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202.
Biomed Res Int ; 2014: 905472, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25093188

RESUMO

Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by either complete lack of or a reduction of melanin biosynthesis in the melanocytes. The OCA1A is the most severe type with a complete lack of melanin production throughout life, while the milder forms OCA1B, OCA2, OCA3, and OCA4 show some pigment accumulation over time. Mutations in TYR, OCA2, TYRP1, and SLC45A2 are mainly responsible for causing oculocutaneous albinism. Recently, two new genes SLC24A5 and C10orf11 are identified that are responsible to cause OCA6 and OCA7, respectively. Also a locus has been mapped to the human chromosome 4q24 region which is responsible for genetic cause of OCA5. In this paper, we summarized the clinical and molecular features of OCA genes. Further, we reviewed the screening of pathological mutations of OCA genes and its molecular mechanism of the protein upon mutation by in silico approach. We also reviewed TYR (T373K, N371Y, M370T, and P313R), OCA2 (R305W), TYRP1 (R326H and R356Q) mutations and their structural consequences at molecular level. It is observed that the pathological genetic mutations and their structural and functional significance of OCA genes will aid in development of personalized medicine for albinism patients.


Assuntos
Albinismo Oculocutâneo/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Melaninas/genética , Albinismo Oculocutâneo/classificação , Albinismo Oculocutâneo/patologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Humanos , Melaninas/biossíntese , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Oxirredutases/genética , Epitélio Pigmentado Ocular/patologia
203.
Retina ; 34(11): 2208-17, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25046395

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate pigmentation characteristics of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in patients with albinism using wide-field polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography compared with intensity-based spectral domain optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence imaging. METHODS: Five patients (10 eyes) with previously genetically diagnosed albinism and 5 healthy control subjects (10 eyes) were imaged by a wide-field polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system (scan angle: 40 × 40° on the retina), sensitive to melanin contained in the RPE, based on the polarization state of backscattered light. Conventional intensity-based spectral domain optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence examinations were performed. Retinal pigment epithelium-pigmentation was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively based on depolarization assessed by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography. RESULTS: This study revealed strong evidence of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography to specifically image melanin in the RPE. Depolarization of light backscattered by the RPE in patients with albinism was reduced compared with normal subjects. Heterogeneous RPE-specific depolarization characteristics were observed in patients with albinism. Reduction of depolarization observed in the light backscattered by the RPE in patients with albinism corresponds to expected decrease of RPE pigmentation. The degree of depigmentation of the RPE is possibly associated with visual acuity. Findings suggest that different albinism genotypes result in heterogeneous levels of RPE pigmentation. CONCLUSION: Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography showed a heterogeneous appearance of RPE pigmentation in patients with albinism depending on different genotypes.


Assuntos
Albinismo/patologia , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/patologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/instrumentação , Adulto , Albinismo/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melaninas/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
204.
Cell Biochem Biophys ; 70(3): 1923-32, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25060099

RESUMO

Albinism is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder due to low secretion of melanin. The oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) and ocular albinism (OA) genes are responsible for melanin production and also act as a potential targets for miRNAs. The role of miRNA is to inhibit the protein synthesis partially or completely by binding with the 3'UTR of the mRNA thus regulating gene expression. In this analysis, we predicted the genetic variation that occurred in 3'UTR of the transcript which can be a reason for low melanin production thus causing albinism. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3'UTR cause more new binding sites for miRNA which binds with mRNA which leads to inhibit the translation process either partially or completely. The SNPs in the mRNA of OCA and OA genes can create new binding sites for miRNA which may control the gene expression and lead to hypopigmentation. We have developed a computational procedure to determine the SNPs in the 3'UTR region of mRNA of OCA (TYR, OCA2, TYRP1 and SLC45A2) and OA (GPR143) genes which will be a potential cause for albinism. We identified 37 SNPs in five genes that are predicted to create 87 new binding sites on mRNA, which may lead to abrogation of the translation process. Expression analysis confirms that these genes are highly expressed in skin and eye regions. It is well supported by enrichment analysis that these genes are mainly involved in eye pigmentation and melanin biosynthesis process. The network analysis also shows how the genes are interacting and expressing in a complex network. This insight provides clue to wet-lab researches to understand the expression pattern of OCA and OA genes and binding phenomenon of mRNA and miRNA upon mutation, which is responsible for inhibition of translation process at genomic levels.


