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1.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; : 106446, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610457

RESUMO

Improving prudent use of antibiotics is one pathway to limiting the spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effects on prudent use of antibiotics of financial strategies targeting providers. We conducted a systematic review of the literature searching PubMed, Embase, Cochrane databases, and the grey literature. Search terms related to anti-bacterial agents, drug resistance, financial strategies, and health providers and/or prescribers. 22 articles were included in the review, reporting on capitation and salary reimbursement, cost containment interventions, pay-for-performance initiatives, penalties, and a one-off bonus payment. There was substantial variation in the reported outcomes describing prescribing behaviours: proportion of patients prescribed antibiotics, antibiotic prescriptions per patient, number of cases treated with recommended antibiotic therapy, among others. All financial strategies were associated with improvements in the appropriate prescription of antibiotics in the short-term, though the magnitude of observed effects varied across financial strategies. Financial penalties were associated with the greatest decreases in inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions followed by capitation models and pay-for-performance schemes that paid bonuses upon achievement of performance targets. However, the risk of bias across studies must be noted. Findings point to the viability of financial strategies to promote the prudent use of antibiotics. Measuring the downstream impact of prescriber behaviour changes is key to estimating the true value of such interventions tackle AMR. Research efforts should continue to build the evidence on causal mechanisms driving provider prescribing patterns for antibiotics and long-term impacts on antibiotic prescriptions.

