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1.
Can J Psychiatry ; 69(1): 43-53, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37461378

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of group transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioural therapy (tCBT) added to treatment as usual (TAU) for anxiety disorders compared to TAU only from the healthcare system perspective over a 1-year time horizon. METHODS: Data from a pragmatic multisite randomized controlled trial where adults (18-65 years) with an anxiety disorder were randomized to tCBT + TAU (n = 117) or TAU (n = 114). Group tCBT is a 12-week (2h weekly sessions) community-based intervention. Health service utilization and related costs were captured from medico-administrative data and included those for the intervention, ambulatory visits, hospitalizations and medications. Effectiveness was based on quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). The study included measures at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 months. Intention-to-treat and complete case analyses were carried out. Missing data were imputed using multiple imputation analyses. Seemingly unrelated regression analyses were used to assess the effect of the intervention on total costs and QALYs while also adjusting for baseline confounders. The probability of cost-effectiveness of the intervention was assessed according to different willingness-to-pay (WTP) thresholds using the net benefit regression method. RESULTS: The ICER of tCBT + TAU as compared to TAU in the intention-to-treat analysis was $6,581/QALY. Complete case analyses showed a similar ICER of $6,642/QALY. The probability at a WTP threshold of $20,000 and $40,000 that tCBT + TAU as compared to TAU is cost-effective is 93.0% and 99.9%. CONCLUSION: tCBT added to TAU appears to be cost-effective from the healthcare system perspective for treating adult patients with anxiety disorders. Larger trials including young and older adults as well as a range of anxiety disorders are needed to further investigate the cost-effectiveness of tCBT in different patient populations.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Humanos , Idoso , Análise Custo-Benefício , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Atenção à Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
2.
HERD ; 17(1): 190-208, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37606216

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to explore the biophilic design attributes within a hospice care center from the healthcare professionals' perspective by utilizing a qualitative research and investigated the effect of hospice professionals' attitudes toward the uncovered green features on the prediction of their workplace attachment through a quantitative research. BACKGROUND: In hospice establishments, studies showed that applying biophilic design principles significantly reduces stress and improves emotional well-being. Yet, despite its importance, attitude toward biophilic design, and its significant influence on well-being, satisfaction and attachment to the workplace of hospice healthcare professionals have not yet been researched. METHODS: The qualitative research used semi-structured in-depth interviews among hospice professionals to reveal biophilic design features that exert an influence on their activity, while the quantitative research employed a confirmatory factor analysis and the structural equation modeling to analyze the data. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The qualitative research generated five biophilic design features, such as open spaces with natural light, natural decorative elements, landscape provided by nature through windows, wooden furniture, and colors that create a warm atmosphere within the hospice care center. The quantitative approach indicated that attitude toward the uncovered biophilic design features in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic significantly improved the healthcare providers' emotional well-being. This dimension, in turn, contributed to their satisfaction with green features/natural decor and attachment to the workplace. Results of this study provide practitioners and researchers valuable strategies to incorporate biophilic design features in the working environments of hospice settings.


Assuntos
Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida , Hospitais para Doentes Terminais , Humanos , Pandemias , Local de Trabalho , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Condições de Trabalho , Atenção à Saúde , Satisfação Pessoal
3.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(2): 666-683, Maio-Ago. 2023.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424873

RESUMO

A inserção da Odontologia no Sistema Único de Saúde, como estratégia de transformação da prática, introduziu novas formas de organização na busca pela melhoria das condições de saúde bucal da população. O objetivo do trabalho foi identificar práticas adotadas pela Equipe de Saúde Bucal na prevenção e promoção da saúde bucal das co- munidades assistidas pela Estratégia Saúde da Família. Trata-se de uma revisão de litera- tura, com uma busca sistematizada nas bases de dados Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde e Scielo, utilizando os descritores: programa saúde da família, estratégia saúde da família, saúde bucal e odontologia. Os critérios de inclusão foram: estudos qualitativos, surveys e mistos, que abordem práticas adotadas pela Equipe de Saúde Bucal da Estratégia Saúde da Família, na prevenção e promoção da saúde bucal. A busca resultou em 435 estudos, após remoção das duplicatas, leitura de títulos, resumos e verificação dos critérios de inclusão foram incluídos 18 artigos. As práticas identificadas foram: educação em saúde, visita domiciliar, humanização do cuidado, educação permanente em saúde e intersetori- alidade. Os resultados mostraram que as práticas de prevenção e promoção de saúde ado- tadas pela Equipe de Saúde Bucal da Estratégia Saúde da Família foram viáveis, uma vez que emergiram de estratégias difundidas pelas políticas públicas, evidenciando a indisso- ciabilidade entre saúde bucal e saúde geral dos usuários e comunidades, contribuindo no processo de consolidação do Sistema Único de Saúde.


