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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(25): e2405588121, 2024 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38861607

RESUMO

Many animals can extract useful information from the vocalizations of other species. Neuroimaging studies have evidenced areas sensitive to conspecific vocalizations in the cerebral cortex of primates, but how these areas process heterospecific vocalizations remains unclear. Using fMRI-guided electrophysiology, we recorded the spiking activity of individual neurons in the anterior temporal voice patches of two macaques while they listened to complex sounds including vocalizations from several species. In addition to cells selective for conspecific macaque vocalizations, we identified an unsuspected subpopulation of neurons with strong selectivity for human voice, not merely explained by spectral or temporal structure of the sounds. The auditory representational geometry implemented by these neurons was strongly related to that measured in the human voice areas with neuroimaging and only weakly to low-level acoustical structure. These findings provide new insights into the neural mechanisms involved in auditory expertise and the evolution of communication systems in primates.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neurônios , Vocalização Animal , Voz , Animais , Humanos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Masculino , Macaca mulatta , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13132, 2024 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849382

RESUMO

Voice production of humans and most mammals is governed by the MyoElastic-AeroDynamic (MEAD) principle, where an air stream is modulated by self-sustained vocal fold oscillation to generate audible air pressure fluctuations. An alternative mechanism is found in ultrasonic vocalizations of rodents, which are established by an aeroacoustic (AA) phenomenon without vibration of laryngeal tissue. Previously, some authors argued that high-pitched human vocalization is also produced by the AA principle. Here, we investigate the so-called "whistle register" voice production in nine professional female operatic sopranos singing a scale from C6 (≈ 1047 Hz) to G6 (≈ 1568 Hz). Super-high-speed videolaryngoscopy revealed vocal fold collision in all participants, with closed quotients from 30 to 73%. Computational modeling showed that the biomechanical requirements to produce such high-pitched voice would be an increased contraction of the cricothyroid muscle, vocal fold strain of about 50%, and high subglottal pressure. Our data suggest that high-pitched operatic soprano singing uses the MEAD mechanism. Consequently, the commonly used term "whistle register" does not reflect the physical principle of a whistle with regard to voice generation in high pitched classical singing.


Assuntos
Canto , Prega Vocal , Humanos , Feminino , Canto/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Prega Vocal/fisiologia , Adulto , Som , Voz/fisiologia , Fonação/fisiologia
3.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 155(6): 3822-3832, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38874464

RESUMO

This study proposes the use of vocal resonators to enhance cardiac auscultation signals and evaluates their performance for voice-noise suppression. Data were collected using two electronic stethoscopes while each study subject was talking. One collected auscultation signal from the chest while the other collected voice signals from one of the three voice resonators (cheek, back of the neck, and shoulder). The spectral subtraction method was applied to the signals. Both objective and subjective metrics were used to evaluate the quality of enhanced signals and to investigate the most effective vocal resonator for noise suppression. Our preliminary findings showed a significant improvement after enhancement and demonstrated the efficacy of vocal resonators. A listening survey was conducted with thirteen physicians to evaluate the quality of enhanced signals, and they have received significantly better scores regarding the sound quality than their original signals. The shoulder resonator group demonstrated significantly better sound quality than the cheek group when reducing voice sound in cardiac auscultation signals. The suggested method has the potential to be used for the development of an electronic stethoscope with a robust noise removal function. Significant clinical benefits are expected from the expedited preliminary diagnostic procedure.