2.
Ont Health Technol Assess Ser ; 21(13): 1-214, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484487

RESUMO

Background: Major depression is a substantial public health concern that can affect personal relationships, reduce people's ability to go to school or work, and lead to social isolation. Multi-gene pharmacogenomic testing that includes decision-support tools can help predict which depression medications and dosages are most likely to result in a strong response to treatment or to have the lowest risk of adverse events on the basis of people's genes.We conducted a health technology assessment of multi-gene pharmacogenomic testing that includes decision-support tools for people with major depression. Our assessment evaluated effectiveness, safety, cost-effectiveness, the budget impact of publicly funding multi-gene pharmacogenomic testing, and patient preferences and values. Methods: We performed a systematic literature search of the clinical evidence. We assessed the risk of bias of each included study using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool and the Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Nonrandomized studies (RoBANS) and the quality of the body of evidence according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group criteria.We performed a systematic literature search of the economic evidence to review published cost-effectiveness studies on multi-gene pharmacogenomic testing that includes a decision-support tool in people with major depression. We developed a state-transition model and conducted a probabilistic analysis to determine the incremental cost of multi-gene pharmacogenomic testing versus treatment as usual per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained for people with major depression who had inadequate response to one or more antidepressant medications. In the reference case (with GeneSight-guided care), we considered a 1-year time horizon with an Ontario Ministry of Health perspective. We also estimated the 5-year budget impact of publicly funding multi-gene pharmacogenomic testing for people with major depression in Ontario.To contextualize the potential value of multi-gene pharmacogenomic testing that includes decision-support tools, we spoke with people who have major depression and their families. Results: We included 14 studies in the clinical evidence review that evaluated six multi-gene pharmacogenomic tests. Although all tests included decision-support tools, they otherwise differed greatly, as did study design, populations included in studies, and outcomes reported. Little or no improvement was observed on change in HAM-D17 depression score compared with treatment as usual for any test evaluated (GRADE: Low-Very Low). GeneSight- and NeuroIDgenetix-guided medication selection led to statistically significant improvements in response (GRADE: Low-Very Low) and remission (GRADE: Low-Very Low), while treatment guided by CNSdose led to significant improvement in remission rates (GRADE: Low), but the study did not report on response. Results were inconsistent and uncertain for the impact of Neuropharmagen, and no significant improvement was observed for Genecept or another unspecified test for either response or remission (GRADE: Low-Very Low). Neuropharmagen may reduce adverse events and CNSDose may reduce intolerability to medication, while no difference was observed in adverse events with GeneSight, Genecept, or another unspecified test (GRADE: Moderate-Very Low). No studies reported data on suicide, treatment adherence, relapse, recovery, or recurrence of depression symptoms.Our review included four model-based economic studies and found that multi-gene pharmacogenomic testing was associated with greater effectiveness and cost savings than treatment as usual, over long-term (i.e., 3-,5-year and lifetime) time horizons. Since none of the included studies was fully applicable to the Ontario health care system, we conducted a primary economic evaluation.Our reference case analysis over the 1-year time horizon found that multi-gene pharmacogenomic testing (with GeneSight) was associated with additional QALYs (0.03, 95% credible interval [CrI]: 0.005; 0.072) and additional costs ($1,906, 95% Crl: $688; $3,360). An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $60,564 per QALY gained. The probability of the intervention being cost-effective (vs. treatment as usual) was 36.8% at a willingness-to-pay amount of $50,000 per QALY (i.e., moderately likely not to be cost-effective), rising to 70.7% at a willingness-to-pay amount of $100,000 per QALY (i.e., moderately likely to be cost-effective). Evidence informing economic modeling of the reference case with GeneSight and other multi-gene pharmacogenomic tests was of low to very low quality, implying considerable uncertainty or low confidence in the effectiveness estimates. The price of the test, efficacy of the intervention on remission, time horizon, and analytic perspective were major determinants of the cost-effectiveness results. If the test price were assumed to be $2,162 (compared with $2,500 in the reference case), the intervention would be cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay amount of $50,000 per QALY; moreover, if the price decreased to $595, the intervention would be cost saving (or dominant) compared with treatment as usual.At an increasing uptake of 1% per year and a test price of $2,500, the annual budget impact of publicly funding multi-gene pharmacogenomic testing in Ontario over the next 5 years ranged from an additional $3.5 million in year 1 (at uptake of 1%) to $16.8 million in year 5. The 5-year budget impact was estimated at about $52 million.People with major depression and caregivers generally supported multi-gene pharmacogenomic testing because they believed it could provide guidance that fit their values. They hoped such guidance would speed symptom relief, would reduce side effects and help inform their medication choices. Some patients expressed concerns over maintaining confidentiality of test results and the possibility that physicians would sacrifice patient-centred care to follow pharmacogenomic guidance. Conclusions: Multi-gene pharmacogenomic testing that includes decision-support tools to guide medication selection for depression varies widely. Differences between individual tests must be considered, as clinical utility observed with one test might not apply to other tests. Overall, effectiveness was inconsistent among the six multi-gene pharmacogenomic tests we identified. Multi-gene pharmacogenomic tests may result in little or no difference in improvement in depression scores compared with treatment as usual, but some tests may improve response to treatment or remission from depression. The impact on adverse events is uncertain. The evidence, however, is uncertain, and therefore our confidence that these observed effects reflect the true effects is low to very low.For the management of major depression in people who had inadequate response to at least one medication, some multi-gene pharmacogenomic tests that include decision support tools are associated with additional costs and QALYs over the 1-year time horizon, and maybe be cost-effective at the willingness-to-pay amount of $100,000 per QALY. Publicly funding multi-gene pharmacogenomic testing in Ontario would result in additional annual costs of between $3.5 million and $16.8 million, with a total budget impact of about $52 million over the next 5 years.People with major depression and caregivers generally supported multi-gene pharmacogenomic testing because they believed it could provide guidance that fit their values. They hoped such guidance would speed symptom relief, would reduce side and help inform their medication choices. Some patients expressed concerns over maintaining confidentiality of test results and the possibility that physicians would sacrifice patient-centred care to follow pharmacogenomic guidance.

