope methods. Finally, we tested the smartphone microscope system for detecting (oo)cysts on 7 types of vegetable (n = 196) and river water (n = 18) samples. Forty-two percent vegetable and thirty-nine percent water samples were found to be contaminated with Cryptosporidium oocyst. Similarly, thirty-one percent vegetable and thirty-three percent water samples were contaminated with Giardia cyst. CONCLUSIONS: The newly developed smartphone microscopic method showed comparable performance to commercial microscopic methods. The new method can be a low-cost and easy to implement alternative method for simultaneous detection of (oo)cysts in vegetable and water samples in resource limited settings.


Assuntos
Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Giardia/isolamento & purificação , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Água Potável/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Humanos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Smartphone , Verduras/parasitologia
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 126, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32849981

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: vegetables form a major component of the human diet. However, poor agronomic practices may put consumers at risk of parasitic infections. This study evaluated the parasitic contamination of vegetables grown in selected farms in Ibadan, Nigeria. METHODS: Two hundred and eighty vegetable species: African eggplant (Solanum macrocarpon), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), cucumber (Brassica oleracea), spinach (Amaranthus cruentus), white jute (Corchorus olitorius), pumpkin (Telfaria occidentalis), green pepper (Capsicum sp.), okro (Abelmoschus esculentus), quill grass (Celosia argenta L), tomato (Lycopersicum sativus) were collected from farms within Ibadan. Samples were washed in water, and the resulting washing solution was filtered and centrifuged to concentrate the parasitic stages. Sediments were examined by iodine and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stained smears technique. RESULTS: parasites were detected in 14 (5.0%, 95% CI 32.6%-67.3%) of samples. The highest contaminated vegetable was white jute 32.1 (95% CI 17.9%-50.6%), followed by pumpkin 7.1(95% CI 1.9-22.6), quill grass 7.1% (95% CI 1.9-22.6) and lettuce 3.5 (95% CI 0.6-17.7). The commonest parasites were Strongyloides stercoralis larvae 42.9 (95% CI 21.3-67.4), Entamoeba histolytica/E.dipaar 21.4 (95% CI 7.5-47.5), Trichostrongylus spp 21.4 (95% CI 21.3-67.4), and Ascaris sp. 14.3 (95% CI 4.0-39.9). CONCLUSION: these findings provide evidence of contamination of vegetables from farms in Ibadan with parasites of public health importance. Information on best practices should be designed, packaged and disseminated through appropriate channels to enhance positive behavior change among farmers.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Saúde Pública , Verduras/parasitologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Doenças Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
15.
Parasitol Res ; 119(6): 1847-1855, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350588

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium and Giardia are well-known parasitic protozoans responsible for waterborne and foodborne diarrhoeal diseases. However, data are not available on market vegetables contaminated with Cryptosporidium and Giardia in China. In the present study, 642 different vegetable samples were collected from Xining City street vendors in the Qinghai Province to study the Cryptosporidium and Giardia contamination rates via PCR and sequence analyses. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis were detected in 16 (2.5%) and 73 (11.4%) samples, respectively. Two species of Cryptosporidium, C. parvum (n = 11) and C. andersoni (n = 5), were identified. G. duodenalis assemblage B was identified in almost all positive samples (n = 72), except one sample that contained G. duodenalis assemblage E. We report on the rate of Cryptosporidium and Giardia contamination in vegetables for the first time from the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau Area (QTPA) in China.


Assuntos
Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Giardia/isolamento & purificação , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Verduras/parasitologia , Animais , China , Cryptosporidium/genética , Contaminação de Alimentos , Giardia/genética , Giardia lamblia/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Tibet
16.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 24(1): 41-45, jan-abr. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095991

RESUMO

As doenças causadas por parasitos intestinais estão entre os mais frequentes agravos do mundo, pois é um problema de saúde pública que atinge a maioria da população. O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar a prevalência de parasitos em crianças de 4 a 6 anos de uma escola municipal de Moreira Sales, PR. A pesquisa foi composta por inquérito parasitológico e epidemiológico em crianças matriculadas em uma escola municipal em julho de 2017. O critério para inclusão no estudo foi: coletar a amostra de fezes, responder o questionário socioepidemiológico e ter o Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido (TCLE) assinado pelos pais e/ou responsáveis. Participaram do estudo 42 crianças com idades entre 4 e 6 anos, das quais 66,7% eram meninas. Dos participantes, dez crianças (23,8%) apresentaram infecção por Balantidium coli, sendo que destas, duas apresentaram infecção mista por Entamoeba coli. Foi observado que a maioria dos infectados possuíam animais de estimação (60%), roíam unhas (60%), consumiam hortaliças (80%) e todas as crianças brincavam na terra, sendo esses alguns fatores de risco para a infecção. Diante dos resultados apresentados, é possível perceber que existem vários fatores que podem estar associados à infecção por Balantidium coli, sendo os principais: falta de saneamento básico e os hábitos de higiene inadequado. Portanto, fatores importantes para se promover a conscientização e ação profilática da população, com o intuito de minimizar as parasitoses, principalmente nas crianças.