Assuntos
Albinismo Ocular/genética , Albinismo Oculocutâneo/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Albinismo Ocular/patologia , Albinismo Oculocutâneo/patologia , Algoritmos , Alelos , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Proteínas do Olho/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA Mensageiro/química , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
205.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 62(6): 735-7, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25005209

RESUMO

A 70-year-old female patient presented with proptosis of right eye for the past 15 days and defective vision in both eyes since birth. She was found to have eccentric painful proptosis of right eye along with features of oculocutaneous albinism. Eccentric proptosis was due to an orbital mass which proved to be a plexiform neurofibroma by histopathological examination. The case is presented for its rarity, as an isolated orbital plexiform neurofibroma without the systemic features of neurofibromatosis is rare and its coincidental presentation with oculocutaneous albinism is yet rare and has not been reported so far.


Assuntos
Albinismo Oculocutâneo/complicações , Exoftalmia/etiologia , Neurofibroma Plexiforme/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Orbitárias/diagnóstico , Idoso , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Exoftalmia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neurofibroma Plexiforme/complicações , Neoplasias Orbitárias/complicações , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
206.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 132(9): 1084-8, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24945710

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: We describe a sign that can be used as a rapid and noninvasive adjunct to aid in the diagnosis of foveal hypoplasia. OBJECTIVE: To describe a concentric macular rings sign found on infrared reflectance (IRR) images in patients with foveal hypoplasia. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: We studied 13 patients with foveal hypoplasia (7 with ocular albinism [OA], 5 with oculocutaneous albinism [OCA], and 1 with aniridia) at a tertiary ophthalmology center with access to electrodiagnostic services from February 18, 2009, through April 9, 2013. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: All patients and an age-matched control participant underwent a complete clinical examination, electroretinography (full field and pattern), visual evoked potentials, fundus autofluorescence IRR, and optical coherence tomography (OCT). One patient with OA and the control participant also underwent scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation (GDx VCC). RESULTS: Thirteen patients (6 girls and 7 boys), with a mean age of 5.8 years (range, 3-11 years), were included in the study. Seven patients were diagnosed as having OA and had minimal clinical signs (fine nystagmus in 2 patients and subtle iris transillumination in 5 patients). Five patients with OCA and 1 with aniridia were also included. In 12 patients, OA and OCA were confirmed with 5-channel visual evoked potentials (optic nerve misrouting). Whenever OCT was performed, foveal hypoplasia was indicated by the lack of foveal dip. The macula lacked the foveal attenuation normally seen with fundus autofluorescence, and a concentric macular rings reflex was seen with IRR in all 13 patients and with GDx VCC in 1 patient. A normal bowtie reflex was seen with IRR and GDx VCC in the age-matched control participant. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Our findings suggest that concentric macular rings seen on IRR or GDx VCC can occur in patients with foveal hypoplasia and can therefore aid in the diagnosis, especially in patients with minimal clinical signs (mild OA) or in cases in which OCT cannot be performed (young patients or patients with high-amplitude nystagmus).


Assuntos
Albinismo Ocular/diagnóstico , Albinismo Oculocutâneo/diagnóstico , Anormalidades do Olho/diagnóstico , Fóvea Central/anormalidades , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eletrorretinografia , Potenciais Evocados Visuais , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia , Humanos , Masculino , Polarimetria de Varredura a Laser , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Acuidade Visual
207.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 39(5): 646-8, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24934919

RESUMO

The TYR gene (MIM #6069333) is located at position 11q14.3 on the human chromosome, and encodes tyrosinase, which is expressed in melanocytes and controls the biosynthesis of melanin. Most TYR mutations eliminate the activity of tyrosinase, preventing melanocytes from producing any melanin throughout life. People with this form of albinism have white hair, light-coloured eyes and very pale skin. Some mutations in TYR reduce but do not completely eliminate tyrosinase activity, and allow some melanin to be produced. We report a Pakistani family with four members affected by oculocutaneous albinism (OCA). Blood samples were collected from all affected individuals, normal siblings and their parents. Genomic DNA was extracted, and sequence analysis of all the coding exons and adjacent intronic sequences of TYR was performed, which identified a novel missense substitution (p.Ile198Thr). Sequencing of TYR in 90 unrelated healthy individuals showed no sequence variant at this location. Our study expands the mutational spectrum of OCA1.