3.
J Clin Neurosci ; 92: 67-74, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509265

RESUMO

Errors in communication are a major source of preventable medical errors. Neurosurgical patients frequently present to the neuro-intensive care unit (NICU) postoperatively, where handoffs occur to coordinate care within a large multidisciplinary team. A multidisciplinary working group at our institution started an initiative to improve postoperative neurosurgical handoffs using validated quality improvement methodology. Baseline handoff practices were evaluated through staff surveys and serial observations. A formalized handoff protocol was implemented using the evidence based IPASS format (Illness severity, Patient summary, Action list, Situational awareness and contingency planning, Synthesis by receiver). Cycles of objective observations and surveys were employed to track practice improvements and guide iterative process changes over one year. Surveys demonstrated improved perceptions of handoffs as organized (17.1% vs 69.7%, p < 0.001), efficient (27.0% vs. 72.7%, p < 0.001), comprehensive (17.1% vs. 66.7%, p < 0.001), and safe (18.0% vs. 66.7%, p < 0.001), noting improved teamwork (31.5% vs. 69.7%, p < 0.001). Direct observations demonstrated improved communication of airway concerns (47.1% observed vs. 92.3% observed, p < 0.001), hemodynamic concerns (70.6% vs. 97.1%, p = 0.001), intraoperative events (52.9% vs. 100%, p < 0.001), neurological examination (76.5% vs. 100%, p < 0.001), vital sign goals (70.6% vs. 100%, p < 0.001), and required postoperative studies (76.5% vs. 100%, p < 0.001). Receiving teams demonstrating improved rates of summarization (47.1% vs. 94.2%, p = 0.005) and asking questions (76.5% vs 98.1%, p = 0.004). The mean handoff time during long-term follow-up was 4.4 min (95% confidence interval = 3.9-5.0 min). Standardization of handoff practices yields improvements in communication practices for postoperative neurosurgical patients.

5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502647

RESUMO

Conventional clinical cognitive assessment has its limitations, as evidenced by the environmental shortcomings of various neuropsychological tests conducted away from an older person's everyday environment. Recent research activities have focused on transferring screening tests to computerized forms, as well as on developing short screening tests for screening large populations for cognitive impairment. The purpose of this study was to present an exergaming platform, which was widely trialed (116 participants) to collect in-game metrics (built-in game performance measures). The potential correlation between in-game metrics and cognition was investigated in-depth by scrutinizing different in-game metrics. The predictive value of high-resolution monitoring games was assessed by correlating it with classical neuropsychological tests; the area under the curve (AUC) in the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was calculated to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the method for detecting mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Classification accuracy was calculated to be 73.53% when distinguishing between MCI and normal subjects, and 70.69% when subjects with mild dementia were also involved. The results revealed evidence that careful design of serious games, with respect to in-game metrics, could potentially contribute to the early and unobtrusive detection of cognitive decline.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Disfunção Cognitiva , Idoso , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Curva ROC
6.
Arch Suicide Res ; : 1-13, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Chaplains are key care providers in a comprehensive approach to suicide prevention, which is a priority area for the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and the Department of Defense (DoD). In a cohort of 87 VA and military chaplains who completed the Mental Health Integration for Chaplain Services (MHICS) training-an intensive, specialty education in evidence-based psychosocial and collaborative approaches to mental health care-we assessed chaplains' self-perceptions, intervention behaviors, and use of evidence-based practices, including Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), Problem-Solving Therapy (PST), and Motivational Interviewing (MI), in providing care for suicidality. METHOD: Chaplains responded to a battery of items Pre- and Post-training and provided deidentified case examples describing their use of evidence-based practices in spiritual care for service members and veterans (SM/V) on various levels of a suicide prevention continuum. RESULTS: Post-training, chaplains reported increased abilities to provide care and mobilize collaborative resources. Over the course of MHICS, 87% of chaplains used one or more evidence-based practices with a SM/V at risk for suicide or acutely suicidal. Fifty-six percent of chaplains reported intervening with an acutely suicidal SM/V by using principles from ACT, 36% PST, and 48% MI. With persons at risk for suicide, 81% used principles from ACT, 66% PST, and 71% MI. Cases exemplified diverse evidence-based practice applications. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate chaplains trained in evidence-based practices report effective application in caring for SM/V who are suicidal, thus offering a valuable resource to meet needs in a priority area for VA and DoD.HIGHLIGHTSChaplains provide essential care for SM/V who are at risk for suicide or acutely suicidalTraining helps chaplains mobilize interdisciplinary and community resources in suicide careEvidence-based practices can effectively integrate within the scope of chaplaincy practice for suicide care.