Assuntos
Auscultação Cardíaca , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Estetoscópios , Humanos , Auscultação Cardíaca/instrumentação , Auscultação Cardíaca/métodos , Auscultação Cardíaca/normas , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Ruídos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Espectrografia do Som , Desenho de Equipamento , Voz/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade da Voz , Vibração , Ruído
4.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 711, 2024 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862808

RESUMO

Deepfakes are viral ingredients of digital environments, and they can trick human cognition into misperceiving the fake as real. Here, we test the neurocognitive sensitivity of 25 participants to accept or reject person identities as recreated in audio deepfakes. We generate high-quality voice identity clones from natural speakers by using advanced deepfake technologies. During an identity matching task, participants show intermediate performance with deepfake voices, indicating levels of deception and resistance to deepfake identity spoofing. On the brain level, univariate and multivariate analyses consistently reveal a central cortico-striatal network that decoded the vocal acoustic pattern and deepfake-level (auditory cortex), as well as natural speaker identities (nucleus accumbens), which are valued for their social relevance. This network is embedded in a broader neural identity and object recognition network. Humans can thus be partly tricked by deepfakes, but the neurocognitive mechanisms identified during deepfake processing open windows for strengthening human resilience to fake information.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia , Corpo Estriado/fisiologia
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12407, 2024 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38811832

RESUMO

Many lecturers develop voice problems, such as hoarseness. Nevertheless, research on how voice quality influences listeners' perception, comprehension, and retention of spoken language is limited to a small number of audio-only experiments. We aimed to address this gap by using audio-visual virtual reality (VR) to investigate the impact of a lecturer's hoarseness on university students' heard text recall, listening effort, and listening impression. Fifty participants were immersed in a virtual seminar room, where they engaged in a Dual-Task Paradigm. They listened to narratives presented by a virtual female professor, who spoke in either a typical or hoarse voice. Simultaneously, participants performed a secondary task. Results revealed significantly prolonged secondary-task response times with the hoarse voice compared to the typical voice, indicating increased listening effort. Subjectively, participants rated the hoarse voice as more annoying, effortful to listen to, and impeding for their cognitive performance. No effect of voice quality was found on heard text recall, suggesting that, while hoarseness may compromise certain aspects of spoken language processing, this might not necessarily result in reduced information retention. In summary, our findings underscore the importance of promoting vocal health among lecturers, which may contribute to enhanced listening conditions in learning spaces.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Realidade Virtual , Qualidade da Voz , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Rouquidão/etiologia , Voz/fisiologia
6.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0299140, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38809807

RESUMO

Non-random exploration of infant speech-like vocalizations (e.g., squeals, growls, and vowel-like sounds or "vocants") is pivotal in speech development. This type of vocal exploration, often noticed when infants produce particular vocal types in clusters, serves two crucial purposes: it establishes a foundation for speech because speech requires formation of new vocal categories, and it serves as a basis for vocal signaling of wellness and interaction with caregivers. Despite the significance of clustering, existing research has largely relied on subjective descriptions and anecdotal observations regarding early vocal category formation. In this study, we aim to address this gap by presenting the first large-scale empirical evidence of vocal category exploration and clustering throughout the first year of life. We observed infant vocalizations longitudinally using all-day home recordings from 130 typically developing infants across the entire first year of life. To identify clustering patterns, we conducted Fisher's exact tests to compare the occurrence of squeals versus vocants, as well as growls versus vocants. We found that across the first year, infants demonstrated clear clustering patterns of squeals and growls, indicating that these categories were not randomly produced, but rather, it seemed, infants actively engaged in practice of these specific categories. The findings lend support to the concept of infants as manifesting active vocal exploration and category formation, a key foundation for vocal language.


Assuntos
Fala , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Feminino , Fala/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Voz/fisiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Fonética
7.
Cortex ; 176: 1-10, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723449