The inclusion of Dentistry in the Unified Health System, as a practice transformation strategy, introduced new forms of organization in the quest to improve the oral health conditions of the population. The objective of this work was to identify prac- tices adopted by the Oral Health Team in the prevention and promotion of oral health in communities assisted by the Family Health Strategy. This is a literature review, with a systematic search, in the Virtual Health Library and Scielo databases, using the descrip- tors: family health program, family health strategy, oral health and dentistry. The inclu- sion criteria were: qualitative studies, surveys and mixed, which address practices adop- ted by the Oral Health Team of the Family Health Strategy, in the prevention and promo- tion of oral health. The search resulted in 435 studies, after removing duplicates, reading titles, abstracts and checking the inclusion criteria, 18 articles were included. The identi- fied practices were: health education, home visits, humanization of care, permanent health education and intersectoriality. The results showed that the prevention and health promo- tion practices adopted by the Oral Health Team of the Family Health Strategy were viable, since they emerged from strategies disseminated by public policies, evidencing the inse- parability between oral health and the general health of users and communities , contri- buting to the consolidation process of the Unified Health System.


La inclusión de la Odontología en el Sistema Único de Salud, como estra- tegia de transformación de la práctica, introdujo nuevas formas de organización en la búsqueda de mejorar las condiciones de salud bucal de la población. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar las prácticas adoptadas por el Equipo de Salud Bucal en la preven- ción y promoción de la salud bucal en las comunidades asistidas por la Estrategia Salud de la Familia. Se trata de una revisión bibliográfica, con búsqueda sistemática, en la Bi- blioteca Virtual en Salud y en las bases de datos Scielo, utilizando los descriptores: pro- grama de salud familiar, estrategia de salud familiar, salud bucal y odontología. Los cri- terios de inclusión fueron: estudios cualitativos, encuestas y mixtos, que aborden las prác- ticas adoptadas por el Equipo de Salud Bucal de la Estrategia Salud de la Familia, en la prevención y promoción de la salud bucal. La búsqueda resultó en 435 estudios, luego de eliminar duplicados, leer títulos, resúmenes y verificar los criterios de inclusión, se inclu- yeron 18 artículos. Las prácticas identificadas fueron: educación en salud, visitas domi- ciliarias, humanización del cuidado, educación permanente en salud e intersectorialidad. Los resultados mostraron que las prácticas de prevención y promoción de la salud adop- tadas por el Equipo de Salud Bucal de la Estrategia Salud de la Familia fueron viables, ya que surgieron de estrategias difundidas por las políticas públicas, evidenciando la in- separabilidad entre la salud bucal y la salud general de los usuarios y comunidades, con- tribuyendo al proceso de consolidación del Sistema Único de Salud.


Assuntos
Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Saúde Bucal , Odontologia , Política Pública , Educação em Saúde , Colaboração Intersetorial , Bibliotecas Digitais , Humanização da Assistência
4.
Gerodontology ; 2023 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37792413

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the effects and improvement needs of an outreach dental care programme (ODCP) for older adults using residential care or daycare services from the perspectives of the caregivers, the dentists and administrative staff involved in the implementation of the ODCP. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted through semi-structured interviews with three stakeholders, long-term care (LTC) facility caregivers, administrative staff and dentists working for the ODCP. Combined maximum variation and snowball sampling strategies were adopted, and 22, 9 and 7 participants were interviewed from each stakeholder, respectively. The interviews were conducted via telephone, which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim for analysis. NVivo software was used for storing and analysing the data. Data analysis was conducted continuously during the study. RESULTS: Most participants opined that the ODCP benefited older adults by raising their oral health conditions and awareness. However, they complained of the complicated administrative procedures, unmet dental treatment needs, inefficient coordination, unclear work guidelines and shortage of dental manpower. More advanced dental treatment options, better coordination among different parties, simpler administrative processes and better incentives for dentists were proposed to further improve the programme. CONCLUSIONS: According to the stakeholders, ODCP seems beneficial to older adults using LTC services. Further improvements in the scope of dental treatments, cooperation between the outreach dental teams and caregivers, and streamlining of the administrative process are needed for the provision of effective outreach dental care to satisfy the unmet treatment needs of older adults who use LTC services. Better incentives are needed to attract and retain dentists.