7.
Early Hum Dev ; 161: 105455, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac complications after premature birth are associated with negative long-term consequences to health. The Family Nurture Intervention (FNI) has been designed to support mother-infant parasympathetic calming sessions in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). FNI has shown neurodevelopmental and autonomic benefit across infant development. AIMS: We tested the hypothesis that heart rate (HR) will decrease after FNI over the course of the NICU stay, compared to matched controls. STUDY DESIGN: We used a case-matched design. The intervention included on average four ~1-hour facilitated mother-infant 'calming' sessions per week. We collected 24/7 real time heart rate data from a central monitoring system and analyzed data from two time-periods. SUBJECTS: The intervention group comprised 37 infants born ~30 weeks gestational age (GA) in a level IV NICU, treated with FNI. From the same NICU and time-period, we created a contemporaneous comparison group of 32 infants who were case-matched to each intervention infant for sex, age-at-birth, singleton or twin status, month of admission and length of stay. OUTCOME MEASURES: Using generalized estimating equation (GEE) modeling, we analyzed 24/7 HR data during a 1-hour period between 4:30 and 5:30 am each day in the NICU, when all infants were least disturbed. Using repeated measures ANOVA, we analyzed 24/7 HR data during a 6-week period starting 1 week prior to the start of FNI and ending 5 weeks after start. RESULTS: GEE modeling of the 1-hour data from all subjects showed significant lower HR in the FNI group, compared with controls. ANOVA modeling on a subset of subjects over the five-week period showed that FNI infant HR decreased in a dose-response manner relative to SC HR. CONCLUSION: This study suggests FNI may condition lower infant HR in a dose-response manner during the NICU stay.

9.
J Urban Health ; 98(Suppl 1): 15-30, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480327

RESUMO

Housing is a paradigmatic example of a social determinant of health, as it influences and is influenced by structural determinants, such as social, macroeconomic, and public policies, politics, education, income, and ethnicity/race, all intersecting to shaping the health and well-being of populations. It can therefore be argued that housing policy is critically linked to health policy. However, the extent to which this linkage is understood and addressed in public policies is limited and highly diverse across and within countries. This analysis seeks to describe the linkages between housing policies and health and well-being using examples from three countries at different levels of the wealth spectrum: Singapore, the UK, and Kenya.We conducted a comparative policy analysis across three country contexts (Singapore, the UK, and Kenya) to document the extent to which housing policies address health and well-being, highlighting commonalities and differences among them. To guide our analysis, we used the United Nations (UN) definition of adequate housing as it offers a broad framework to analyze the impact of housing on health and well-being.The anatomy of housing policies has a strong correlation to the provision of adequate housing across Singapore, the UK, and Kenya, especially for vulnerable groups. The paper demonstrates that contextual factors including population composition (i.e., aging versus youthful), political ideologies, legal frameworks (i.e., welfare versus market-based provision of housing), and presence (or absence) of adequate, quality, timely, reliable, robust data systems for decision-making, which are taken up by stakeholders/state, have strong implications of the type of housing policies developed and implemented, in turn directly and indirectly impacting the overall health and well-being of populations.This analysis demonstrates the value of viewing housing policies as public health policies that could significantly impact the health and well-being of populations, especially vulnerable groups. Moreover, the findings highlight the importance of the Health in All Policies approach to facilitate integrated policy responses to address social determinants of health such as housing. This is more critical than ever, given the context of the global pandemic that has led to worsening overall health and well-being.


Assuntos
Habitação , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Humanos , Quênia , Política Pública , Singapura , Reino Unido
10.
Adv Skin Wound Care ; 34(10): 511, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546199
11.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e051673, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489292