RESUMO

Recognizing talkers' identity via speech is an important social skill in interpersonal interaction. Behavioral evidence has shown that listeners can identify better the voices of their native language than those of a non-native language, which is known as the language familiarity effect (LFE). However, its underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. This study therefore investigated how the LFE occurs at the neural level by employing functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Late unbalanced bilinguals were first asked to learn to associate strangers' voices with their identities and then tested for recognizing the talkers' identities based on their voices speaking a language either highly familiar (i.e., native language Chinese), or moderately familiar (i.e., second language English), or completely unfamiliar (i.e., Ewe) to participants. Participants identified talkers the most accurately in Chinese and the least accurately in Ewe. Talker identification was quicker in Chinese than in English and Ewe but reaction time did not differ between the two non-native languages. At the neural level, recognizing voices speaking Chinese relative to English/Ewe produced less activity in the inferior frontal gyrus, precentral/postcentral gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, and superior temporal sulcus/gyrus while no difference was found between English and Ewe, indicating facilitation of voice identification by the automatic phonological encoding in the native language. These findings shed new light on the interrelations between language ability and voice recognition, revealing that the brain activation pattern of the LFE depends on the automaticity of language processing.


Assuntos
Idioma , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Percepção da Fala , Voz , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Feminino , Masculino , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Voz/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Multilinguismo , Mapeamento Encefálico , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem
8.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 67(6): 1731-1751, 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38754028

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The present study examined whether participants respond to unperturbed parameters while experiencing specific perturbations in auditory feedback. For instance, we aim to determine if speakers adjust voice loudness when only pitch is artificially altered in auditory feedback. This phenomenon is referred to as the "accompanying effect" in the present study. METHOD: Thirty native Mandarin speakers were asked to sustain the vowel /ɛ/ for 3 s while their auditory feedback underwent single shifts in one of the three distinct ways: pitch shift (±100 cents; coded as PT), loudness shift (±6 dB; coded as LD), or first formant (F1) shift (±100 Hz; coded as FM). Participants were instructed to ignore the perturbations in their auditory feedback. Response types were categorized based on pitch, loudness, and F1 for each individual trial, such as Popp_Lopp_Fopp indicating opposing responses in all three domains. RESULTS: The accompanying effect appeared 93% of the time. Bayesian Poisson regression models indicate that opposing responses in all three domains (Popp_Lopp_Fopp) were the most prevalent response type across the conditions (PT, LD, and FM). The more frequently used response types exhibited opposing responses and significantly larger response curves than the less frequently used response types. Following responses became more prevalent only when the perturbed stimuli were perceived as voices from someone else (external references), particularly in the FM condition. In terms of isotropy, loudness and F1 tended to change in the same direction rather than loudness and pitch. CONCLUSION: The presence of the accompanying effect suggests that the motor systems responsible for regulating pitch, loudness, and formants are not entirely independent but rather interconnected to some degree.


Assuntos
Teorema de Bayes , Percepção da Altura Sonora , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Percepção da Altura Sonora/fisiologia , Adulto , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Percepção Sonora/fisiologia , Retroalimentação Sensorial/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Acústica da Fala
9.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302739, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) reliably ameliorates cardinal motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) and essential tremor (ET). However, the effects of DBS on speech, voice and language have been inconsistent and have not been examined comprehensively in a single study. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic analysis of literature by reviewing studies that examined the effects of DBS on speech, voice and language in PD and ET. METHODS: A total of 675 publications were retrieved from PubMed, Embase, CINHAL, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases. Based on our selection criteria, 90 papers were included in our analysis. The selected publications were categorized into four subcategories: Fluency, Word production, Articulation and phonology and Voice quality. RESULTS: The results suggested a long-term decline in verbal fluency, with more studies reporting deficits in phonemic fluency than semantic fluency following DBS. Additionally, high frequency stimulation, left-sided and bilateral DBS were associated with worse verbal fluency outcomes. Naming improved in the short-term following DBS-ON compared to DBS-OFF, with no long-term differences between the two conditions. Bilateral and low-frequency DBS demonstrated a relative improvement for phonation and articulation. Nonetheless, long-term DBS exacerbated phonation and articulation deficits. The effect of DBS on voice was highly variable, with both improvements and deterioration in different measures of voice. CONCLUSION: This was the first study that aimed to combine the outcome of speech, voice, and language following DBS in a single systematic review. The findings revealed a heterogeneous pattern of results for speech, voice, and language across DBS studies, and provided directions for future studies.