Assuntos
Albinismo Oculocutâneo/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Adolescente , Adulto , Povo Asiático/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Éxons , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Adulto Jovem
208.
Doc Ophthalmol ; 129(2): 71-84, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24962442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: In routine clinical evaluation of optic neuritis and chiasmal tumours, pattern electroretinography and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) to pattern-reversal stimulation are useful examinations. Similarly, in achiasmia and ocular albinism, VEPs to flash and pattern-onset stimulation provide relevant information. RESULTS: The role of visual electrophysiology in these diseases is to assess potential dysfunction of the visual pathway: (a) at the acute stage of optic neuritis, to determine the magnitude of conduction block of the optic nerve fibres; (b) at the clinical recovery stage of optic neuritis, to determine optic nerve conduction delay due to demyelination, and to follow possible remyelination; (c) at the recovery of optic neuritis when visual acuity does not normalise, to define loss of optic nerve fibres and retrograde degeneration of retinal ganglion cells; (d) in tumours at the chiasm, to detect abnormal conduction along the crossed and/or uncrossed fibres; and (e) in achiasmia or albinism, which are both congenital disorders associated with nystagmus, to detect achiasmia and absence of or reduced optic nerve fibre decussation at the chiasm, or to detect ocular albinism and excess of optic nerve fibre decussation at the chiasm. In optic neuritis, two recent examinations have been used to detect retrograde axonal degeneration: photopic negative response of the electroretinogram, to assess dysfunction of ganglion cell axons; and optic coherence tomography, to measure thinning of the retinal nerve fibre layer. In optic neuritis, multifocal VEPs provide a promising clinical examination, because this can show areas that are associated with normal or abnormal optic nerve fibre function. CONCLUSIONS: Visual electrophysiology defines function of the visual pathway and is relevant: (1) in optic neuritis, when visual acuity does not recover well; (2) in tumours of the chiasm with normal visual fields, as in paediatric patients who cannot adequately perform perimetry; and (3) in children with congenital nystagmus and suspected achiasmia or ocular albinism.


Assuntos
Albinismo Ocular/diagnóstico , Eletrofisiologia/métodos , Anormalidades do Olho/diagnóstico , Quiasma Óptico/patologia , Neoplasias do Nervo Óptico/diagnóstico , Neurite Óptica/diagnóstico , Eletrorretinografia , Potenciais Evocados Visuais , Humanos , Quiasma Óptico/anormalidades
209.
BMJ Case Rep ; 20142014 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24907210

RESUMO

We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma of external auditory canal in an Omani man with oculocutaneous albinism. The disease mimicked inflammatory process revealing positive cultures for various microorganisms during the course of his illness. He was eventually biopsied to rule out atypical infective process or presence of malignancy. He was staged as T4N0M0 and treated with radical doses of palliative radiation therapy which was very well tolerated and resulted in a complete resolution of disease clinically and a major soft tissue response on radiological imaging. Another unique finding was the absence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein overexpression in the tumour specimen. More than 90% of mucosal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) involving the head and neck region overexpress the EGFR protein in normal skin patients. SCC is the predominant cutaneous malignancy in albinos, and the presence of EGFR protein overexpression in cutaneous SCC is believed to be 56-58% in normal skin patients. The scientific literature is scarce on reporting incidence of EGFR overexpression in either cutaneous or mucosal SCC in albinos, and it remains to be defined whether being albino is the cause for its absence.