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify how frequently patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are used as primary and/or secondary outcomes in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and to summarise what statistical methods are used for the analysis of PROs. DESIGN: Comprehensive review. SETTING: RCTs funded and published by the United Kingdom's (UK) National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Programme. DATA SOURCES AND ELIGIBILITY: HTA reports of RCTs published between January 1997 and December 2020 were reviewed. DATA EXTRACTION: Information relating to PRO use and analysis methods was extracted. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The frequency of using PROs as primary and/or secondary outcomes; statistical methods that were used for the analysis of PROs as primary outcomes. RESULTS: In this review, 37.6% (114/303) of trials used PROs as primary outcomes, and 82.8% (251/303) of trials used PROs as secondary outcomes from 303 NIHR HTA reports of RCTs. In the 114 RCTs where the PRO was the primary outcome, the most used PRO was the Short-Form 36 (8/114); the most popular methods for multivariable analysis were linear mixed model (45/114), linear regression (29/114) and analysis of covariance (13/114); logistic regression was applied for binary and ordinal outcomes in 14/114 trials; and the repeated measures analysis was used in 39/114 trials. CONCLUSION: The majority of trials used PROs as primary and/or secondary outcomes. Conventional methods such as linear regression are widely used, despite the potential violation of their assumptions. In recent years, there is an increasing trend of using complex models (eg, with mixed effects). Statistical methods developed to address these violations when analysing PROs, such as beta-binomial regression, are not routinely used in practice. Future research will focus on evaluating available statistical methods for the analysis of PROs.


Assuntos
Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Reino Unido
12.
Global Health ; 17(1): 110, 2021 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the nearly half century since it began lending for population projects, the World Bank has become one of the largest financiers of global health projects and programs, a powerful voice in shaping health agendas in global governance spaces, and a mass producer of evidentiary knowledge for its preferred global health interventions. How can social scientists interrogate the role of the World Bank in shaping 'global health' in the current era? MAIN BODY: As a group of historians, social scientists, and public health officials with experience studying the effects of the institution's investment in health, we identify three challenges to this research. First, a future research agenda requires recognizing that the Bank is not a monolith, but rather has distinct inter-organizational groups that have shaped investment and discourse in complicated, and sometimes contradictory, ways. Second, we must consider how its influence on health policy and investment has changed significantly over time. Third, we must analyze its modes of engagement with other institutions within the global health landscape, and with the private sector. The unique relationships between Bank entities and countries that shape health policy, and the Bank's position as a center of research, permit it to have a formative influence on health economics as applied to international development. Addressing these challenges, we propose a future research agenda for the Bank's influence on global health through three overlapping objects of and domains for study: knowledge-based (shaping health policy knowledge), governance-based (shaping health governance), and finance-based (shaping health financing). We provide a review of case studies in each of these categories to inform this research agenda. CONCLUSIONS: As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to rage, and as state and non-state actors work to build more inclusive and robust health systems around the world, it is more important than ever to consider how to best document and analyze the impacts of Bank's financial and technical investments in the Global South.


Assuntos
Conta Bancária/organização & administração , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos , Conta Bancária/tendências , Administração Financeira , Saúde Global , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/organização & administração
13.
Z Gesundh Wiss ; : 1-17, 2021 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567951

RESUMO

Aim: The COVID-19 pandemic has threatened individual and population wellbeing and strategies to jointly address these challenges within budget constraints are required. The aim of our research is to analyse evidence from the Active Lives South Australia study to consider the potential of physical activity (PA) health promotion strategies to be health-system cost saving while addressing wellbeing challenges. Methods: The Active Lives South Australia study compares adult populations who meet and do not meet physical activity (PA) guidelines (150+ minutes of weekly physical activity) with respect to their subjective wellbeing and health care utilisation. Subject and results: Adults who met PA guidelines had better wellbeing across all aspects with and without adjustment for age, sex and income covariates. Analysis showed significant associations between meeting guidelines and lower probabilities of visiting and utilisation of GPs, specialist doctors, other health professionals, hospital inpatient admissions, outpatient clinic and emergency department visits, and an overall A$1760 lower cost per person annually. Controlling for age, sex and income, health expenditure for adults who met PA guidelines was significantly lower by A$1393 per person annually. That translated to A$804 million potential annual SA health system cost saving by shifting all adults to meeting PA guidelines. Conclusion: There is significant potential for effective health promotion strategies to be net cost saving while addressing wellbeing challenges of COVID-19 recovery where they can shift target populations from not meeting to meeting PA guidelines.