Assuntos
Estimulação Encefálica Profunda , Idioma , Doença de Parkinson , Fala , Voz , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Fala/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia , Tremor Essencial/terapia , Tremor Essencial/fisiopatologia
10.
Multisens Res ; 37(2): 125-141, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714314

RESUMO

Trust is an aspect critical to human social interaction and research has identified many cues that help in the assimilation of this social trait. Two of these cues are the pitch of the voice and the width-to-height ratio of the face (fWHR). Additionally, research has indicated that the content of a spoken sentence itself has an effect on trustworthiness; a finding that has not yet been brought into multisensory research. The current research aims to investigate previously developed theories on trust in relation to vocal pitch, fWHR, and sentence content in a multimodal setting. Twenty-six female participants were asked to judge the trustworthiness of a voice speaking a neutral or romantic sentence while seeing a face. The average pitch of the voice and the fWHR were varied systematically. Results indicate that the content of the spoken message was an important predictor of trustworthiness extending into multimodality. Further, the mean pitch of the voice and fWHR of the face appeared to be useful indicators in a multimodal setting. These effects interacted with one another across modalities. The data demonstrate that trust in the voice is shaped by task-irrelevant visual stimuli. Future research is encouraged to clarify whether these findings remain consistent across genders, age groups, and languages.


Assuntos
Face , Confiança , Voz , Humanos , Feminino , Voz/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Face/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Percepção da Altura Sonora/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Adolescente
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10488, 2024 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714709

RESUMO

Vocal attractiveness influences important social outcomes. While most research on the acoustic parameters that influence vocal attractiveness has focused on the possible roles of sexually dimorphic characteristics of voices, such as fundamental frequency (i.e., pitch) and formant frequencies (i.e., a correlate of body size), other work has reported that increasing vocal averageness increases attractiveness. Here we investigated the roles these three characteristics play in judgments of the attractiveness of male and female voices. In Study 1, we found that increasing vocal averageness significantly decreased distinctiveness ratings, demonstrating that participants could detect manipulations of vocal averageness in this stimulus set and using this testing paradigm. However, in Study 2, we found no evidence that increasing averageness significantly increased attractiveness ratings of voices. In Study 3, we found that fundamental frequency was negatively correlated with male vocal attractiveness and positively correlated with female vocal attractiveness. By contrast with these results for fundamental frequency, vocal attractiveness and formant frequencies were not significantly correlated. Collectively, our results suggest that averageness may not necessarily significantly increase attractiveness judgments of voices and are consistent with previous work reporting significant associations between attractiveness and voice pitch.


Assuntos
Beleza , Voz , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Voz/fisiologia , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Julgamento/fisiologia , Adolescente
12.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 540, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714798

RESUMO

The genetic influence on human vocal pitch in tonal and non-tonal languages remains largely unknown. In tonal languages, such as Mandarin Chinese, pitch changes differentiate word meanings, whereas in non-tonal languages, such as Icelandic, pitch is used to convey intonation. We addressed this question by searching for genetic associations with interindividual variation in median pitch in a Chinese major depression case-control cohort and compared our results with a genome-wide association study from Iceland. The same genetic variant, rs11046212-T in an intron of the ABCC9 gene, was one of the most strongly associated loci with median pitch in both samples. Our meta-analysis revealed four genome-wide significant hits, including two novel associations. The discovery of genetic variants influencing vocal pitch across both tonal and non-tonal languages suggests the possibility of a common genetic contribution to the human vocal system shared in two distinct populations with languages that differ in tonality (Icelandic and Mandarin).