5.
J Med Internet Res ; 25: e44502, 2023 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37792430

RESUMO

The term "digital phenotype" refers to the digital footprint left by patient-environment interactions. It has potential for both research and clinical applications but challenges our conception of health care by opposing 2 distinct approaches to medicine: one centered on illness with the aim of classifying and curing disease, and the other centered on patients, their personal distress, and their lived experiences. In the context of mental health and psychiatry, the potential benefits of digital phenotyping include creating new avenues for treatment and enabling patients to take control of their own well-being. However, this comes at the cost of sacrificing the fundamental human element of psychotherapy, which is crucial to addressing patients' distress. In this viewpoint paper, we discuss the advances rendered possible by digital phenotyping and highlight the risk that this technology may pose by partially excluding health care professionals from the diagnosis and therapeutic process, thereby foregoing an essential dimension of care. We conclude by setting out concrete recommendations on how to improve current digital phenotyping technology so that it can be harnessed to redefine mental health by empowering patients without alienating them.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Psiquiatria , Humanos , Tecnologia Digital , Pessoal de Saúde , Psicoterapia , Medicina de Precisão , Assistência Centrada no Paciente
6.
Curationis ; 46(1): e1-e8, 2023 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37782235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:  Clinical training is important because it constitutes more than half of the formal courses in nursing education. Accordingly, it is important for institutions of higher learning to continually explore the experiences of nursing students during their clinical placement. These experiences can be used to promote a positive clinical learning environment for students. However, the experiences of nursing students during their mental health clinical training in Namibia have not been extensively researched. OBJECTIVES:  The aim of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of nursing students during their mental health clinical training at a general hospital in Namibia. METHOD:  A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was followed as the basis for conducting the study. A sample of 15 nursing students was conveniently selected from the target population of 73 nursing students. This sample size was determined by the saturation of data as reflected in repeating themes. RESULTS:  The following three themes emerged: collating theory and mental health practice experiences, facing challenges in clinical placements, and recommendations to ensure effective learning about mental health. CONCLUSION:  The use of a general hospital for clinical placements within an undergraduate nurse training course led to some concerns regarding the relevance and appropriateness of such experience within a nursing programme.Contribution: The findings have important implications for the training of undergraduate nursing students in general hospitals. It can be utilised to develop strategies to improve positive clinical practice placement and develop clinical skills for undergraduate nursing students in general hospitals.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Hospitais Gerais , Saúde Mental , Namíbia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
7.
Front Psychiatry ; 14: 1114738, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37795511

RESUMO

Introduction: Various mental health hospital models have been tested in Chile since its foundation. The institutional model with the Asylum and the Madhouse prevailed during the nineteenth century and much of the twentieth. But is deinstitutionalizing all psychiatric patients the solution? Evidence acquisition: A PubMed, Epistemonikos, Lilacs, and Google Scholar Scoping Review was carried out in the last 5 years using the PRISMA-P method and the Scoping review search strategy. The MeSH terms ("Psychiatry/history" AND "Chile") OR ("Mental disorders" AND "therapy") were used during the search. Finally, papers focused on clinical trial therapy evaluation were excluded, and we emphasized the effects of historical evidence. Evidence synthesis: We identified 35 primary studies, and we counted the number of articles included in the review that potentially met our inclusion criteria and noted how many studies had been missed by our search. We analyzed 10 primary studies and 10 primary historical resources that were included in this study. Conclusion: The state must become a guarantor and be responsible for its psychiatric patients and provide professional and humanitarian support to its patients, be it through community psychiatry, day hospitals, devices such as mental health clinics, or psychiatric institutes dedicated to teaching and research. Patients should not be left to the free will of their direct relatives, but rather the state should strengthen the primary care system.