14.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(9): e29990, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has required clinicians to pivot to offering services via telehealth; however, it is unclear which patients (users of care) are equipped to use digital health. This is especially pertinent for adults managing chronic diseases, such as obesity, hypertension, and diabetes, which require regular follow-up, medication management, and self-monitoring. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to measure the trends and assess factors affecting health information technology (HIT) use among members of the US population with and without cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: We used serial cross-sectional data from the National Health Interview Survey for the years 2012-2018 to assess trends in HIT use among adults, stratified by age and cardiovascular risk factor status. We developed multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, race, insurance status, marital status, geographic region, and perceived health status to assess the likelihood of HIT use among patients with and without cardiovascular disease risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 14,304 (44.6%) and 14,644 (58.7%) participants reported using HIT in 2012 and 2018, respectively. When comparing the rates of HIT use for the years 2012 and 2018, among participants without cardiovascular risk factors, the HIT use proportion increased from 51.1% to 65.8%; among those with one risk factor, it increased from 43.9% to 59%; and among those with more than one risk factor, it increased from 41.3% to 54.7%. Increasing trends in HIT use were highest among adults aged >65 years (annual percentage change [APC] 8.3%), who had more than one cardiovascular risk factor (APC 5%) and among those who did not graduate from high school (APC 8.8%). Likelihood of HIT use was significantly higher in individuals who were younger, female, and non-Hispanic White; had higher education and income; were married; and reported very good or excellent health status. In 2018, college graduates were 7.18 (95% CI 5.86-8.79), 6.25 (95% CI 5.02-7.78), or 7.80 (95% CI 5.87-10.36) times more likely to use HIT compared to adults without high school education among people with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, one cardiovascular risk factor, or no cardiovascular risk factors, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Over 2012-2018, HIT use increased nationally, with greater use noted among younger and higher educated US adults. Targeted strategies are needed to engage wider age, racial, education, and socioeconomic groups by lowering barriers to HIT access and use.


Assuntos
Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Informática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Ann Surg ; 274(4): 664-673, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506322

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze serial biomarkers of the persistent inflammation, immunosuppression, and catabolism syndrome (PICS) to gain insight into the pathobiology of chronic critical illness (CCI) after surgical sepsis. BACKGROUND: Although early deaths after surgical intensive care unit sepsis have decreased and most survivors rapidly recover (RAP), one third develop the adverse clinical trajectory of CCI. However, the underlying pathobiology of its dismal long-term outcomes remains unclear. METHODS: PICS biomarkers over 14 days from 124 CCI and 225 RAP sepsis survivors were analyzed to determine associations and prediction models for (1) CCI (≥14 intensive care unit days with organ dysfunction) and (2) dismal 1-year outcomes (Zubrod 4/5 performance scores). Clinical prediction models were created using PIRO variables (predisposition, insult, response, and organ dysfunction). Biomarkers were then added to determine if they strengthened predictions. RESULTS: CCI (vs RAP) and Zubrod 4/5 (vs Zubrod 0-3) cohorts had greater elevations in biomarkers of inflammation (interleukin [IL]-6, IL-8, interferon gamma-induced protein [IP-10], monocyte chemoattractant protein 1), immunosuppression (IL-10, soluble programmed death ligand-1), stress metabolism (C-reactive protein, glucagon-like peptide 1), and angiogenesis (angiopoietin-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1, stromal cell-derived factor) at most time-points. Clinical models predicted CCI on day 4 (area under the receiver operating characteristics curve [AUC] = 0.89) and 1 year Zubrod 4/5 on day 7 (AUC = 0.80). IL-10 and IP-10 on day 4 minimally improved prediction of CCI (AUC = 0.90). However, IL-10, IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, IP-10, angiopoietin-2, glucagon-like peptide 1, soluble programmed death ligand-1, and stromal cell-derived factor on day 7 considerably improved the prediction of Zubrod 4/5 status (AUC = 0.88). CONCLUSIONS: Persistent elevations of PICS biomarkers in the CCI and Zubrod 4/5 cohorts and their improved prediction of Zubrod 4/5 validate that PICS plays a role in CCI pathobiology.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estado Terminal , Tolerância Imunológica , Inflamação , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/metabolismo , Sepse/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/etiologia , Sepse/terapia , Síndrome
16.
Front Public Health ; 9: 689753, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485219