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Idioma , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Islândia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Voz/fisiologia , Percepção da Altura Sonora , Povo Asiático/genética
13.
Ear Hear ; 45(4): 952-968, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616318

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Postlingually deaf adults with cochlear implants (CIs) have difficulties with perceiving differences in speakers' voice characteristics and benefit little from voice differences for the perception of speech in competing speech. However, not much is known yet about the perception and use of voice characteristics in prelingually deaf implanted children with CIs. Unlike CI adults, most CI children became deaf during the acquisition of language. Extensive neuroplastic changes during childhood could make CI children better at using the available acoustic cues than CI adults, or the lack of exposure to a normal acoustic speech signal could make it more difficult for them to learn which acoustic cues they should attend to. This study aimed to examine to what degree CI children can perceive voice cues and benefit from voice differences for perceiving speech in competing speech, comparing their abilities to those of normal-hearing (NH) children and CI adults. DESIGN: CI children's voice cue discrimination (experiment 1), voice gender categorization (experiment 2), and benefit from target-masker voice differences for perceiving speech in competing speech (experiment 3) were examined in three experiments. The main focus was on the perception of mean fundamental frequency (F0) and vocal-tract length (VTL), the primary acoustic cues related to speakers' anatomy and perceived voice characteristics, such as voice gender. RESULTS: CI children's F0 and VTL discrimination thresholds indicated lower sensitivity to differences compared with their NH-age-equivalent peers, but their mean discrimination thresholds of 5.92 semitones (st) for F0 and 4.10 st for VTL indicated higher sensitivity than postlingually deaf CI adults with mean thresholds of 9.19 st for F0 and 7.19 st for VTL. Furthermore, CI children's perceptual weighting of F0 and VTL cues for voice gender categorization closely resembled that of their NH-age-equivalent peers, in contrast with CI adults. Finally, CI children had more difficulties in perceiving speech in competing speech than their NH-age-equivalent peers, but they performed better than CI adults. Unlike CI adults, CI children showed a benefit from target-masker voice differences in F0 and VTL, similar to NH children. CONCLUSION: Although CI children's F0 and VTL voice discrimination scores were overall lower than those of NH children, their weighting of F0 and VTL cues for voice gender categorization and their benefit from target-masker differences in F0 and VTL resembled that of NH children. Together, these results suggest that prelingually deaf implanted CI children can effectively utilize spectrotemporally degraded F0 and VTL cues for voice and speech perception, generally outperforming postlingually deaf CI adults in comparable tasks. These findings underscore the presence of F0 and VTL cues in the CI signal to a certain degree and suggest other factors contributing to the perception challenges faced by CI adults.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear , Implantes Cocleares , Sinais (Psicologia) , Surdez , Percepção da Fala , Humanos , Surdez/reabilitação , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Voz/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 180: 111962, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38657429

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In this prospective study, we aimed to investigate the difference in voice acoustic parameters between girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP) and those who developed normally during prepuberty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study recruited 54 girls diagnosed with ICPP and randomly sampled 51 healthy prepubertal girls as the control. Tanner stages, circulating hormone levels and bone ages of the girls with ICPP and the age and body mass index (BMI) of all participants were recorded. Acoustic analyses were performed using PRAAT computer-based voice analysis software and the mean pitch (F0), jitter, shimmer, noise-to harmonic-ratio (NHR) and harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR) values were compared in the patient and control groups. RESULTS: The two groups did not significantly differ in age or BMI. In the evaluation of the F0 and jitter values, we were found to be lower in the control group than in the patient group. However, we did not find a statistical significance. The mean shimmer values of the patient group were significantly higher than those of the control group. In addition, a statistically significant difference was noted for the mean HNR and NHR values (P < 0.001). A moderate negative correlation was found between shimmer and hormone levels in the patient group. CONCLUSIONS: Voice acoustic parameters one of the defining features of girls with ICPP. Voice changes in acoustic parameters could reflect hormonal changes during puberty. Clinicians should suspect ICPP when there is a change in the voice.


Assuntos
Puberdade Precoce , Humanos , Puberdade Precoce/sangue , Feminino , Criança , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade da Voz/fisiologia , Acústica da Fala , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Voz/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal
15.
JAMA ; 331(15): 1259-1261, 2024 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38517420

RESUMO

In this Medical News article, Edward Chang, MD, chair of the department of neurological surgery at the University of California, San Francisco Weill Institute for Neurosciences joins JAMA Editor in Chief Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, PhD, MD, MAS, to discuss the potential for AI to revolutionize communication for those unable to speak due to aphasia.