8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD013456, 2023 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37795783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to rape, sexual assault and sexual abuse has lifelong impacts for mental health and well-being. Prolonged Exposure (PE), Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) and Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) are among the most common interventions offered to survivors to alleviate post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychological impacts. Beyond such trauma-focused cognitive and behavioural approaches, there is a range of low-intensity interventions along with new and emerging non-exposure based approaches (trauma-sensitive yoga, Reconsolidation of Traumatic Memories and Lifespan Integration). This review presents a timely assessment of international evidence on any type of psychosocial intervention offered to individuals who experienced rape, sexual assault or sexual abuse as adults. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of psychosocial interventions on mental health and well-being for survivors of rape, sexual assault or sexual abuse experienced during adulthood. SEARCH METHODS: In January 2022, we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, 12 other databases and three trials registers. We also checked reference lists of included studies, contacted authors and experts, and ran forward citation searches. SELECTION CRITERIA: Any study that allocated individuals or clusters of individuals by a random or quasi-random method to a psychosocial intervention that promoted recovery and healing following exposure to rape, sexual assault or sexual abuse in those aged 18 years and above compared with no or minimal intervention, usual care, wait-list, pharmacological only or active comparison(s). We classified psychosocial interventions according to Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Group's psychological therapies list. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: We included 36 studies (1991 to 2021) with 3992 participants randomly assigned to 60 experimental groups (3014; 76%) and 23 inactive comparator conditions (978, 24%). The experimental groups consisted of: 32 Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT); 10 behavioural interventions; three integrative therapies; three humanist; five other psychologically oriented interventions; and seven other psychosocial interventions. Delivery involved 1 to 20 (median 11) sessions of traditional face-to-face (41) or other individual formats (four); groups (nine); or involved computer-only interaction (six). Most studies were conducted in the USA (n = 26); two were from South Africa; two from the Democratic Republic of the Congo; with single studies from Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the UK. Five studies did not disclose a funding source, and all disclosed sources were public funding. Participants were invited from a range of settings: from the community, through the media, from universities and in places where people might seek help for their mental health (e.g. war veterans), in the aftermath of sexual trauma (sexual assault centres and emergency departments) or for problems that accompany the experience of sexual violence (e.g. sexual health/primary care clinics). Participants randomised were 99% women (3965 participants) with just 27 men. Half were Black, African or African-American (1889 participants); 40% White/Caucasian (1530 participants); and 10% represented a range of other ethnic backgrounds (396 participants). The weighted mean age was 35.9 years (standard deviation (SD) 9.6). Eighty-two per cent had experienced rape or sexual assault in adulthood (3260/3992). Twenty-two studies (61%) required fulfilling a measured PTSD diagnostic threshold for inclusion; however, 94% of participants (2239/2370) were reported as having clinically relevant PTSD symptoms at entry. The comparison of psychosocial interventions with inactive controls detected that there may be a beneficial effect at post-treatment favouring psychosocial interventions in reducing PTSD (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.22 to -0.44; 16 studies, 1130 participants; low-certainty evidence; large effect size based on Cohen's D); and depression (SMD -0.82, 95% CI -1.17 to -0.48; 12 studies, 901 participants; low-certainty evidence; large effect size). Psychosocial interventions, however, may not increase the risk of dropout from treatment compared to controls, with a risk ratio of 0.85 (95% CI 0.51 to 1.44; 5 studies, 242 participants; low-certainty evidence). Seven of the 23 studies (with 801 participants) comparing a psychosocial intervention to an inactive control reported on adverse events, with 21 events indicated. Psychosocial interventions may not increase the risk of adverse events compared to controls, with a risk ratio of 1.92 (95% CI 0.30 to 12.41; 6 studies; 622 participants; very low-certainty evidence). We conducted an assessment of risk of bias using the RoB 2 tool on a total of 49 reported results. A high risk of bias affected 43% of PTSD results; 59% for depression symptoms; 40% for treatment dropout; and one-third for adverse events. The greatest sources of bias were problems with randomisation and missing outcome data. Heterogeneity was also high, ranging from I2 = 30% (adverse events) to I2 = 87% (PTSD). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Our review suggests that survivors of rape, sexual violence and sexual abuse during adulthood may experience a large reduction in post-treatment PTSD symptoms and depressive symptoms after experiencing a psychosocial intervention, relative to comparison groups. Psychosocial interventions do not seem to increase dropout from treatment or adverse events/effects compared to controls. However, the number of dropouts and study attrition were generally high, potentially missing harms of exposure to interventions and/or research participation. Also, the differential effects of specific intervention types needs further investigation. We conclude that a range of behavioural and CBT-based interventions may improve the mental health of survivors of rape, sexual assault and sexual abuse in the short term. Therefore, the needs and preferences of individuals must be considered in selecting suitable approaches to therapy and support. The primary outcome in this review focused on the post-treatment period and the question about whether benefits are sustained over time persists. However, attaining such evidence from studies that lack an active comparison may be impractical and even unethical. Thus, we suggest that studies undertake head-to-head comparisons of different intervention types; in particular, of novel, emerging therapies, with one-year plus follow-up periods. Additionally, researchers should focus on the therapeutic benefits and costs for subpopulations such as male survivors and those living with complex PTSD.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Estupro , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Terapia Comportamental , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Intervenção Psicossocial , Psicoterapia/métodos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37788130