RESUMO

Objective: From the health care and societal perspectives, this study aimed to evaluate the clinical and economic effects of acupuncture as an adjunctive therapy for patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Methods: We conducted a parallel-arm RCT in China in 2019. Patients were included who met the diagnostic criteria and receive MMT for more than 30 days. Patients were randomly assigned to the exposed group (acupuncture plus MMT) or control group (MMT) at a 1:1 ratio. Daily methadone dosage, drug cravings using the VAS score, and insomnia using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were chosen as the effectiveness indexes, and the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) was chosen as the utility index. Results: Overall, 123 patients were included. The exposed group was significantly (P < 0.05) better than the control group in the improvement of daily methadone dosage (17.68 vs. 1.07), VAS (38.27 vs. 2.64), and PSQI (2.18 vs. 0.30). The QALY was 0.0784 (95%CI: 0.0761-0.0808) for the exposed group and 0.0762 (95%CI: 0.0738-0.0787) for the control group. The total cost of the exposed group (2869.50 CNY) was higher than the control group (2186.04 CNY). The ICER of daily methadone dosage (41.15), VAS (17.86), and PSQI (313.51) were shown to be economically efficient. While ICUR (310,663.64 CNY/QYLY) was higher than the cost suggested by WHO. Conclusion: Acupuncture as an adjuvant therapy for MMT patients realizes its cost-effectiveness by reducing the dosage of methadone, improving drug cravings, and alleviating insomnia. It helps to improve quality of life, but since its cost exceeds what society is willing to pay, further study is needed.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Analgésicos Opioides , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 689967, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485220

RESUMO

Driving cessation is a common transition experienced by aging adults that confers both a symbolic and literal loss of independence due to the central role of automobiles for mobility in the US. Prior research has shown that driving cessation has negative implications for mental health, social participation, and access to healthcare. Given these sequelae of driving cessation and prior work showing that late-life transitions related to independence (e.g., transitioning into residential care) are associated with suicide, we sought to estimate the frequency of driving cessation associated suicide. Data include suicide (n = 59,080) and undetermined (n = 6,862) deaths aged ≥55 from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS, 2003-2017). Each case in the NVDRS has both quantitative data (e.g., demographic characteristics) and qualitative text narratives, derived from coroner/medical examiner reports, which describe the most salient circumstances and features of each death. To identify cases associated with driving cessation, we employed a supervised random forest algorithm to develop a Natural Language Processing (NLP) classifier. Identified driving cessation associated cases were then categorized and characterized using descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis. From 2003 to 2017, there were an estimated 305 cases of suicide/undetermined deaths associated with driving cessation in the NVDRS, representing 0.04% of all cases. Cases associated with driving cessation were older, more likely to be male, more likely to have a physical health problem, more likely to have experienced a recent crisis, and more likely to have lived in a rural county than other decedents. Qualitative analysis identified functional impairment, alcohol-related driving limitations, loss of employment, and recent car accidents as common themes among cases associated with driving cessation. This analysis illustrates the utility of NLP in identifying novel correlates of suicide in later life. Although driving cessation associated suicide is a rare outcome, further research is warranted on understanding the conditions under which driving cessation is associated with suicidal behavior, and how to support the well-being of aging adults during these types of major life transitions.