Assuntos
Albinismo Oculocutâneo/complicações , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Orelha/diagnóstico , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/complicações , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/radioterapia , Meato Acústico Externo , Neoplasias da Orelha/complicações , Neoplasias da Orelha/radioterapia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/complicações , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Humanos , Masculino , Omã , Cuidados Paliativos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
210.
J Community Health ; 39(6): 1193-9, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24806601

RESUMO

To assess the burden and spectrum of refractive and non-refractive ophthalmic disorders in south-eastern Nigerians with oculocutaneous albinism. In a population-based survey in Enugu state, between August, 2011 and January, 2012, albinos were identified using the database of the Enugu state's Albino Foundation, and mass media-based mobilisation. The participants were enrolled at the Eye Clinics of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital and Enugu State University of Science and Technology Teaching Hospital using a defined protocol. Relevant socio-demographic and clinical data were obtained from each participant. Descriptive and comparative statistics were performed. Statistical significance was indicated by p < 0.05. The participants (n = 153; males, 70) were aged 23.5 + 10.4 SD years (range 6-60 years). Both refractive and non-refractive disorders were present in all participants. Non-refractive disorders comprised nystagmus, foveal hypoplasia, hypopigmented fundi and prominent choroidal vessels in 100.0% participants; and strabismus in 16.3% participants. Refractive disorders comprised astigmatism -73.2% eyes, myopia -23.9% and hypermetropia 2.9%. Spherical refractive errors ranged from -14.00 DS to +8.00 DS while astigmatic errors ranged from -6.00 DC to +6 DC. Mixed refractive and non-refractive disorder i.e. presenting visual impairment was present in 100.0% participants. Overall, refractive error was associated with non-possession of tertiary education (OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.38-0.96; p = 0.0374). There is high prevalence of refractive, non-refractive and mixed ophthalmic disorders among albinos in south-eastern Nigeria. This underscores the need for tailored provision of resources to address their eye care needs, and creation of needs awareness amongst them.


Assuntos
Albinismo Oculocutâneo/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
211.
J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus ; 51(4): 214-20, 2014 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24779424

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report and compile the ophthalmological features critical to diagnosis of Vici syndrome, a rare congenital disorder characterized principally by agenesis of the corpus callosum, cataracts, cardiomyopathy, immune defects, and hypopigmentation. METHODS: A child with Vici syndrome (OMIM 242840) is reported with emphasis on the ophthalmologic evaluation. Ophthalmologic assessments including fundus examination, visual evoked potentials (VEPs), and ocular coherence tomography are presented. These findings are compared with those identified in other published cases of children with Vici syndrome. RESULTS: Ophthalmologic findings included bilateral nuclear and anterior polar cataracts, bilateral optic nerve atrophy, and mild fundus hypopigmentation. Evoked potentials recorded across the mid-occipital scalp demonstrated misrouting of optic pathways typical of albinism. Optical coherence tomography exhibited a poorly defined fovea demonstrating a lesser degree of foveal depression also consistent with ocular albinism. Review of reported children with Vici syndrome identifies bilateral cataracts, nystagmus, fundus hypopigmentation, visual impairment, and optic nerve hypoplasia as common ophthalmologic features. CONCLUSIONS: Ophthalmologic findings are critical to the diagnosis of Vici syndrome. Most common are bilateral cataracts and relative fundus hypopigmentation. VEPs can identify misrouting of optic pathways typical of ocular albinism, thereby establishing the diagnosis in challenging cases.


Assuntos
Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/diagnóstico , Albinismo Ocular/diagnóstico , Albinismo Oculocutâneo/diagnóstico , Catarata/congênito , Nistagmo Patológico/diagnóstico , Catarata/diagnóstico , Pré-Escolar , Potenciais Evocados Visuais , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
213.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 55(7): 4186-98, 2014 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24845642

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Albinism is associated with disrupted foveal development, though intersubject variability is becoming appreciated. We sought to quantify this variability, and examine the relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in patients with a clinical diagnosis of albinism. METHODS: We recruited 32 subjects with a clinical diagnosis of albinism. DNA was obtained from 25 subjects, and known albinism genes were analyzed for mutations. Relative inner and outer segment (IS and OS) lengthening (fovea-to-perifovea ratio) was determined from manually segmented spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) B-scans. Foveal pit morphology was quantified for eight subjects from macular SD-OCT volumes. Ten subjects underwent imaging with adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO), and cone density was measured. RESULTS: We found mutations in 22 of 25 subjects, including five novel mutations. All subjects lacked complete excavation of inner retinal layers at the fovea, though four subjects had foveal pits with normal diameter and/or volume. Peak cone density and OS lengthening were variable and overlapped with that observed in normal controls. A fifth hyper-reflective band was observed in the outer retina on SD-OCT in the majority of the subjects with albinism. CONCLUSIONS: Foveal cone specialization and pit morphology vary greatly in albinism. Normal cone packing was observed in the absence of a foveal pit, suggesting a pit is not required for packing to occur. The degree to which retinal anatomy correlates with genotype or visual function remains unclear, and future examination of larger patient groups will provide important insight on this issue.