RESUMO

This article aims to draw attention to increasing genericism in nurse education in the United Kingdom, which sees less specialist mental health education for mental health nursing students and offers opposition to such direction. In 2018, the Nursing and Midwifery Council produced the 'Future Nurse' standards which directed changes to pre-registration nurse education. This led to dissatisfaction from many mental health nurses, specifically regarding reduced mental health content for students studying mental health nursing. Concerns have been raised through public forum and evolved into a grassroots national movement 'Mental Health Deserves Better' (#MHDeservesBetter). This is a position paper which presents the perspective of many mental health nurse academics working at universities within the United Kingdom. Mental health nurse academics collaborated to develop ideas and articulate arguments and perspectives which present a strong position on the requirement for specialist pre-registration mental health nurse education. The key themes explored are; a conflict of ideologies in nursing, no parity of esteem, physical health care needs to be contextualized, the unique nature of mental health nursing, ethical tensions and values conflict, implications for practice, necessary improvements overlooked and the dangers of honesty and academic 'freedom'. The paper concludes by asserting a strong position on the need for a change of direction away from genericism and calls on mental health nurses to rise from the ashes to advocate for a quality education necessary to ensure quality care delivery. The quality of mental health care provided by mental health nurses has many influences, yet the foundation offered through pre-registration education is one of the most valuable. If the education of mental health nurses does not attend to the distinct and unique role of the mental health nurse, standards of mental health care may diminish without assertive action from mental health nurses and allies.

10.
BMJ Open ; 13(10): e075043, 2023 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37788926

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of mental health symptoms in people with epilepsy (PWE) is elevated compared with that of the general population. These symptoms can negatively impact epilepsy management and patient outcomes but can be treated once recognised. It is, therefore, important to screen for these symptoms to identify needs and put in place appropriate support. Unfortunately, mental health symptoms are rarely addressed in epilepsy services due to time constraints, lack of resources and communication between psychological and medical professionals. These barriers can result in diagnostic overshadowing, where symptoms may be attributed to the disease and reduce the level of support PWE receive. Implementing an online screening tool embedded in the electronic health record (EHR) platform with supported referral pathways may remove some of these barriers. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will follow the Integrating Mental and Physical Healthcare: Research Training and Services framework, which is a routine clinical data collection tool used by clinical teams to electronically screen psychological symptoms among patients with long-term physical health conditions. Patient outcomes including mental health, physical health and psychosocial outcomes will be collected and uploaded to the EHR platform in real-time. An appropriate referral pathway will be recommended depending on severity of the outcome scores. We will initially pilot the tool for individuals aged 13 years and above through epilepsy clinics at King's College Hospital. Following this, the acceptability and feasibility of the tool will be assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 months. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was obtained from the National Health Service Research Ethics Committee of South Central-Oxford C, reference: 21/EM/0205. This study is expected to inform the use of integrated electronic mental health screening for youth in epilepsy clinics and improve access to psychological support. The findings will be disseminated through academic peer-reviewed journals, poster presentations and scientific meetings.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Transtornos Mentais , Adolescente , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Medicina Estatal , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Atenção à Saúde
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37778727

RESUMO

In the United States, an estimated 1.9 million youth 13 to 17 years of age (9.5%) identify as sexual and/or gender diverse (SGD), identifying as nonheterosexual and/or having a gender identity other than the assigned sex at birth.1 Up to 7% of SGD adolescents may have at least one parent currently or previously serving in the US military, an estimated 133,000 youth nationwide.1,2 SGD adolescents are highly exposed to acute and chronic stressors, including minority stress and discrimination, resulting in elevated rates of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation.3,4 SGD military-connected youth (ie, SGD youth with a parent or caregiver with military service experience) were found to be at even higher risk for these negative outcomes in one published report.2 While both military connection and SGD identity may foster strengths, these youth also face well-studied stressors,2,5 and the convergence of these identities and experiences is likely to produce greater challenges. Nearly half of military-connected youth are seen by civilian clinicians in local communities for primary care, and even more are seen for specialty care.6 As a result, all clinicians, both within and outside the military health system, and especially clinicians providing mental health care, must be familiar with these unique converging stressors facing SGD military-connected youth.