Assuntos
Afasia , Inteligência Artificial , Avatar , Fala , Voz , Humanos , Fala/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia , Qualidade da Voz , Afasia/etiologia , Afasia/terapia , Equipamentos e Provisões
16.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1873, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38472193

RESUMO

Voice disorders resulting from various pathological vocal fold conditions or postoperative recovery of laryngeal cancer surgeries, are common causes of dysphonia. Here, we present a self-powered wearable sensing-actuation system based on soft magnetoelasticity that enables assisted speaking without relying on the vocal folds. It holds a lightweighted mass of approximately 7.2 g, skin-alike modulus of 7.83 × 105 Pa, stability against skin perspiration, and a maximum stretchability of 164%. The wearable sensing component can effectively capture extrinsic laryngeal muscle movement and convert them into high-fidelity and analyzable electrical signals, which can be translated into speech signals with the assistance of machine learning algorithms with an accuracy of 94.68%. Then, with the wearable actuation component, the speech could be expressed as voice signals while circumventing vocal fold vibration. We expect this approach could facilitate the restoration of normal voice function and significantly enhance the quality of life for patients with dysfunctional vocal folds.


Assuntos
Distúrbios da Voz , Voz , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Humanos , Prega Vocal/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Voz/fisiologia
17.
PeerJ ; 12: e16904, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38371372

RESUMO

Background: The ability to differentiate familiar from unfamiliar humans has been considered a product of domestication or early experience. Few studies have focused on voice recognition in Felidae despite the fact that this family presents the rare opportunity to compare domesticated species to their wild counterparts and to examine the role of human rearing. Methods: We tested whether non-domesticated Felidae species recognized familiar human voices by exposing them to audio playbacks of familiar and unfamiliar humans. In a pilot study, we presented seven cats of five species with playbacks of voices that varied in familiarity and use of the cats' names. In the main study, we presented 24 cats of 10 species with unfamiliar and then familiar voice playbacks using a habituation-dishabituation paradigm. We anticipated that human rearing and use of the cats' names would result in greater attention to the voices, as measured by the latency, intensity, and duration of responses regardless of subject sex and subfamily. Results: Cats responded more quickly and with greater intensity (e.g., full versus partial head turn, both ears moved versus one ear twitching) to the most familiar voice in both studies. They also responded for longer durations to the familiar voice compared to the unfamiliar voices in the main study. Use of the cats' name and rearing history did not significantly impact responding. These findings suggest that close human contact rather than domestication is associated with the ability to discriminate between human voices and that less social species may have socio-cognitive abilities akin to those of more gregarious species. With cats of all species being commonly housed in human care, it is important to know that they differentiate familiar from unfamiliar human voices.


Assuntos
Felidae , Voz , Humanos , Animais , Cuidadores , Projetos Piloto , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia
18.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 155(1): 18-28, 2024 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38169520

RESUMO

In an earlier study, we analyzed how audio signals obtained from three professional opera singers varied when they sang one octave wide eight-tone scales in ten different emotional colors. The results showed systematic variations in voice source and long-term-average spectrum (LTAS) parameters associated with major emotion "families". For two of the singers, subglottal pressure (PSub) also was recorded, thus allowing analysis of an additional main physiological voice control parameter, glottal resistance (defined as the ratio between PSub and glottal flow), and related to glottal adduction. In the present study, we analyze voice source and LTAS parameters derived from the audio signal and their correlation with Psub and glottal resistance. The measured parameters showed a systematic relationship with the four emotion families observed in our previous study. They also varied systematically with values of the ten emotions along the valence, power, and arousal dimensions; valence showed a significant correlation with the ratio between acoustic voice source energy and subglottal pressure, while Power varied significantly with sound level and two measures related to the spectral dominance of the lowest spectrum partial. the fundamental.