Assuntos
Albinismo Oculocutâneo/diagnóstico , Fóvea Central/patologia , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/patologia , Acuidade Visual , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Albinismo Oculocutâneo/genética , Albinismo Oculocutâneo/fisiopatologia , Contagem de Células , Criança , DNA/genética , Eletrorretinografia , Proteínas do Olho/genética , Feminino , Fóvea Central/fisiopatologia , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Oftalmoscopia , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/metabolismo , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Adulto Jovem
215.
Eur J Dermatol ; 24(2): 168-73, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24721949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a congenital genetic disorder characterized by defects in melanin production. OCA type 1 (OCA1) is the most serious and common type of OCA. This study characterized mutations associated with OCA1 in a series of Chinese patients. METHODS: We recruited 41 unrelated patients with OCA and 100 healthy subjects from the Chinese Han population. Genomic DNA was extracted from their blood samples. Mutational analysis of tyrosinase (TYR) genes was conducted using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing, specifically to test the 100 control subjects and exclude the possibility of polymorphism. Mutational analysis and bioinformatics study were performed in TYR mutations. RESULTS: Among the 24 (58.5%) patients with OCA1, 21 different TYR mutations were identified, including three previously unidentified alleles (PUAs): one frameshift mutation (c.216delA) and two missense mutations (A241T and N364K). The proband mutation A241T carries three possible mutations in complex OCA. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study expand current knowledge and data of mutations associated with OCA1 in China and allow us to estimate or explore the mutation spectrum and relative frequencies of the TYR gene in the Chinese population.


Assuntos
Albinismo Oculocutâneo/genética , Alelos , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Mutação , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
217.
Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 42(8): 713-21, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24641678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dopamine is an intermediate product in the biosynthesis of melanin pigment, which is absent or reduced in albinism. Animal research has shown that supplying a precursor to dopamine, levodopa, may improve visual acuity in albinism by enhancing neural networks. This study examines the safety and effectiveness of levodopa on best-corrected visual acuity in human subjects with albinism. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked clinical trial conducted at the University of Minnesota. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-five subjects with albinism. METHODS: Subjects with albinism were randomly assigned to one of three treatment arms: levodopa 0.76 mg/kg with 25% carbidopa, levodopa 0.51 mg/kg with 25% carbidopa, or placebo and followed for 20 weeks, with best-corrected visual acuity measured at enrollment, and at weeks 5, 10, 15, and 20 after enrollment. Side-effects were recorded with a symptom survey. Blood was drawn for genotyping. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Side-effects and best-corrected visual acuity 20 weeks after enrolment. RESULTS: All subjects had at least one mutation found in a gene known to cause albinism. Mean age was 14.5 years (range: 3.5 to 57.8 years). Follow up was 100% and compliance was good. Minor side-effects were reported; there were no serious adverse events. There was no statistically significant improvement in best-corrected visual acuity after 20 weeks with either dose of levodopa. CONCLUSIONS: Levodopa, in the doses used in this trial and for the time course of administration, did not improve visual acuity in subjects with albinism.


Assuntos
Albinismo Oculocutâneo/tratamento farmacológico , Dopaminérgicos/uso terapêutico , Levodopa/uso terapêutico , Acuidade Visual/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Albinismo Oculocutâneo/genética , Albinismo Oculocutâneo/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dopaminérgicos/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Levodopa/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
218.
PLoS One ; 9(3): e92127, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24647637