Diseases caused by intestinal parasites are among the most frequent ones in the world, since it is a public health issue affecting most of the population. The purpose of this study was to verify the prevalence of parasites in children aged 4 to 6 years at a school in the municipality of Moreira Sales, in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The study was comprised by the parasitological and epidemiological investigation in children enrolled in a school in the city in July 2017. The criteria for inclusion in the study was to collect the stool sample, answer the socio-epidemiological questionnaire and sign a Free and Clarified Consent Form. A total of 42 children took part in this study, with ages ranging between 4 and 6 years, of which 66.7% were female. From the participants, ten children (23.8%) presented infection by Balantidium coli, and among which, two of them presented mixed infection by Entamoeba coli. It was observed that most of the infected children had pets (60%), bit their nails (60%), consumed vegetables (80%) and all children played on dirt, which are some of the risk factors for infection. Considering the results, it is possible to observe that there are several factors that can be associated to infection by Balantidium coli, among which: basic sanitation and hygiene habits. Therefore, raising awareness and presenting prophylactic action to the population is essential in order to minimize intestinal parasitosis, especially in children.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Balantidium/parasitologia , Pré-Escolar , Parasitos/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias/parasitologia , Infecções por Protozoários/parasitologia , Verduras/parasitologia , Poluição da Água , Epidemiologia , Entamoeba/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Hábito de Roer Unhas
17.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 180, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is the third most important contributor to health burden caused by food-borne illness. Ingestion of tissue cysts from undercooked meat is an important source of horizontal transmission to humans. However, there is an increasing awareness of the consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables, as a possible source for oocyst transmission, since this stage of the parasite can persist and remain infective in soil and water for long time. Herein, we outline findings related with detection of T. gondii oocysts in vegetables and berry fruits, which are usually raw consumed. The procedure includes the estimation of the number of oocysts. METHODS: Food samples were collected from local producers and supermarket suppliers. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were concentrated after washing the samples by applying high resolution water filtration and immunomagnetic separation (method 1623.1: EPA 816-R-12-001-Jan 2012), in order to (i) remove potential Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts present in the samples; and (ii) select T. gondii oocysts. Toxoplasma gondii oocyst detection and an estimation of their numbers was performed by conventional PCR and real time qPCR, using specific primers for a 183-bp sequence of the T. gondii repetitive DNA region. All PCR-positive DNA samples were purified and sequenced. Restriction enzyme digestion with EcoRV endonuclease confirmed the presence of the T. gondii DNA fragment. In addition, the presence of the parasite was observed by fluorescent microscopy, taking advantage of the oocysts autofluorescence under UV light. RESULTS: Forty percent of the analysed samples (95% CI: 25.5-56.5%) presented the expected PCR and digested DNA fragments. These fragments were confirmed by sequencing. Microscopic autofluorescence supported the presence of T. gondii-like oocysts. The estimated mean (± SE) oocyst concentration was 23.5 ± 12.1 oocysts/g, with a range of 0.6-179.9 oocysts/g. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide relevant evidence of contamination of fresh vegetables and berry fruits with T. gondii oocysts.


Assuntos
Parasitologia de Alimentos , Frutas/parasitologia , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Verduras/parasitologia , Portugal , Alimentos Crus/parasitologia , Espanha , Toxoplasma/fisiologia
18.
Parasitology ; 147(5): 516-532, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965956

RESUMO

One of the ways of human parasitic infection is the accidental ingestion of vegetables contaminated with parasites, which represents a major human health hazard. This non-exhaustive review aims to evaluate studies carried out on five types of vegetables (lettuce, parsley, coriander, carrot and radish) since 2000, particularly the methods used for recovery, concentration, detection and identification of protozoan parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii, Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp., and the results of each work. Various studies have determined the presence of pathogenic parasites in fresh vegetables with different rates; this variation in rate depends particularly on the detection method used which is related to each parasite and each vegetable type. The variation in parasitic prevalence in food could be due to different factors such as the geographical location, the size of analysed samples and the methods used for parasite detection.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , Verduras/parasitologia , Animais , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Giardia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/transmissão , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose/transmissão
19.
Afr Health Sci ; 20(4): 1669-1678, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34394227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Protozoan parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii, Giardia duodenalis, and Cryptosporidium spp., can be transmitted to humans via accidental consumption of contaminated water, fresh produce and foodstuffs. There is a lack of epidemiological data about these pathogens in Morocco. Hence the aim of this study, which is the determination of their prevalence in some leafy greens and root vegetables sold in Marrakech. METHODS: A total of 132 vegetable samples including carrot, coriander, lettuce, parsley and radish were purchased monthly from three different markets in Marrakech from March 2017 to January 2018, pre-treated and subjected to microscopic and molecular analyses. RESULTS: Of the 132 samples of vegetables analyzed by qPCR, the overall rate of protozoan was 21.21% (28/132); 22 samples were found to be contaminated with T. gondii, 6 with G. duodenalis, and none was positive for C. parvum/hominis. Whereas, modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining allowed the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. in 3% (4/132) of examined samples. CONCLUSION: This survey on the presence of protozoan parasites in fresh vegetables revealed that vegetables sold in Marrakech are contaminated by these protozoan parasites, as it showed that leafy green vegetables were more susceptible for parasitic contamination than root ones.


Assuntos
Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Verduras/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Giardia lamblia/genética , Humanos , Marrocos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Toxoplasma/genética
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