Assuntos
Ciência de Dados , Suicídio , Adulto , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Homicídio , Humanos , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Violência
18.
BMC Fam Pract ; 22(1): 177, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence on specific interventions to improve diabetes control in primary care is available, but this evidence is not always well-implemented. The concept of "mindlines" has been proposed to explain how clinicians integrate evidence using specifics of their practices and patients to produce knowledge-in-practice-in-context. The goal of this pilot study was to operationalize this concept by creating a venue for clinician-staff interaction concerning evidence. The research team attempted to hold "mindlines"-producing conversations in primary care practices about evidence to improve diabetes control. METHODS: Each of four primary care practices in a single health system held practice-wide conversations about a simple diabetes intervention model over a provided lunch. The conversations were relatively informal and encouraged participation from all. The research team recorded the conversations and took field notes. The team analyzed the data using a framework adapted from the "mindlines" research and noted additional emergent themes. RESULTS: While most of the conversation concerned barriers to implementation of the simple diabetes intervention model, there were examples of practices adopting and adapting the evidence to suit their own needs and context. Performance metrics regarding diabetes control for the four practices improved after the intervention. CONCLUSION: It appears that the type of conversations that "mindlines" research describes can be generated with facilitation around evidence, but further research is required to better understand the limitations and impact of this intervention.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Conhecimento , Projetos Piloto , Pesquisa Qualitativa
19.
BMC Fam Pract ; 22(1): 178, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inappropriate imaging and low-value care for low back pain (LBP) are common. A new patient-education booklet was created to overcome identified barriers to the delivery of recommended care, including the use of inappropriate imaging. Our aim was to assess the effectiveness of this booklet as part of primary care for LBP patients in comparison to usual care. METHODS: A cluster-randomized trial was performed. The intervention involved providing practitioners with the new patient-education booklet and a 30-min training session on its use. The booklet was provided during the clinical consult to all consenting LBP patients in the intervention group. Primary outcomes were the proportion of patients presenting with LBP who underwent imaging examinations during the first three months of follow-up and PROMIS PF-20 (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System, 20-item physical functioning short form) change between baseline and three-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes, including sick leave and imaging examinations at 12 months, were investigated. Logistic regression using GEE-estimation was used for dichotomous outcomes, Poisson regression using GEE-estimation for count outcomes, and linear mixed models for continuous outcomes. RESULTS: Using the patient education booklet appeared to substantially reduce the proportion of LBP patients who underwent an imaging examination at three months, but the result was not statistically significant (OR 0.57, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 0.27 to 1.22). At 12 months, the effect was slightly larger and statistically significant (OR 0.50, 95%Cl 0.30 to 0.83, p = 0.008). No difference was observed in the PROMIS PF-20 T-score change between baseline and 3 months or 12 months (p = 0.365 and p = 0.923, respectively). The number of sick leave days in the intervention group was less than that in the control group at 3 months (RR 0.47, 95%Cl 0.26 to 0.83, p = 0.010) and at 12 months (RR 0.36, 95%Cl 0.18 to 0.72, p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: The booklet appeared to be effective in reducing the proportion of LBP patients who underwent imaging examinations over 12 months. The intervention had no discernible effect on the PROMIS PF20 T-score change. The number of sick leave days was substantially lower in the intervention group. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN, ISRCTN14389368 , Registered 4 April 2019-Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar , Humanos , Dor Lombar/terapia , Folhetos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Licença Médica
20.
Rev Colomb Obstet Ginecol ; 72(2): 171-192, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506704

RESUMO

Objective: A significant proportion of hospitalized patients experience severe clinical deterioration that may result in adverse events, unexpected cardiac arrest, or death. Rapid response teams (RRTs) have been created to reduce the frequency and prevent the consequences of these events. The objective of this scoping review is to describe the structure, role and results of the implementation of RRTs in the hospital context, with a focus on gynecological surgery and obstetric care. Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the Medline via Pubmed, Embase via OVID, LILACS, Cochrane Library and Open Gray medical databases. The search included descriptive and analytical observational studies, experimental studies and qualitative studies that included RRTs in high complexity healthcare institutions or teaching hospitals. Two researchers selected the studies and extracted data pertaining to the structure, roles and team activation criteria, response times or tools to assess their performance. No date or publication status restrictions were applied. Studies in English, Spanish and Portuguese were included. A narrative synthesis of the findings is made. Results: Overall, 15,833 titles were retrieved, of which 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. Only one study mentions the use of RRTs in obstetric services. RRTs have a multidisciplinary structure and they must be available at least 12 hours a day. The roles of RRTs include identification of patients who are deteriorating, especially outside the intensive care setting, and of patients with underlying conditions or triggering events that increase the risk of cardiac arrest. In addition, they implement rapid multifaceted interventions that include pharmacological treatments, cardiopulmonary procedures, and they develop communication and training activities. Tools for team activation and care process assessment are available. Conclusion: The structure and roles of RRTs are clearly described, making it possible to assemble them in high complexity hospitals. Further research is required to explore risks and benefits of using RRTs to mitigate harm in patients with adverse events and to compare effectiveness and safety between code activation and RRT strategies in obstetrics services.

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