RESUMO

The first white Doberman pinscher (WDP) dog was registered by the American Kennel Club in 1976. The novelty of the white coat color resulted in extensive line breeding of this dog and her offspring. The WDP phenotype closely resembles human oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) and clinicians noticed a seemingly high prevalence of pigmented masses on these dogs. This study had three specific aims: (1) produce a detailed description of the ocular phenotype of WDPs, (2) objectively determine if an increased prevalence of ocular and cutaneous melanocytic tumors was present in WDPs, and (3) determine if a genetic mutation in any of the genes known to cause human OCA is causal for the WDP phenotype. WDPs have a consistent ocular phenotype of photophobia, hypopigmented adnexal structures, blue irides with a tan periphery and hypopigmented retinal pigment epithelium and choroid. WDPs have a higher prevalence of cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms compared with control standard color Doberman pinschers (SDPs); cutaneous tumors were noted in 12/20 WDP (<5 years of age: 4/12; >5 years of age: 8/8) and 1/20 SDPs (p<0.00001). Using exclusion analysis, four OCA causative genes were investigated for their association with WDP phenotype; TYR, OCA2, TYRP1 and SLC45A2. SLC45A2 was found to be linked to the phenotype and gene sequencing revealed a 4,081 base pair deletion resulting in loss of the terminus of exon seven of SLC45A2 (chr4∶77,062,968-77,067,051). This mutation is highly likely to be the cause of the WDP phenotype and is supported by a lack of detectable SLC45A2 transcript levels by reverse transcriptase PCR. The WDP provides a valuable model for studying OCA4 visual disturbances and melanocytic neoplasms in a large animal model.


Assuntos
Albinismo Oculocutâneo/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/genética , Deleção de Genes , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Albinismo Oculocutâneo/genética , Albinismo Oculocutâneo/patologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Análise Mutacional de DNA , DNA Complementar/genética , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Eletroforese em Gel de Ágar , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fenótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
219.
J Comp Neurol ; 522(11): 2680-7, 2014 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24639208

RESUMO

Our objective was to measure how the misrouting of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) fibers affects the organization of the optic chiasm and lateral geniculate nuclei (LGN) in human albinism. We compared the chiasmal structures and the LGN in both pigmented controls and patients with albinism by using high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We studied 12 patients with oculocutaneous albinism and 12 age-matched pigmented controls. Using a 3T MRI scanner, we acquired a T1 -weighted three-dimensional magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo (MPRAGE) image of the whole brain, oriented so that the optic nerves, chiasm, and tracts were in the same plane. We acquired multiple proton density-weighted images centered on the thalamus and midbrain, and averaged them to increase the signal, enabling precise manual tracing of the anatomical boundaries of the LGN. Albinism patients exhibited significantly smaller diameters of the optic nerves, chiasm and tracts, and optic chiasm and LGN volume compared with controls (P < 0.001 for all). The reductions in chiasmal diameters in the albinism compared with the control group can be attributed to the abnormal crossing of optic fibers and the reduction of RGCs in the central retina. The volume of the LGN devoted to the center of the visual field may be reduced in albinism due to fewer RGCs representing the area where the fovea would normally lie. Our data may be clinically useful in addressing how genetic deficits compromise proper structural and functional development in the brain.


Assuntos
Albinismo/patologia , Corpos Geniculados/patologia , Quiasma Óptico/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Mesencéfalo/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nervo Óptico/patologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Retina/patologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia , Tálamo/patologia , Campos Visuais , Vias Visuais/patologia , Adulto Jovem
220.
BMC Cancer ; 14: 157, 2014 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24597988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skin cancer is rare among Africans and albinism is an established risk for skin cancer in this population. Ultraviolet radiation is highest at the equator and African albinos living close to the equator have the highest risk of developing skin cancers. METHODS: This was a retrospective study that involved histological review of all specimens with skin cancers from African albinos submitted to The Regional Dermatology Training Center in Moshi, Tanzania from 2002 to 2011. RESULTS: A total of 134 biopsies from 86 patients with a male to female ratio of 1:1 were reviewed. Head and neck was the commonest (n = 75, 56.0%) site affected by skin cancers. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was more common than basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with a ratio of 1.2:1. Only one Acral lentiginous melanoma was reported. Majority (55.6%) of SCC were well differentiated while nodular BCC (75%) was the most common type of BCC. CONCLUSIONS: Squamous cell carcinoma is more common than basal cell carcinoma in African albinos.


Assuntos
Albinismo/complicações , População Negra , Neoplasias Cutâneas/complicações , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia , Carcinoma Basocelular/complicações , Carcinoma Basocelular/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/complicações , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Tanzânia , Adulto Jovem
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