12.
Psychiatr Danub ; 35(Suppl 2): 308-312, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37800246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental health problems have become a major topic of public health these last years, particularly since the pandemic of COVID-19. Primary care givers are confronted with high rates of common mental health problems (CMHPs) in population. This questions healthcare organization and specifically collaboration between general practitioners (GPs) and clinical psychologists (CPs). In this paper we aim to review recent literature to identify factors that facilitate or hinder collaboration between GPs and CPs when caring for their patients' CMHPs. METHODS: A non-systematic qualitative literature review was performed, using the PRISMA method. We restricted the review to papers published between 2010 and 2023. RESULTS: We identified 52 papers and after filtering, only 6 were included in the synthesis. Six main themes were identified: barriers to interprofessional collaboration, lack of mutual trust, mutual dissatisfaction with information exchanged, the paradox of professional secrecy, the necessity of a paradigm shift, and conceptual frameworks of collaboration. These themes were discussed to improve collaboration between GPs and CPs. CONCLUSION: This work provides some recommendations to support the development of interprofessional collaboration between GPs and CPs in primary care.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Clínicos Gerais , Humanos , Clínicos Gerais/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Comportamento Cooperativo , Relações Interprofissionais , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37815700

RESUMO

To develop and pilot-test a feasible and meaningful evaluation framework to support the ongoing improvement and performance measurement of services and systems in Latin America regarding Collaborative Mental health Care (CMHC). This mixed methods study, guided by a developmental evaluation approach, included: (1) a critical review of the literature; (2) an environmental scan at three selected health networks in Mexico, Nicaragua and Chile; (3) a Delphi group with experts; (4) a final consultation in the three sites; and (5) a pilot-test of the framework. A comprehensive evaluation framework was developed and successfully piloted. It considers five levels, 28 dimensions and 40 domains, as well as examples of indicators and an implementation plan. This evaluation framework represents an important effort to foster accountability and quality regarding CMHC in Latin America. Recommendations to build upon current capacity and to effectively address the existing implementation challenges are further discussed.

14.
PLoS One ; 18(10): e0292343, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37815986

RESUMO

Communities of practice (CoPs) are defined as "groups of people who share a concern, a set of problems, or a passion about a topic, and who deepen their knowledge and expertise by interacting on an ongoing basis". They are an effective form of knowledge management that have been successfully used in the business sector and increasingly so in healthcare. In May 2023 the electronic databases MEDLINE and EMBASE were systematically searched for primary research studies on CoPs published between 1st January 1950 and 31st December 2022. PRISMA guidelines were followed. The following search terms were used: community/communities of practice AND (healthcare OR medicine OR patient/s). The database search picked up 2009 studies for screening. Of these, 50 papers met the inclusion criteria. The most common aim of CoPs was to directly improve a clinical outcome, with 19 studies aiming to achieve this. In terms of outcomes, qualitative outcomes were the most common measure used in 21 studies. Only 11 of the studies with a quantitative element had the appropriate statistical methodology to report significance. Of the 9 studies that showed a statistically significant effect, 5 showed improvements in hospital-based provision of services such as discharge planning or rehabilitation services. 2 of the studies showed improvements in primary-care, such as management of hepatitis C, and 2 studies showed improvements in direct clinical outcomes, such as central line infections. CoPs in healthcare are aimed at improving clinical outcomes and have been shown to be effective. There is still progress to be made and a need for further studies with more rigorous methodologies, such as RCTs, to provide further support of the causality of CoPs on outcomes.


Assuntos
Hospitais , Alta do Paciente , Humanos , Atenção à Saúde
15.
PLoS One ; 18(10): e0282543, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37816010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed gaps in global health systems, especially in the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Evidence shows that patients with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are at higher risk of contracting COVID-19 and suffering direct and indirect health consequences. Considering the future challenges such as environmental disasters and pandemics to the LMICs health systems, digital health interventions (DHI) are well poised to strengthen health care resilience. This study aims to implement and evaluate a comprehensive package of DHIs of integrated COVID-NCD care to manage NCDs in primary care facilities in rural Pakistan. METHODS: The study is designed as a pragmatic, parallel two-arm, multi-centre, mix-methods cluster randomised controlled trial. We will randomise 30 primary care facilities in three districts of Punjab, where basic hypertension and diabetes diagnosis and treatment are provided, with a ratio of 1:1 between intervention and control. In each facility, we will recruit 50 patients who have uncontrolled hypertension. The intervention arm will receive training on an integrated COVID-NCD guideline, and will use a smartphone app-based telemedicine platform where patients can communicate with health providers and peer-supporters, along with a remote training and supervision system. Usual care will be provided in the control arm. Patients will be followed up for 10 months. Our primary indicator is systolic blood pressure measured at 10 months. A process evaluation guided by implementation science frameworks will be conducted to explore implementation questions. A cost-effectiveness evaluation will be conducted to inform future scale up in Pakistan and other LMICs. DISCUSSION: Our study is one of the first randomised controlled trials to evaluate the effectiveness of DHIs to manage NCDs to strengthen health system resilience in LMICs. We will also evaluate the implementation process and cost-effectiveness to inform future scale-up in similar resource constrained settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier-NCT05699369.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hipertensão , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto
16.
BMJ Open ; 13(10): e075260, 2023 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37816565