Assuntos
Canto , Voz , Humanos , Qualidade da Voz , Voz/fisiologia , Acústica , Glote/fisiologia
19.
Acta Otolaryngol ; 144(1): 65-70, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38265886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of effective treatment for idiopathic unilateral vocal fold paralysis (IUVFP). A better phonation was reported by patients after laryngeal nerve stimulation during our clinical examination. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate immediate effect of recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) stimulation on phonation in patients with IUVFP. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty-two patients with clinically identified IUVFP underwent RLN stimulation with needle electrodes. Laryngoscopy, acoustic analysis, and voice perception assessment were performed for quantitative comparison of vocal function and voice quality before and after the intervention. RESULTS: Laryngoscopic images showed a larger motion range of the paralyzed vocal fold (p < .01) and better glottal closure (p < .01) after RLN stimulation. Acoustic analysis revealed that the dysphonia severity index increased significantly (p < .01) while the jitter and shimmer decreased after the intervention (p < .05). According to perceptual evaluation, RLN stimulation significantly increased RBH grades in patients with IUVFP (p < .01). Furthermore, the improvement in voice perception had a moderate positive correlation with the decrease in the glottal closure. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: This study shows a short-term improvement of phonation in IUVFP patients after RLN stimulation, which provides proof-of-concept for trialing a controlled delivery of RLN stimulation and assessing durability of any observed responses.


Assuntos
Paralisia das Pregas Vocais , Voz , Humanos , Nervo Laríngeo Recorrente , Prega Vocal , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/terapia , Voz/fisiologia , Fonação/fisiologia
20.
Folia Phoniatr Logop ; 76(1): 1-21, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37393892

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Considering the conceptual migration from vocal load and vocal loading to vocal demand and vocal demand response, this review of literature aimed to identify physiological explanations, reported measurements, and associated factors (vocal demands) reported in the literature when considering the phonatory response to a vocal demand. METHODS: A systematic review of literature, following the PRISMA Statement, was conducted using Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. Data were analyzed and presented in two parts. First, a bibliometric analysis, co-occurrence analysis, and content analysis were performed. Three criteria that got article inclusion were defined: (1) written in English, Spanish, and Portuguese; (2) published between 2009 and 2021; and (3) focused on vocal load and loading, vocal demand response, and voice assessment parameters. A total of 54 publications met the criteria and were included in this review. The second part included a conceptual framework based on the content analysis of three aspects of vocal demand response: (1) physiological explanations, (2) reported measurements, and (3) vocal demands. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: As would be expected since vocal demand response is a relatively new term and not yet commonly used in literature when discussing way that the speakers respond to communicative scenarios, most of the studies reviewed (both historical and recent) still use the term of vocal load and vocal loading. Although there is a broad variety of literature discussing a wide range of vocal demands and voice parameters used to characterize the vocal demand response, results show that there is consistency across the studies. While vocal demand response is unique and intrinsic to the talker, associated factors that contribute to this response include both internal talker and external talker factors. Internal factors include muscle stiffness, viscosity in the phonatory system, vocal fold tissue damage, elevated sound pressure levels during occupational voice demands, extended periods of voice use, suboptimal body posture, difficulties in breathing technique, and sleep disturbances. Associated external factors include the working environment (noise, acoustics, temperature, humidity). In conclusion, although vocal demand response is intrinsic to the speaker, the speaker's response is affected by external vocal demands. However, due to the wide methods to evaluate vocal demand response, it has been difficult to establish its contribution to voice disorders in the general population and, specifically, among occupational voice users. This literature review identified commonly reported parameters and factors that may help clinicians and researchers define vocal demand response.


Assuntos
Distúrbios da Voz , Voz , Humanos , Qualidade da Voz , Voz/fisiologia , Fonação/fisiologia , Prega Vocal
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