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The delivery of services to improve Aboriginal health and well-being must centre culture and integrate a social and emotional well-being understanding and approaches. These approaches are essential in increasing access to, and engagement with, health services, as well as ensuring culturally safe, person-centred and community-centred care. This study will evaluate the Aboriginal Health Council of Western Australia's social and emotional well-being model of service being piloted in five Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services across five of Western Australia's regions. The model of service includes the establishment of interdisciplinary social and emotional well-being teams and a four-pillar approach to service delivery. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: An Aboriginal Participatory Action Research methodology will be undertaken which calls for Indigenous leadership and governance, capacity-building of community co-researchers and engagement in reflexive practice. The evaluation will take a mixed-methods approach to data collection, including at each pilot site, yarns with up to five clients engaging with social and emotional well-being services; qualitative interviews with up to five service providers at each site, and up to five key knowledge holders from stakeholders including funders and commissioning bodies; the collection of clinical data; facilitated discussion using the social and emotional well-being Systems Assessment Tool; and document analysis and cost-estimation. Analysis will be guided by a client journey mapping framework, and data will be collectively analysed through a socioecological framework to understand the connections and inter-relatedness between client outcomes and experiences, social and emotional well-being team and service provider experiences, service systems and governance structures. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This evaluation was approved by the Western Australian Aboriginal Health Ethics Committee (HREC1204). The findings will be disseminated through the production of an evaluation report and academic publications and presentations. Findings will also be disseminated through community forums and plain language summaries. These outputs will detail evaluation findings and recommendations, the process of evaluation through an Aboriginal Participatory Action Research approach and the collaborative stakeholder relationship-building that underpinned the project.


Assuntos
Povos Aborígenes Australianos e Ilhéus do Estreito de Torres , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente , Atenção à Saúde , Bem-Estar Psicológico , Humanos , Austrália , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena , Austrália Ocidental , Bem-Estar Psicológico/psicologia , Atenção à Saúde/etnologia , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente/etnologia
17.
BMJ Open ; 13(10): e071427, 2023 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37816569

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is among the hardest hit low-income and middle-income countries by diabetes. Innovative Care for Chronic Conditions (ICCC) framework has been adopted by the WHO for health system transformation towards better care for chronic conditions including diabetes. We conducted an umbrella review of systematic reviews on diabetes care components effectively implemented in the ASEAN health systems and map those effective care components into the ICCC framework. DESIGN: An umbrella review of systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses following JBI (Joanna Briggs Institute) guidelines. DATA SOURCES: Health System Evidence, Health Evidence, PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: We included systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses which focused on management of type 2 diabetes, reported improvements in measured outcomes and had at least one ASEAN member state in the study setting. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Two reviewers independently extracted the data and mapped the included studies into the ICCC framework. A narrative synthesis method was used to summarise the findings. The included studies were assessed for methodological quality based on the JBI critical appraisal checklist for systematic reviews and research syntheses. RESULTS: 479 records were found of which 36 studies were included for the analysis. A multidisciplinary healthcare team including pharmacists and nurses has been reported to effectively support patients in self-management of their conditions. This can be supported by effective use of digital health interventions. Community health workers either peers or lay people with necessary software (knowledge and skills) and hardware (medical equipment and supplies) can provide complementary care to that of the healthcare staff. CONCLUSION: To meet challenges of the increased burden of chronic conditions including diabetes, health policy-makers in the ASEAN member states can consider a paradigm shift in human resources for health towards the multidisciplinary, inclusive, collaborative and complementary team.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Doença Crônica , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Atenção à Saúde , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Sudeste Asiático , Metanálise como Assunto
18.
Int J Ment Health Syst ; 17(1): 29, 2023 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37817270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, exponential growth in digital innovations and internet access has provided opportunities to deliver health services at a much greater scale than previously possible. Evidence-based technology-enabled interventions can provide cost-effective, accessible, and resource-efficient solutions for addressing mental health issues. This study evaluated the first year of a supported digital cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) service provided by the national health service in Ireland, which has been accessible to individuals who receive a referral from one of five referring groups: General Practitioners, Primary Care Psychology, Counselling Primary Care, Community Mental Health, and Jigsaw (a nationwide youth mental health service). METHODS: A retrospective, observational study examining data from the service between April 2021 to April 2022 was conducted. Descriptive statistics on referrals, account activations, user demographics, program usage, and user satisfaction were extracted, and pre-to-post clinical outcomes for depression measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and for anxiety measured by the Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 were analysed using linear mixed effect models. RESULTS: There were 5,298 referrals and 3,236 (61%) account activations within the year. Most users were female (72.9%) and aged between 18 and 44 years (75.4%). The CBT programs were associated with significant reductions in both depression (ß = 3.34, 95% CI [3.03, 3.65], p < 0.001) and anxiety (ß = 3.64, 95% CI [3.36, 3.93], p < 0.001), with large effect sizes (Cohen's d > 0.8). Time spent using the programs was also found to be a predictor of the variability in these clinical outcomes (p < 0.001), and accounting for this resulted in significantly better model fits (p < 0.001). User satisfaction ratings were also very high, exceeding 94%. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts to improve the representation of male and older adult users are warranted. However, overall, the results demonstrate how digital CBT can be provided at scale and lead to symptom reductions with large effect sizes for patients seeking help for depression and anxiety. The findings substantiate the continued use and expansion of this service in Ireland and the more widespread implementation of similar services in other international public healthcare settings.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37817424

RESUMO

The Mental State Examination (MSE) is an assessment framework used to facilitate the collection of subjective and objective data about a person's current mental state. There is a lack of understanding of nurses' experiences when conducting the MSE. The aim of this scoping review is to identify, examine and summarize the available literature relating to nurses' experiences when conducting the MSE. A scoping review was conducted using Arksey and O'Malley (2005) framework to review, examine and synthesize the available literature on nurses' experiences with the MSE. A PRISMA flow diagram was used to describe the systematic literature search. Six databases (APA PsycInfo, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, ProQuest, and Scopus) were searched including reference lists of eligible sources. Google Scholar, Trove and Proquest Dissertation and Thesis were searched for grey literature. Twelve articles included in this scoping review considered nurses experiences when conducting the MSE. The principles of thematic analysis were used to synthesize the studies. Three distinct themes were identified from the literature: (i) Nurses' role and the MSE, (ii) Nurses' competence and knowledge when conducting the MSE, and (iii) Nurses' confidence when conducting the MSE. The results of this scoping review identified the MSE as a component of the mental health nursing role and a core competency of mental health telephone triage services. The MSE was used by nurses in the Emergency department (ED), acute in-patient and community mental health settings, including mental health telephone triage services. Nurses working in EDs and acute in-patient mental health settings experienced a lack of confidence and competence, including a knowledge deficit in conducting the MSE in comparison to nurses working in community mental health settings. Community mental health nurses identified the importance of conducting an MSE higher than acute in-patient mental health nurses. This review identified the need for evidence-based research related to the MSE and its application in nursing practice. Evidence-based research will inform the development of MSE guidelines and policies, thus, enhance mental health nursing practice related to the MSE, including improving and strengthening consumer-nurse therapeutic alliance in acute in-patient mental health settings.

20.
Med Care ; 61(12): 866-871, 2023 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37819210

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the economic impact of group visits (GVs) in adults with uncontrolled diabetes in community health centers (CHCs) in the United States. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this prospective controlled trial, we implemented 6 monthly GV sessions in 5 CHCs and compared intervention patients (n=49) to control patients (n=72) receiving usual care within the same CHCs. We conducted patient chart reviews to obtain health care utilization data for the prior 6 months at baseline, 6 months (during the GV implementation), and 12 months (after the implementation). We also collected monthly logs of CHC expenses and staff time spent on activities related to GVs. Per-patient total costs included CHCs' expenses and costs associated with staff time and patients' health care use. For group comparison, we used the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and the bootstrapping method that was to bootstrap generalized estimating equation models. RESULTS: The GV group had fewer 6-month hospitalizations (mean: GV: 0.06 vs. control: 0.24, rate: 6.1% vs. 19.4%) ( P ≤ 0.04) and similar emergency department visits at 12 months than the control group. Implementing GV incurred $1770 per-patient. The intervention cost $1597 more than the control at 6 months ($3021 vs. $1424) but saved $1855 at 12 months ($857 vs. $2712) ( P =0.002). CONCLUSIONS: The diabetes GV care model reduced hospitalizations and had cost savings at 12 months, while it improved patients' diabetes-related quality of life and glucose control. Future studies should assess its lifetime cost-effectiveness through a randomized controlled trial.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Adulto , Estados Unidos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Prospectivos , Atenção à Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Centros Comunitários de Saúde , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde
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